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Utilization of microalgae for Enhanced CO2 Sequestration in a photo bioreactor

:Introduction
One of the major causes of global warming is the increase in concentration of the
carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. CO2 gas emissions have gradually increased.
Do to the Industrial Revolution with the use of fossil fuel. One of the most promising
.and benign technologies to sequester CO2 is the biological sequestration of the gas
The approach in this work is to evaluate the global rates of carbon dioxide
sequestration in photo bioreactor using a culture of chlorella vulgaris cultivated in a
synthetic medium. The focus will be on the measurement of CO2 sequestration rates
in liquid and gas phases, O2 release rates , carbon fixation into biomass ,and the effect
. of photoperiod cycles (day/night) during the batch cultivation

:Carbon dioxide emissions rates


Carbon dioxide emissions are derived from burning fossil energy and the
concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased around 40% since the beginning
of the industrial revolution. The United States, Euro Area, and Japan produce almost
75 percent of the CO2 emissions from all high-income countries. However, about half
of the total global CO2 emissions come from the developing world, particularly from
China, the Russian Federation, and India. China's share of global emissions has risen
.from 11 to 20 percent between 1990 and 2005

The graph shows various countries and their levels of CO2 emissions per capita. Also
indicates the difference from high income to low income nations on CO2 output.
Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emissions inventory
that identifies and quantifies a countrys primary sinks of greenhouse gas. Emissions
are not usually monitored directly, but are generally estimated using models. Some
emissions can be calculated with only limited accuracy. Emissions from energy and
industrial processes are the most reliable (using energy consumption statistics and
industrial point sources). Some agricultural emissions, such as methane and nitrous
oxide carry major uncertainties because they are generated through biological
.processes that can be quite variable

:Carbon dioxide removal (CDR)


CDR methods refer to a number of technologies which reduce the levels of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Among such technologies are bio-energy with carbon
capture and storage, direct air capture, ocean fertilization and enhanced
weathering. CDR is a different approach to removing CO2 from the stack emissions of
large fossil fuel point sources, such as power stations, as this reduces emission to the
atmosphere but cannot reduce the amount of carbon dioxide already in the
atmosphere. It is by some regarded as a branch of geo engineering, while other
.commentators regard CDR as a form of carbon capture and storage
One of the Chemical methods to remove CO2 includes liquid solvents and solid
sorbents. Once these substances become fully loaded with CO2, they are isolated from
the main gas stream and exposed to higher temperatures or lower pressures to release
.the CO2 and regenerate their capacity for CO2 removal

Chlorella vulgaris is a single celled type of green algae. It survives in water purely
thanks to photosynthesis, and it needs only carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to
survive. Chlorella vulgaris shows promises as a biomass fuel and as a natural food
coloring agent. Because the algae grows rapidly in light and dark places with a
minimum amount of nutrients Chlorella vulgaris can be produced at low cost. Some
patients taking Chlorella vulgaris have experienced an allergic reaction marked by
chest pain or tightness, trouble breathing and hives. Chlorella vulgaris can also cause
nausea and make people more sensitive to sunlight.

About Experiment:
The strain chlorella vulgar is chosen in this study. All experiments will be conducted
at room temperature (25c) in a bioreactor of 4 liter fed with of culture medium
inoculated with chlorella vulgaris to give a starting concentration of 0.1 mg/L. The
experiments will be performed in mode glass bubble column photo bioreactor
equipped with a gas inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The culture will be
continuously bubbled with air with known rate using a 3 scc (Standard Cubic
Centimeter) pore size sparger. The reactor will be continuously illuminated by six
white light lamps controlled by an automated system to simulate a circadian cycle.
For analytical procedures gas chromatography (GC) will be used to determine the
carbon dioxide and oxygen concentration in air streams. The concentration of carbon
dioxide dissolved in the liquid phase will be evaluated by a dynamic method.

The medium:
An inorganic salts medium was used to culture freshwater algae called bold's Basel
medium (BBM). BBM is used at the University of Reading for culturing chlorella
vulgaris which is the algae were using in the lab. This medium is recommended by the
culture centre of algae and protozoa, Cambridge for culturing such organism.

Preparing BBM:
At first 12 different stocks containing salt, iron, minerals and different nutrients
should be prepared separately in different flasks using distilled water. To prepare
Liter of BBM different volumes from each stock of the 12 stocks prepared earlier
need to be added in a 1 Liter conical flask. To complete the 1 Liter volume needed
distilled water is added. Then the flask must sealed probably and then heated in an
oven to sanitize the medium.

Stock
solution no.
1

Chemical name

Formula

di-potassium hydrogen
orthophosphate

K2HPO4

Weight
(g)
1.875

Distilled
water (ml)
250

Potassium
di-hydrogen
orthophosphate

KH2PO4

4.375

250

Magnesium sulphate

MgSO4.7H2O

1.875

250

Sodium nitrate

NaNO3

6.25

250

Calcium chloride

CaCl2.2H2O

0.625

250

Sodium chloride

NaCL

0.625

250

EDTA Na4
KOH
FeSO4.7H2O
H2SO4

5.000
3.100
0.498
0.1 ml

100

EDTA tetrasoduim salt


Potassium hydroxide
Ferrous sulphate
Sulpharic acid conc.
(wt per ml = 1.84 g)
Boric acid

H3PO3

1.142

100

10

Zinc sulphate

ZnSO4.7H2O

0.353

25

11

Manganese chloride

MnCl2.4H2O

0.058

25

12

Capric sulphate

CuSO4.5H2O

0.063

25

100

Taking the following volumes based on preparing 1 liter of BBM:


From stock 1 6 10 ml
From stock 7 9 1 ml
From stock 10 12 0.1 ml
Stock solutions 1 6 maybe stored for up to 3 months 7 12 maybe stored for up to
12 months from preparation, or all maybe stored indefinitely autoclaved or sterilized.
All solutions can be stored at room temperature in the dark. If precipitation occurs in
any stock solution it should be renewed regardless of expiry date.
Each stock solution should be labeled with:

Name of chemical:
Solution number:
Date of preparation:
Operator's initials:
Expiry date:

BBM containers should be labeled with :

Date of preparation:
Operator's initials:
Ph: