Methodology of the Study…

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

The methodologies of Educational Research are based on research methodologies in Behavioural and Social-Sciences, as research in these fields emphasis logical–positivism. This part consists of three sub-parts; subjects or sample, procedures and data analysis. The subject or sample section details the sampling procedure of the population which researcher aims to study. The procedure section outlines the research plan. It describes what has done, how it has been done, type of data collected, tools to collect data etc. The data analysis details tools and techniques of data analysis and interpretation.

3.1 Research Design
It is often impractical or unethical to arrange occurrences, an analysis or past events or of already existing conditions in such a case research design followed is ex-post-facto. Studying the review of literature and considering the objectives of the study ex-post-facto type of descriptive design was found to be most suited for the present study. Here the researcher was aware that the information used and results found may not put forward
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Methodology of the Study…

a complete and exact picture because of the lack of control on the variable and impact of number of extraneous variables, altering the result.

3.2 Sampling Procedure
The population of the study is the 10th class students of Mandi District of Himachal Pradesh. The selection of schools has been done on the basis of area or cluster sample. The sample of students taken is the batch sample of 25 boys and 25 girls of 10th class of each school. One school each was selected from the categories- Government-Rural, Government-Urban, Private-Rural and Private-Urban. The total sample size was 200. The sample description is given as under :

Categories Private 50

Urban
25 Boys

Rural
25 Boys

50
25 Girls 25 Girls

Government

50

25 Boys

25 Boys

50
25 Girls

25 Girls

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Methodology of the Study…

3.3 The Instrumentation
The instrument used to collect the data in the present study is an Attitude scale developed by the investigator himself. Different dimensions and the items included in them are prepared by consulting school teachers, principals and personnel from educational field. The scale has been developed as per the principles of Likert’s Attitude scale. Responses to a single Likert item is treated as ordinal data, because when using only five levels, one cannot assumes that respondents perceive the difference between adjacent levels as equidistant. When responses to several Likert items are summed, they may be treated as internal data measuring a latent variable provided the summed responses fulfill relevant assumptions. The five response categories represent an ordinal level of measurement, representing an inherent order (more to less, stronger to weaker, bigger to smaller), but the numbers assigned to the categories in the way that an internal or ratio scale would. Attitudes scale developed by the investigator comprises of 60 items distributed under 9 dimensions. Due to the shortage of time and material resources, the scale could not be standardized, validity and reliability be calculated.

3.4 Data Collection
The investigator personally seeked the permission of all the 4 schools for the administration of the tool and administered the tool himself. At the time of administration of the tool, the rules and regulations for the data collection were stringently followed. The students were asked to respond to all the items. All items were verbally translated in Hindi also. The investigator at the time of data collection also explained and clarified the response
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Methodology of the Study…

procedure and doubts of the children for ensuring exact response. The data pertaining to 10th class students towards opting science at senior secondary level is collected by means of responses to each item on Likert scale. The responses on the Likert scale varied from- Strongly-Disagree, Disagree, Undecided, Agree to Strongly-Agree.

3.5 Techniques of Data Analysis and Interpretation
The objectives of the study are to study of attitude of 10th class students of Mandi District towards opting science at Senior Secondary Level. Accordingly the technique of attitude assessment selected is ‘Attitude scale’. The tool was to be responded on a Likert type 5-point scale. The statistical techniques used in the study are based on the testing of null hypotheses. Such as, test of significance of difference between means of the contrasting groups. Student’s ttest is used to find out the inter-variable differences in the contrasting groups. In order to have a clear and easily comprehensible knowledge of the results, tables and graphs have been used as and where possible. The responses to the Attitude scale are scored on Nominal scale and are tabulated on MSExcel. The investigator took the help of both descriptive as well as inferential statistics for analyzing the data and the obtained results were interpreted as per the objectives and hypotheses stated earlier.

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