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Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Bridges

DRAFT

1/1

Department: ED11

Table of Contents

Introduction

Design Codes

Design Loads (general)

Design Loads (moving load)

Design Loads (environmental loads)

Load Combinations

Components of bridge structural system

Selection of deck type

Selection of bearings type

Selection of piers/pier head types

Selection of abutment types

Selection of foundation types

Selection of analysis model

Design of parapets

Analysis

Analysis

Analysis

Analysis

of deck longitudinal direction

of diaphragms

for environmental loads

Design of prestress

Selection of tendons

Determining tendon profile

Calculation of immediate losses (friction, draw-in, elastic shortening)

Calculation of long term losses (creep, shrinkage, relaxation)

Anchor zone reinforcement (surface, bursting, diffusion)

Special reinforcement for curved tendon regions (in web, deviators)

Continuity slab

Expansion joint support

Ultimate

Ultimate

Ultimate

Ultimate

strength

strength

strength

strength

design

design

design

design

shear

strut and tie

shear-friction

flexure

Design of pier heads

Design of piers

Design of pier foundations

Design of abutments

DRAFT

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Department: ED11

1.0 Introduction:

This document describes the procedure to be used in the design of the structural

elements of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete bridges. The purpose of the

guidelines presented in this document is to speed up the design process, make it

more uniform across different engineers and less prone to mistakes and omissions. It

is not the purpose of this document to replace design codes, design courses or

engineering judgement.

The document briefly reviews the components of the structural system that have to

be designed, the possible alternatives for each component, and then describes the

design procedure for each component.

For each component, the design guideline lists the elements to be designed, the

checks to be performed, the typical extreme values of the design variables, detailing

hints, the relevant code sections and the relevant references for more detailed

information.

2.0 Design Codes:

The design code used in this document is the AASHTO-LRFD 2007. Other design

codes used in the office for bridge design are the AASHTO-LFD and the Eurocode.

2.1 Design Loads (general):

The code specified design loads and design load factors are deemed to provide a

minimum design service life of 75 years. The ultimate design load combinations are

further multiplied by modification factors:

For ductility

1.05 for non-ductile components and connections,

1.00 for conventional design and details,

0.95 for components and connections with special ductility enhancing

measures

For redundancy

1.05 for non-redundant elements,

1.00 for conventional levels of redundancy,

0.95 for exceptional levels of redundancy

For operational importance

1.05 for important bridges (critical),

1.00 for typical bridges (essential),

0.95 for secondary bridges

Typically, the combined modification factor (product of the above three factors) for

ultimate loads is 1.00x1.05x1.05=1.10. The combined modification factor may be

increased for longer design life, or decreased for temporary structures. Although

AASHTO-LRFD does not indicate how the modification factor may be changed for

design periods other than 75 years, taking guidance from BS6399:2-1997 Appendix

D one can derive the following correction factors for different design lives:

DRAFT

3/3

Department: ED11

1

5

10

75

120

200

Scale factor

0.73

0.83

0.88

1.00

1.03

1.06

2.2.1 Live Load LL+IM (AASHTO-LRFD 3.6.2)

The design normal moving live load will be AASHTO LRFD HL-93 loading multiplied

by a factor of 1.5. Dynamic allowance = 1.33 will be applied in accordance with

AASHTO LRFD Article 3.6.2 leading to the following axle loads (impact included):

-Truck load: 3 axles of 70KN, 290KN and 290KN, separated by 4.3m and 4.3m to 9m

-Tandem load: 2 axles of 220KN each, separated by 1.2m.

-Lane load: 14KN/m uniformly distributed in longitudinal direction and uniformly

distributed over 3m width, without impact is applied in addition to the truck or

tandem axle load.

Multiple presence factors shall be applied by considering each possible combination

of number of loaded lanes to account for the probability of simultaneous lane

occupation by full HL-93 design live load:

for

for

for

for

1

2

3

4

lane loaded

lanes loaded

lanes loaded

lanes loaded or more

1.20

1.00

0.85

0.65.

For box girder decks, the multiple presence factor is not less than 1.

In addition, for negative moment calculations in decks continuous over supports, two

trucks are considered with minimum axle spacing in each truck, but with a variable

spacing between trucks (from x to 15m). Similarly, for negative moment calculations

two tandem axle loads are considered, with a variable spacing between tandem axles

(from 8m to 12m). Moving loads for negative moment calculations are multiplied by

a factor of 0.9.

An exceptional moving load may be specified, according to client requirement,

consisting for example of either:

The French code Mc110 tank (1200KN applied as two uniformly distributed

load patches of 1m width by 6.1m length each, separated transversely by

2.3m.

The CALTRANS P13 of 1400KN total weight shall be applied without dynamic

allowance for the strength II limit state.

DRAFT

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Department: ED11

Wheel contact area is a rectangle 0.5m wide by 0.25m long. For load distribution

through fill thicker than 0.6m, each dimension of the wheel contact area is increased

by an amount equal to the depth of fill. Where patches overlap, the sum of patch

loads is divided over the combined patch area (AASHTO-LRFD 3.6.1.2.6). Impact

factor decreases linearly to 1 at a depth of 2.44m (AASHTO-LRFD 3.6.2.2).

2.2.2 Centrifugal force CE (AASHTO-LRFD 3.6.3):

For curved decks, a transverse load equal to C times the truck load or tandem axle

load in each lane, is applied in the outward direction at 1.8m above the deck surface,

where:

C

F

V

R

G

= fV2/(G.R)

=4/3, 1 for fatigue load combination.

=design speed in m/s.

=radius of curvature of deck in the horizontal plane

= gravitational constant (9.81m/s2)

2.2.3 Braking/accelerating load BR (AASHTO-LRFD 3.6.4):

A horizontal equal to the largest of the 25% of the axle load of a truck or tandem, or

5% of the lane load and truck or tandem is applied as a distributed load in each lane

at 1.8m above the deck surface. All lanes are assumed loaded in the same direction.

Lane multiple presence factors apply.

2.2.4 Vehicle collision load with piers/abutments CT (AASHTO-LRFD 3.6.5):

Unless protected by a suitable barrier, all pier and abutment columns or walls within

9m from the edge of the roadway or within 15m from the centreline of the track,

shall be subjected to a horizontal 1800KN load at 1.2m above ground surface in any

direction in the horizontal plane.

Suitable barriers consist of either:

an embankment

a barrier higher than 1.37m at a distance less than 3m from the element

a barrier higher than 1.07m at a distance more than 3m from the element.

2.2.5 Vehicle collision load with parapets CT (AASHTO-LRFD 13):

Parapets and the supporting structure shall be designed for the following loads,

according to the approved protection level (from AASHTO-LRFD Table A 13.2.1):

Force\Designation

Transverse force Ft (KN)

Longitudinal force Fl (KN)

Vertical force Fv (KN)

Distribution length for Ft and Fl

Distribution length for Fv

Min height of barrier and level for Ft and Fl

Units

KN

KN

KN

m

m

m

TL4

240

80

80

1.07

5.50

0.81

TL5

550

183

355

2.44

12.20

1.07

TL6

780

260

355

2.44

12.20

2.29

The concrete barrier shall be designed using the yield line method of AASHTO-LRFD

Article A13.3.1. The deck overhang supporting the concrete barrier shall be checked

for each of the following design cases considered separately:

DRAFT

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Department: ED11

Design case 2: Fv only in Extreme Event Load Combination II

Design case 3: The normal traffic loads on the overhang in Strength I limit state.

The deck overhang shall have to resist a tension force T per unit length, concomitant

with the moment applied through the parapet. T = Ft/(Lc+2H), where

Lc

H

= Height of barrier.

The effective overhang width resisting the wheel load moment is W=1.14+0.833X

(AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.1.3), where:

X

Alternatively, for overhangs shorter than 1.8m, the overhang can be designed for

uniformly distributed load of Fx14.6KN/m, where F is the scaling factor for the HL93

loading (in the above F=1.5). The live load is placed at 0.3m from the inside face of

the edge barrier (AASHTO-LRFD 3.6.1.3.4).

2.2.6 Pedestrian live load PL (AASHTO-LRFD 3.6.1.6):

A uniformly distributed load of 3.6 kN/m2 will be considered on the footway. In

addition, the footway cantilever will be designed for vehicles accidentally mounting

the footway.

2.2.7 Live load surcharge LS (AASHTO-LRFD 3.11.6.4):

A live load surcharge of12 kN/m2 will be used to calculate horizontal soil pressure

due to live load surcharge on buried structures.

2.2.8 Fatigue load (AASHTO-LRFD 3.6.1.4):

For fatigue calculations, the stress cycle magnitude due to the specified fatigue load

must be computed, along with an estimate of the number of cycles, to be compared

with the allowable stress range for that number of cycles (or to compare with the

allowable number of stress cycles for the calculated stress range).

For fatigue load calculations, the moving load consists of a single truck, with the

variable axle spacing set at 9m, and an impact factor of 1.15 instead of 1.33. A

single lane is loaded at a time.

According to AASHTO-LRFD Article 5.5.3.1 fatigue loading need not be considered for

concrete decks in multigirder applications, nor for fully prestressed concrete sections,

nor if the minimum compression stress is larger than twice the maximum tensile

stress in absolute value, for the fatigue load combinations.

The last condition for reinforced concrete sections where the fatigue load moment is

less than the permanent moment, is equivalent to having the distance yc from the

neutral axis to the extreme compression fiber larger than 2/3 the section depth (yc >

2/3H).

The last condition for prestressed concrete sections where the fatigue load moment

Mf is less than the permanent load moment Mp, and where the distance yc is

DRAFT

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Department: ED11

satisfying the following:

H/I (3Mp+Mf)/4 > sav >H/I (Mp-Mf)/6

Where I is the section moment of inertia.

When fatigue loading needs to be considered, the maximum stress range has to

satisfy the following limits (AASHTO-LRFD 5.5.3.2, 5.5.3.3):

For reinforcing steel:

For prestressing steel:

fs <166Mpa-1/3fmin

fs<125Mpa for R>9m, 70Mpa for R>3.6m

2.3.1 Self-weight dead load DC (self-weight) (AASHTO-LRFD 3.5.1):

The dead load DC is calculated based on the volume of the structural components

times the unit weight of the material of the structural components, as shown in the

following table:

Material

Concrete

Steel

Bituminous wearing surface

Soil

25

78.5

22

20

Unless otherwise noted, the total thickness of the deck surfacing is considered to be

120mm having 50mm asphalt and 20mm sand/cement screed for protection of

waterproofing membrane and 50mm future wearing surfacing overlay for a total,

wearing surface load of 2.66KN/m2. Utilities actual weight to be considered

2.3.3 Differential settlement load SE (AASHTO-LRFD 3.12.4):

Unless the final geotechnical report requires larger values, a minimum differential

settlement allowance of 20mm between successive supports along the span shall be

considered for shallow foundations (with a reduced modulus of elasticity of Ec).

2.3.4 Temperature loads TU and TG (AASHTO-LRFD 3.12.2 and 3.12.3):

A concrete coefficient of thermal expansion is taken as 1 x 10-5 / C.

A uniform temperature change of +/-25C will be considered in the design, starting

from a service temperature of 30C.

A temperature gradient to temperature Zone 1 will be applied in accordance with

AASHTO LRFD Table 3.12.3-1

2.3.5 Shrinkage and creep loads SH and CR (AASHTO-LRFD 3.12.4 and 3.12.5):

Shrinkage and creep coefficient shall be calculated according to AASHTO LRFD article

5.4.2.3. An ambient humidity of 40% shall be used for calculation of creep and

shrinkage losses, unless otherwise specified.

2.3.6 Wind loads on live load WL and on structure WS (AASHTO-LRFD 3.8):

DRAFT

7/7

Department: ED11

3s gust wind velocity shall be taken as 160km/hr in accordance with AASHTO LRFD

Bridge Design Specifications and as generally used for highway structures in the

region, and 90km/hr in presence of live load or during construction.

wind section of the superstructure and of 1.9Kpa on the transverse wind section of

the substructure. Concomitantly, an upward vertical pressure of 1Kpa is applied on

the deck, with the resultant at the deck width from the windward side. This

vertical force is considered only for the Service IV and Strength III load combinations

(AASHTO-LRFD 3.8.2).

surface (AASHTO-LRFD 3.8.1.3).

wind section of the superstructure and of 1.9Kpa on the transverse wind section of

the substructure.

surface (AASHTO-LRFD 3.8.1.3).

2.3.7 Earthquake load EQ (AASHTO-LRFD 3.10):

One needs to obtain the site design ground acceleration A (determined from a

seismic risk study or from applicable local regulations), the importance classification

of the bridge (critical, essential or other as per AASHTO-LRFD article 3.10.3),and the

site amplification factor S corresponding to the soil profile type (AASHTO-LRFD

3.10.5).

Next, the applicable response spectrum is prepared (AASHTO-LRFD 3.10.6), and the

allowable response modification factors R selected (AASHTO-LRFD 3.10.7).

Seismic loads directions are combined in absolute value as 100% from one direction

with 30% from the perpendicular direction, unless inelastic analysis is being

performed (AASHTO-LRFD 3.10.8).

Based on the seismic zone, the importance classification and the geometric

configuration of the structure, the required type of analysis is determined (AASHTOLRFD 4.7.4).

For seismic zone I a static analysis is sufficient with the lateral seismic force equal to

20% of the permanent vertical force (AASHTO-LRFD 3.10.9.2).

