ABSTRUCT
An ANSYS finite element program is used to study the behavior of four reinforced concrete
beams strengthened by CFRP in shear .The behavior of reinforced concrete beams were compared
with the available literatures, which are deficient in shear reinforcement. A parametric study is
made to explain the effects of variation property of CFRP; length, thickness and width of CFRP on
the ultimate load capacity and deflection. Solid65, Threedimensional finite element models are
used for represent the concrete. The solid46, three dimensional layered elements were used for
model the CFRP composites.
Its found that the general behaviors through linear and nonlinear range up to failure of the
finite element models, shows good agreement with data from the experimental tests in both shear
and flexural. The addition of CFRP strips increased the stiffness of beams and increased the
ultimate carrying capacity to 34% comparing with control beam.
Ansys
.
.solid46 solid65
. %
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The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)
1.INTRODUCTION
There is an increasing need to strengthen and upgrade the national transportation
infrastructure. It is estimated that about 40% of the bridges in the United States are structurally
inadequate . Wang and Hsu (2009). There may be several reasons for the need to strengthen and
upgrade structures, such as expired design life, changes in functionality, potential damage caused
by mechanical actions and environmental effects, more stringent design requirements, original
design and construction errors. From previous research and design practice, several methods for
strengthening concrete structures have been developed. One of these methods is the externals plate
bonding which is useful for shear and flexural structural elements.
The use of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastics) plates for strengthening and repairing of RC
structures represents an interesting alternative for steel plates. FRP materials are lighter than steel.
They present a high strength to mass ratio. They are corrosionresistant and are generally resistant
to chemical attacks. This technique has been widely investigated, and several examples of existing
structures retrofitted using epoxybonded composite materials can be found in the literature .
Elyasian et al (2006), Hoque (2006), Zorn( 2006), El Maaddawy and Sherif ( 2002)
Bodin et al.(2002), proposed a nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis in order to complete
the experimental analysis of the flexural behavior of the beams. Elastoplastic behavior was
assumed for reinforced concrete and interface elements were used to model the steel concrete bond
and the adhesive. A numerical analysis also included simulations on precracked beams.
Barbato (2009) presented a new simple and efficient twodimensional frame finite element
(FE) able to accurately estimate the loadcarrying capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) beams
flexural strengthened with externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) strips and plates. The
proposed FE, denoted as FRPFB beam, considers distributed plasticity with layerdiscretization of
the crosssections in the context of a forcebased (FB) formulation. The FRPFBbeam element is
able to model collapse due to concrete crushing, reinforcing steel yielding, FRP rupture and FRP
deboning.
Yang et al. (2009) tested 13 FRPstrengthened reinforced concrete beams in flexure and
analyzed using the finite element method. The various variables included bonding or no bonding of
the FRP, the anchorage system. All the beams were subjected to threepoint and fourpoint bending
tests under deflection control, with loading, deflection and failure modes recorded to the point of
failure. A nonlinear finite element analysis of the tested beams was also performed using the
DIANA software; this analysis accounted for the nonlinear concrete material behavior,
reinforcement, and an interfacial bondslip model between the concrete and CFRP plates.
Turgay et al. (2009) primarily concentrated on the modeling of FRPconfined concrete using
a practical failure surface based on only unconfined compressive strength of concrete.
A large comparative analysis was accomplished for the existing test data of 127 cylindrical concrete
specimens confined with CFRP jackets. The performance of five existing analytical models for the
prediction of the compressive strength of FRPconfined concrete was evaluated leading to the
detection of the proposed approach as the most accurate one through this comparative study.
In this study An ANSYS finite element program used to study the behavior of reinforced
concrete beams strengthened by CFRP in shear and flexural , A parametric study was also made to
explain the effects of variation property of CFRP, length, thickness, and width of CFRP
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The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)
3. MATERIAL PROPERTIES
3.1 Concrete: SOLID65 elements are capable of predicting the nonlinear behavior of concrete
materials using a smeared crack approach. The smeared crack approach has been adopted widely in
recent decades. Concrete is a quasibrittle material and has very different behaviors in compression
and tension. The tensile strength of concrete is typically 815% of the compressive strength.
Poissons ratio for concrete is assumed to be 0.2 and is used for all beams. The value of a shear
transfer coefficient, representing conditions of the crack face, used in many studies of reinforced
concrete structures varied between 0.05 and 0.25 of value .Kachlakev (2002). The shear transfer
coefficient used in this study is equal to 0.2. The steel for the finite element models is assumed to
be an elasticperfectly plastic material and identical in tension and compression.
3.2 Steel Reinforcement : A Poissons ratio of 0.3 is used for the steel reinforcement. For the
finite element models, each load is distributed over a small area as for the experimental beams. A
40 mm thick steel plate, modeled using SOLID45 elements, is added at the support location in order
to avoid stress concentration problems. This provides a more even stress distribution over the
support area. An elastic modulus equal to 200 GPa and Poissons ratio of 0.3 are used for the plates.
3.3: FRP Composites: For this study, the CFRP is assumed to be an especially orthotropic and
transversely isotropic material, where the properties of the FRP composites are the same in any
direction perpendicular to the fibers. CFRP is applied on the sides of the beams for increased
flexural and shear strength, due to its superior strain at failure. Linear elastic properties of FRP
composites are assumed throughout this study.
