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The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)

NON LINEAR THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMNTS


ANALYSES OF REINFORCED CONCREETE BEAMS
STRENGTHENED BY CFRP
Majid A. Al-Jurmaa
University of Mosul- College of Engineering

ABSTRUCT
An ANSYS finite element program is used to study the behavior of four reinforced concrete
beams strengthened by CFRP in shear .The behavior of reinforced concrete beams were compared
with the available literatures, which are deficient in shear reinforcement. A parametric study is
made to explain the effects of variation property of CFRP; length, thickness and width of CFRP on
the ultimate load capacity and deflection. Solid-65, Three-dimensional finite element models are
used for represent the concrete. The solid-46, three dimensional layered elements were used for
model the CFRP composites.
Its found that the general behaviors through linear and nonlinear range up to failure of the
finite element models, shows good agreement with data from the experimental tests in both shear
and flexural. The addition of CFRP strips increased the stiffness of beams and increased the
ultimate carrying capacity to 34% comparing with control beam.

Ansys



.
.solid46 solid65

. %

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Majid A. Al-Jurmaa

The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)

1.INTRODUCTION
There is an increasing need to strengthen and upgrade the national transportation
infrastructure. It is estimated that about 40% of the bridges in the United States are structurally
inadequate . Wang and Hsu (2009). There may be several reasons for the need to strengthen and
upgrade structures, such as expired design life, changes in functionality, potential damage caused
by mechanical actions and environmental effects, more stringent design requirements, original
design and construction errors. From previous research and design practice, several methods for
strengthening concrete structures have been developed. One of these methods is the externals plate
bonding which is useful for shear and flexural structural elements.
The use of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastics) plates for strengthening and repairing of RC
structures represents an interesting alternative for steel plates. FRP materials are lighter than steel.
They present a high strength to mass ratio. They are corrosion-resistant and are generally resistant
to chemical attacks. This technique has been widely investigated, and several examples of existing
structures retrofitted using epoxy-bonded composite materials can be found in the literature .
Elyasian et al (2006), Hoque (2006), Zorn( 2006), El Maaddawy and Sherif ( 2002)
Bodin et al.(2002), proposed a non-linear finite element (FE) analysis in order to complete
the experimental analysis of the flexural behavior of the beams. Elasto-plastic behavior was
assumed for reinforced concrete and interface elements were used to model the steel concrete bond
and the adhesive. A numerical analysis also included simulations on pre-cracked beams.
Barbato (2009) presented a new simple and efficient two-dimensional frame finite element
(FE) able to accurately estimate the load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) beams
flexural strengthened with externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) strips and plates. The
proposed FE, denoted as FRPFB beam, considers distributed plasticity with layer-discretization of
the cross-sections in the context of a force-based (FB) formulation. The FRPFB-beam element is
able to model collapse due to concrete crushing, reinforcing steel yielding, FRP rupture and FRP
deboning.
Yang et al. (2009) tested 13 FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete beams in flexure and
analyzed using the finite element method. The various variables included bonding or no bonding of
the FRP, the anchorage system. All the beams were subjected to three-point and four-point bending
tests under deflection control, with loading, deflection and failure modes recorded to the point of
failure. A nonlinear finite element analysis of the tested beams was also performed using the
DIANA software; this analysis accounted for the nonlinear concrete material behavior,
reinforcement, and an interfacial bond-slip model between the concrete and CFRP plates.
Turgay et al. (2009) primarily concentrated on the modeling of FRP-confined concrete using
a practical failure surface based on only unconfined compressive strength of concrete.
A large comparative analysis was accomplished for the existing test data of 127 cylindrical concrete
specimens confined with CFRP jackets. The performance of five existing analytical models for the
prediction of the compressive strength of FRP-confined concrete was evaluated leading to the
detection of the proposed approach as the most accurate one through this comparative study.
In this study An ANSYS finite element program used to study the behavior of reinforced
concrete beams strengthened by CFRP in shear and flexural , A parametric study was also made to
explain the effects of variation property of CFRP, length, thickness, and width of CFRP

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Non Linear Three Dimensional Finite Elemnts Analyses Of Reinforced


Concreete Beams Strengthened By Cfrp

Majid A. Al-Jurmaa

2. FINITE ELEME NT MODELS


FE analysis is performed using ANSYS, a general purpose finite element program. The
status transition of concrete from uncracked to cracked state and the nonlinear material properties of
concrete in compression and steel as it yields cause the nonlinear behavior of the structures under
loading. Newton Raphson equilibrium iteration is used to solve nonlinear problem in ANSYS.
2.1. Element Types
A solid element, SOLID65, is used to model the concrete in ANSYS. The solid element has
eight nodes with three degrees of freedom at each node, translations in the nodal x, y, and z
directions. The element is capable of plastic deformation, and cracking in three orthogonal
directions.
A LINK8 element is used to model the steel reinforcement. Two nodes are required for this
element. At each node, degrees of freedom are identical to those for the SOLID65. The element is
also capable of plastic deformation. A layered solid element, SOLID46, is used to model the CFRP
composite. The element allows for up to 100 different material layers with different orientations,
and orthotropic material properties in each layer. The element has three degrees of freedom at each
node, translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions.
The SOLID46, 3D layered structural solid element, is used to represent the CFRP materials.
The element has eight nodes with three translational DOFs at each node. Assuming perfect
interlaminate bond, no slippage is allowed between the element layers. The FRP laminates are
considered brittle materials, and the stressstrain relationship is roughly linear up to failure.
Consequently, in this study it is assumed that the stressstrain relationships for the CFRP laminates
are linearly elastic.
Due to symmetry, only one loading plate and one support plate are needed in the present
study. The combined volumes of the plate, support, and beam with the FE mesh for half length of
the beam model are shown in Fig. 1.

Fig.( 1 ) Finite Element Modeling

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Majid A. Al-Jurmaa

The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)

3. MATERIAL PROPERTIES
3.1 Concrete: SOLID65 elements are capable of predicting the nonlinear behavior of concrete
materials using a smeared crack approach. The smeared crack approach has been adopted widely in
recent decades. Concrete is a quasi-brittle material and has very different behaviors in compression
and tension. The tensile strength of concrete is typically 8-15% of the compressive strength.
Poissons ratio for concrete is assumed to be 0.2 and is used for all beams. The value of a shear
transfer coefficient, representing conditions of the crack face, used in many studies of reinforced
concrete structures varied between 0.05 and 0.25 of value .Kachlakev (2002). The shear transfer
coefficient used in this study is equal to 0.2. The steel for the finite element models is assumed to
be an elastic-perfectly plastic material and identical in tension and compression.
3.2 Steel Reinforcement : A Poissons ratio of 0.3 is used for the steel reinforcement. For the
finite element models, each load is distributed over a small area as for the experimental beams. A
40 mm thick steel plate, modeled using SOLID45 elements, is added at the support location in order
to avoid stress concentration problems. This provides a more even stress distribution over the
support area. An elastic modulus equal to 200 GPa and Poissons ratio of 0.3 are used for the plates.
3.3: FRP Composites: For this study, the CFRP is assumed to be an especially orthotropic and
transversely isotropic material, where the properties of the FRP composites are the same in any
direction perpendicular to the fibers. CFRP is applied on the sides of the beams for increased
flexural and shear strength, due to its superior strain at failure. Linear elastic properties of FRP
composites are assumed throughout this study.
4. SHEAR ANALYSIS OF CFRP STRENGTHENED BEAM
Three reinforced concrete beams with a cross section of
120200 mm depth and total length of 2300 mm were tested by
Imam et al. (2004), and an additional forth beam with full
CFRP are analyzed in this study to investigate the shear
behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with
externally bonded (CFRP) fabrics .
BS1-1 was defined as the control beam or the reference beam
without any external strengthening. The Beams BS1 were
reinforced with 216 lower reinforcement, 212upper
reinforcement, and 56 /m` Stirrups. Strengthening modes of
beams in shear groups are shown in Fig. (2) and can be defined
as, S1-2 was strengthened against shear failure. The
strengthening mode consists of three strips U-shape single layer
covering the full depth of the beam. The strip cross section of
600.13 mm was applied perpendicular to the longitudinal axis
of the beam. The spacing from centerlines of the strips to the
support were 205, 365, and 525 mm respectively.
BS1-3 was strengthened same as BS1-2 but each strip was
double layers instead of a single layer.
BS1-4 was strengthened by three vertical side strips double
layers with full depth of the beam. Cross section of strips and
spacing same as BS1-3. Imam et al. (2004)

A
BS1-5
1000

200
A

17

12
Sec A-A

Fig.( 2 ) Strengthening Modes of


Beams in Shear

BS1-5 was a parametric study, strengthened against shear failure. The strengthening mode
consists of strips U- shape single layer covering the full depth all length of the beam.

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Non Linear Three Dimensional Finite Elemnts Analyses Of Reinforced


Concreete Beams Strengthened By Cfrp

Majid A. Al-Jurmaa

5. FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF CFRP STRENGTHENED BEAM


Flexural analyses were made to estimate the nominal flexural capacity of both conventional
RC and FRP strengthened RC beams. Typical RC beam tested by Dong et al. (2002), dimensions
and steel reinforcement details are shown in Fig (3). The longitudinal steel reinforcement consisted
of 16mm and 10mm diameter Grade 60 standard rebars having a yielding strength of 410MPa. The
transverse reinforcement consisted of 6mm diameter Grade 40 smooth bars. All beams were 152.4,
304.8 mm in cross section and 3.048 m long, having a nominal tension steel depth of 253 mm.
991

P/2

914

P/2

991

216 mm

300

210 mm

150

CFRP

6 mm @101

2896

76

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Fig. (3) Details of RC Beams with Externally Bounded CFRP Fabric (Units: mm)

Many parameters are studied to evaluate the effects of externally bounded CFRP plate
strengthened of RC beams. First the finite element results are compared with experimental results,
and then variation properties are done to evaluate the effect of that variation on length of fiber,
width and thickness of CFRP on the deflection and the ultimate capacity .as shown in
table (1).