For seismic zone 2, a modal analysis is required. The seismic load applied to the

foundations is based on the use of .R for the substructure (when R>2 has been

used) or on capacity considerations (plastic hinging).

For seismic zones 3 and 4, the seismic loads applied to the foundations shall be

based on capacity considerations.

DRAFT

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Department: ED11

The design load combinations are divided into 4 broad categories: service, strength,

extreme and fatigue. In each category there are several groups of combinations that

may be used depending on the type and configuration of the structure:

2.4.1 Service load combinations (AASHTO-LRFD 3.4.1):

Service I: applicable to all types of structures.

Service II: applicable to steel structures only.

Service III: applicable to prestressed concrete structures, may conservatively be

replaced by Service I.

Service IV: applicable to tension in prestressed concrete columns

For reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures, only Service I and

Service III need to be considered, or even only Service I.

2.4.2 Strength load combinations (AASHTO-LRFD 3.4.1):

Strength I: applicable to all types of structures.

Strength II: applicable to exceptional/permit type moving load vehicles.

Strength III: applicable to above ground structures (not buried).

Strength IV: applicable to all types of structures (particularly with large permanent

loads).

Strength V: applicable to above ground structures (not buried).

For reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures, all five groups need to

be considered. For buried structures, only Strength I,II and IV groups need to be

considered.

2.4.3 Extreme event load combinations (AASHTO-LRFD 3.4.1):

Extreme event I: consists of seismic loads to be applied with concomitant permanent

loads.

Extreme event II: consists of vehicle impact loads on parapets or substructure,

applied with concomitant permanent loads.

For reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures, both groups need to be

considered.

2.4.2 Fatigue load combinations (AASHTO-LRFD 3.4.1):

This category consists of a single load combination of 0.75x(LL+IM+CE). Normally,

this case does not need to be considered for reinforced concrete structures (see

2.2.8 above).

For convenience, the applicable combinations for reinforced concrete and prestressed

concrete structures are reproduced herein:

Table 1 for reinforced or prestressed concrete structures above ground

Load\Cat

DC

Srv

I

1.00

Srv

III

1.00

DW

1.00

1.00

DRAFT

Str

I

0.9

/1.25

0.65

Str

II

0.9

/1.25

0.65

Str

III

0.9

/1.25

0.65

9/9

Str

IV

0.9

/1.50

0.65

Str

V

0.9

/1.25

0.65

Ext

Ext

I

II

0.9

0.9

/1.25 /1.25

0.65 0.65

Fat

_

_

Department: ED11

LL+IM

1.00 0.80 1.75 1.35

_

_

1.35

CE

1.00 0.80 1.75 1.35

_

_

1.35

BR

1.00 0.80 1.75 1.35

_

_

1.35

PL

1.00 0.80 1.75 1.35

_

_

1.35

WA+FR

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

WS

0.30

_

_

_

1.40

_

0.40

WL

1.0

_

_

_

_

_

1.00

TU

1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

CR+SH

1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

TG

0.50/ 0.50/

_

_

_

_

_

1.00 1.00

SE

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

EQ

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

CT

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

CV

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

TG factor is 0.50 in presence of LL, 1.00 in absence of LL.

CT and CV are not applied simultaneously.

/1.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

1.00

_

_

_

_

_

/1.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

1.00

_

_

_

_

_

0.75

0.75

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1.00

1.00

_

_

1.00

_

1.00

1.00

_

_

_

_

Load\Cat

Srv I

Srv III

Str I

Str II

Str IV

Ext I

Ext II

DC

1.00

1.00

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

/1.25

/1.25

/1.25

/1.25

/1.25

DW

1.00

1.00

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

/1.50

/1.50

/1.50

/1.50

/1.50

EH

1.00

1.00

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

/1.50

/1.50

/1.50

/1.50

/1.50

EV

1.00

1.00

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

0.90

/1.35

/1.35

/1.35

/1.35

/1.35

ES

1.00

1.00

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

/1.50

/1.50

/1.50

/1.50

/1.50

LL+IM

1.00

0.80

1.75

1.35

_

0.50

0.50

BR

1.00

0.80

1.75

1.35

_

0.50

0.50

PL

1.00

0.80

1.75

1.35

_

0.50

0.50

LS

1.00

0.80

1.75

1.35

_

0.50

0.50

TU

1.00

1.00

0.50

0.50

0.50

_

_

TG

0.50

0.50

_

_

_

_

_

/1.00

/1.00

EQ

_

_

_

_

_

1.00

_

CT

_

_

_

_

_

_

1.00

EH assumes active pressure, for at-rest replace 1.50 by 1.35.

TG factor is 0.50 in presence of LL, 1.00 in absence of LL.

Fat

_

_

_

_

_

0.75

_

_

_

_

_

The major components of the structural system of a bridge structure are three:

-The superstructure (deck system).

-The substructure system

-The foundations system

DRAFT

10 / 10

_

_

Department: ED11

For each of these components several alternatives are available; the selection of the

most appropriate choice is done based on several parameters listed below, with the

ultimate goal of achieving maximum economy over the useful life of the bridge while

meeting safety and serviceability requirements. The selection of the structural

system is done during the conceptual phase of the project by a senior engineer, in

coordination with the other disciplines senior engineers (Geometric Alignment,

Traffic, Drainage and Hydrology).

3.1 Selection of superstructure system:

In selecting a superstructure system, the following parameters are used in order of

decreasing importance:

Cost: Since the superstructure system in a bridge constitutes approximately

half of the total cost of the structure, then the unit cost per unit area of the

floor system is a major comparison parameter.

Depth: In many cases where the allowable depth a bridge deck is limited, or

where the length of the bridge embankments must be minimized, limiting the

depth of the deck is a desirable objective. Therefore, the deck depth is a

significant comparison parameter.

Weight: Since the superstructure system in a bridge constitutes the major

part of the bridge structure, its weight contributes the most to the weight of

the structure. Increased weight leads to more seismic loads, larger column

sizes and larger foundations. Therefore the weight per unit area of the floor

system is a major comparison parameter.

Local availability of materials and skilled labor: The local availability of

materials (special forms) and skilled labor experienced in the construction of

the system is major factor in obtaining a construction of good quality within a

reasonable time and cost. Therefore, local availability of materials and skilled

labor is a major comparison parameter.

Speed of construction: The speed of construction is an important

parameter that ultimately affects the cost of the bridge, particularly where

the bridge is built over an existing road or transportation link. Therefore

speed of construction is a significant comparison parameter.

Shape of soffit: Some deck systems provide a flat soffit that can be

exposed as is or with minor plastering, others present a soffit that has

cavities or other irregularities that may be objectionable. If a flat soffit is

desired, then the systems with irregular soffit have to be ruled out.

Therefore, the shape of soffit is a significant comparison parameter.

3.1.1 Bridge deck systems:

The commonly available bridge deck systems in reinforced or prestressed concrete

are:

Portal frame

Description: is a reinforced concrete frame monolithically cast-in-situ

consisting of a top slab supported on concrete walls on shallow or pile

foundations.

DRAFT

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Department: ED11

Limitations: skew less than 30

Advantages: simple construction, low deck height, suitable for wide decks.

Disadvantages: limited span length

R/C solid slab

Description: is a reinforced concrete solid slab, connected to its substructure

by means of bearings. The substructure may consist of walls, columns or

frames.

Typical range of spans: 15-25m.

Limitations: skew less than 30.

Advantages: simple construction, low deck height, suitable for sharp radii of

curvature.

Disadvantages: limited span length

P/C solid slab

Description: is a prestressed concrete solid slab, connected to its substructure

by means of bearings. The substructure may consist of walls, columns or

frames.

Typical range of spans:20-25m

Limitations: skew < 30

Advantages: simple construction, very low deck height

Disadvantages: limited span length, not suitable for sharp radii of curvature.

P/C voided slab:

Description: is a prestressed concrete slab with stay-in-place low weight void

formers (expanded polystyrene foam) or removable inflatable/deflatable

bladders. Bearings connect the superstructure and substructure. The

substructure may consist of walls, columns or frames.

Typical range of spans: 25m-40m.

Limitations: skew < 30, constant width deck, no sharp radii of curvature.

Advantages: relative low deck height and low deck weight.

Disadvantages: not suitable for sharp radii of curvature or variable width

decks.

DRAFT

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Department: ED11

Description: consists of precast reinforced concrete T section girders with a

cast-in-situ top slab and end diaphragms. The girders may be contiguous or

separated (in which case precast slab elements may be used as stay-in-place

forms). Bearings connect the superstructure and substructure. The

substructure may consist of walls, columns or frames.

Typical range of spans: 10-20m

Limitations: skew < 30, no sharp radii of curvature or variable width deck,

design as simply supported span only (continuity for live load often not

practical). Deck depth is significant.

Advantages: fast construction, no need for shuttering, suitable for use over

existing traffic.

Disadvantages: limited span length, no sharp radii of curvature or variable

deck width, two rows of bearings over each intermediate support. Deck depth

is significant.

P/C girder and deck

Description: consists of precast prestressed concrete I/T section girders with

a cast-in-situ top slab and end diaphragms. The girders may be contiguous or

separated (in which case precast slab elements may be used as stay-in-place

forms). Bearings connect the superstructure and substructure. The

substructure may consist of walls, columns or frames.

Typical range of spans: 25-42m

Limitations: skew < 30, no sharp radii of curvature or variable width deck,

design as simply supported span only (continuity for live load often not

practical). Deck depth is significant.

Advantages: fast construction, no need for shuttering, suitable for use over

existing traffic.

Disadvantages: no sharp radii of curvature or variable deck width, two rows

of bearings over each intermediate support. Deck depth is significant.

R/C multicell box girder

Description: consists of a reinforced concrete box section with thin top and

bottom flanges and webs, with transverse interior diaphragms over supports.

Bearings connect the superstructure and substructure. The substructure may

consist of walls, columns or frames.

Typical range of spans:20-30m

Limitations: Deck depth is significant

Advantages: most suitable for sharp radii of curvature. Relatively light deck.

Disadvantages: complicated construction, requires shuttering.

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Department: ED11

Description: consists of a prestressed concrete box section with thin top and

bottom flanges and webs, with transverse interior diaphragms over supports.

Bearings connect the superstructure and substructure. The substructure may

consist of walls, columns or frames.

Typical range of spans:30-80+m.

Limitations: Deck depth is significant.

Advantages: most suitable for long spans or limited radii of curvature.

Disadvantages: complicated construction, requires shuttering.

3.2 Selection of bearing type:

Bearings are provided between the superstructure (deck) and the underlying

substructure (abutment, pier). The commonly available bearing types are the

following:

3.2.1 Laminated elastomeric bearing:

Description: consists of an alternation of layers of virgin rubber or neoprene with

plates of steel, vulcanised together in a single unit.

Limitations: axial load capacity limited to about 5000KN. Limited rotation capacity.

Advantages: Cost effective, rugged, provides some base isolation to reduce seismic

forces.

Disadvantages: See limitations.

3.2.2 Pot bearing:

Description: consists of a virgin rubber or neoprene disk confined between a steel

piston and a steel cylinder. Normal condition is that of pinned support. A top sliding

or guided plate may be provided to obtain roller or guided bearing function.

Limitations: In the pinned or guided condition, the lateral load capacity is limited.

Advantages: Most cost effective alternative to laminated elastomeric bearing when

higher axial load capacity is needed.

Disadvantages: A combination of pinned, guided and free bearings is needed for

deck support. Concrete stops may be needed when large lateral forces need to be

transmitted.

3.2.3 Spherical bearing:

Description: consists of two machined spherical surfaces (male and female) with a

Teflon coating in-between. Normal condition is that of pinned support. A top sliding

or guided plate may be provided to obtain roller or guided bearing function.

Limitations: In the pinned or guided condition, the lateral load capacity is limited.

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Department: ED11

Advantages: More compact than pot bearing of equivalent axial load capacity.

Disadvantages: Most expensive type of bearing for a given axial load capacity.

Required when large axial loads need to be transmitted in a limited area. A

combination of pinned, guided and free bearings is needed for deck support.

Concrete stops may be needed when large lateral forces need to be transmitted.

3.3 Selection of expansion joint type:

Expansion joints are provided between successive decks or between deck and

abutments. Their function is to allow traffic over the gap necessary to accommodate

the unrestricted longitudinal movements of the deck. The following are the most

common expansion joint types for bridges:

3.3.1 Precompressed closed cell expansion joint:

Description: consists of a natural rubber or neoprene strip with closed interior voids.

The strip is squeezed and inserted in the expansion joint space.

Typical total movement range: 25-50mm

Limitations: Limited movement range

Advantages: cost effective and simple to install and replace.

Disadvantages: see limitations.

3.3.2 Toothed expansion joint:

Description: consists of two opposing steel strips with the teeth on one side moving

in the space between the teeth of the opposite side. The teeth may be like those of a

comb or like those of a saw. A flexible gutter is often provided underneath.

Typical total movement range: 50-200mm

Limitations: Cannot be used for skew expansion joints.

Advantages: cost effective in its movement range.

Disadvantages: in addition to limitations above, may be a traffic hazard in case of

broken or twisted teeth. Requires careful installation and regular maintenance.

3.3.3 Laminated neoprene expansion joint:

Description: consists of overlapping metal plates connected by natural rubber or

neoprene bands.

Typical total movement range: 50-300mm

Limitations: easily damaged by snow plows or street cleaning machines.

Advantages: smooth ride

Disadvantages: in addition to limitations above, requires careful installation and

regular maintenance.

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Department: ED11

Description: consists of a series of plates moving a linkage system and with guide

plates.

Typical total movement range: 300-1000+mm.

Limitations: Cannot be used for skew expansion joints.

Advantages: Large movement range.

Disadvantages: Very expensive and bulky.

3.4 Selection of pier/pier head type:

Piers are provided under the deck, either directly (in case of monolithic connection),

or under the bearings. The following are the most common types of bearings:

3.4.1 Single column with hammer head:

Description: Consists of a single column, which expands at the top to form a hammer

head (with cantilever sections on either side of the column). The hammer head

receives the bearings connecting the deck to the pier.

Limitations the cantilever section of the hammer heads needs to be limited or its root

depth needs to be significant.

Advantages: frees up horizontal clearance under the bridge and provides attractive

shape. Necessary for tall piers, when framing monolithically with deck.

Disadvantages: may consume vertical clearance under the bridge, and lead to

unfavourable seismic behaviour (e.g. Kobe).

3.4.2 Multiple columns:

Description: Consists of multiple columns framing into the deck at the support

diaphragm.

Limitations: Requires a monolithic connection between deck and pier.

Advantages: No bearings or other structures between deck and pier.

Disadvantages: See limitations.

3.4.3 Multiple columns with cap beam (or frame):

Description: Consists of two or more columns supporting a capping beam, which

receives the bearings supporting the deck.

Limitations: None.

Advantages: Very flexible, can accommodate wide decks and skew arrangements.

Disadvantages: May be bulky.

3.4.4 Wall:

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Department: ED11

Description: Consists of a single wall either framing monolithically with the deck or

enlarged at the top to receive bearings supporting the deck.

Limitations: Height limited by slenderness considerations.

Advantages: Very low horizontal footprint.

Disadvantages: See limitations in addition to visual obstruction.

3.4.5 Twin wall:

Description: Consists of two successive walls in the longitudinal direction of deck,

oriented perpendicular to the axis of the deck and either framing monolithically with

the deck or connected to a horizontal platform supporting the deck bearings.

Limitations: Height limited by slenderness considerations.

Advantages: This arrangement is used when more than one pier is rigidly connected

to the deck in the longitudinal direction, to minimize longitudinal restraint on the

deck, particularly for short piers.

Disadvantages: See limitations.

3.5 Selection of abutment type:

Abutments are provided at each end of the deck, either directly (in case of integral

abutments), or under the bearings. The following are the most common types of

bearings:

3.5.1 Bank seat abutment:

Description: Consists of a back wall retaining the backfill and supporting the

approach slab, a seat supporting the bearings and a footing supporting the back wall

and seat, with wing walls at each side of the deck (left and right) to retain the fill.

This type of abutment is used either in cut situations, or on top of reinforced earth

walls.

Limitations: Requires good bearing

immediately under the bearings level.

capacity

and

stable

support

condition

Disadvantages: See limitations.

3.5.2 Open abutment:

Description: Consists of a back wall retaining the backfill and supporting the

approach slab and connected to a transverse beam supporting the bearings. This

beam in turn, is supported by columns on a common footing. The footing may be

supported directly on soil, or connected to piles. Wing walls extend from the back

wall at each side of the deck (left and right) to retain the fill. This type of abutment

is used whenever possible and particularly in cases of high fill.

Limitations: Not usable where traffic lanes or drainage ditches need to be close to

the limit of the bridge.

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Department: ED11

Disadvantages: See limitations.

3.5.3 Closed (or wall) abutment:

Description: Consists of a main wall extending from the footing level to the deck

bearings level, where a thickening of the wall supports the bearings and the back

wall. Wing walls extend from the main wall on each side of the deck (left and right)

to retain the fill. The footing may be supported directly on soil, or connected to piles.

Limitations: Not economical for high fill situations.

Advantages: Required when traffic lanes or drainage ditches need to be close to the

limit of the bridge.

Disadvantages: See limitations.

3.5.4 Integral abutment:

Description: Consists of a wall supported on a shallow foundations or on a single row

of piles, monolithically connected to the deck. At one extreme, the wall may be

inexistent, and the shallow foundation or piles are connected directly to the end

diaphragm of the deck.

Limitations: Not usable in skew conditions (> 10 deg), on curved alignments or

where the total length of deck exceeds about 100m.

Advantages: No expansion joints are needed.

Disadvantages: See limitations.

3.6 Selection of foundations type:

The selection of a foundation system depends mainly on the nature of the soil under

the structure, and secondly on the type of structure, its height and its width. There

are four main types of foundations:

Shallow isolated footings: Each pier or abutment is supported by a shallow isolated

footing. This system is used when the loads applied to the foundation are light or the

soil resistance at a shallow depth is high.

Pile foundation: Piles consist mainly of vertical concrete elements cast in holes drilled

in the ground or of precast concrete elements driven into the soil, and connected to

the vertical load carrying elements of the structure by means of pile caps. Piles are

used when the soil resistance at a shallow depth is not sufficient to permit the use

shallow isolated footings or rafts (either because the resistance to failure is low, or

the expected settlements are high).

Drilled pier foundation: As the name implies, the drilled piles extend above ground to

connect directly to the deck as in integral abutments or to a cap beam supporting

the bearings of the deck. This type of foundation is used mainly in crossings over

water to simplify construction.

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Department: ED11

Caisson foundation: As the name implies, this consists of a hollow concrete box of

circular or elliptical or rounded rectangle section, that is prefabricated and sunk in

place, or that is built in place inside temporary sheet piles. It may rest directly on the

soil or it may be supported on piles. This type of foundation is used mainly in

crossings over water or in very poor soil subject to liquefaction under seismic load.

4.0 Selection of analysis model:

In order to determine the design forces in the components of a bridge structure,

detailed structural analyses are required. For a few elements, simple hand

calculations models can be used (e.g. parapets, cantilever slabs, back walls, wing

walls, approach slabs). However, for the majority of the elements, a finite element

FEM structural analysis model or models need to be used. It is recommended to use

the simplest models that achieve the required accuracy. The following types of FEM

models can be used:

4.1 Spine model:

Description: The deck is modelled by a single line element whose mechanical

properties represent those of the complete deck. The substructure elements may be

represented by a single line element, or each column of the substructure may be

represented by a line element. Tall piers may be discretized into a series of elements

of approximately 4m length each. Bearings are represented by individual line

elements or by link elements representing a group of bearings. Eccentricity of

connections between the various line elements is modelled by means of rigid ends or

links or by degree of freedom constraints. Skew supports are handled by rotating the

local axes of the equivalent link element. Foundations are represented by support

fixities or by elastic springs. Loads are applied as distributed loads along line

elements or as nodal loads.

A span may be discretized into several consecutive line elements. Each span should

have at least three intermediate nodes (quarter points and midspan) along the deck

centerline at the centroid level. More nodes may be required if the deck section

properties change significantly along the span, or the span is curved.

Limitations: This type of model is suitable to represent the effect of load variation in

one dimension only (e.g. longitudinal direction for bridge spine models, transverse

direction for slice model of box decks, or line model of diaphragms). It has to be

supplemented by other models to capture the effect of load variation in other

directions.

In the longitudinal direction, each span needs to be discretized into at least 4

segments in case of straight alignments, or to subtend an arc of less than 10

degrees in case of curved alignments. The span/radius ratio should be less than 0.8

(NCHRP Report 620) or the subtended angle per span should be less than 34 deg for

multicell box girders (AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.1.2.3) to 46 deg for single cell box girders

(NCHRP Report 620), and the span/width ratio should be larger than 2.5 (AASHTOLRFD 4.6.1.1).

Advantages: This technique is simple and fast, and may be used for preliminary

design at least, where it is not applicable by code.

Disadvantages: See limitations.

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Department: ED11

Description: As the name implies, the deck is modelled by a grid of longitudinal and

transverse beams. For decks on beams, each longitudinal beam is modelled by a set

of line elements in series. For box girders or voided slabs, each web is modelled by a

set of line elements in series. Rules are available to calculate the effective section

properties for the longitudinal and transverse beam elements for each type of deck

(NCHRP Report 620). The remainder of the structure is modelled as in spine models.

Limitations: There are many rules and recommendations for mesh discretization, for

calculating the equivalent member properties, and for interpreting the results

obtained. Preparing a grillage model and interpreting the results requires experience

and is not straight forward.

Advantages: Allows the use of beam element based models where spine models are

not applicable. The output in terms of section forces is supposed to be directly

usable in structural design.

Disadvantages: Since there are many rules and recommendations for preparing a

grillage model, such model may be difficult to have approved and to use. 3D shell or

solid element models with section cut capability are now preferable to grillage

models.

4.3 3D shell model:

Description: The structure is discretized into an assembly of shell elements; planar

triangles or quadrangles, in a 3D arrangement.

Limitations: Regions with sudden variation in thickness cannot be modelled properly.

Mesh must be sufficiently fine to provide good results.

Advantages: Relatively simple and fast with modern software.

Disadvantages: Relatively expensive in computer time. Direct results consist of

stresses unless the software has section cut reporting capability. Should be reserved

for final runs for documenting design.

4.4 3D solid model:

Description: The structure is discretized into an assembly of 3D solids; cubes or

pyramids in a 3D arrangement.

Limitations: Requires a specialized graphical modelling software. Very expensive to

run. Mesh must be sufficiently fine to provide good results.

Advantages: Relatively simple to prepare with modern software.

Disadvantages: Very expensive in computer time. Direct results consist of stresses

unless the software has section cut reporting capability. Should be reserved for final

runs for documenting design.

4.5 Analysis of deck in transverse direction:

Although the available software allows analysis of the bridge in one go as a 3D

structure, for design purposes, it is necessary to proceed in stages as follows:

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Department: ED11

-Longitudinal analysis of deck.

-Overall 3D analysis of bridge structure.

-Analysis of specific elements (parapets, diaphragms, consoles, etc).

The purpose of transverse analysis of the deck is to determine the following:

-Moments and shear in the transverse direction in the top slab of the deck on

which moving loads are applied.

-Moments and shear due to section distortion in the webs and bottom flange

of box girders, due to moving load (in case no 3D analysis is performed).

-Determining the moving loads applied to longitudinal elements of the deck

(girders in girder and slab decks, or webs in box girder decks), if no grillage

or 3D analysis is performed.

The following methods are available for transverse analysis of the deck:

4.5.1 Approximate moment formulae:

The live load moment for main reinforcement perpendicular to traffic may be

approximated by the following formulae adapted from AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.1.8:

M=0.159.L0.459.C.Paxle

M=0.307.L0.350.C.Paxle

for 0<L<3.

for 3<=L.

Where:

M

= design live load moment (KNm/m).

L

= span length between supports (m).

= design axle load including impact (KN).

Paxle

C

= continuity factor: 1.0 for simply supported, 0.8 for continuous.

This meets the first objective of transverse deck analysis defined above and is

applicable to box girder deck sections (single cell or multicell) and beam-slab decks.

4.5.2 Finite strip method:

A slice of the deck of constant width (normally unit width) is modelled as a 2D frame.

The elements of the frame are of rectangular section, of constant width, and of

thickness according to the thickness of the deck section being represented. The

frame is supported under all webs by roller supports and one pin support. Pavement

and sidewalk loads are represented by uniformly distributed loads. Edge barriers may

be represented by a point load or a uniformly distributed load. Temperature

gradients may be applied to the top flange of the deck. Axle loads are represented

by concentrated loads or patches of uniformly distributed load (AASHTO-LRFD

3.6.1.2.5) moving along the top members of the frame, over the width of the deck.

The axle loads are scaled up for impact and down by the ratio of effective strip width

to the actual beam width in the model. The effective strip width is obtained

conservatively from the minimum applicable value according to AASHTO-LRFD

4.6.2.1.3 as follows:

Cantilever section:

Interior positive moment:

Interior negative moment:

E=1.14+0.833X

E=0.66+0.55S

E=1.22+0.25S

Where:

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Department: ED11

X= distance from wheel load to support of cantilever. The wheel load is taken at

0.3m from the interior face of the edge barrier.

S= distance between supports of interior strip.

This method meets the first two objectives of transverse deck analysis defined above

and is applicable to box girder deck sections (single cell or multicell).

4.5.3 Transverse load distribution factor:

For beam and slab deck structures, the transverse load distribution factors for shear

and moment define the fraction of lane load applicable to a single beam unit (with its

tributary slab section). It is then possible to design the interior and exterior beams of

a beam and deck structure independently (no grillage or 3D analysis are needed).

This method is applicable within a given range of values for span length, beam

spacing, skew and other parameters.

For each type of deck, a distribution factor is calculated for moment in the interior

girder (AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.2.2b). A correction factor is calculated for the exterior

girder moment (AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.2.2.d). A correction factor is calculated for skew

(AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.2.2.e).

For each type of deck, a distribution factor is calculated for shear in the interior

girder (AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.2.3a). A correction factor is calculated for the exterior

girder shear (AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.2.3b). A correction factor is calculated for skew

(AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.2.3c).

This method meets the third objective of transverse deck analysis define above and

applies to beam and slab deck structures.

4.6 Analysis of deck in the longitudinal direction:

Except for simply supported girders, where the design forces may be established by

simple statics along with the transverse load distribution factors discussed above, the

design forces must be obtained by means of a comprehensive 3D structural analysis

model (spine, grillage, shell or solid) as discussed above.

4.6.1 Modelling of beam-slab deck section:

In beam-slab decks, the deck is often of a lower grade of concrete strength than the

reinforced or prestressed concrete girders supporting it. The deck width used in the

calculation of the equivalent composite section properties should be equal to the real

width scaled by the factor fcdeck/fcgirder (<1). However, the full deck width should be

used in the calculating dead weight of deck.

Where precast reinforced concrete panels are used as stay-in-place formwork

between the horizontal precast girder flanges that are set on a transverse slope, this

will lead to a variable deck thickness. The average thickness of such decks is larger

than the nominal thickness; and this has to be taken into account when calculating

the dead weight of the deck.

The effective flange width in calculating the composite section properties should not

exceed the following (AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.6.1):

For interior girders:

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Department: ED11

-1/4 of the span length.

-12 times the slab thickness + the web width.

For exterior girders one half of the effective width for interior girder plus:

-The overhang width.

-1/8 of the span length.

-6 times the slab thickness as overhang.

For calculation of shear-lag stresses due to prestressing force anchorages, the

effective flange width may be assumed to grow from zero to its full value at a rate of

1:2 with respect to the distance from the edge of the girder (AASHTO-LRFD

4.6.2.6.2).

4.6.2 Modelling of box girder section:

For cast-in-place multicell box girders analysed as a single unit, the effective flange

width may be considered equal to the full flange width (AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.6.3).

For cast-in-place single cell box girders and for segmental box girders, the effective

flange width may be considered equal to the full flange width (AASHTO-LRFD

4.6.2.6.3) if the following conditions are satisfied:

B<0.1L

B<0.3D

Where:

B

L

D

= Span length between inflection points.

= Section depth.

Otherwise, charts are available to compute the effective flange width. For calculation

of shear-lag stresses due to prestressing force anchorages, the effective flange width

may be assumed to grow from zero to its full value at a rate of 1:2 with respect to

the distance from the edge of the girder (AASHTO-LRFD 4.6.2.6.2).

4.7 Analysis of diaphragms:

The deck diaphragms at the ends of each span may be modelled as:

-Beam elements spanning from girder to girder in case of beam-slab decks.

-Continuous beam with supports at bearing locations and concentrated loads

at web location, or with linearly varying distributed load representing the

deck load, in case of multicell box girders, voided slab and solid slab decks.

-Strut and tie truss spanning between webs and bearings, in case of single

cell or twin-cell box girders.

In all cases, diaphragms are subjected to the following loads:

4.7.1 Vertical forces due to the deck weight and live loads on it:

These forces may be applied as concentrated loads where girders (or box webs)

frame into the diaphragm, or they may be represented as a distributed load (uniform

or trapezoidal). The maximum live load force may be obtained by summing the

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Department: ED11

maximum live load shears from the spans connected at the diaphragm (corrected for

impact and multilane reduction).

4.7.2 Horizontal forces due to transverse loads on the deck:

These loads (due to centrifugal force, transverse wind, transverse earthquake) are

applied at the level of the centroid of the girder-deck slab system. This level is in

general different from the level of the diaphragm supports. Therefore, these loads

induce moments and shears in the diaphragm in addition to axial forces.

4.7.3 Torsion forces due to imposed twisting:

This torsion may occur whenever the deck consists of several girders (I, T, or box),

or when the diaphragm is not normal to the axis of the deck (skew support). This

torsion is a compatibility torsion i.e. it may be disregarded without compromising

the stability of the structure, but doing so may lead to cracks that affect the

durability of the structure. Exact evaluation of the imposed twisting requires a

detailed 3D model. An upper bound for the amount of twist may be obtained by

taking the end rotation of a typical girder under live load and assumed as simply

supported, multiplied by two if girders are actually continuous over the diaphragm.

4.7.4 Vertical loads due to jacking forces near bearings:

In order to replace bearings, temporary jacks must be placed near the bearings to lift

off the deck. The diaphragm is then analysed for permanent loads but with different

support locations. Differential support movements may be included to account for

the unequal movement of the jacks (precision in controlling jack movements, say +/5mm).

4.8 Strength reduction factors:

The nominal ultimate strength capacity of a section is reduced by an amount

(strength reduction factor). The strength reduction factors to be used are

(AASHTO-LRFD 5.5.4.2.1):

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

1.00

1.00

0.90

0.90

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.70

for

for

for

for

for

for

for

for

tension controlled flexure in post tensioned concrete

tension controlled flexure in reinforced concrete

shear (normal weight concrete)

compression in anchorage zones

compression controlled flexure

bearing on concrete

compression in strut-and-tie models

For segmental construction, the following strength reduction factors are applicable

(AASHTO-LRFD 5.5.4.2.2):

=

=

=

=

0.95

0.90

0.90

0.85

for

for

for

for

shear and fully bonded tendons

tension controlled flexure and unbonded tendons

shear and unbonded tendons

Strut and tie design is used in regions of concentrated load application, such as

anchorage, bearing, sudden change in section and pile caps (L/d<2). A truss system

is assumed between the applied loads and the supporting points. The ultimate

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Department: ED11

compression force in compression members of the truss (struts) must be less than

the compression strength of the strut times a reduction factor (f=0.7 for

compression). The ultimate tension force in tension members of the truss (ties) must

be less than the tensile strength of the strut times a reduction factor (f=0.9 for

tension). The tension reinforcement of a strut must be properly developed within the

nodal region, otherwise a reduced tension stress must be used. The compression

stress within a nodal region must satisfy some requirements. The dimensions of the

struts and ties are determined from geometric constraints (size of bearing area and

of load application areas). In general, several truss systems are possible in any

situation, the most appropriate is the most direct, and the one where the minimum

angle between a strut and a tie is larger than 25deg.

4.9.1 Unreinforced compression strut strength (AASHTO-LRFD 5.6.3.3.3):

The compression strength of an unreinforced strut is given by the following formula:

Pn

= fcu.Acs

Acs

where db is the diameter of the anchoring bars.

= fc/(0.8+170el) < 0.85fc

= 28 days compressive strength of concrete.

= es+(es+0.002)/tan2as

= tensile strain in tie (=ey for ties with passive reinforcement, =0 for

ties with prestressed reinforcement not yielded).

= yield strain of passive reinforcement

= angle between tension tie and compression strut

Where:

fcu

fc

el

es

ey

as

If the compression force in the strut is large, additional compression reinforcement

may be provided as follows:

Pn

= fcu.Acs+fy.Ass

Ass

Where:

the axis of the strut, an equivalent grid of reinforcement may be provided such that:

Ass

= Abv/sv.B/sin.a.sin2.a+Abh/sh.b.sin.a.cos2.a

Abv

sv

Abh

sh

b

=

=

=

=

=

Where:

DRAFT

spacing of vertical bars

Area of horizontal bar

spacing of horizontal bars

depth of strut

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Department: ED11

The tension tie strength is given by the following formula (slightly modified from that

of AASHTO):

Pn

= fy.Ast+fpy.Aps

fy

Ast

fpy

Aps

=

=

=

=

Where:

yield strength of passive reinforcement

area of passive reinforcement

yield strength of prestressed reinforcement

area of prestressed reinforcement

The tension reinforcement must be properly developed in the nodal zone, otherwise

the yield strength is scaled down by the ratio of available to required development

length.

4.9.4 Nodal regions strength (AASHTO-LRFD 5.6.3.5):

The nodal region nominal compression strength (before applying strength reduction

factor) depends on the configuration of the nodal region:

fcn

= 0.75fc when anchoring one tie direction

= 0.65fc when anchoring more than one tie direction

AASHTO-LRFD introduces a new design procedure for shear design based on what is

called Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT), that allows for higher design shear

stress, and that requires increasing the horizontal steel reinforcement to achieve the

equilibrium of the strut-and-tie mechanisms at the heart of this method. The earlier

conventional shear design method is still allowed within certain conditions, and for a

lower maximum design shear stress. Only the strut-and-tie method is applicable near

regions of discontinuities.

In the following, we use:

vc

fr

=0.5fc0.5 as the nominal concrete tensile modulus (Mpa).

Except for slabs, footings and culverts, transverse reinforcement shall be provided

where:

Vu>0.5.f.(Vc+Vp).

Where:

Vu

Vc

Vp

F

DRAFT

=

=

=

=

Concrete shear strength

Shear resisting component of prestress force

shear strength reduction factor (see 4.8 above)

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Department: ED11

Where shear reinforcement is required, the minimum amount provided Av_min shall

not be less than (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.2.5):

Av_min > 0.5.vc.bv.s/fy

Where:

s

fy

bv

= yield strength of transverse shear reinforcement (<=420Mpa).

= width of web adjusted for presence of ducts= b-0.25Dduct for

grouted tendons or =b-0.5Dduct for ungrouted tendons (AASHTOLRFD 5.8.2.9).

b

= web width

Dduct = sum of prestressing duct diameters in web at the same level.

4.10.2 Maximum shear transverse reinforcement spacing (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.2.7):

The maximum shear transverse reinforcement spacing s shall not exceed the

following limits:

s<min(0.8dv, 0.6m) for vu<0.125fc

s<min(0.4dv,0.3m) for vu>=0.125fc

Where:

fc

vu

dv

dc

h

= ultimate shear stress

= effective shear depth or moment arm of flexural resisting forces in

the section Mn/(As.fy+Aps.fps)>=max(0.9dc, 0.72h) (AASHTO-LRFD

5.8.2.9).

= effective flexural depth

= depth of section

The nominal shear resistance shall be determined from:

Vn = min(Vc+Vs+Vp,0.25fc.bv.dv+Vp)

Where:

Vc

Vp

b

q

es

ff

Vu

Nu

Mu

Aps

fpo

As

Ac

DRAFT

= shear resisting component of prestress force

= 4.8/(1+750.es) shear strength enhancement factor

= 29+3500.es shear crack inclination angle (deg).

=(|Mu|/dv+|Vu-Vp|+0.5.Nu-Aps.fpo)/(Es.As+Ep.Aps+Ec.Ac.ff),

-0.4e-3<es<6e-3.

= 0 if numerator is positive, 1 if numerator is negative.

= ultimate design shear

= ultimate axial force concomitant with Vu, tension positive

= ultimate design moment concomitant with Vu, > |Vu-Vp|.dv

= prestressing steel area

= prestressing steel stress = 0.7fpu.

= tensile passive flexural reinforcement area

= concrete cross-section area

27 / 27

Department: ED11

Es

Ep

Ec

Vs

=

=

=

=

modulus of elasticity of prestressed reinforcement

modulus of elasticity of concrete

shear strength provided by transverse shear reinforcement

Vs = (Vu/f-Vc)

Av= Vs.s/(fy.dv.cot(q))

Where:

Vu

section) if support reaction induces compression in section or at

section otherwise (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.3.2)

s

= transverse shear reinforcement spacing

dv

= effective shear depth

cot(q) = cotangent of shear crack angle

In addition, the longitudinal flexural reinforcement of the section must satisfy the

following inequality (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.3.5):

As.fy+Aps.fps>|Mu|/(ff.dv)+0.5Nu/f+cot(q).(|Vu/fv-Vp|-0.5.Vs)

Where:

Vu

Mu

Nu

Vp

Vs

dv

ff

fv

f

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

ultimate design moment concomitant with Vu

ultimate axial force concomitant with Vu (tension positive)

shear resisting component of prestress force

shear resistance of transverse shear reinforcement < Vu/ fv

effective shear depth

strength reduction factor for flexure

strength reduction factor for shear

strength reduction factor for axial force (tension or compression)

For concrete sections not subjected to significant tension, the concrete shear

strength may be determined as:

Vc=min(Vci, Vcw)

Where:

Vci

Vcw

bv

=0.3vc.bv.dv+Vd+Vi.Mcr/Mmax>vc.bv.dv

=(vc+0.3*fpc).bv.dv+Vp

= width of web adjusted for presence of ducts= b-0.25Dduct for

grouted tendons or =b-0.5Dduct for ungrouted tendons (AASHTOLRFD 5.8.2.9).

b

= web width

Dduct = sum of prestressing duct diameters in web at the same level.

DRAFT

28 / 28

Department: ED11

dv

the section Mn/(As.fy+Aps.fps)>=max(0.9dc, 0.72h) (AASHTO-LRFD

5.8.2.9).

dc

= effective flexural depth

h

= depth of section

Vd

= unfactored shear due to self-weight and superimposed dead load.

Vi

= Vu-Vd

Mmax = maximum factored ultimate load concomitant with Vu.

Mcrk = Sc.(fr+fcpe-Mdnc/Snc) external load moment increment to cracking

Sc

= (composite) section modulus for fiber tensioned by external loads

Snc

= noncomposite section modulus for fiber tensioned by external loads

Mdnc = unfactored permanent load moment on section

fcpe = compression prestress stress after all losses on fiber tensioned by

external load

fr

= concrete tensile modulus.

The required transverse shear reinforcement is obtained from:

Vs = (Vu/f-Vc)

Av= Vs.s/(fy.dv.cot(q))

Where:

Vs

Vu

= ultimate design shear, at critical section at dv from support (or

section) if support reaction induces compression in section or at

section otherwise (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.3.2)

Vc

= concrete shear strength

s

= transverse shear reinforcement spacing

dv

= effective shear depth

cot(q) = cotangent of shear crack angle = 1 if Vc=Vci or 1+fpc/(5.vc)<1.8 if

Vc=Vcw.

In addition, the longitudinal flexural reinforcement of the section must satisfy the

following inequality (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.3.5):

As.fy+Aps.fps>|Mu|/(ff.dv)+0.5Nu/f+cot(q).(|Vu/fv-Vp|-0.5.Vs)

Where:

Vu

Mu

Nu

Vp

Vs

dv

ff

fv

f

DRAFT

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

ultimate design moment concomitant with Vu

ultimate axial force concomitant with Vu (tension positive)

shear resisting component of prestress force

shear resistance of transverse shear reinforcement < Vu/ fv

effective shear depth

strength reduction factor for flexure

strength reduction factor for shear

strength reduction factor for axial force (tension or compression)

29 / 29

Department: ED11

4.10.5 Alternative shear design for segmental post-tensioned box girders (AASHTOLRFD 5.8.6):

For segmental box girders, transverse shear reinforcement needs to be provided

where:

Vu>0.5.f.Vc

The nominal shear strength of the section shall be the smaller value of:

Vn=min(Vc+Vs,6.vc.bv.dv)

And:

Vu/(bv.dv)+Tu/(2.Ao.be)< 7.5.vc

Where:

=vc.K.bv.dv concrete shear strength

= Av.fy.dv/s

= ultimate shear, at critical section at h/2 from support (or section) if

support reaction induces compression in section or at section

otherwise (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.6.5)

bv

= width of web adjusted for presence of ducts= b-0.5Dduct for

grouted tendons or =b-Dduct for ungrouted tendons (AASHTO-LRFD

5.8.6.1).

dv

= effective shear depth or distance from compression fiber to centroid

of prestressing force>=0.8.h (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.6.5).

Dduct = sum of prestressing duct diameters in web at the same level.

h

= depth of section

K

=(1+fpc/vc)0.5 < 2.0 (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.6.3)

fpc

= average compression stress in concrete after all prestress losses.

Ao

= area enclosed by shear flow path around box.

be

= effective width of shear flow path (min(bv, tf_top, tf_bot)

tf_top = top flange thickness

tf_bot = bottom flange thickness

vc

Vc

Vs

Vu

reinforcement Av_min to be provided in the section is (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.2.5):

Av_min > 0.35(Mpa).bv.s/fy

And the maximum transverse shear reinforcement spacing s is:

s < min(0.5h,0.3m) (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.2.7)

The principal tensile stress in the web calculated using Mohr circle, for service III

load combinations and prestress after all losses or for construction stage load

combinations and prestress after immediate losses, shall not exceed the following

value (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.5):

s_max < 0.578.fr (AASHTO-LRFD 5.9.4.2.2)

DRAFT

30 / 30

Department: ED11

Where:

s_max = maximum tensile stress from Mohr circle at section centroid.

For sections subjected to combined shear and torsion, torsion reinforcement needs

to be provided if Tu>1/3.fvTcr:

Where:

Tcr

Ao

K

be

s

= vc.K.2.Ao.be

= area enclosed by shear flow path in box sections

=(1+fpc/vc)0.5 < 2.0 (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.6.3)

= effective width of shear flow path (min(bv, tf_top, tf_bot)

= longitudinal spacing of transverse reinforcement

At

= Tu/fv.s/(2.Ao.fy)

Al

= At.ph/s

For sections subjected to combined shear and torsion, torsion reinforcement needs

to be provided if Tu>0.25.fvTcr:

Where:

Tcr

Acp

pcp

fpc

Ao

And:

=

=

=

=

=

area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete section

outside perimeter of concrete section

average concrete prestress stress after all losses.

area enclosed by shear flow path in box sections

For the purpose of calculating the transverse shear crack inclination q, the equivalent

ultimate shear force is (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.2.1):

Vu_eq =

=

(Vu2+(0.9.ph.Tu/(2.Ao))2)0.5 for solid sections

Where:

Vu

Tu

ds

ph

DRAFT

=

=

=

=

ultimate design torsion concomitant with Vu

flexural depth

perimeter of closed torsion reinforcement

31 / 31

Department: ED11

At

= Tu/fv.s/(2.Ao.fy.cot(q))

formula (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.3.6.3):

Al

= Tu/fv.ph/(2.Ao.fy)

And the longitudinal reinforcement should satisfy the following inequality (AASHTOLRFD 5.8.3.6.3):

Aps.fps+As.fy>|Mu|/(ff.dv)+0.5.Nu/f+

cot(q).((|Vu/fv-Vp|-0.5.Vs)2+(0.45.ph.Tu/(2.Ao.fv))2)0.5

4.12 Ultimate shear-friction design (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.4):

Interface shear friction shall be considered at the following locations:

-Existing or potential crack.

-Interface between dissimilar materials.

-Interface between concrete cast at different times

-Interface between different elements of a monolithic section (e.g. web and flange)

The nominal shear-friction strength is given by the following formula:

Vn

Vn

Acv

Av

fy

c

m

K1

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Where:

nominal shear-friction strength

shear-friction contact area

shear-friction reinforcement area

reinforcement yield strength

cohesion stress see table below

friction factor see table below

factor see table below

Case

Monolithic concrete

Cast-in-place concrete slab on clean concrete girder

surface with surface roughened to an amplitude 6mm

Concrete cast against clean surface roughened to an

amplitude of 6mm

Concrete cast against clean surface not intentionally

roughened

Cast-in-place concrete slab on clean steel girder free of

paint, with studs or welded rebars

Monolithic concrete bracket, corbel and ledge

Note that the above assumes the following:

-Normal weight concrete

DRAFT

32 / 32

c

(MPa)

2.80

1.90

K1

1.4

1.0

0.25

0.30

1.70

1.0

0.25

0.52

0.6

0.20

0.17

0.7

0.20

0.00

1.4

0.25

Department: ED11

-Compression force normal to surface conservatively neglected

-Tension force normal to surface will require additional reinforcement

-K2.Acv>K1.fc.Acv

4.12.1 Minimum shear friction reinforcement (AASHTO-LRFD 5.8.4.4):

The minimum shear friction reinforcement shall be 0.35Acv/fy.

For cast-in-place concrete slab, the minimum shear-friction reinforcement shall be

the minimum required for 1.33Vu (instead of Vu) and 0.35Acv/fy. If the surface

between girder and slab is roughened to an amplitude of 6mm, the interface shear

stress is less than 1.4MPa and the girder shear reinforcement extends into the slab,

then no shear-friction reinforcement is required between girder and slab.

4.13 Ultimate flexural strength design (AASHTO-LRFD 5.7):

4.13.1 Minimum design ultimate moment (AASHTO-LRFD 5.7.3.3.2):

For ultimate strength flexural design the minimum design moment shall be:

Mu=max(Mu,min(1.2Mcrk,1.33Mu))

Where:

Mcrk

Sc

Snc

Mdnc

fcpe

fr

= Sc.(1.94.fr+fcpe)-Mdnc(Sc/Snc-1)>1.94.fr.Sc

= (composite) section modulus for fiber tensioned by external loads

= noncomposite section modulus for fiber tensioned by external loads

= unfactored permanent load moment on section

= compression prestress stress after all losses on fiber tensioned by

external load

= concrete tensile modulus as defined above.

In calculating the ultimate flexural strength of the section, the compression strain of

concrete shall not exceed 0.003. If the passive reinforcement strain exceeds 0.005

when the concrete has reached its ultimate strain, the section is said to be tension

controlled, otherwise it is compression controlled. The ultimate flexural strength of

the section is calculated from first principles by strain compatibility, or using the

approximate equations below.

For compression flanges of width to thickness ratio wtr > 15, the effective concrete

strength is multiplied by a reduction factor fw as follows (AASHTO-LRFD 5.7.4.7.2):

Fw

= 1.00

= 1.00-0.025.(wtr-15)

= 0.75

for 15 < wtr < 25

for 25 < wtr < 35

a

Mn

= (Aps.fps+As.fy-As.fs)/(0.85.fc.b)

= Aps.fps.(dp-a/2)+As.fy.(ds-a/2)-As.fs.(ds-a/2)

Where:

DRAFT

33 / 33

Department: ED11

a

b

Aps

fps

dp

As

ds

As

ds

fy

fs

= section width

= prestressing steel area

= prestressing steel stress at ultimate

= distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of prestressing

steel

= tension side passive flexural reinforcement area

= distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tensile

passive reinforcement

= compression side passive flexural reinforcement area

= distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of compression

passive reinforcement

= yield strength of passive reinforcement

= compression stress of compression reinforcement (by strain

compatibility)

For T sections:

a

Mn

= (Aps.fps+As.fy-As.fs-0.85.f.(b-bw).tf)/(0.85.fc.bw)

= Aps.fps.(dp-a/2) + As.fy.(ds-a/2)+ 0.85/2.fc.(b-bw).tf.(a-tf) As.fs.(ds-a/2)

b

bw

tf

= webs total width

= compression flange thickness

Where:

The tensile stress of the prestressing steel fps, depends on the type of prestressing

steel and whether it is bonded or not, or whether there is a mix of bonded and

unbonded prestressing steel (AASHTO-LRFD 5.7.3.1):

fps

fps

fps

= fpe+6300.(dp-a/b)/le < fpy for unbonded prestressing

reinforcement

= fpe for unbonded prestressing in a mix of bonded and unbonded

prestressing

Where:

fpu

fpy

a

dp

b

k

le

li

DRAFT

= yield stress of prestressing steel (~0.9.fpu)

= compression block depth

= distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of prestressing

steel

= ratio of compression block depth to neutral axis depth (0.85>0.850.07.(fc-28)/7>0.65).

= 0.28 for low relaxation strands.

= 0.38 for stress relieved strands and type I high strength bars

= 0.48 for type II high strength bars

= li/(1+Ns/2) effective unbonded tendon length

= tendon length between anchorages

34 / 34

Department: ED11

Ns

anchorages.

Although research shows that there is no correlation between crack width and

reinforcement corrosion (which is more correlated with concrete cover), it is often

required to limit crack width at service, by limiting the tensile service stress fs in the

reinforcement and the reinforcement spacing s. These parameters are tied together

by the following relations:

ge

fs

= 861000.ge.(h-c)/(s-2c)/(7h+3c) (Mpa) < 0.66fy service steel stress

w

h

s

c

=

=

=

=

Where:

allowable service crack width 0.2mm to 0.3mm

section depth

rebar spacing (>2c)

concrete cover to centroid of reinforcing steel

atmosphere. A crack width of 0.25mm may be acceptable for structures in contact

with non-corrosive soil. A crack width of 0.20mm may be acceptable for structures

exposed to corrosive atmosphere or soil.

4.14 Prestress design:

Designing the prestressing system for a bridge involves the following tasks:

-Selecting the prestressing system characteristics: pretensioned or posttensioned, bonded or unbonded, internal or external or a combination of

some or all those.

-Selecting the amount of prestressing steel required and its articulation into

tendons.

-Selecting the tensioning mode; from one end only or from both ends.

-Selecting the stressing stages; one stage or multiple stages.

-Defining the prestressing tendons path to minimize the amount of

prestressing steel, the friction losses and secondary moments while meeting

service stress limits and ultimate strength requirements.

-Providing the passive reinforcement at and around the prestressing anchor

zones.

The following verifications must be made:

-Check that anchorage stresses are within allowable limits and that required

anchorage reinforcement is provided.

-For each stressing stage, calculate applicable losses, flexural stresses and check that

flexural stresses are within limits.

-Calculate deflections for each stage and necessary initial camber.

-Calculate passive reinforcement necessary to cater for tensile forces, and for

ultimate strength state.

In performing the above tasks, the following requirements must be met:

DRAFT

35 / 35

Department: ED11

The following stress limits apply to prestressing steel (AASHTO-LRFD 5.9.3):

For postensioned tendons and bars, assuming fpy=0.9fpu

Condition

Low relaxation strands

Plain and deformed high

strength bars

Prior to seating

<0.80fpu

<0.80fpu

At

anchorages/couplers

<0.70fpu

<0.70fpu

after seating

Elsewhere

immediately

<0.74fpu

<0.70fpu

after seating

After all losses

>0.50fpu

>0.50fpu

The following stress limits apply to the compressive flexural stress in concrete:

Condition

Allowable compression

AASHTO-LRFD article

stress

Initial, during construction

0.60.fci

5.9.4.1.1

Service, permanent

0.45.fc

5.9.4.2.1

Service, comb. I

5.9.4.2.1

0.60.fw.fc > 0.45.fc

Where fw is a slenderness correction factor as per AASHTO-LRFD 5.7.4.7.2

The following stress limits apply to the tensile flexural stress in concrete of nonsegmentally constructed bridges:

Condition

Allowable tension stress

AASHTO-LRFD article

Initial, during construction

1.26.fri *

5.9.4.1.2

Service,

comb.

III

fr

5.9.4.2.2

moderate

corrosion

conditions

Service, comb. III severe

0.50.fr

5.9.4.2.2

corrosion conditions

* provided passive reinforcement is provided to take total tensile force at 0.5fy.

The following stress limits apply to the tensile flexural stress in concrete of

segmentally constructed bridges with bonded reinforcement across joints.

Condition

Allowable tension stress

AASHTO-LRFD article

Initial

1.26.fri *

5.9.4.1.2

Initial, principal tensile

0.58.fri

5.9.4.1.2

stress at n.a in web

Service, comb. III

0.50.fr*

5.9.4.2.2

Service comb. III, principal

0.58.fr

5.9.4.2.2

tensile stress at n.a in web

* provided passive reinforcement is provided to take total tensile force at 0.5fy.

The following stress limits apply to the tensile flexural stress in concrete of

segmentally constructed bridges without bonded reinforcement across joints.

Condition

Allowable tension stress

AASHTO-LRFD article

Initial

0

5.9.4.1.2

Initial, principal tensile

0.58.fri

5.9.4.1.2

stress at n.a in web

Service, comb. III

0

5.9.4.2.2

DRAFT

36 / 36

Department: ED11

tensile stress at n.a in web

0.58.fr

5.9.4.2.2

The immediate prestress losses consist of friction losses and of anchorage draw-in

(in case of post-tensioned construction) and of elastic shortening (for both posttensioned construction and pre-tensioned construction).

Friction loss is expressed by the following relation P(x)=P0.exp(-(K.x+m.q) ), where:

X

q

P0

P(x)

K

m

= cumulative absolute value change of angle from anchorage to point

x.

= initial force at anchorage, before anchorage draw-in.

= force at distance x from anchorage after friction losses

= wobble coefficient = 0.00066/m

= friction coefficient

Case

Friction coefficient

Strand in galvanized metal sheathing

0.15-0.25

Strand in polyethylene duct

0.23

Strand in rigid steel pipe deviator

0.25

High strength bar in galvanized metal sheathing

0.30

The anchorage draw-in loss with power seating of the anchorage wedges may range

from 3mm to 10mm. A typical value of 6mm is assumed. A more conservative value

would be 8mm.

The elastic shortening loss at every section depends on the type of construction; pretensioned construction or post-tensioned construction. For pretensioned

construction, the elastic shortening loss is estimated by the following formula:

Dfps

= Eps/Eci.fpcgp

Where:

Eps

= modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel

Eci

= modulus of elasticity of concrete at time of stressing

fpcgp = concrete stress at centroid of prestressing steel after occurrence of

friction loss and in presence of self-weight moment.

The elastic shortening loss for post-tensioned construction is estimated by the

following formula:

Dfps

DRAFT

37 / 37

Where:

Department: ED11

The long-term losses consist of creep, shrinkage and relaxation losses and are

applicable to all types of construction (pre-tensioned and post-tensioned). Long-term

losses may be calculated either by lump-sum or by approximate formulae or by

detailed step-by-step time integration. The first method is usually reserved for

preliminary design, and the last method is usually reserved for segmental

construction and multistage construction. The second method (approximate

formulae) is sufficient for the most common cases.

The lump-sum long-term losses (Mpa) for fully prestressed sections may be taken as:

Type

of

section

beam Level

and strands 1620 <

fpu < 1860 Mpa

187

167

145

130

256-(fc-41)*

216-0.85(fc-41)*

and solid slabs

Average

Box girders

Upper bound

Average

Single T, Double T, Upper bound

Hollow core and Average

voided slabs

* fc is concrete compressive strength in Mpa

Bars

1000 < fpu < 1100

Mpa

171

100

251-0.76(fc-41)

The long-term losses (Mpa) for pre-tensioned girders with low-relaxation strands

may be estimated by the following formula:

Dfplt

= gh.gst.(10.fpi.Aps/Ag+83)+17

gh

gst

Aps

Ag

H

fci

fpi

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Where:

1.7-0.01.H humidity correction factor

35/(fci+7) strength at stressing correction factor

area of prestressing steel

cross-section area

average ambient humidity (%)

concrete strength at stressing time (Mpa)

prestressing steel stress at transfer

The long-term losses for post-tensioned girders may be estimated according to the

provisions of AASHTO-LRFD 5.9.5.4.

4.14.4 Anchor zone reinforcement (AASHTO-LRFD 5.10.9):

Anchor zones are designed for a factored load Pu=1.2.P, where P is the maximum

prestress load before anchorage draw-in. The strength reduction factor for

reinforcing steel f=1.0.

In designing the anchor zone, two distinct regions are considered: the local zone

(concerned with compressive stresses) and the general zone (concerned with tensile

stresses). In detailing anchor zone reinforcement, the smallest bar size possible, at

DRAFT

38 / 38

Department: ED11

the smallest spacing compatible with good concrete placement and avoidance of

congestion should be selected.

The local zone starts at the location of the anchor and extents sideways and in the

direction of the prestressing force a certain distance determined as follows:

Transverse extent, in case no reliable manufacturer data exists, c=a+2cover.

Transverse extent, with reliable manufacturer data, c=min(2d_edge,

s_bearing)

Longitudinal extent d=min(c,d_burst)

The compression bearing stress under anchorage plate must satisfy the following

equation:

Pu<f.fn.Ab

Where:

f

fn

fci

fpu

Aps

Ag

Ab

Aduct

A

= min(2.25.fci,0.7.fci.(A/Ag)0.5)

= concrete strength at time of stressing

= ultimate tensile strength of prestressing strand/bar.

= area of prestressing steel at anchor

= gross area of bearing plate

= Effective bearing area (Ag-Aduct)

= cross-section area of duct

= maximum area similar to Ag not overlapping with another anchor

similar area, and not extending outside concrete section.

Note: In case no reliable manufacturer information, the square base plate dimension

can be estimated as a = 0.8.(Aps.fpu/fci)0.5.

The general zone starts where the local zone ends, and extents away from the

anchorage a certain distance determined as follows:

Transverse extent: min(transverse dimension, longitudinal dimension)

Longitudinal extent in direction of prestress: min(1.5 max. transverse

dimension, longitudinal dimension)

Longitudinal extent in direction opposite to prestress (in case of intermediate

section): min. transverse dimension

The general zone may be analysed by one of three methods: strut-and-tie, elastic

analysis or approximate method. In all cases, three types of reinforcement must be

provided: surface (spalling), bursting and diffusion.

Spalling reinforcement shall be provided immediately under the anchor in the plane

perpendicular to the prestress force:

Asp

DRAFT

= 0.02.Pu/fy

39 / 39

Department: ED11

prestress force after the spalling reinforcement over a distance d=min(2.5d_burst,

1.5 min transverse dimension):

Tu

= 0.25.Pu.(1-a/h)+0.5.Pu.sin(a)

Abst = Tu/fy

d_burst= 0.5.(h-2|e|)+5.|e|.sin(a)

a

= anchor plate dimension in plane considered

h

= section dimension in plane considered

e

= eccentricity of prestress force in plane considered

a

= angle of prestress force with member axis in plane considered

Diffusion reinforcement shall be provided based on flexural principles or shear

friction over the distance from the anchorage plane to where the prestress forces

have diffused uniformly over the section, assuming a diffusion angle of 30 deg from

each edge of the anchor plate.

Where anchorages are not located at the end of the section, such as couplers at

construction joints or at blisters, additional longitudinal reinforcement must be

provided behind the anchorage:

As

= 0.42.Pu/fy

and flexural) to anchor the blister into the face of web or flange, and take care of the

eccentricity of the applied anchor force.

4.14.5 Special reinforcement for curved tendon regions (AASHTO-LRFD 5.10.4.3):

Tendons in curved webs are subjected to an out-of-plane force T=P/R, which may

require special reinforcement. It can be shown that as long as the out-of-plane

radius R>320.Dduct, no special reinforcement is required, otherwise, the

reinforcement required is:

As

= 1.40.Pu/(R.fy)

Pu

R

fy

= out-of-plane radius of curvature of tendon

= yield strength of reinforcing steel

Where:

It can be shown that as long as the clear cover to tendon is larger than the tendon

diameter (or 50mm), no special side-bursting reinforcement is required.

4.15 Special requirements for segmental construction bridges (AASHTOLRFD 5.14.2):

For segmentally constructed prestressed concrete bridges, there are additional

requirements in terms of construction load cases to consider, transverse analysis of

deck section, estimation of long-term prestress losses, detailing and proportioning.

4.15.1 Construction load cases and combinations:

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Department: ED11

The following are the load cases that may have to be considered for segmental

construction, in addition to those previously defined for normal service:

A

= static weight of precast segment

AI

= dynamic load increment due to sudden release of segment (100% of

segment weight).

CE

= specialized construction equipment (e.g. typical values for form travellers

are 710-800KN for 2 lane deck and 1250KN for 3 lane deck)

CLE

= longitudinal force due to construction equipment (e.g. 10% of CE)

CLL

= 0.48Kpa distributed construction live load, not applicable to incremental

launching, for balanced cantilever construction apply full value on one cantilever and

half on the opposite cantilever

CR

= creep effects

DC

= self-weight of the structure

DIFF = differential load, applicable only to balanced cantilever construction, equal

2% of the cantilever dead load

IE

= dynamic load from equipment (e.g. 10% of segment weight)

SH

= shrinkage effects

T

= thermal; the sum of uniform temperature change TU and temperature

gradient change TG

U

= segment unbalance, for balanced cantilever construction

WE

= 4.8Kpa horizontal wind pressure on exposed deck surface (for wind on

equipment)

WS

= horizontal wind on structure

WUP = 0.24Kpa upward uplift wind pressure, for balanced cantilever construction

only, applicable to one cantilever at a time

The cases that have to be actually considered depend on the type of construction;

whether it is balanced cantilever, or incremental launching or span-by-span

assembly, as shown in the following table:

Item\Construction

method

DC

DIFF

U

CLL

CE

IE

CLE

WS

WUP

WE

CR

SH

TU

TG

WA

EH,EV,ES

DRAFT

Balanced cantilever

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

Incremental

launching

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

41 / 41

Span by span

Department: ED11

Item\Case

1

2

3

4

5

6

DC

1

1

1

1

1

1

DIFF

1

1

1

U

1

1

CLL

1

1

1

1

1

IE

1

1

1

1

CLE

1

WS

0.7

0.7

0.3

0.3

WUP

0.7

1

WE

0.7

0.3

0.3

CR

SH

TU

TG

WA

EH,EV,ES

1

1

1

1

1

1

fta

fr

fr

fr

fr

fr

fr

0.58.fr 0.58.fr 0.58.fr 0.58.fr 0.58.fr 0.58.fr

smax_a

and

Item\Case

DC

DIFF

U

CLL

IE

CLE

WS

WUP

WE

CR

SH

TU

TG

WA

EH,EV,ES

fta

smax_a

7

1

1

1

1

8

1

9

1

1

1

1

1

0.7

0.7

1

1

1

1

1

1

1.16.fr

0.66.fr

1

1

1

1

1

1

1.16.fr

0.66.fr

10

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1.16.fr

0.66.fr

0.7

1

0.7

1

1

1

1

1

1

1.16.fr

0.66.fr

11

1

1

1

1

12

1

0.3

1

1

1

0.3

0.3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1.16.fr

0.66.fr

0.3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1.16.fr

0.66.fr

Where:

fca

fta

smax_a

fr

=

=

=

=

maximum allowable flexural stress tension for type A joints

maximum allowable principal stress tension for type A joints

modulus of rupture of concrete

Type A joints are those where passive reinforcement crosses the joint between

segments (as in cast-in-situ segments). Type B joints are those where no passive

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Department: ED11

type B joints.

The following ultimate strength construction stage combinations need to be

considered:

1.1(DL+DIFF)+1.3CE+A+AI

DC+CE+A+AI

4.15.2 Detailing and proportioning (AASHTO-LRFD 5.14.2.3.10):

The following are minimum dimensions and proportions for segmental construction

box girders:

Overall depth d for constant depth decks:

1/5 < d/L< 1/30, opt 1/18 to 1/20 (L = span length between supports)

For incrementally launched decks:

For L < 30m

For 30 < L < 60m

For 60 < L < 90m

1/13.5 < d/L < 1/11.5

1/12 < d/L < 1/11

1/16 < d/L < 1/20, opt 1/18 at haunches

1/22 < d/L < 1/28, opt 1/24 in center section

Number of cells:

1 preferably if d/b >= 1/6 (b = top flange width)

2 preferably if d/b < 1/6

Length of top flange cantilever: <= 0.45 interior cell span

Cantilever thickness at edge: > 250mm or depth necessary for barrier reinforcement

development.

Cantilever thickness at root: > Lc/8 (Lc = length of cantilever)

Top flange thickness: > S/30, 250mm (S=clear span between webs or haunches). If

S>4.5m transverse post-tensioning shall be used with strands <= 12.7mm.

Web thickness:

200mm > d/15 without any internal post-tensioning

300mm with either longitudinal or vertical prestressing

375mm with both longitudinal and vertical prestressing

Bottom flange thickness: > bf_bot/30, 200mm (bf_bot = clear span at bottom of

cell)

5.0 Design of specific elements of the structure:

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Department: ED11

In the following, we list for each element of the structure the verifications to be

made, and the points to watch for. We follow the load path from the barrier and

deck, all the way down to the foundations.

5.1 Barrier design:

The barrier is designed for the loads and load cases defined in section 2.2.5 above.

The barrier reinforcement is designed according to the yield line method defined in

Appendix A13 of AASHTO-LRFD. The critical case is that near an expansion joint,

where the yield line length is reduced.

The vertical reinforcement of the barrier must be detailed such that its hook

development length fits within the thickness of the top flange of the deck (db<

(t_deck-c)/14).

The deck edge section (thinner than the barrier) must be able to resist the moment

applied to it from the barrier. The available flexural reinforcement, reduced by the

ratio of barrier width to development length of deck reinforcement must be sufficient

for both flexure and direct tension.

5.2 Deck transverse design:

The deck transverse design is conducted either using the approximate formulae for

moving load moments of 4.5.1 above, or using the finite strip method of 4.5.2, or as

a 3D analysis.

For the cantilever section, the transverse reinforcement must account for the

transverse tension concomitant with impact on the barrier.

For box girders, the transverse reinforcement directly calculated for flanges and

webs must be cumulated with the torsion transverse reinforcement, as well as with

the section distortion reinforcement (except when 3D analysis has been used, where

the combination of these effects is automatically accounted for).

For box girders, the bottom flange transverse reinforcement must be at least equal

to 0.5% of the flange section. The longitudinal reinforcement in the bottom flange of

box girders must be at least equal to 0.4% of the flange section (AASHTO-LRFD

XXX).

The longitudinal bottom reinforcement in the top flange must be equal to at least 2/3

the transverse bottom flexural reinforcement.

Near expansion joints, the effective transverse strip width is reduced by half, and the

transverse reinforcement must be increased, or the top flange thickness must be

increased (particularly the cantilevers). The increase in flange thickness near

expansion joints must allow for proper installation of expansion joints. The end

diaphragms width may be increased to offset the reduction in effective strip width

(set the diaphragm width to at least half the effective transverse strip width).

Transverse reinforcement must be located outside the longitudinal reinforcement.

5.3 Continuity slab design:

The continuity slab is essentially designed to accommodate the rotation imposed on

it from the deflection of the connected spans (due to live loads, thermal gradient,

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Department: ED11

support settlement, deck jacking) and to transmit axial forces between spans as well

as resist wheel loads on top of it. The slab thickness must be as small as possible to

minimize the imposed deformation moments. The longitudinal reinforcement will

tend to be heavy and closely spaced to minimize crack width.

5.4 Expansion joint support design:

The slab cantilevering from the end diaphragm to support the expansion joint and to

protect the prestressing anchors from direct drip is designed as a corbel.

The load applied to it is the wheel load, with an impact factor of 1.75 instead of 1.33

(i.e the wheel load already multiplied by 1.33 must be further multiplied by 1.30).

The concomitant horizontal tension load is equal to 25% of the vertical load.

The effective width of the resisting section is equal to the wheel width (0.51m) plus

twice the length of the cantilever section (1:1 distribution of load). The depth of the

cantilever section must allow for the recess of the expansion joint, and be sufficient

to transmit the shear load without shear reinforcement or to require one layer of

reinforcement that can developed within the cantilever length.

5.5 Bearing support design:

In designing the geometry of the bearing support, sufficient vertical and horizontal

clearance around the bearing must be provided to allow for the possibility of jacking

and replacement of the bearing in the future, when necessary.

For bearings supporting precast elements, provision must be made for:

-The type of connection between the bearing and the element (simple bearing

contact, contact with adhesive, bolted connection).

-The need for sliding restraint or not.

-The need to accommodate longitudinal or transverse slope of the precast element

(e.g. precast concrete wedge).

The bearing support pedestal is reinforced for spalling and bursting as for the

prestress anchorage (4.12.4 above). The bearing support is further checked for

shear and bending due to the moment arm of the horizontal forces on the bearing,

and for edge wedge equilibrium, when located near a free edge.

5.6 Pier head design:

Depending on the type of pier head, the pier head may be designed as a continuous

beam, or as a corbel. The following sets of load cases must be considered:

-The normal exploitation load cases (with the bearings at their design locations).

-The bearing jacking condition, where 1.3 times the permanent load is applied at the

jack locations.

-The construction load cases, if required by the construction method (especially for

segmental construction).

In addition, the longitudinal reaction from bearings applied at the top of the pier

head will induce a torsional moment in the pier head section and a moment about a

vertical axis in the cantilever part of the pier head. Reinforcement should be provided

for these forces.

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Department: ED11

The pier shaft is designed as a column for the loads it receives from the pier head,

as well as for an accidental vehicle impact load (2.2.4 above). The flexural stiffness

of the pier shafts must be reduced if the design moments are larger than the

cracking moment.

For tall piers (K.L/d>15) , P-Delta effects must be considered and safety against

buckling must be checked, where:

K

= restraint factor; 2 for flexurally unrestrained at top, 1 for flexurally

restrained at top

L

= pier height from top of foundation

d

= transverse pier section dimension in the direction of considered

To minimize reinforcement wastage in tall piers (> 10m) , longitudinal reinforcement

bars are detailed as 6m long bars, with 2m bar overlap, leading to 4m high concrete

pour lifts. The first lift is only 2m high (to account for 2m embedment in the

foundation). Even if bar couplers are used, the couplers need to be staggered and

the 4m concrete lifts are maintained.

5.8 Pier foundation design:

The pier foundations as any other foundations are designed for two sets of criteria;

geotechnical criteria and structural criteria.

The geotechnical criteria are as follows:

-Net bearing stress less than allowable value for all service load combinations.

-Factor of safety against overturning larger than minimum value of 2 (or alternatively

contact ratio larger than a certain value XXX, or vertical load eccentricity smaller than

a certain value XXX).

-Factor of safety against sliding larger than minimum value of 1.5.

-Long term settlement under permanent load less than a limiting value (e.g. 25mm).

-Settlement under live load less than a limiting value XXX.

-Minimum soil cover over footing of 0.6m.

Where foundations on piles are used, the geotechnical criteria are replaced by the

following:

-Maximum service compression or tension on a pile less than the corresponding

allowable service load.

-Long term settlement under permanent load less than a limiting value (e.g. 25mm).

-Settlement under live load less than a limiting value XXX .

The structural criteria are as follows:

-Flexural service stress under a limiting value corresponding to allowable crack width.

-Ultimate flexural strength greater than applied ultimate moment at critical sections.

-Ultimate shear strength greater than applied ultimate shear at critical sections.

-Ultimate punching shear strength greater than applied punching shear at pierfoundation interface and at corner piles.

Where foundations on piles are used, the structural criteria are supplemented by the

following:

-Maximum ultimate shear and moment per pile less than the corresponding available

strength at the concomitant axial load.

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Department: ED11

-Base shear is not equally distributed to all piles; front piles receive more shear

than piles behind, in their shadow. The distribution factor depends on the pile

spacing as specified in AASHTO-LRFD 10.7.2.4. Conservatively, the piles in the

shadow of the front row may be considered to receive 40% of the load received by

the front piles.

-A choice has to be made to design the piles as fixed at the foundation level or as

pinned. In the former case, the pile maximum moment is larger but decreases faster

than in the latter case.

-Refer to section 6.0 for more details about piles.

5.9 Abutment design:

The abutment consists of several components:

The backwall supports the expansion joint, the approach slab and retains the fill

behind the abutment. The backwall is designed for the soil pressure of the retained

soil, and for the horizontal breaking/accelerating wheel load on top of the wall (25%

of the wheel load with 1.75 impact factor). The thickness of the wall at its

intersection with the wingwall should be sufficient to develop the horizontal

reinforcement of the wingwall.

The approach slab can be designed either as a simply supported beam, or as a beam

on elastic foundations. It is safer to design the approach slab as a simply supported

beam to account for possible settlement of the fill under the slab. A strip of width

equal to one lane width is subjected to the axle or tandem axle load, with an impact

factor of 1.75 (instead of 1.33), in addition to the weight of fill and pavement on top

of it.

The length of the approach slab should be about half the abutment height from top

of footing. The thickness of the slab should be sufficient to resist beam shear without

transverse reinforcement, and to require only one layer of flexural reinforcement.

The fill thickness on top of the approach slab depends on the design of the

pavement but should not be less than 0.5m.

There are two types of wingwalls, those in open abutments, connected to the

abutment along one vertical edge, and those in closed (or wall) abutments,

connected to the abutment along two consecutive edges, one vertical and one

horizontal.

The wingwall in open abutments has to be designed for the following loads:

-Horizontal soil pressure perpendicular to the wall face.

-Horizontal surcharge pressure perpendicular to the wall face.

-Vertical weight of wingwall and traffic barrier on top.

-Horizontal accidental impact load perpendicular to wall surface at edge of wingwall

and concomitant vertical load (as per barrier protection level).

The wingwall in closed abutments has to be designed for the following loads:

-Horizontal soil pressure perpendicular to the wall face.

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Department: ED11

-Horizontal accidental impact load perpendicular to wall surface at edge of wingwall

and concomitant vertical load (as per barrier protection level).

The wall thickness should be sufficient to support the barrier on top of it.

The abutment seat as a beam exists only in open abutments. The beam is designed

as a continuous beam supported by the abutment columns, and subjected to

concentrated loads at the bearing locations and at the temporary jacking locations. It

is also subjected to uniformly distributed vertical load and uniformly distributed

torsion moment from the backwall.

The abutment seat in a closed abutment is simply a thickened section joining the

back wall to the main wall and transmitting the back wall base forces to the top of

the main wall.

The main wall in closed abutment is mainly subjected to horizontal soil pressure,

horizontal surcharge load and horizontal seismic surcharge load. It is designed

essentially as a cantilever wall, although for narrow abutments, it could be designed

as a two way slab (restrained at the base by the foundation slab and at each vertical

edge by the wingwalls). The wall thickness at any section should be sufficient to

provide the required shear resistance without need of transverse shear

reinforcement.

The columns in an open abutment resist the vertical and horizontal loads applied

from the abutment seat in addition to horizontal soil pressure in the longitudinal

direction. The effective width for calculating the longitudinal soil pressure on a

column is equal to two to three times the actual width of the column. The columns

may be considered as a cantilever for bending about the axis parallel to the long

direction of the abutment, and as fixed at both ends for bending about the axis

perpendicular to the long direction of the abutment.

The abutment footing is designed in the same manner as the pier footing above

(5.8).

6.0 Foundation piles design:

Foundation piles are designed for two sets of criteria: geotechnical and structural.

The geotechnical criteria for piles are the achievement of the required bearing and

uplift resistance within the constraints of the available soil properties, and the limit

allowable displacements. Downdrag, and soil liquefaction are additional issues to be

considered by the geotechnical specialist.

The structural criteria are the provision of sufficient shear and moment strength for

the shear and moments developed in the pile due to lateral loading. In addition, the

axial tension service stress in the reinforcement should be within the allowable limits

corresponding to the allowable crack width (0.25mm for non aggressive environment

and 0.20mm for aggressive environment). The pile axial compression stress at the

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Department: ED11

allowable pile service load should not exceed 0.25fc, where fc is the 28 day

compressive strength of the pile concrete.

When subjected to lateral loads, the piles in the front row receive more load than

the piles behind, in their shadow. The fraction of loads received by the front piles is

obtained from the AASHTO-LRFD 10.7.2.4 formula:

Where foundations on piles are used, the following detailing issues must be

considered:

-When pile spacing is less than 6 pile diameters, the drilling sequence should

be indicated (AASHTO-LRFD 10.8.1.2).

-When pile spacing is less than 4 pile diameters, a pile efficiency reduction

factor shall be applied (AASHTO-LRFD 10.8.1.2), varying linearly for

cohesionless soil from 0.65 to 1 as the pile spacing varies from 2.5 to 4.0

(AASHTO-LRFD 10.8.3.6.3).

-Pile spacing should not be less than 2.5 to 3 pile diameters center to center.

-The edge distance from a pile to the edge of footing should not be less than

0.3m (AASHTO-LRFD 10.8.1.2).

-The pile shall penetrate into the footing a distance of 0.10m to 0.15m; this

distance should be added to the calculated footing structural depth.

For preliminary estimation purposes, given the required equivalent allowable bearing

stress q_eq, the minimum pile dimensions may be estimated as follows:

Dmin = q_eq/400

Lmin = q_eq/14

> 0.80m

Where:

q_eq = equivalent allowable bearing capacity desired (KPa)

Dmin = minimum pile diameter (m)

Lmin = minimum pile length (m) (preferably <30.Dpile)

The longitudinal reinforcement ratio shall not be less than 0.8% (AASHTO-LRFD

5.13.4.6). It shall extend over the full length of the pile.

The longitudinal reinforcement clear spacing shall not be less than 5xmax aggregate

size or 125mm (AASHTO-LRFD 5.13.4.6.XXX).

The transverse reinforcement diameter shall not be less than 10mm (AASHTO-LRFD

5.10.6).

The transverse reinforcement spacing shall not exceed Dpile or 300mm (AASHTOLRFD 5.10.6).

For seismic zones 2, 3 and 4 the following shall apply:

Vcs

Ash

Lph

> max(0.3s.h.fc/fy.(Ag/Ac-1),0.12.s.h.fc/fy) (AASHTO-LRFD 5.10.11.4.1.d)

> 2Dpile (AASHTO-LRFD 5.13.4.6.XXX)

Where:

Vcs

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Department: ED11

Vc

Pu

fc

fy

Ag

Ac

Ash

s

h

Lph

Dpile

= ultimate axial force (compression positive)

= concrete 28 day compressive strength

= yield strength of transverse reinforcement

= section gross area

= confined section area (inside transverse reinforcement)

= transverse reinforcement parallel to section dimension h

= transverse reinforcement longitudinal spacing

= section dimension parallel to transverse reinforcement legs

= length of plastic hinge where tranverse reinforcement spacing is

reduced by half

= pile diameter

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Material Characteristics

Concrete

Concrete shall be made using low alkali Portland cement (with less than 0.6%

sodium equivalent).

