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HANDOUTS IN PLANE GEOMETRY

 Ratio ‒ is a comparison of two numbers.
 Proportion ‒ is an equation with a ratio on each side. It
is a statement that two ratios are equal.
 The 1st and 4th terms are called the extremes of the
proportion
 The 2nd and the 3rd terms are called the means.

means
a:b=c:d

extremes
 The measures of the three angles of a triangle are in
the ratio 3:4:5. Find their measures.
Solution:
Let 3x, 4x, and 5x be the measures of the angles.
3x + 4x+ 5x = 180
12x = 180
x = 15
Hence,
 3x = 3(15)=45 is the measure of the 1st angle.
 4x = 4(15)=60 is the measure of the 2nd angle.
 5x = 5(15)=75 is the measure of the 3rd angle.
 Converse of the Proportionality Theorem
---If a line divides two sides of a triangle
proportionally, then the line is parallel to the third
side.
 Basic Proportionality Theorem
--- If a line is parallel to one side of a triangle and
intersects the other two sides in distinct points, then it
divides the two sides proportionally.
 Similar Polygons
--- These are polygons in which the corresponding
angles are congruent and the ratio of the lengths of the
corresponding sides are equal.
 AA Similarity Theorem
--- If two angles of a triangle are congruent to two
angles of the second triangle, respectively, then the
triangles are similar.

 AAA Similarity Theorem
--- If there exists a correspondence between the
vertices of two triangles such that three angles of one
triangle are congruent to the corresponding angles of
the second triangle, respectively, then the two triangles
are similar.
 SSS Similarity Theorem
--- If all three pairs of corresponding sides of two
triangles are proportional, then the two triangles are
similar.
 SAS Similarity Theorem
--- If two pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles
are proportional and the included angles are
congruent, then the two triangles are similar.
 Pythagorean Theorem
---In a right triangle, the square of the length of its
hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the
lengths of its legs.
 Circle--- defined as the set of all points that are at the
same distance from a given point in the plane.
 Circumference --- The distance around the circle.
 Center --- The fixed point (equidistant) inside a circle
 Chord --- A segment whose endpoints lie on the circle
 Diameter---A chord that passes through the center.
 Congruent Circles--- These are circles that have
congruent radii
 Concentric Circles--- These are coplanar circles
having the same center.
 Central Angles--- It is an angle whose vertex is the
center of the circle.
 Secant--- It is a line that intersects the circle in two
points.
 Tangent--- It is a line that is coplanar with the circle
and intersects the circle in exactly one point.
 Radius--- A line segment that joins any point on the
circle to its center
 Arc--- It is the distance between any two points on the
circumference of a circle.

 Minor Arc---. It is the union of points A and B and all the
points of the circle in the interior of central

AOB or

which we call the smaller arc.

 Major Arc--- It is the union of points A and B and all the
points of the circle in the exterior of central

AOB or

which we call the larger arc.

 Semicircle--- It is the union of the endpoints of a
diameter and all points of the circle that lie on one side
of the diameter.
 Inscribed Angle--- It is an angle whose vertex lies on
the circle and whose sides contain chords of the circle.
 The measure of an inscribed angle is equal to one-half
the measure of its intercepted arc.
x

The inscribed angle is equal to 600 .

The central angle is equal to 45 0 and the
intercepted arc is also 450.

ABC
DEF.
2

A

E

B

DEF. Find the perimeter of

4
6

C

D

Step2:
Solution:
Step 1:

BC AC
=
EF DF

AB AC
=
DE DF

4
6
=
DE 12

2
6
=
DE 12

4
1
=
DE 2

F

12
Step3:
Perimeter of
4 +8 +12 = 24

DEF.