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Introduction and review of literature...

INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The word science is derived from a Latin word


which means “to know”. From this etymological
meaning-“science deals with the knowledge, quest for
further knowledge and exploring new arenas, welfare
and comforts of mankind.”

Scientific knowledge and technologies are


doubling itself in about 10–15 years. Science has
touched every aspect of human life, from food,
luxuries, transport and all what we can think and
imagine of. Any nation is considered to be prosperous
mighty, important in terms of the scientific knowledge
it is generating and putting into use.

Let’s have a look on the progress human


society in the last 2000 years. The progress made by
the human beings in the last two centuries is equal to
all the previous centuries taken together. This is the
gigantic impact of science.

Any person in the today’s world cannot think


of living even a single second without blessings of

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Introduction and review of literature...

science. Our every moment is highly sophisticated and


modified technologically. Human life is literarily
pampered by science. No doubt science has positive
and negative aspects as any other thing. It depends
upon the user, to what use and how he puts the
science in to use.

After analyzing our experiences and going


through the above discussion no one would deny the
contributions and impact made on our lives by science.

1.1 History Of Science And Its Teaching

Since the dawn of human race on this Earth


the science has been the loyal companion. The history
of science therefore, can be said to be begun with the
history of human existence. Even the earliest human
races invented crude tools and techniques for their
fitment in the struggle for survival.

Nothing much can be said of this enormous


stretch of time of human existence till about 4000 B.C.

By then the men began to live in organized social


groups in some geographically congenial places of the
earth. History records that the human civilization thus
began in Mesopotamia, Egypt and other places. These
people among other things, knew the art of building,
smelting, time-telling, use of metals, they observed the
effect of heavenly bodies as the Sun, the Moon and the
stars on agriculture. About the ancient Indus Valley
Civilization, S.F. Mason,(in “History of education in
India”, by N. Jayapalan.2006) in his book History of
Science states that, “civilized society arose in India as
it did in Mesopotamia, Egypt and China with Bronze

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Introduction and review of literature...

Age culture in a river valley. The people of Indus Valley


civilization had pictographic scripts and decimal
numeral system. They used the same fast spinning
potter’s wheel as the Sumerians and alloyed copper
with tin to make bronze; but they wove cotton rather
than flax or wool of the West or the silk of the East.
About 2000 B.C. , however, the civilization of Indus
became extinct.”

Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa


(now in Pakistan) revealed a lot about the civilization
that flourished by the bank of the river Indus, three to
four thousand years B.C. It revealed a systematic order
of town planning, good drainage system and use of kiln
fired bricks indicating high order of workmanship.
Various metal vessels, ornaments, figurines indicate
their knowledge of forging techniques. Other relics
discovered indicate existence of industry, farming and
trade. There is no doubt that there were civilizations in
China and India as old as the Mesopotamian and
Egyptian civilizations and they attained some degree of
scientific development in different fields.

As the records available in later periods


indicate, the Hindus were already familiar with some of
the sciences of the Greeks and probably of the
Babylonians too. Some authors believe that the
Pythagoras theorem was discovered in India much
earlier. There are references of the knowledge of right-
angled triangle in “Apastambha-Sulba-Sutra” of fourth
or fifth century B.C. or probably even at a much earlier
period of time such as the time of “Taittiriya Samhita”
and “Satapatha Brahmana.” The ancient Hindus were

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more notable for their work on mathematics and


astronomy compared to their achievements in medicine,
chemistry and other fields. The important names in
Indian science are Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta,
Bhaskara, Varah-Mihira in mathematics and
astronomy; Atreya, Susruta and Charaka in medicine
and surgery. In spite of the achievements in various
fields of science, even up to the nineteenth century,
science did not find its place as a regular part of
general education in India. But historically speaking,
traces of awakening towards learning of science as a
part of general education goes back to the early
medieval period in Western Europe.