Table (1) Parameters Range for Flexural Data


CFRP Dimensions mm
length
550
775
width
20
50
thickness 1
1.5

1050
90
2

1550
150
3

2300
-

6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Comparisons of the load-deflection curves from the finite element analyses and the
experimental data for the beams at mid span are shown in fig. (4-7). Using U shape single layer and
double layers improved the load capacity up to 13.3% and 24.4% respectively as a result of the
comparison between BS1-2, BS1-3. This means that the enhancement ratio was approximately
doubled when U shape single layer changed to U-shape double layers.

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Majid A. Al-Jurmaa

The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)

Fig. (4) Load Deflection Relationship of Beam


in Shear BS 1-1 and BS 1-5

Fig. (5) Load Deflection Relationship of


Beam BS1-2
S1 1
S1
Removing the CFRP layer from the tension area improved the load capacity reduced to 16%
from 24.4% respectively as results of the comparison between BS1-3, BS1-4. This means that the
removal of CFRP from tension area reduced the ultimate capacity about 7.5%.Addition of CFRP
on full length increased the ultimate capacity up to 34% as shown in fig(4).

Fig. (7) Load Deflection Relationship of


Beam BS1-4
S1 1
S1

Fig. (6) Load Deflection Relationship of


Beam BS1-3
S1 1
S1
7. THE PARAMETRIC STUDY

7.1. Effect of Composite Length


The behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by CFRP plates has been presented. The
addition of the CFRP plate has increased the ultimate capacity of the beam by up to 132 %. Fig.
(8) Shows the effect of varying CFRP bond length in the shear span. As expected, deflection
reduces slightly with the increased bond length.

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Non Linear Three Dimensional Finite Elemnts Analyses Of Reinforced


Concreete Beams Strengthened By Cfrp

Majid A. Al-Jurmaa

7.2. Effect of Composite Thickness


The predictions of the ultimate flexural load capacity for the beam with similar dimension,
as shown in fig (9) bonded with different CFRP thicknesses. When the FRP thickness is small, the
failure mode is intermediate span deboned. As the number of plies increases from 1 to 4, the
capacity increases to a peak of around 160 kN.
7.3. Effect of Composite Width
Fig.(10) lists the finite element results for beams with different width CFRP. It can be
observed that the main difference in the behavior was that specimens with larger composite widths
had increased deformation capacities. The beams with wider laminates were capable of reaching.

Fig. (8) Variation of the Ultimate Load


with Carbon Length

Fig. (9) Variation of the Ultimate Load


with Carbon Thickness

Fig. (10) Variation of the Ultimate Load


with Carbon Length

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Majid A. Al-Jurmaa

The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)

8. EVOLUTIONS OF CRACK PATTERNS FOR CONCRETE


The ANSYS program records a crack pattern at each applied load step. Fig.( ) shows
evolutions of crack patterns developing for shear and flexural beams. The cracks appear underneath
the loading location on the flexural beam model. For the shear strengthened beam model, there are
no compressive cracks underneath the loading location. The appearance of the cracks reflects the
failure modes for the beams.

Fig. (11) Evaluation of Crack Patterns

a. Flexural Beam CFRP Full Length


b. Shear Beam CFRP Full Length

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Non Linear Three Dimensional Finite Elemnts Analyses Of Reinforced


Concreete Beams Strengthened By Cfrp

Majid A. Al-Jurmaa

9. CONCLUSIONS
The general behaviors of the finite element models show good agreement with the
observation and data from experimental beams tests. This paper has presented the FEA of a series
of retrofitted beams with different Parameters. The following findings are drawn from this work:
1) The FE model was able to simulate the beams behavior with CFRP laminates . It predicted
the ultimate capacity, and the crack patterns were relatively well for all cases.
2) The parametric study was able to clarify the trends as the CFRP length, thickness, and width
CFRP bond length were varied.
3) Non-linear FE analysis can predict correctly the shear and flexural behavior of CFRP bonded
RC beams. This analysis was validated by comparison with test results. The model allowed
simulating the global behavior of repaired beams.
4) Results of the parametric study compared with experimental results indicate of that externally
bonded CFRP plates can be efficiently used to strengthen or to repair RC beams. An increase
in shear and flexural strength was achieved for every beam . Addition of CFRP on full
length increased the ultimate capacity up to 34% .

10. REFERENCES
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externally bonded CFRP reinforced concrete structures, Engineering Structures 24, (2002) pp.
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Dong Y., Zhao M. and Ansari, F., Failure Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Beams
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El Maaddawy T.and Sherif S., FRP Composites for Shear Strengthening of Reinforced
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The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)

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