Compressive strength

Several concrete can be used. The minimum strength requirements shall be as

follows:

For Reinforced Concrete Deck

For pier and pier cap

For foundations

fc = 42MPa

fc = 35MPa

fc = 35MPa

fc = 30MPa.

tests of cylinders made and tested in accordance with AASHTO Division II, Section 8,

Concrete Structures).

Concrete density

Mass density of the reinforced concrete shall be taken is 2.45 t/m3 (AASHTO Division

I, 3.3.6).

Young modulus

Instantaneous Young modulus for normal weight concrete in MPa shall be calculated

using the following equation (AASHTO Division I, 8.7.1):

E c = 4730 f ' c

Long time (differed) modulus shall be taken as the third of instantaneous modulus.

Shear modulus

Shear modulus of concrete, G, is calculated using the following equation:

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Department: ED11

G=

Ec

2(1 + )

According to AASHTO Division I, 8.5.3, thermal expansion coefficient for normal

weight concrete shall be taken as = 1.08x10-5 per C.

Reinforcement Rebar

Only thermo-mechanically treated reinforcement bars of grade 60 conform to ASTM

A615 or to AASHTO Division I, 8.3.3 will be used.

Yield strength

Minimum specified yield strength fy = 400MPa

Young Modulus

Modulus of elasticity Es = 200 000MPa (AASHTO Division I, 8.7.2).

Nominal diameter

Diameters of rebar can be used are: 10,12, 16, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, and 40

Maximum length of bars can be used is 12m.

Nominal cover

The nominal concrete clear cover to be provided for steel reinforcement is:

40mm for viaduct superstructures

50mm for pier shafts and pier caps

100mm for foundations with concrete in direct contact with the soil.

This cover could be reduced when protective coating (such as

bituminous coating, waterproofing membranes) is provided

(depending on Manufacturers specifications).

Pre-stressing Steel

Pre-stressing steel shall conform to ASTM A416-96a - Uncoated Seven Wire Strands

T15 Class 1860MPa

Pre-stressing characteristic

For strand T15 with corrugated steel ducts, the following characteristics can be

adopted:

Nominal diameter

15.2 mm

Nominal area

140 mm

Nominal mass

1.102 kg/m

Angular friction coefficient

= 0.25 rd-1

Wobble coefficient

k = 0.003 m-1

Low relaxation strand

1000 = 2.5%

Tensile stress

For low-relaxation strands T15, the tensile stress shall be as follows:

Ultimate tensile stress

fS = 1860MPa

Yield stress

f*y = 1670MPa

Jacking stress

1395MPa (0.75 fs)

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Department: ED11

Young modulus

As per ASTM A 416-96a, elasticity modulus shall be taken as: ES = 200 000MPa

Pre-stressing units

Pre-stressing units are governed by the pre-stressing system. However, the following

units are frequently used:

7T15, 12 or 13T15, 19T15, 22T15, 25 or 27T15, 31T15 and 37T15

Anchorage slip shall conform to the pre-stressing system and to the unit used.

Average value of 7mm can be considered.

Maintenance of bridges

For maintenance operation the following requirement shall be considered:

Train operation will be disrupted when replacing the bearing.

For box girder bridges, access openings with steel gratings for inspection

and maintenance shall be provided in the bottom slab close to the expansion

joint piers. In case of isolated bridges this access shall be provided at one

location; in case of adjacent bridges, this access shall be provided at

intervals not greater than 100m.

A 3 ton capacity lifting hook shall be embedded in the underside of the

superstructure top slab above each access opening.

A clear space of at least 1.6m high and 1.5m wide shall be provided all

along the box girder.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Design of prestressing cables profile and spacing: The minimum

concrete cover is set based on ACI318-7.7.2 and UBC97-1907.7.3 for the

required fire resistance (usually 2hr). Then, the tendon profile and spacing

are calculated to achieve the required load balancing ratio and average

prestress force.

The specific verifications to be performed are:

Checking of stresses during the various phases: The main phases for

which the top and bottom slab flexural stresses must be checked are: initial

prestressing under self-weight only (may be partial prestress), final

prestressing under self-weight and some or all superimposed dead load,

prestress after occurrence of all time-dependant losses and in presence of all

permanent loads (self weight and superimposed dead loads), and finally

prestress after occurrence of all time-dependant losses and in presence of all

loads (permanent and live). The flexural stresses must be within the

allowable limits for tension and compression stress (ACI318-18.3.3 and

18.4.1 to 18.4.4).

Calculation of passive reinforcement: passive reinforcement is calculated

based on two criteria; ultimate flexural strength (ACI318-18.8.2) and total

tensile service force (ACI318-18.9.3.2). Moreover, in the case of unbonded

tendons, there is a minimum amount of passive reinforcement to be provided

(ACI318-18.9).

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Department: ED11

slabs are often quite thin and punching shear becomes a critical item. At least

two tendons need to cross over each column in each direction, to prevent

catastrophic failure (ACI318-21.11xxx). Punching shear check and punching

shear reinforcement are calculated as per ACI318-11.12.2.2.

diffusion reinforcement (ACI318-18.13, UBC97-1918.13, AASHTO-LRFD-xxx).

Design of columns:

The design elements of a cast-in-situ reinforced concrete column include the

following items:

(but other shapes may occur) and is generally agreed upon with the

architect. No drainage pipes should be allowed inside columns.

fire resistance and column design loads. The transition in dimensions from

one floor to the next should be such that the maximum deviation in

longitudinal bars does not exeed 1/6 (this is equivalent to 1/3 of the floor

thickness as maximum dimension change).

loads. The reinforcement ratio should range between 0.8% and 4%.

Moreover, the minimum bar size should be 12mm. The center-to-center bar

spacing should range between 120mm and 150mm.

loads. The minimum tie diameter is 10mm. The maximum spacing of ties is

the minimum of half the column dimension (for shear resistance), eight times

the smallest longitudinal bar diameter (to avoid longitudinal bar buckling), or

200mm (ACI318-xxx). The tie spacing is reduced in the potential plastic hinge

region, which extends at least one sixth the column height, largest column

dimension, or 450mm (ACI318-21.12.5.2). Outside the plastic hinge region,

spacing of transverse reinforcement should conform to ACI318-7.10 and

11.5.4.1. The spacing of tie legs should not exceed 300mm (ACI318-xxx),

and should not be much smaller than this value to allow easy access for the

concreting tremie. The transverse ties should be continued through the

beam-column joint (ACI318-21.12.5.5 and 11.11.2).

The specific verifications to perform are:

resistance (UBC-xxx).

Flexural strength: is calculated using PCACOL or similar programs.

DRAFT

53 / 53

Department: ED11

Shear strength: is calculated for the applied loads and may take advantage

of the shear strength enhancement due to compression caused by axial loads

(gravity load cases). Alternatively, a capacity approach may be taken such

that the shear strength is larger than the maximum shear that can be caused

by the flexural moment strength (fVn > (Mntop+Mnbot)/H, ACI318-xxx).

reduction factor R implies a displacement ductility factor md = R or (R1)^2/(2R). A curvature ductility mm = xxx is necessary to achieve the

displacement ductility md.

Design of isolated centered footings:

The design elements of an isolated centered footing include the following items:

Plan dimensions: The plan dimensions of a footing are determined from

bearing stress considerations. For footings with mainly vertical loads (low

eccentricity), the plan dimensions are selected such that a constant width

overhang is provided outside the column limit. For footings with relatively

large moments (high eccentricity) the plan dimensions are determined from

bearing stress considerations, using Meyerhoffs approach (for a reduced

uniformly loaded bearing area).

Thickness: The thickness of the footing is determined from four

considerations: punching shear strength, beam shear strength, flexural

reinforcement economy and development length for the columns longitudinal

bars. A minimum thickness of 35cm is recommended.

Reinforcement: The footing main reinforcement is flexural reinforcement at

the bottom face of the footing. The minimum reinforcement ratio (after

applying the 4/3r provision of ACI318-xxx) should be rmin > 0.25ft/fy,

where:

-ft = tensile strength of concrete.

-fy = yield strength of reinforcement.

The reinforcement on the top face of the footing is calculated for the moment

caused by the weight of the overburden soil, but not less than temperature

and shrinkage requirements (r > 0.0009). For footing thickness greater than

60cm a side reinforcement of 5cm2/m should be provided along the edges of

the footing.

The specific verifications to perform are:

Bearing stress: The net bearing stress due to vertical loads and moments

may be checked using Meyeroffs approach where:

s = Pnet/(Lx.Ly)

Bearing stress

Lx=Lx-2*ex

Effective uniform contact area x length

Ly=Ly-2*ey

Effective uniform contact area y length

ex = |My|/Pnet

Load eccentricity in x direction

ey=|Mx|/Pnet

Load eccentricity in y direction

Pnet

Net vertical load (external load + footing weight

- overburden weight)

Mx

Moment about x axis on footing centroid

My

Moment about y axis on footing centroid

DRAFT

54 / 54

Department: ED11

Stability against overturning: The ratio of overturning moment to

restoring moment for x and y directions should be larger than 2. The

overturning moment consists of the applied external moment. The restoring

moment is the total vertical load (external load+footing weight+overburden

weight) multiplied by half the footing length in the concerned direction. This

verification is done using service load combinations.

Stability against sliding: The ratio of resisting force to sliding force for x

and y directions should be larger than 2. The sliding force is the external

horizontal force. The resisting force is Fres = m.Ptot+c.Afoot where:

m

= coefficient of friction between footing and soil tan(2/3f)

Ptot

=

total

vertical

force

(external

load+footing

weight+overburden weight)

f

= internal angle of friction of foundation soil

c

= foundation soil cohesion

Afoot

= footing area

This verification is done using service load combinations.

Punching shear: The punching shear in the footing due to externally

applied ultimate vertical load and moments is calculated at a perimeter at d/2

away from the column limit as per ACI318-xxx. The thickness of the footing

should be such that punching shear check is satisfied without having to use

punching shear reinforcement.

Beam shear: Beam shear in the footing due to externally applied ultimate

vertical load and moments is calculated at two orthogonal sections d away

from the column limit as per ACI318-xxx. The thickness of the footing should

be such that punching shear check is satisfied without having to use

punching shear reinforcement.

Flexural strength: Flexural strength in the footing due to externally applied

ultimate vertical load and moments is calculated at two orthogonal sections at

the face of the column limits as per ACI318-xxx. The thickness of the footing

should be such that the reinforcement ratio is within allowable limits, the

number and spacing of reinforcement bars within acceptable limits, and the

overall design is optimized costwise.

Calculation of equivalent spring stiffness: In some cases where the

distribution of the loads to the foundations is affected by the relative stiffness

of the foundations, the stiffness of the foundations in the vertical direction

and in rotation about the principal axes needs to be accounted for in the

analytical model (instead of the usual fixed base assumption). In those cases,

the design shall proceed by iteration, starting with a fixed base calculation,

estimating the required footing dimensions, calculating and inserting the

corresponding foundation stiffness in the model and redesigning the footings

for the new force distribution. The process is repeated until the assumed and

the required footing dimensions are within an allowable tolerance (5% or

10cm). The foundation spring stiffness is calculated as follows:

Kz = Af.Ks

Kxx = Lx/12.Ly3.Ks

DRAFT

55 / 55

Department: ED11

Kyy = Lx3.Ly/12.Ks

Ks = Modulus of subgrade reaction (~120qa)

qa = Allowable net bearing capacity.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

References:

1-AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications SI 2007.

2-NCHRP Report 432 High Load Multirotational Bearings.

3-NCHRP Report 449 Bridge Elastomeric Bearings.

4-NCHRP Report 596 Rotation Limits Elastomeric Bearings.

5-NCHRP Report 620 Development of Design Specifications and Commentary for

Horizontally Curved Concrete Box-Girder Bridges.

DRAFT

56 / 56

Department: ED11

Terminology:

V

R

g

L

S

Dduct

Dps

fs

f* y

fci

vci

fc

vc

Eps

fs

Eci

ES

SH

RH

CRc

CRs

fcir

fcds

FR

P

V

M

DL

L+I

RST

W

WL

EQ

lon

trn

DRAFT

horizontal radius of curvature (m)

Gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)

Span length (m)

Girder spacing o.c. (m)

Diameter of post-tensioning duct

Diameter of prestressing reinforcement

Guaranteed ultimate tensile strength

Effective yield strength (0.02% offset)

Concrete strength at day i. < 28

Concrete shear strength at day i. < 28

Concrete compressive strength at 28 day

Concrete shear strength at 28 day

Prestressing steel modulus of elasticity

Time dependent prestress loss

Concrete modulus of elasticity at day i

Elastic shortening loss

Shrinkage loss

Ambient humidity (%)

Creep loss

Stress relaxation loss

Concrete stress increment at level of prestressing steel centroid at transfer

Concrete stress increment at level of prestressing steel centroid due to

superimposed dead load

Stress fraction below 0.70 fs due to immediate friction losses

Axial force

Shear

Moment

Dead load case

Live load + impact case

Imposed deformations case (support settlement, shrinkage, temperature)

Wind load case

Wind on live load case

Earthquake load case

Longitudinal direction

Transverse direction

57 / 57

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