After the Greek era, the world passed through


a Dark Age stretching for more than a thousand years
without any notable addition to the world of knowledge.
Later, Greek learning which spread to the West during
the eleventh and twelfth centuries through the Arabs,
signaled the dawn of dissemination of new knowledge
including science. William Gilbert (1544-1603)(ibid.)
of England is often quoted as the first modern
philosopher in science, who tried to popularize science
education in England. Francis Bacon (5161-1626)
(ibid.), a philosopher and an all-round scholar, also
strongly advocated the method of experimentation and
discovery in science. He emphasized the importance of
teaching science and presented his scientific method in
his celebrated work Novum Organum (1620) (ibid.). Two
other philosopher-scientists of the period who tried to
popularize science education in Europe were Rene
Descarte (France, 1596-1650) (ibid.) and Pierre

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Gassendi (France, 1592-1655) (ibid.). After the


publication of Newton’s Principia Mathematica in
1687(ibid.), Gregory, Keill and Whitson were some
among the first to popularize Newtonian physics. In
modern times, Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) (ibid.) tried
to popularize education in science by declaring it as
the most worthy of all knowledge.

T.H. Huxley (1825-1895) (ibid.) strongly


pleaded for the teaching of science for its disciplinary
values. While Spencer advocated science as an
instrument for physical and moral development, Huxley
was a staunch advocate of science for its educational
values and urged for its inclusion as a part of general
education in the secondary school curriculum. John
Tyndall (1820-1893) (ibid.), Professor at The Royal
Institute, London and a colleague of Faraday, scientist
of the same period, tried popularizing physics as a part
of general education. Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
(ibid.), who was an experimental scientist, was a strong
protagonist of developing scientific mental disposition
in the science learner.

But in spite of the efforts of these great men to


popularize science as a part of general education, it
has yet to gain a place in the regular curriculum of
studies. India then followed the western pattern in
different areas of human activities including education.
The modern system of education in India grew during
the British period which ultimately replaced the
indigenous system of education that was in vogue in
India since ancient times. Initially, during the period of
the East India Company’s rule, there were more

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proselytising activities by the missionaries rather than


interest in education.

However, finally due to the combined efforts of


the missionaries, government officers and enlightened
Indians of the time, modern education slowly spread all
over India. Initially, sporadic efforts were made to
spread all over India in different subject areas.
Calcutta Madrasa (1780) (ibid.) is said to have had
provision for teaching of subjects like natural sciences,
Quran, astrology, law, geometry, arithmetic, logic,
rhetoric, etc. The subjects taught in Benaras Sanskrit
College (started in 1791) (ibid.) included teaching of
medical sciences.

Charles Grant who made disparaging remarks


about Indian society was also a strong protagonist of
modern education for the Indian people. He is often
referred to as the f ather of modern education in India.
He pleaded for teaching of English literature, science,
philosophy and religion to Indians through the English
language. I t was actually the Charter Act of 1813,
which acted as the turning point in the history of
education in India. Since then, India has seen official
involvement in the field of education. In the meantime,
public opinion rapidly grew in favour of spreading
western education and science. Thomas Babington
Macaulay was another strong advocate of western
education in India and his “Minutes” of 1835 is a
historic document in Indian education. Its effect can be
immediately observed in the resolution passed by the
Governor-General of India, Lord William Bentinck, in
March, 1835(ibid.), which inter-alia contained provision

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for utilization of funds for “imparting to the native


population, a knowledge of English literature and
science through the medium of English Language”.

Another favourable development during this


period was that some English scientific books were
translated into Indian languages and these helped the
development of interest for education in science.
Woods’ Education Dispatch of 1854 may be said to
have laid the foundation for the present system and
given a lead for the future educational reconstruction
in India. The subsequent decades show continued
westernization of the contents of education. Education
went on expanding; but science was yet to receive its
due share of attention.

In the post-independence period the first


education commission was the University Education
Commission of 1948 under the Chairmanship of Dr.
Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan. Though the Commission was
to report primarily on the university education with
needed recommendations, it made valuable
recommendations in respect of secondary education
also, as it felt the improvement of curriculum and
syllabus at the secondary level to be essential for
improvement of university education. The Commission
recommended inclusion of general science (Physics and
Biology) as courses of study in secondary schools. For
first degree courses, the Commission suggested that
not less than two special subjects must be studied by
science students from among mathematics, physics,
chemistry, botany, zoology and geology.

