Analysis And Interpretations…

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS

The aim of the study is to study the attitudes of 10th class students towards opting science at senior secondary school level and to have a comparative picture of the attitudes. For the latter 15 groups of students were made. The data gathered on the attitude scale was scored and tabulated. Total, Mean, Standard Deviation, Standard Error Difference, ‘t’ Test and Degree of Freedom was calculated using MS-Excel.

The following Cross Combination Matrix shows the combinations of groups on the basis of the type of school & students :Group s Govt. Pvt. Boys Girls Urban Rural x Govt.-Pvt. Govt. -Boys Govt. -Girls Govt. -Urban Rural-Govt. x x Pvt. -Boys Pvt. -Girls Pvt. -Urban Rural -Pvt. x x x Boys- Girls Boys- Urban Boys- Rural x x x x Girls- Urban Girls- Rural x x x x x Urban- Rural x x x x x x Govt. Pvt. Boys Girls Urban Rural

37

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.1: Comparison between Government and Private
school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 100 100 Mean (M) S.D. S.E.D. t df Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Govt. Pvt.

171.6 151.54

13.279 20.911

2.477

8.098

198

S

S

In the above table it can be inferred that the calculated ‘t’ value is 8.098 and that from the table is 1.97 and 2.60 at 0.05 and 0.01 level of confidence respectively. Therefore it can be concluded that the hypothesis Ho1, “The attitude of the

Government school students and Private school students do not differ significantly” is rejected. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:Graph 4.1: Showing the comparison between Government and Private school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
171.6 200 150 Scores 100 50 0 Mean Group Govt. 13.279 20.911 Pvt. 151.54

SD

Table 4.2:

Comparison between Boys and Girls in their

attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level. 38

Analysis And Interpretations…

Groups

Boys Girls

Sample Size (N) 100 100

Mean (M)

S.D.

S.E.D.

t

df

Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

161.53 161.61

21.994 18.251

2.858

0.028

198

NS

NS

In the above table calculated ‘t’ value is 0.028. The table value for degree of freedom 198 is 1.97 and 2.60 for 0.05 and 0.01 level of confidence respectively. Therefore it is inferred that there is no significant difference between attitudes of boys and girls at any level of confidence hence Ho2, “The attitude of

boys and girls do not differ significantly” is accepted. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.2 Showing the comparison between Boys and Girls in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
161.53 180 160 140 120 100 Scores 80 60 40 20 0 161.61

Boys 21.994 18.251 Girls

Mean Group

SD

39

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.3:
secondary level.

Comparison between Urban and Rural school

students in their attitude towards opting science at senior

Groups

Urban Rural

Sample Size (N) 100 100

Mean (M)

S.D.

S.E.D.

t

df

Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

160.95 162.19

15.509 23.990

2.856

0.434

198

NS

NS

In the above table the calculated ‘t’ value for the group is 0.434. Whereas the table value for Degree of Freedom 198 is 1.97 and 2.60 at 0.05 and 0.01 level of confidence respectively. It is inferred that the Ho3, “The attitude of the Urban

students and Rural students do not differ significantly” is accepted.

The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.3 Showing the comparison between Urban and Rural school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 150 Scores 100 50 0 Mean Group 15.509 23.99 Urban Rural 160.95 162.19

SD

40

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.4:

Comparison between Private school Boys and

Private school Girls in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

Groups

Pvt-boys Pvt-girls

Sample Size (N) 50 50

Mean (M)

S.D.

