Introduction and review of literature...

INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The word science is derived from a Latin word which means “to know”. From this etymological meaning-“science deals with the knowledge, quest for further knowledge and exploring new arenas, welfare and comforts of mankind.” Scientific doubling touched itself every in knowledge about of and technologies Science from life, are has food,

10–15

years.

aspect

human

luxuries, transport and all what we can think and imagine of. Any nation is considered to be prosperous mighty, important in terms of the scientific knowledge it is generating and putting into use. Let’s have a look on the progress human

society in the last 2000 years. The progress made by the human beings in the last two centuries is equal to all the previous centuries taken together. This is the gigantic impact of science. Any person in the today’s world cannot think of living even a single second without blessings of

1

Introduction and review of literature...

science. Our every moment is highly sophisticated and modified technologically. Human life is literarily pampered by science. No doubt science has positive and negative aspects as any other thing. It depends upon the user, to what use and how he puts the science in to use. After analyzing our experiences and going

through the above discussion no one would deny the contributions and impact made on our lives by science. 1.1 History Of Science And Its Teaching Since the dawn of human race on this Earth the science has been the loyal companion. The history of science therefore, can be said to be begun with the history of human existence. Even the earliest human races invented crude tools and techniques for their fitment in the struggle for survival. Nothing much can be said of this enormous stretch of time of human existence till about 4000
B.C.

By then the men began to live in organized social groups in some geographically congenial places of the earth. History records that the human civilization thus began in Mesopotamia, Egypt and other places. These people among other things, knew the art of building, smelting, time-telling, use of metals, they observed the effect of heavenly bodies as the Sun, the Moon and the stars on agriculture. About the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, S.F. Mason,(in “History of education in India”, by N. Jayapalan.2006) in his book History of Science states that, “civilized society arose in India as it did in Mesopotamia, Egypt and China with Bronze

2

Introduction and review of literature...

Age culture in a river valley. The people of Indus Valley civilization had pictographic scripts and decimal numeral system. They used the same fast spinning potter’s wheel as the Sumerians and alloyed copper with tin to make bronze; but they wove cotton rather than flax or wool of the West or the silk of the East. About 2000
B.C.

,

however,

the

civilization

of

Indus

became extinct.” Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa

(now in Pakistan) revealed a lot about the civilization that flourished by the bank of the river Indus, three to four thousand years B.C. It revealed a systematic order of town planning, good drainage system and use of kiln fired their bricks indicating of high order of workmanship. Other relics Various metal vessels, ornaments, figurines indicate knowledge forging techniques. discovered indicate existence of industry, farming and trade. There is no doubt that there were civilizations in China and India as old as the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations and they attained some degree of scientific development in different fields. As the sciences the of too. records the available and in later periods of the the

indicate, the Hindus were already familiar with some of Greeks was probably believe in India Babylonians Pythagoras Some authors that

theorem

discovered

much

earlier. There are references of the knowledge of rightangled triangle in “Apastambha-Sulba-Sutra” of fourth or fifth century B.C. or probably even at a much earlier period of time such as the time of “Taittiriya Samhita” and “Satapatha Brahmana.” The ancient Hindus were
3

Introduction and review of literature...

more

notable

for

their

work

on

mathematics

and

astronomy compared to their achievements in medicine, chemistry and other fields. The important names in Indian science are Aryabhatta, in Brahmagupta, and Bhaskara, and surgery. Varah-Mihira mathematics

astronomy; Atreya, Susruta and Charaka in medicine In spite of the achievements in various fields of science, even up to the nineteenth century, science did not find its place as a regular part of general education in India. But historically speaking, traces of awakening towards learning of science as a part of general education goes back to the early medieval period in Western Europe. After the Greek era, the world passed through a Dark Age stretching for more than a thousand years without any notable addition to the world of knowledge. Later, Greek learning which spread to the West during the eleventh and twelfth centuries through the Arabs, signaled the dawn of dissemination of new knowledge including science. of England in is William Gilbert as (1544-1603)(ibid.) the Bacon first modern often England. quoted

philosopher in science, who tried to popularize science education Francis (5161-1626) (ibid.), a philosopher and an all-round scholar, also strongly advocated the method of experimentation and discovery in science. He emphasized the importance of teaching science and presented his scientific method in his celebrated work Novum Organum (1620) (ibid.). Two other philosopher-scientists of the period who tried to popularize Descarte science (France, education in Europe (ibid.) were and Rene Pierre
4

1596-1650)

Introduction and review of literature...

Gassendi publication 1687(ibid.),

(France, of Gregory,

1592-1655) Keill and

(ibid.). Whitson

After were

the in some

Newton’s

Principia

Mathematica

among the first to popularize Newtonian physics. In modern times, Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) (ibid.) tried to popularize education in science by declaring it as the most worthy of all knowledge. T.H. values. While Huxley Spencer (1825-1895) advocated (ibid.) science strongly as an

pleaded for the teaching of science for its disciplinary instrument for physical and moral development, Huxley was a staunch advocate of science for its educational values and urged for its inclusion as a part of general education in the secondary school curriculum. John Tyndall (1820-1893) (ibid.), Professor at The Royal Institute, London and a colleague of Faraday, scientist of the same period, tried popularizing physics as a part of general education. Michael Faraday (1791-1867) (ibid.), who was an experimental scientist, was a strong protagonist of developing scientific mental disposition in the science learner. But in spite of the efforts of these great men to popularize science as a part of general education, it has yet to gain a place in the regular curriculum of studies. India then followed the western pattern in different areas of human activities including education. The modern system of education in India grew during the British period which ultimately replaced the indigenous system of education that was in vogue in India since ancient times. Initially, during the period of the East India Company’s rule, there were more
5

Introduction and review of literature...

proselytising activities by the missionaries rather than interest in education. However, finally due to the combined efforts of the missionaries, government officers and enlightened Indians of the time, modern education slowly spread all over India. Initially, sporadic efforts were made to spread all over India in different subject areas. Calcutta Madrasa (1780) (ibid.) is said to have had provision for teaching of subjects like natural sciences, Quran, astrology, law, geometry, arithmetic, logic, rhetoric, etc. The subjects taught in Benaras Sanskrit College (started in 1791) (ibid.) included teaching of medical sciences. Charles Grant who made disparaging remarks about Indian society was also a strong protagonist of modern education for the Indian people. He is often referred to as the f ather of modern education in India. He pleaded for teaching of English literature, science, philosophy and religion to Indians through the English language. I t was actually the Charter Act of 1813, which acted as the turning point in the history of education in India. Since then, India has seen official involvement in the field of education. In the meantime, public opinion rapidly grew in favour of spreading western Macaulay education was and science. strong Thomas Babington of western another advocate

education in India and his “Minutes” of 1835 is a historic document in Indian education. Its effect can be immediately observed in the resolution passed by the Governor-General of India, Lord William Bentinck, in March, 1835(ibid.), which inter-alia contained provision
6

Introduction and review of literature...

for utilization of funds for “imparting to the native population, a knowledge of English literature and science through the medium of English Language”. Another favourable development during this

period was that some English scientific books were translated into Indian languages and these helped the development of interest for education in science. Woods’ Education Dispatch of 1854 may be said to have laid the foundation for the present system and given a lead for the future educational reconstruction in India. The subsequent decades show continued westernization of the contents of education. Education went on expanding; but science was yet to receive its due share of attention. In the post-independence period the first

education commission was the University Education Commission of 1948 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan. Though the Commission was to report primarily on the university education with needed recommendations, it made valuable recommendations in respect of secondary education also, as it felt the improvement of curriculum and syllabus at the secondary level to be essential for improvement of university education. The Commission recommended inclusion of general science (Physics and Biology) as courses of study in secondary schools. For first degree courses, the Commission suggested that not less than two special subjects must be studied by science students from among mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology and geology.

7

Introduction and review of literature...

Later,

in

1953,

the

Secondary

Education

Commission, (under Dr. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar as Chairman) suggested compulsory inclusion of general science and mathematics as core subjects at the middle as well as secondary level. At the higher secondary level, the Commission science suggested group diversification as of courses channel. Following this, a thorough discussion on all aspects of secondary science teaching was held for the first time in the “All India Seminar on Teaching of Science” held at Tara Devi, Shimla Hills, in 1956 (All India Council for Secondary Education). Such a national level discussion became necessary as soon as general science was recommended as a core subject for the secondary stage from of Education. the syllabus The to seminar scientific deliberated upon all the related items of school science teaching ranging hobbies. This was the first agency in India to suggest acquaintance with “scientific method” and development of “scientific attitude” among the learners as one of the aims of school science teaching. By now, the importance of science as a subject and its impact on social living began to be appreciated at different levels including political level and in policy making too. It became necessary for the social workers and the policy planners to be acquainted with the scientific and technological developments of the time. That is why the Government of India constituted the “I ndian Parliamentary and Scientific Committee” in 1961 under the chairmanship of Lal Bhadur Shastri,
8

having

subjects

optional

Introduction and review of literature...

which studied the problems of science education in schools and made valuable recommendations. A committee on plan projects was also set up in 1962 to study the problems relating to science laboratories in schools and the science apparatus and equipment needs. The Committee submitted its report in the same year. This committee studied the problem of standard for science equipment, design and layout of laboratories, list of science apparatus as well as fund allotment and purchase procedure. The journal stage. the NCERT started School also publishing Science sponsored a quarterly helped of

entitled This agency

which

dissemination of scientific knowledge at the school publication in Science Resource Letter, a small magazine devoted to improvement at the called of science education of India, produced a to scheme be Indian Institute Technology, sponsored The

Kanpur. In 1964, the Government of India, formulated “special by the centrally programme for the improvement of science education” administered State governments. scheme included three programmes: (1) strengthening of science laboratories; (2) special training of science teachers; and (3) improvement of school libraries. The programme under “special training of

science teachers” contained provision for establishment of an “expert unit” of science in each State which was to grow later into the “State Institute of Science Education”. These institutes work for development and improvement of school level science education in the States. The organization of summer institutes for
9

Introduction and review of literature...

acquainting

teachers

of

science

with

the

latest

developments in these areas, were started in 1963. Science teachers from all over India were benefited by this scheme when summer institutes were jointly organized by NCERT and UGC. The NCERT also started the programme of “Science Talent Search” with the objective of identifying and encouraging scientific talent at school level and to draw their active interest in further studies of science. The greatest impact in the sphere of education in India came of form the report The of the Education was Commission national 1964-66. of Commission on the

appointed by the Union Government to advise on the pattern education and general principles and policies for development of education at all stages and in all aspects. It is rightly called the report on ‘Education and National Development’. The Commission laid great importance to the teaching of science right from the primary to the university stage for development and prosperity of the nation. Thus, it recommended that science education should become an integral part of school education with provision for compulsory teaching of science and mathematics to all pupils as a part of general education during the first ten years of schooling. Further, the Commission recommended that: 1. teaching At should lower related primary be classes, to the science child’s

related

environment. The Roman alphabet should be taught in class six to facilitate understanding of internationally

10

Introduction and review of literature...

accepted symbols of scientific measurement and the use of maps, charts and statistical tables. 2. At the higher primary stage, emphasis

should be on acquisition of knowledge and the ability to think logically, to draw conclusions and to make decisions at a higher level. A disciplinary approach to the teaching of science is more effective than the general science approach. 3. A science corner in the lower primary

schools and a laboratory cum-lecture room in higher primary schools are minimum essential requirements. 4. At the lower secondary stage, science

should be developed as a discipline of the mind. The newer concepts of physics, chemistry and biology and the experimental approach to the learning of science should be stressed. 5. Science courses at an advanced level

may be provided for the talented students in selected lower secondary schools with necessary facilities of staff and laboratory. 6. Science teaching should be linked to

agriculture in rural areas and to technology in urban areas. But the levels of attainment and avenues to higher education should be the same for both types of schools. 7. mathematics investigatory The method be and of teaching science stressing of and the basic

should approach

modernized

understanding

principles. The Commission laid special emphasis on

11

Introduction and review of literature...

scientific researches and higher level of attainment in science at the university level. We have now reached a stage when every citizen of India realizes the importance of science learning. The impact of science and its achievements has made even a common man of today feel its need. There has been a distinct social urge for a shift in approach to modern education and the older trend and values emphasised earlier are now almost lost. People are now conscious to educate their children in a way so as to enable them to cope with the personal and social problems obvious in a modern complex society due to the influence of scientific, technological and industrial progress.
1.2 Status of Science Education and its Concern

At all levels of intellectual discussion there are some burning topics:deterioration of standards of students and teaching.
-

declining sciences.

numbers

of

students

in

pure

The question that comes fore mostly to our minds by going through these issues is why pure science is being given so much importance? When we think of the marvels of science and further more go beyond and think about the principles upon which the gazettes and gizmos work, we come to realize the value of research in pure sciences. The exponential growth of knowledge increasing and day expectances by day. from science are ever and
12

Hence

more

financial

Introduction and review of literature...

manpower infrastructure is required of in the pure fields. To produces quality researchers, teaching is equally essential as to get good quality fruits from an orchard. For the former we need quality and dedicated teachers, who themselves become the foundation stones and let the heaven touching structures be made on them. We need to have a balance, contribution and cooperation of both the academicians and researchers in teaching and research. A scientist can ignite the young minds in a way that the flame of inspiration and knowledge becomes a lighthouse for masses. Similarly a teacher can better it understand is the needs to of have his a students and can prepare tailor made curricula for his students. Therefore indispensable mutual interaction and switching of tasks for the both to have a practical point of view. As for the quality of teaching and students is concerned the picture is –none of our 350 plus universities is in the top 100 universities of the world. Reason being, we do not put enough input, in terms of funds, resources, research and teaching. But we Indians do not accept the naked facts. In terms of publications of scientific research in the world India ranked 8 t h during 1980’s, slipped to 13 t h during 1990’s and nosedived to 21 s t position during the new millennium. The R&D in our university system is not

receiving as much attention as in specialized agencies and laboratories. Creative universities are the bedrock of every developed nation’s S&T strategies. The funding from U.G.C. remains far from adequate and private
13

Introduction and review of literature...

sector does not invest in university R&D because they do not get adequate and satisfactory results. In U.S.A. and other European countries the

project funding to the departments is adequate enough to run the teaching and R&D activities up to high quality mark. India has the second largest manpower in the world. But its quality is of below average. Every community who stops to look further is deemed to perish sooner or latter. We are ignoring even the secondary stage

symptoms of our ailing science education system. The evidence warn us to shun the escapist and OK-OK attitude, all is right till the whole system collapses attitude; if we have to make our survival as a scientific nation and for long term progress and prosperity of nation.

1.3 Concept of Attitude Whittaker “Educational predisposition or (1968) (in Mangal, “An to S. 2006 is in a a

Psychology”), readiness

attitude respond

predetermine manner to relevant stimuli.” Mckeachie and Doyle (1967) (ibid) “We define an attitude as an organization of the concepts, beliefs, habits object.” Attitudes always involves the relations of the individual institutions to specific values objects, or persons, related groups, to his and norms and motives associated with the particular

14

Introduction and review of literature...

environment.

They

are

learned

and

acquired

dispositions. They are not innate and inherent in an individual. Consequently they may be differentiated from physiological motives. Attitudes represent the states of readiness to respond to a certain stimuli. Psychological motives also do the same. Attitudes on the other hand are relatively enduring states of readiness. Attitudes involve directions as well as magnitude. When a person shows some tendency to approach an object he is said to have positive attitude towards it. But if he shows tendency to avoid objects, his attitude is described as negative. Attitudes are unquestionably an acquired

disposition and therefore conditioned by learning or acquisition of experiences. Heredity factor does not play any role in the formation or development of attitudes. Environmental forces help an individual to form and develop various attitudes. Attitudes are by no means fixed and

unchanging predispositions. They can and do change. The task of attitude change is very much related to their formation. Here the important thing to note is that attitudes are never taught, they are caught through direct or indirect experiences. 1.4 Attitude towards Science Scientific attitude is a setting of mind and a way of life according to certain subjects principles. are It is as developed when science taught

discipline of mind. If scientific attitude is developed, the children will live think and work accordingly.
15

Introduction and review of literature...

The

national

society

of

study

of

education

defines scientific attitude as open mindedness a desire for accurate knowledge, confidence in procedure for seeking knowledge and expectations that the solution of problem will The come word through the use of verified includes knowledge. in scientific attitude

curiosity towards the surrounding environment, belief cause-effect relationship, patience, truthfulness, impartiality and open mindedness.
1.5 Components of Scientific Attitude

Caldwell and Curtis (1943) gave the following list of components of scientific attitude, i) curiosity to know about can be one’s environment, without by by a ii) the belief and that those iii) iv) an the nothing always are not happen explained cause

occurrences that seem strange and mysterious can natural convincing causes, proof, unwillingness to accept the facts and statements that supported determination to believe in any sort of superstitions, v) the belief that truth never changes, but that our ideas of what is true change as we gain more and more knowledge, vi) an intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly, but to begin only after careful observation, vii) the determination to be careful and accurate in all of one’s observations, viii) a willingness to consider all the evidences and try to

decide whether it really relates to the matter which is being considered, whether it is sound and sensible, and whether it is complete enough to allow a conclusion to be made, ix) a determination not to base final conclusion on one or a few observations, but to work as
16

Introduction and review of literature...

long as may be necessary in order to secure answer to a problem, x) the desire to do ones own observations and experiment but to use results of other scientists work , xi) the intention to respect other’s point of view and xii) the determination to prevent one’s own likes and dislikes from influencing one’s judgment. A pupil who has developed scientific attitude: is clear and precise in his activities and makes clear and precise statements, always bases his judgments on verified facts, prefers to suspend his judgment if sufficient data is not available, is objective in his approach and behaviour, is free from superstitions, is honest and truthful in recording and collecting scientific data; after finishing his work takes care to arrange the apparatus, equipments etc. at their proper places; shows a favourable reaction towards efforts of using science for human welfare. Scientific national critical Attitude can contribute the to the of in

development thinking and

through adopting

eradication method

superstitions, developing objectivity, open-mindedness, scientific solving problems. These qualities will help the nation to fight against the social evils and the problem of under development. Attitude secondary student level feels, towards is thinks an opting science a at senior

outcome, and

byproduct, about the

consequence of a pupil scientific attitude. The way a perceives importance of science in day to day life, in fulfilling the vocational and technical aspirations, family and social

17

Introduction and review of literature...

expectations, optimal utilization his own talents and caliber. 1.6 Importance of Various Dimensions The broad dimension which were selected and on which the students were framed, were finalized for inclusion after consulting teachers, principals of school and personnel from education field. The concerns about the different dimension which might be in the minds of 10 t h class students, and the input made by these aspect on the mindsets of students, as understood by the experts are discussed as follows : Dimension-1: Financial Aspect One of the basic inputs required on behalf of parents is financial investment on education. A child habits, activities, desires and aspirations all are restricted or expanded by his aspect. The items listed under this category are framed in view to have a pulse of child’s family financial conditions and restrictions. Dimension-2: Influence of family and parents In both verbal and non verbal form, the

aspirations and anxieties, of the family members make an impact on the tender heart and mind of the child. Family is the a in this first and talk most with. to important This of peep is a social clearly child. the institution envisaged Therefore child walk, interacts and

conduct

dimension

tries

into

influences of the family that are made on the child. Dimension-3: Studies

18

Introduction and review of literature...

Study and study habits are the first input required for the pupil. The picture a child is having about science is tried to make more crystal clear and precise and accurate by the items included in this dimension. Dimension-4: Sources of Inspiration Every person seeks guidance and inspiration from others when he himself is not clear or able to make a firm view decision about anything. Here an attempt has been made to see the factors which contribute to make an inspiration to the child to take up science at senior secondary level. Dimension-5: Influence of Teacher In school, teachers are the master sculptures who shape the child. It’s said that future of our nation is being shaped in our classroom, absolutely true it is. Every subject is perceived to be interesting or difficult as the teacher presents it to the students. For students teacher is the foremost authority. The type and way of influences made and attitude of teachers as perceived by the pupils being studied in this dimension.

Dimension-6: Influence of School In this dimension the atmosphere of school, its infrastructural facilities, accessibility and events organized are being studied. All the items reflect what a particular student’s has perceived about a particular event etc.

19

Introduction and review of literature...

Dimension-7: Vocational Aspects To get a job, to be employed satisfactorily is the prime aim with which a students goes for studying a particular course or subject. The quality of pays, perks and other reflected aspects are included in this dimension. This helps to understand the vocational perceptions and aspirations of a child. Dimension-8: Need of Science Here a child’s individual perception of need, influence and utility of science is being tried to get out. The items in this dimension reflect various practical utilities of science and their perception by the child. Dimension-9: Awareness This dimension includes items which reflect awareness of child about the future avenues, activities and social outcomes of studying science.

1.7 Review of Literature

A maximum goes as, “A lot has been accomplished even bef ore we were born.” Research takes the knowledge accumulated in the past as a compass to explore in further different directions. Any research cannot be undertaken without the help of related studies done earlier. A careful
20

Introduction and review of literature...

review of the research journals, books, dissertations, theses and other sources of information on the problem to be investigated provide understanding of research methodology avoidance of unnecessary repetition of well established facts an a foresight into the difficulties that can come across while pursuing the problem. The earliest reference investigated to find

within the limited frame at time and resources is dated back to 1931. In this study H.W Weeks investigated the reasons for the choosing courses by some students and concluded that 40% of all courses choosen because of students own interests, 4% by influence of teachers. In 60% of cases the influence of Home interests and environment was evident in the selection of subject. In 1952, G.S Katoch, in the study, “An

investigation into the vocational interest of high school boys in Kangra District, found out that 40% of the decisions were influenced by the parents, 80.5% by the friends, 2% by parents professional inspiration 2.5% by teachers and 32% were the independent choice of students. Further more he found out that in 90% of the case wise choices were not made. Harider Bhagat in 1952 studied the

vocational trends in High School boys concluded that 18% of decisions are made by judging own abilities 14% by teachers consultation, 29% by professional advice, 14% by friends, 13.2% by influence of school. In relationship 1957 K.K. Gupta investigated into the and

between

vocational

preferences

curricular choices at higher secondary stage and found

21

Introduction and review of literature...

out that there was no significant difference between the urban and rural students’ choices. In 1960, B.B. Aggarwal investigated the

vocational preference of boys studying in Govt. High Schools and in schools run on public school lines in Delhi, reported that the student of both group preferred applied and natural sciences and literary, artistic and agricultural subjects the least. In 1965, J.R. Prashar in his study on

vocational aspirations of science students of higher secondary schools of Delhi studied 250 samples of a schools consisting of middle class, higher class lower SES class students vacations and were reported that the main preferred Engineering, Teaching,