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Later, in 1953, the Secondary Education


Commission, (under Dr. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar as
Chairman) suggested compulsory inclusion of general
science and mathematics as core subjects at the middle
as well as secondary level. At the higher secondary
level, the Commission suggested diversification of
courses having science group subjects as optional
channel.

Following this, a thorough discussion on all


aspects of secondary science teaching was held for the
first time in the “All India Seminar on Teaching of
Science” held at Tara Devi, Shimla Hills, in 1956 (All
India Council for Secondary Education). Such a
national level discussion became necessary as soon as
general science was recommended as a core subject for
the secondary stage of Education. The seminar
deliberated upon all the related items of school science
teaching ranging from the syllabus to scientific
hobbies. This was the first agency in India to suggest
acquaintance with “scientific method” and development
of “scientific attitude” among the learners as one of the
aims of school science teaching.

By now, the importance of science as a subject


and its impact on social living began to be appreciated
at different levels including political level and in policy
making too. It became necessary for the social workers
and the policy planners to be acquainted with the
scientific and technological developments of the time.
That is why the Government of India constituted the
“I ndian Parliamentary and Scientific Committee” in
1961 under the chairmanship of Lal Bhadur Shastri,

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which studied the problems of science education in


schools and made valuable recommendations. A
committee on plan projects was also set up in 1962 to
study the problems relating to science laboratories in
schools and the science apparatus and equipment
needs. The Committee submitted its report in the same
year. This committee studied the problem of standard
for science equipment, design and layout of
laboratories, list of science apparatus as well as fund
allotment and purchase procedure.

The NCERT started publishing a quarterly


journal entitled School Science which helped
dissemination of scientific knowledge at the school
stage. This agency also sponsored publication of
Science Resource Letter, a small magazine devoted to
the improvement of science education in India,
produced at the Indian Institute of Technology,
Kanpur. In 1964, the Government of India, formulated
a scheme called “special centrally sponsored
programme for the improvement of science education”
to be administered by the State governments. The
scheme included three programmes: (1) strengthening
of science laboratories; (2) special training of science
teachers; and (3) improvement of school libraries.

The programme under “special training of


science teachers” contained provision for establishment
of an “expert unit” of science in each State which was
to grow later into the “State Institute of Science
Education”. These institutes work for development and
improvement of school level science education in the
States. The organization of summer institutes for

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acquainting teachers of science with the latest


developments in these areas, were started in 1963.
Science teachers from all over India were benefited by
this scheme when summer institutes were jointly
organized by NCERT and UGC. The NCERT also started
the programme of “Science Talent Search” with the
objective of identifying and encouraging scientific
talent at school level and to draw their active interest
in further studies of science.

The greatest impact in the sphere of education


in India came form the report of the Education
Commission of 1964-66. The Commission was
appointed by the Union Government to advise on the
national pattern of education and on the general
principles and policies for development of education at
all stages and in all aspects. It is rightly called the
report on ‘Education and National Development’. The
Commission laid great importance to the teaching of
science right from the primary to the university stage
for development and prosperity of the nation. Thus, it
recommended that science education should become an
integral part of school education with provision for
compulsory teaching of science and mathematics to all
pupils as a part of general education during the first
ten years of schooling. Further, the Commission
recommended that:

1. At lower primary classes, science


teaching should related be related to the child’s
environment. The Roman alphabet should be taught in
class six to facilitate understanding of internationally

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accepted symbols of scientific measurement and the


use of maps, charts and statistical tables.

2. At the higher primary stage, emphasis


should be on acquisition of knowledge and the ability
to think logically, to draw conclusions and to make
decisions at a higher level. A disciplinary approach to
the teaching of science is more effective than the
general science approach.

3. A science corner in the lower primary


schools and a laboratory cum-lecture room in higher
primary schools are minimum essential requirements.

4. At the lower secondary stage, science


should be developed as a discipline of the mind. The
newer concepts of physics, chemistry and biology and
the experimental approach to the learning of science
should be stressed.

5. Science courses at an advanced level


may be provided for the talented students in selected
lower secondary schools with necessary facilities of
staff and laboratory.

6. Science teaching should be linked to


agriculture in rural areas and to technology in urban
areas. But the levels of attainment and avenues to
higher education should be the same for both types of
schools.

7. The method of teaching science and


mathematics should be modernized stressing the
investigatory approach and understanding of basic
principles. The Commission laid special emphasis on

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scientific researches and higher level of attainment in


science at the university level.

We have now reached a stage when every


citizen of India realizes the importance of science
learning. The impact of science and its achievements
has made even a common man of today feel its need.
There has been a distinct social urge for a shift in
approach to modern education and the older trend and
values emphasised earlier are now almost lost. People
are now conscious to educate their children in a way so
as to enable them to cope with the personal and social
problems obvious in a modern complex society due to
the influence of scientific, technological and industrial
progress.

1.2 Status of Science Education and its Concern

At all levels of intellectual discussion there are


some burning topics:-

- deterioration of standards of students and


teaching.

- declining numbers of students in pure


sciences.

The question that comes fore mostly to our


minds by going through these issues is why pure
science is being given so much importance? When we
think of the marvels of science and further more go
beyond and think about the principles upon which the
gazettes and gizmos work, we come to realize the value
of research in pure sciences. The exponential growth of
knowledge and expectances from science are ever
increasing day by day. Hence more financial and

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manpower infrastructure is required of in the pure


fields. To produces quality researchers, teaching is
equally essential as to get good quality fruits from an
orchard. For the former we need quality and dedicated
teachers, who themselves become the foundation
stones and let the heaven touching structures be made
on them. We need to have a balance, contribution and
cooperation of both the academicians and researchers
in teaching and research. A scientist can ignite the
young minds in a way that the flame of inspiration and
knowledge becomes a lighthouse for masses. Similarly
a teacher can better understand the needs of his
students and can prepare tailor made curricula for his
students. Therefore it is indispensable to have a
mutual interaction and switching of tasks for the both
to have a practical point of view.

As for the quality of teaching and students is


concerned the picture is –none of our 350 plus
universities is in the top 100 universities of the world.
Reason being, we do not put enough input, in terms of
funds, resources, research and teaching. But we
Indians do not accept the naked facts. In terms of
publications of scientific research in the world India
ranked 8 t h during 1980’s, slipped to 13 t h during 1990’s
and nosedived to 21 s t position during the new
millennium.

The R&D in our university system is not


receiving as much attention as in specialized agencies
and laboratories. Creative universities are the bedrock
of every developed nation’s S&T strategies. The funding
from U.G.C. remains far from adequate and private

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sector does not invest in university R&D because they


do not get adequate and satisfactory results.

In U.S.A. and other European countries the


project funding to the departments is adequate enough
to run the teaching and R&D activities up to high
quality mark. India has the second largest manpower in
the world. But its quality is of below average. Every
community who stops to look further is deemed to
perish sooner or latter.

We are ignoring even the secondary stage


symptoms of our ailing science education system. The
evidence warn us to shun the escapist and OK-OK
attitude, all is right till the whole system collapses
attitude; if we have to make our survival as a scientific
nation and for long term progress and prosperity of
nation.

1.3 Concept of Attitude

Whittaker (1968) (in Mangal, S. 2006


“Educational Psychology”), “An attitude is a
predisposition or readiness to respond in a
predetermine manner to relevant stimuli.”

Mckeachie and Doyle (1967) (ibid) “We define


an attitude as an organization of the concepts, beliefs,
habits and motives associated with the particular
object.”

Attitudes always involves the relations of the


individual to specific objects, persons, groups,
institutions and values or norms related to his

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environment. They are learned and acquired


dispositions. They are not innate and inherent in an
individual. Consequently they may be differentiated
from physiological motives.

Attitudes represent the states of readiness to


respond to a certain stimuli. Psychological motives also
do the same. Attitudes on the other hand are relatively
enduring states of readiness. Attitudes involve
directions as well as magnitude. When a person shows
some tendency to approach an object he is said to have
positive attitude towards it. But if he shows tendency
to avoid objects, his attitude is described as negative.

Attitudes are unquestionably an acquired


disposition and therefore conditioned by learning or
acquisition of experiences. Heredity factor does not
play any role in the formation or development of
attitudes. Environmental forces help an individual to
form and develop various attitudes.

Attitudes are by no means fixed and


unchanging predispositions. They can and do change.
The task of attitude change is very much related to
their formation. Here the important thing to note is
that attitudes are never taught, they are caught
through direct or indirect experiences.

1.4 Attitude towards Science

Scientific attitude is a setting of mind and a


way of life according to certain principles. It is
developed when science subjects are taught as
discipline of mind. If scientific attitude is developed,
the children will live think and work accordingly.

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The national society of study of education


defines scientific attitude as open mindedness a desire
for accurate knowledge, confidence in procedure for
seeking knowledge and expectations that the solution
of problem will come through the use of verified
knowledge. The word scientific attitude includes
curiosity towards the surrounding environment, belief
in cause-effect relationship, patience, truthfulness,
impartiality and open mindedness.

1.5 Components of Scientific Attitude

Caldwell and Curtis (1943) gave the following


list of components of scientific attitude, i) curiosity to
know about one’s environment, ii) the belief that
nothing can happen without a cause and those
occurrences that seem strange and mysterious can
always be explained by natural causes, iii) an
unwillingness to accept the facts and statements that
are not supported by convincing proof, iv) the
determination to believe in any sort of superstitions, v)
the belief that truth never changes, but that our ideas
of what is true change as we gain more and more
knowledge, vi) an intention not to experiment or to
work blindly and carelessly, but to begin only after
careful observation, vii) the determination to be careful
and accurate in all of one’s observations, viii) a
willingness to consider all the evidences and try to
decide whether it really relates to the matter which is
being considered, whether it is sound and sensible, and
whether it is complete enough to allow a conclusion to
be made, ix) a determination not to base final
conclusion on one or a few observations, but to work as

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long as may be necessary in order to secure answer to


a problem, x) the desire to do ones own observations
and experiment but to use results of other scientists
work , xi) the intention to respect other’s point of view
and xii) the determination to prevent one’s own likes
and dislikes from influencing one’s judgment.

A pupil who has developed scientific attitude:


is clear and precise in his activities and makes clear
and precise statements, always bases his judgments on
verified facts, prefers to suspend his judgment if
sufficient data is not available, is objective in his
approach and behaviour, is free from superstitions, is
honest and truthful in recording and collecting
scientific data; after finishing his work takes care to
arrange the apparatus, equipments etc. at their proper
places; shows a favourable reaction towards efforts of
using science for human welfare.

Scientific Attitude can contribute to the


national development through the eradication of
superstitions, developing objectivity, open-mindedness,
critical thinking and adopting scientific method in
solving problems. These qualities will help the nation
to fight against the social evils and the problem of
under development.

Attitude towards opting science at senior


secondary level is an outcome, a byproduct,
consequence of a pupil scientific attitude. The way a
student feels, thinks and perceives about the
importance of science in day to day life, in fulfilling the
vocational and technical aspirations, family and social

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expectations, optimal utilization his own talents and


caliber.

1.6 Importance of Various Dimensions

The broad dimension which were selected and


on which the students were framed, were finalized for
inclusion after consulting teachers, principals of school
and personnel from education field.

The concerns about the different dimension


which might be in the minds of 10 t h class students, and
the input made by these aspect on the mindsets of
students, as understood by the experts are discussed
as follows :

Dimension-1: Financial Aspect

One of the basic inputs required on behalf of


parents is financial investment on education. A child
habits, activities, desires and aspirations all are
restricted or expanded by his aspect. The items listed
under this category are framed in view to have a pulse
of child’s family financial conditions and restrictions.

Dimension-2: Influence of family and parents

In both verbal and non verbal form, the


aspirations and anxieties, of the family members make
an impact on the tender heart and mind of the child.
Family is the first and most important social
institution a child interacts with. This is clearly
envisaged in walk, talk and conduct of a child.
Therefore this dimension tries to peep into the
influences of the family that are made on the child.

Dimension-3: Studies

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Study and study habits are the first input


required for the pupil. The picture a child is having
about science is tried to make more crystal clear and
precise and accurate by the items included in this
dimension.

Dimension-4: Sources of Inspiration

Every person seeks guidance and inspiration


from others when he himself is not clear or able to
make a firm view decision about anything. Here an
attempt has been made to see the factors which
contribute to make an inspiration to the child to take
up science at senior secondary level.

Dimension-5: Influence of Teacher

In school, teachers are the master sculptures


who shape the child. It’s said that future of our nation
is being shaped in our classroom, absolutely true it is.
Every subject is perceived to be interesting or difficult
as the teacher presents it to the students. For students
teacher is the foremost authority. The type and way of
influences made and attitude of teachers as perceived
by the pupils being studied in this dimension.

Dimension-6: Influence of School

In this dimension the atmosphere of school, its


infrastructural facilities, accessibility and events
organized are being studied. All the items reflect what
a particular student’s has perceived about a particular
event etc.

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Dimension-7: Vocational Aspects

To get a job, to be employed satisfactorily is


the prime aim with which a students goes for studying
a particular course or subject. The quality of pays,
perks and other reflected aspects are included in this
dimension. This helps to understand the vocational
perceptions and aspirations of a child.

Dimension-8: Need of Science

Here a child’s individual perception of need,


influence and utility of science is being tried to get out.
The items in this dimension reflect various practical
utilities of science and their perception by the child.

Dimension-9: Awareness

This dimension includes items which reflect


awareness of child about the future avenues, activities
and social outcomes of studying science.

1.7 Review of Literature

A maximum goes as, “A lot has been accomplished


even bef ore we were born.”

Research takes the knowledge accumulated in


the past as a compass to explore in further different
directions. Any research cannot be undertaken without
the help of related studies done earlier. A careful

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review of the research journals, books, dissertations,


theses and other sources of information on the problem
to be investigated provide understanding of research
methodology avoidance of unnecessary repetition of
well established facts an a foresight into the difficulties
that can come across while pursuing the problem.

The earliest reference investigated to find


within the limited frame at time and resources is dated
back to 1931. In this study H.W Weeks investigated the
reasons for the choosing courses by some students and
concluded that 40% of all courses choosen because of
students own interests, 4% by influence of teachers. In
60% of cases the influence of Home interests and
environment was evident in the selection of subject.

In 1952, G.S Katoch, in the study, “An


investigation into the vocational interest of high school
boys in Kangra District, found out that 40% of the
decisions were influenced by the parents, 80.5% by the
friends, 2% by parents professional inspiration 2.5%
by teachers and 32% were the independent choice of
students. Further more he found out that in 90% of the
case wise choices were not made.

Harider Bhagat in 1952 studied the


vocational trends in High School boys concluded that
18% of decisions are made by judging own abilities 14%
by teachers consultation, 29% by professional advice,
14% by friends, 13.2% by influence of school.

In 1957 K.K. Gupta investigated into the


relationship between vocational preferences and
curricular choices at higher secondary stage and found

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out that there was no significant difference between the


urban and rural students’ choices.

In 1960, B.B. Aggarwal investigated the


vocational preference of boys studying in Govt. High
Schools and in schools run on public school lines in
Delhi, reported that the student of both group
preferred applied and natural sciences and literary,
artistic and agricultural subjects the least.