S.E.D.

t

df

Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

150.4 152.68

21.913 20.016

4.197

0.543

98

NS

NS

In the above table the calculated ‘t’ value for the group is 0.543 whereas the table value for Degree of Freedom 98 is 2.07 and 2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 level of confidence respectively. Hence, the hypothesis Ho4, “The attitude of the Private school boys and Private school

girls do not differ significantly” is accepted. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.4 Showing the comparison between Private school Boys and Private school Girls in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
150.4 152.68 Pvt-Boys 21.913 20.016 Pvt-Girls

200 150 Score 100 50 0

Mean Group

SD

41

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.5:

Comparison between Private-Urban Students

and Private-Rural school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50 Mean (M) S.D. S.E.D. t df Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Pvt-urban Pvt-rural

158.18 144.9

18.835 20.945

3.984

3.334

98

S

S

In the above level the calculated ‘t’ value for the group is 3.334 and the table value for Degree of Freedom 98 is 2.01 and 2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence respectively. As the calculated value of ‘t’ is more than that in table the hypotheses Ho5,

The attitude of the Private-Urban students and Private-Rural students do not

differ significantly” is rejected. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.5 Showing the comparison between Private-Urban school Students and Private-Rural school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 150 Score 100 50 0 Mean Group 18.835 20.945 Pvt-urban Pvt-rural 158.18 144.9

SD

42

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.6 :

Comparison between Government school Boys

and Government school Girl students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50 Mean (M) S.D. S.E.D. t df Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Govt.-boys Govt.-girls

172.66 170.54

15.633 10.469

2.661

0.797

98

NS

NS

In the above table the calculated ‘t’ value for the group is 0.797 and table for Degree of Freedom 98 is 2.01 and 2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence respectively. As the calculated value of ‘t’ is less than that in table the Hypotheses Ho6, “The attitude of the

Government-school-Boys significantly” is accepted.

and

Government-school-Girls

do

not

differ

The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.6 Showing the comparison between Government school Boys and Government school Girls students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 150 Score 100 50 0 172.66 170.54

15.633 10.469 Mean Group SD

Govt.-Boys Govt.-Girls

43

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.7 :

Comparison

between

Government-Urban

Students and Government-Rural school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50 Mean (M) S.D. S.E.D. t df Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Govt.-urban Govt.-rural

163.72 179.48

10.750 10.677

15.911

0.991

98

NS

NS

In the above table the calculated ‘t’ value for the group is 0.991 and table value for Degree of Freedom 98 is 2.01 and 2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence respectively. As calculated value of ‘t’ is less than that in table the hypotheses Ho7, “The attitude of students of

the Urban-Government school and Rural-Government school do not differ significantly” is accepted. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:Graph 4.7 Showing the comparison between Government-Urban and Government-Rural school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 150 Scores 100 50 0 163.72 179.48 Govt.-Urban Govt.-rural

10.75 10.68 Mean Group SD

44

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.8 :

Comparison between Boys-Urban Students and

Boys-Rural students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50 Mean (M) S.D. S.E.D. t df Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Boys-urban Boys-rural

159.74 163.32

19.044 24.660

4.406

0.812

98

NS

NS

In the above table the calculated ‘t ’value for the group is 0.822 and table value for Degree of Freedom 98 is 2.01 and 2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence respectively. As the value of calculated ‘t’ is less than table value the hypotheses Ho8, “The attitude

of the Urban-Boys and Rural-Boys do not differ significantly” is accepted. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:Graph 4.8 Showing the comparison between BoysUrban Students and Boys-Rural students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 150 Scores 100 50 0 159.74 163.32 19.044 24.66 Mean Group SD Boys-Urban Boys-Rural

45

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.9 :

Comparison between Girls-urban Students and

Girls-Rural students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50 Mean (M) S.D. S.E.D. t Df Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Girls-urban Girls-rural

162.16 161.06

10.968 23.496

3.667

0.300

98

NS

NS

In the above table the calculated to value for the group is 0.300 and table value’ for Degree of Freedom 98 is 2.01 and 2.68 at 0.05 ad 0.01 level of confidence respectively. As the value of calculated ‘t’ is less than the table value of ‘t’ the hypotheses Ho9,

The attitude of the Urban-Girls and Rural-Girls do not differ significantly” is

accepted.