Business, and Military. Those of least preference were agriculture, manual work, Literary and Law. Among these 64.8% made choices independently, 30% and 2% by parents and teachers respectively. A. S. Bedi in the study of interest patterns of 10 t h class students in relation to their parental SES in urban and rural schools of Delhi conducted in 1967, found out that the interest pattern of rural and urban children’s don’t differs significantly. B. K. Aggarwal (1974) in a similar study came to a conclusion that 74.6% Govt. school students, decisions were made by the parents influence and 64% public school students by parents influence. Y. K. Shinde conducted a study of Non-formal science activities in senior secondary schools of Maharashtra with special reference to their impact of
22

Introduction and review of literature...

scientific attitude and achievement in science in 1982. The study revealed that the boys were better than the girls in their non-formal science activity involvement, the correlation between the scientific attitude scores and non formal science activity scores was negligible and not significant. The boys and girls from the same cultural group didn’t differ significantly with respect to their scientific attitude and the students’ academic achievement attitude. J. Bandyopadhyay conducted a study on the environmental scientific influence, as academic achievement of and aptitude determinants adolescent’s was directly related to their scientific

attitude towards science stream in 1984. The findings of the study were the parent’s education and SES lead to a favourable attitude towards science. Teachers and peers influence, vocational value of stream and future aim of life were other contributing factors. In 1986, S. Ghosh in a critical study of

scientific attitude and aptitude of the students and determination of the some determinants of scientific aptitude found that the urban and rural students were equal on scientific attitude, boys and girls were not significantly different. In curriculum 1988, and S.S.Mandlia its examined with attitude of

secondary stage students towards their own science relation achievement motivation. He concluded that all students from urban and rural areas possessed favourable attitude towards the science curriculum.

23

Introduction and review of literature...

S. S. Ghosh in 1989 showed that whereas scientific aptitude was related to scientific attitude, there were no such significant differences in respect of sex, socio-economic status and place of work among the various groups. In, 1990, D. K. Kar in the study of

relationship between attitude towards an achievement in general science of class 9 t h students found that boys were more favourably disposed towards science than girls and more over a positive relationship existed between attitude and achievement. M. literacy, K. Sharma in 1990 science public studied and scientific personality of

Attitude

towards the

tracts of students and teachers and revealed significant relationship between understanding science and attitude towards science. The study results received support from the extensive study done by J. K. Sood in 1992. D. B. Rao (1990) in the study A comparative study of scientific in attitude, at scientific secondary aptitude school and level achievement biology

observed that scientific attitude in secondary school pupil was average. There was no influence of sex on scientific attitude. But the pupil studying in private schools, rural schools and English medium schools and residential schools held a better scientific attitude than their counterparts. U. S. Kumar studied the teaching of general science and development of scientific attitude in secondary school students in relation to achievement

24

Introduction and review of literature...

in general science in 1991. The study revealed that the urban and rural pupils differed in scientific attitude and there was no difference between boys and girls of same locality. Malviya. D. S. in 1991 conducted a study of attitude towards science and interest in science of school going adolescents. The output of this study was there exists a significant difference between urban and rural schools, age, sex, profession, and SES of parents had no effect on pupils’ attitude towards science. N. O. Nelliappan. (1992) studied the scientific attitude and interest among higher secondary Biology students in relation to their learning environment. The study revealed that there was strong relationship between the high and low total learning environment of higher secondary Biology students and their scientific attitude & scientific interests. Shreevastva, Veena conducted a study of

creativity among higher secondary students in relation to scientific aptitude and attitude towards science in 1992. The finding of the study were the students of higher secondary classes having more scientific attitude were more creative , boys having favourable attitude towards science were slightly better in fields of creativity than girls and the boys had less scientific attitude than girls.

25