In 1965, J.R. Prashar in his study on


vocational aspirations of science students of higher
secondary schools of Delhi studied 250 samples of a
schools consisting of middle class, higher class lower
SES class students and reported that the main
preferred vacations were Engineering, Teaching,
Business, and Military. Those of least preference were
agriculture, manual work, Literary and Law. Among
these 64.8% made choices independently, 30% and
2% by parents and teachers respectively.

A. S. Bedi in the study of interest patterns of


10 t h class students in relation to their parental SES in
urban and rural schools of Delhi conducted in 1967,
found out that the interest pattern of rural and urban
children’s don’t differs significantly.

B. K. Aggarwal (1974) in a similar study came


to a conclusion that 74.6% Govt. school students,
decisions were made by the parents influence and 64%
public school students by parents influence.

Y. K. Shinde conducted a study of Non-formal


science activities in senior secondary schools of
Maharashtra with special reference to their impact of

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scientific attitude and achievement in science in 1982.


The study revealed that the boys were better than the
girls in their non-formal science activity involvement,
the correlation between the scientific attitude scores
and non formal science activity scores was negligible
and not significant. The boys and girls from the same
cultural group didn’t differ significantly with respect to
their scientific attitude and the students’ academic
achievement was directly related to their scientific
attitude.

J. Bandyopadhyay conducted a study on the


environmental influence, academic achievement and
scientific aptitude as determinants of adolescent’s
attitude towards science stream in 1984. The findings
of the study were the parent’s education and SES lead
to a favourable attitude towards science. Teachers and
peers influence, vocational value of stream and future
aim of life were other contributing factors.

In 1986, S. Ghosh in a critical study of


scientific attitude and aptitude of the students and
determination of the some determinants of scientific
aptitude found that the urban and rural students were
equal on scientific attitude, boys and girls were not
significantly different.

In 1988, S.S.Mandlia examined attitude of


secondary stage students towards their own science
curriculum and its relation with achievement
motivation. He concluded that all students from urban
and rural areas possessed favourable attitude towards
the science curriculum.

23
Introduction and review of literature...

S. S. Ghosh in 1989 showed that whereas


scientific aptitude was related to scientific attitude,
there were no such significant differences in respect of
sex, socio-economic status and place of work among
the various groups.

In, 1990, D. K. Kar in the study of


relationship between attitude towards an achievement
in general science of class 9 t h students found that boys
were more favourably disposed towards science than
girls and more over a positive relationship existed
between attitude and achievement.

M. K. Sharma in 1990 studied scientific


literacy, Attitude towards science and personality
tracts of students and teachers and revealed significant
relationship between the public understanding of
science and attitude towards science. The study results
received support from the extensive study done by J. K.
Sood in 1992.

D. B. Rao (1990) in the study A comparative


study of scientific attitude, scientific aptitude and
achievement in biology at secondary school level
observed that scientific attitude in secondary school
pupil was average. There was no influence of sex on
scientific attitude. But the pupil studying in private
schools, rural schools and English medium schools and
residential schools held a better scientific attitude than
their counterparts.

U. S. Kumar studied the teaching of general


science and development of scientific attitude in
secondary school students in relation to achievement

24
Introduction and review of literature...

in general science in 1991. The study revealed that the


urban and rural pupils differed in scientific attitude
and there was no difference between boys and girls of
same locality.

Malviya. D. S. in 1991 conducted a study of


attitude towards science and interest in science of
school going adolescents. The output of this study was
there exists a significant difference between urban and
rural schools, age, sex, profession, and SES of parents
had no effect on pupils’ attitude towards science.

N. O. Nelliappan. (1992) studied the scientific


attitude and interest among higher secondary Biology
students in relation to their learning environment. The
study revealed that there was strong relationship
between the high and low total learning environment of
higher secondary Biology students and their scientific
attitude & scientific interests.

Shreevastva, Veena conducted a study of


creativity among higher secondary students in relation
to scientific aptitude and attitude towards science in
1992. The finding of the study were the students of
higher secondary classes having more scientific
attitude were more creative , boys having favourable
attitude towards science were slightly better in fields of
creativity than girls and the boys had less scientific
attitude than girls.

25