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33 Examples of the Cultures and Technologies of Wetlands in Japan

Relationships with Local People and Communities


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Preface
On Earth, wetlands - that is wherever water is found - are places where life, including that of humans is born
and flourished. Indeed, these wetlands are crucial places where, before humans came to depend on them, myriad
plants, microorganisms, insects, reptiles, birds, mammals and other organisms evolved. And, it is we humans that
later came in these wetlands as a user.
Since time immemorial humans have co-existed with the flora and fauna of wetlands and exploited drinking
water, materials for food, clothing and shelter. As cradles of life wetlands came to be valued and protected. And
in receiving these blessings, humans gained wisdom from their wetland environments, developing methods and
technologies for their conservation.
Such methods, wisdom and technologies were shared within local community, and continued to spread to other
places, passing down from one generation to the next. It is thus these ways of life, lifestyles and their associated
wisdom and technologies that have been shared, transmitted and developed in a specific wetland environment that
we wish to call the culture of wetlands.
As cultures of wetlands have evolved over long periods of time, they have taken on characteristics unique
to that area. Therefore, at first glance they seem quite different. However, upon closer inspection, one can find
numerous similarities as well. We have thus taken on the task of surveying a variety of cultures of wetlands
throughout Japan, classifying them under Cultures of Conservation and Restoration; Cultures of Wise Use;
and Cultures of Communication, Education, Participation and Awareness (CEPA). We also focused on the
management and technologies supporting culture and how these can be transferred from one region to another,
resulting in the creation of a national inventory with over 150 examples. At the same time we have conducted
local inventories, which continue to this day. While working with local stakeholders there were increasing calls to
create an easy-to-understand booklet. This publication presenting 33 Examples of Cultures of Wetlands is thus
our work-in-progress response.
As the intergovernmental treaty providing a framework for the conservation and wise use of wetlands the
Ramsar Convention espouses a very broad definition and classification of wetlands. Although the Japanese public
still tends to dismiss wetlands as mires, wetlands according to the Convention come in many forms such as rivers,
lakes, rice paddies, coastlines and even hot springs.
Today, the co-existence between nature and humans and the revitalization of wetland communities are
more important than ever. It is now imperative that what was passed down to us by our ancestors and what we
developed and must now pass on to the next generation be shared. Some of those lessons will not be without
controversy. It is our hope this booklet will facilitate greater dialogue on the relationship between wetlands
and people that will lead to the conservation and restoration of wetlands, community revitalization, capacity
development and international exchange in Asia and in the world. Last but certainly not least, we would like to
express our heartfelt gratitude to all who made this possible.

Tatsuichi Tsujii and Koichi Sasagawa


January 2012

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