The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.9 Showing the comparison between Girlsurban Students and Girls-Rural students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 150 Scores 100 50 0 Mean Group 10.968 23.496 Girls-Urban Girls-Rural 162.16 161.06

SD

46

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.10

: Comparison between Boys-Private and Boys-

Government students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50 Mean (M) S.D. S.E.D. t df Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Boys-Pvt Boys-Govt

150.4 172.66

21.91263 15.6330498

3.807

5.848

98

S

S

In the above table the calculated ‘t’ value for the group is 5.848 and table value for Degree of Freedom 98 are 2.01 and 2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 level of confidence respectively. As the value of ‘t’ is more than table value’ of ‘t’ the hypotheses Ho10, “The attitude of the

Private school boys and Government school boys do not differ significantly” is
rejected.

The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.10 Showing the comparison between Boys-Private and Boys-Government school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 Scores 150 100 50 0 Mean Group SD 20.016 10.469 172.66 152.68

Boys-Pvt. Boys-Govt.

47

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.11 :

Comparison between Girls-Private and Girl-

Government students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50 Mean (M) S.D. S.E.D. t df Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Girls-Pvt. Girls-Govt.

152.68 170.54

20.016 10.469

3.194

5.591

98

S

S

In the above table he calculated ‘t’ value

for the group is

5.591 whereas the table value for Degree of Freedom 98 is 2.01 and 2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 level of confidence respectively. It is inferred that the Ho11, “The attitude of the Private school girls and Government school

girls do not differ significantly” is rejected. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.11 Showing the comparison between Girls-Private and Girls-government school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 150 Scores 100 50 0 Mean Group 20.016 10.469 152.68 170.54

Girls-Pvt. Girls-Govt.

SD

48

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.12 :

Comparison between Urban-Private and

Urban-Government school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50 Mean (M) S.D. S.E.D. t df Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Urban-Pvt. Urban-Govt.

158.18 163.72

18.835 10.750

3.067

1.806

98

NS

NS

In the above table the calculated ‘t’ value

for the group is

1.806 whereas the ‘t’ value of Degree of Freedom 98 is 2.01 and 2.68 and 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence. Therefore the attitudinal difference is not significant at any level of confidence and Ho12, “The attitude of the Urban Private students and Urban Government

students do not differ significantly” is accepted. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.12 Showing the comparison between Urban-Private and Urban-Government school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 150 Scores 100 50 0 Mean Group 18.835 10.75 SD 158.18 163.72 Urban-Pvt. Urban-Govt.

49

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.13 :
secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50

Comparison between Urban-Boys and Urban-

Girls students in their attitude towards opting science at senior

Mean (M)

S.D.

S.E.D.

t

df

Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Urban-Boys Urban-Girls

159.74 162.16

19.044 10.968

3.108

0.779

98

NS

NS

From the above table the calculated value of ‘t’ is o.779 and the table value of ‘t’ is 2.01 and 2.68 at Degree of Freedom 98 at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence respectively, therefore the hypotheses Ho13, “The attitude of the Urban-Girls and Urban-Boys do not

differ significantly” is accepted. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.13 Showing the comparison between UrbanBoys and Urban-Girls students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 150 Score 100 50 0 Mean Group SD 19.044 10.968 159.74 162.16 Urban-Boys Urban-Girls

50

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.14 :

Comparison between Private-Rural and

Government-Rural school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50 Mean (M) S.D. S.E.D. t df Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Pvt.-Rural Govt.-Rural

144.9 179.48

20.945 10.678

3.325

10.400

98

S

S

From the above table it is observed that the calculated value of ‘t’ is 10.400 and that in the table is 2.01 and 2.68 respectively at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence respectively. Therefore the hypothesis Ho14, “The attitude of the Private-Rural students and Government-

Rural students do not differ significantly” is rejected. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.14 Showing the comparison between Private-Rural and Government-Rural school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 Scores 150 100 50 0 Mean Group SD 20.945 10.678 179.48 144.9 Pvt.-Rural Govt.-Rural

51

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.15 :
secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 50

Comparison between Rural-Boys and Rural-

girls students in their attitude towards opting science at senior

Mean (M)

S.D.