4. SHEAR ANALYSIS OF CFRP STRENGTHENED BEAM
Three reinforced concrete beams with a cross section of
120200 mm depth and total length of 2300 mm were tested by
Imam et al. (2004), and an additional forth beam with full
CFRP are analyzed in this study to investigate the shear
behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with
externally bonded (CFRP) fabrics .
BS11 was defined as the control beam or the reference beam
without any external strengthening. The Beams BS1 were
reinforced with 216 lower reinforcement, 212upper
reinforcement, and 56 /m` Stirrups. Strengthening modes of
beams in shear groups are shown in Fig. (2) and can be defined
as, S12 was strengthened against shear failure. The
strengthening mode consists of three strips Ushape single layer
covering the full depth of the beam. The strip cross section of
600.13 mm was applied perpendicular to the longitudinal axis
of the beam. The spacing from centerlines of the strips to the
support were 205, 365, and 525 mm respectively.
BS13 was strengthened same as BS12 but each strip was
double layers instead of a single layer.
BS14 was strengthened by three vertical side strips double
layers with full depth of the beam. Cross section of strips and
spacing same as BS13. Imam et al. (2004)
A
BS15
1000
200
A
17
12
Sec AA
BS15 was a parametric study, strengthened against shear failure. The strengthening mode
consists of strips U shape single layer covering the full depth all length of the beam.
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Majid A. AlJurmaa
P/2
914
P/2
991
216 mm
300
210 mm
150
CFRP
6 mm @101
2896
76
76
Fig. (3) Details of RC Beams with Externally Bounded CFRP Fabric (Units: mm)
Many parameters are studied to evaluate the effects of externally bounded CFRP plate
strengthened of RC beams. First the finite element results are compared with experimental results,
and then variation properties are done to evaluate the effect of that variation on length of fiber,
width and thickness of CFRP on the deflection and the ultimate capacity .as shown in
table (1).
1050
90
2
1550
150
3
2300

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The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)
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The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)
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9. CONCLUSIONS
The general behaviors of the finite element models show good agreement with the
observation and data from experimental beams tests. This paper has presented the FEA of a series
of retrofitted beams with different Parameters. The following findings are drawn from this work:
1) The FE model was able to simulate the beams behavior with CFRP laminates . It predicted
the ultimate capacity, and the crack patterns were relatively well for all cases.
2) The parametric study was able to clarify the trends as the CFRP length, thickness, and width
CFRP bond length were varied.
3) Nonlinear FE analysis can predict correctly the shear and flexural behavior of CFRP bonded
RC beams. This analysis was validated by comparison with test results. The model allowed
simulating the global behavior of repaired beams.
4) Results of the parametric study compared with experimental results indicate of that externally
bonded CFRP plates can be efficiently used to strengthen or to repair RC beams. An increase
in shear and flexural strength was achieved for every beam . Addition of CFRP on full
length increased the ultimate capacity up to 34% .
10. REFERENCES
Barbato M., Efficient finite element modelling of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted
with fibre reinforced polymers, Computers and Structures, 87 (2009), pp. 167176.
Bodin F.B, David E. and Ragneau E. Finite element modelling of flexural behavior of
externally bonded CFRP reinforced concrete structures, Engineering Structures 24, (2002) pp.
14231429.
Dong Y., Zhao M. and Ansari, F., Failure Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Beams
Repaired With CFRP Composites, proceeding of the 3 rd International Conference on
composite in infrastructures San Francisco California 2002 pp.126140.
El Maaddawy T.and Sherif S., FRP Composites for Shear Strengthening of Reinforced
Concrete Deep Beams with Openings, Composite Structures, 89 (2009),pp. 6069.
Elyasian I., Abdoli N., and Ronagh H.R. Evaluation of Parameters Effective in FRP
Shear Strengthen of RC Beams Using FE Method, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering
(Building and Housing) Vol. 7, NO. 3 (2006), pp 249257.
Hoque M.M. 3D Nonlinear Mixed Finiteelement Analysis of RC Beams and Plates
with and without FRP Reinforcement, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Manitoba Winnipeg,
Manitoba, Canada, 2006, pp118.
IMAM A., Tahwia A., Elagamy A. and Yousef M., Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams
Strengthened With Carbon Fiber Strips, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
Mansoura Engineering Journal (MEJ), Vol.29, No. 3, September 2004, pp 2240.
Kachlakev, D. I., Finite Element Analysis and Model Validation of Shear Deficient
Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with GFRP Laminates, paper 002, Third
International Conference on Composites in Infrastructures, san Francesco, California June,1012,
2002.
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The Iraqi Journal For Mechanical And Material Engineering, Special Issue (D)
Turgay T. , KksalH.O., Polat Z. and Karakoc C., StressStrain Model for Concrete
Confined with CFRP Jackets, Materials and Design , 30 (2009), pp. 32433251.
Wang Y.C. and Hsu K. Design Recommendations for the Strengthening of Reinforced
Concrete Beams with Externally Bonded Composite Plates, Composite Structures, 88
(2009) , pp.323332.
Yang D., Park S.and Neale K.W. Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams
Strengthened with Prestressed Carbon Composites, Composite Structures, 88 (2009),
pp. 497508.
Zorn A.V., Effect of Adhesive Stiffness and CFRP Geometry on the Behavior of
Externally Bounded CFRP Retrofit Measures Subject to Fatigue Loads, M.Sc.,University of
Pittsburgh,2006,pp.106.
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