S.E.D.

t

df

Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

Rural-Boys Rural-Girls

163.32 161.06

24.661 23.495

4.817

0.469

98

NS

NS

From the above table it is seen that the calculated value of ‘t’ is 0.469 and that in table is 2.01 and 2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence respectively. Hence the hypotheses Ho15, “The attitude of

the Rural-Boys and Rural-Girls do not differ significantly” is accepted at all
levels of confidence.

The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.15 Showing the comparison between Rural-Boys and Rural-girls students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
200 150 Scores 100 50 0 Mean Group SD 24.661 23.495 Rural-Boys Rural-Girls 163.32 161.06

52

Analysis And Interpretations…

Table 4.16 :
secondary level.
Groups Sample Size (N) 50 150

Comparison between CBSE and HPBSE

students in their attitude towards opting science at senior

Mean (M)

S.D.

S.E.D.

t

Df

Result
At 0.05 level At 0.01 level

CBSE HPBSE

144.9 20.945

169.61 18.285 1.828 13.514 198

S

S

From the above table it is seen that the calculated value of ‘t’ is 13.514 and that in table is 2.01 and 2.68 at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence respectively. Hence the hypotheses, “The attitude of the

CBSE students and HPBSE students do not differ significantly” is rejected. The mean of each group, Standard Deviation is given in the graphical form in the following figure:-

Graph 4.16 Showing comparison between CBSE & HPBSE Students' attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
169.61 180 160 140 120 100 Score 80 60 40 20 0 144.9

CBSE HPBSE 20.95 18.29

Mean Group

SD

53

Analysis And Interpretations…

Findings
The findings of the study, “An attitude study of students of 10th class of Mandi District towards opting science as a subject at senior secondary level.” 1. There is no significance difference between Government and Private school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level. 2. There is no significance difference between Boys and Girls in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
3.

There is no significance difference between Urban and Rural school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

4.

There is no significance difference between Private school-Boys and Private school-Girls students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

5.

There is no significance difference between Private-Urban students in and their Private-Rural attitude towards school opting

science at senior secondary level.
6.

There is no significance difference between Government school-Boys and Government school-Girls in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

7.

There is no significance difference between Government-Urban and Government-Rural school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

54

Analysis And Interpretations…

8.

There is no significance difference between Urban-Boys and Rural-Boys in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

9.

There is no significance difference between Urban-Girls and Rural-Girls in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

10.

There is no significance difference between Private-Boys and Government-Boys students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

11.

There is no significance difference between Private school-Girls and Government schoolGirls school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

12.

There is no significance difference between Urban-Private and Urban-Government school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

13.

There is no significance difference between Urban-Boys and Urban-Girls in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

14.

There is no significance difference between Rural-Private and Rural-Government school students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

15.

There is no significance difference between Rural-Boys and Rural-Girls in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.
55

Analysis And Interpretations…

16.

There is no significance difference between CBSE and HPBSE students in their attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.

17.

The attitude in Government school students is 13.23% more than in Private school students. The attitude in Urban-Private school students is 9.16% more than in Rural-Private school students.

18.

19. 20.

The attitude in Government school-Boys is 14.8% more than in Private school-Boys. The attitude 14.8% more than in Private school-Boys.

The rank wise scores obtained by the students are as follows:R ank 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 category Govt.Rural Govt.-Boys Govt. Govt.-Girls Govt.Urban Rural-Boys Rural UrbanGirls Girls Boys Rural-Girls Score %age 179.48 172.66 171.6 170.54 163.72 163.32 162.19 162.16 151.54 161.53 161.06 in

R ank 12 13 14 15

category Urban UrbanBoys Pvt.-Urban Pvt.-Girls

Score %age 160.95 159.74 158.18 152.68

in

16

Private

151.54

56

Analysis And Interpretations…

17 18

Pvt-Boys Pvt-Rural

150.4 144.9

57

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