Summary And Suggestions For Further Research…


5.1 SUMMARY The word science is derived from a Latin word which means “to know”. From this etymological meaning-“science deals with the knowledge, quest for further knowledge and exploring new arenas, welfare and comforts of mankind.” Scientific doubling touched itself every knowledge in about of aspect and human technologies years. life, Science from are has food,


luxuries, transport and all what we can think and imagine of. Any nation is considered to be prosperous mighty, important in terms of the scientific knowledge it is generating and putting into use. Since the dawn of human race on this Earth the science has been the loyal companion. The history of science therefore, can be said to be begun with the history of human existence. Even the earliest human races invented crude tools and techniques for their fitment in the struggle for survival.


Summary And Suggestions For Further Research…









stretch of time of human existence till about 4000

By then the men began to live in organized social groups in some geographically congenial places of the earth. History records that the human civilization thus began in Mesopotamia, Egypt and other places. These people among other things, knew the art of building, smelting, time-telling, use of metals, they observed the effect of heavenly bodies as the Sun, the Moon and the stars on agriculture. About the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, S.F. Mason,(in “History of education in India”, by N. Jayapalan.2006) in his book History of Science states that, “civilized society arose in India as it did in Mesopotamia, Egypt and China with Bronze Age culture in a river valley. The people of Indus Valley civilization had pictographic scripts and decimal numeral system. They used the same fast spinning potter’s wheel as the Sumerians and alloyed copper with tin to make bronze; but they wove cotton rather than flax or wool of the West or the silk of the East. About 2000







became extinct.” The modern system of education in India grew during the British period which ultimately replaced the indigenous system of education that was in vogue in India since ancient times. Initially, during the period of the East India Company’s rule, there were more proselytising activities by the missionaries rather than interest in education. However, finally due to the combined efforts of the missionaries, government officers and enlightened Indians of the time, modern education slowly spread all


Summary And Suggestions For Further Research…

over India. Initially, sporadic efforts were made to spread all over India in different subject areas. Calcutta Madrasa (1780) (ibid.) is said to have had provision for teaching of subjects like natural sciences, Quran, astrology, law, geometry, arithmetic, logic, rhetoric, etc. The subjects taught in Benaras Sanskrit College (started in 1791) (ibid.) included teaching of medical sciences. In the post-independence period the first

education commission was the University Education Commission of 1948 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan. Though the Commission was to report primarily on the university education with needed recommendations, it made valuable recommendations in respect of secondary education also, as it felt the improvement of curriculum and syllabus at the secondary level to be essential for improvement of university education. The Commission recommended inclusion of general science (Physics and Biology) as courses of study in secondary schools. For first degree courses, the Commission suggested that not less than two special subjects must be studied by science students from among mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology and geology. Later, in 1953, the Secondary Education

Commission, (under Dr. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar as Chairman) suggested compulsory inclusion of general science and mathematics as core subjects at the middle as well as secondary level. At the higher secondary level, the Commission suggested diversification of


Summary And Suggestions For Further Research…

courses channel.







The question that comes fore mostly to our minds by going through these issues is why pure science is being given so much importance? When we think of the marvels of science and further more go beyond and think about the principles upon which the gazettes and gizmos work, we come to realize the value of research in pure sciences. The exponential growth of knowledge and expectances from science are ever increasing day by day. Hence quality more financial and manpower is equally infrastructure is required of in the pure fields. To produces researchers, teaching essential as to get good quality fruits from an orchard. Attitues are unquestionably an acquired

disposition and therefore conditioned by learning or acquisition of experiences. Heredity factor does not play any role in the formation or development Scientific of attitudes. Environmental forces help an individual to form and develop various attitudes. attitude is a setting of mind and a way of life according to certain principles. I t is developed when science subjects are taught as discipline of mind. If scientific attitude is developed, the children will live think and work accordingly. Science education is conceived as the need of the hour, which has been reflected in the report of most of educational commissions right from 1952-53 to 1986 the NPE. Such exigencies are due to the technological revolution as observed and experienced in the present century. Further exponential growth of knowledge and

Summary And Suggestions For Further Research…

revolution in the field of information technology has also substantiated such a need. The individuals of present century need to possess a scientific out-look in their day to day thinking style, as well as activities, simply for their effective adjustment. In his context various state governments with collaborations of NGOs’ are trying to popularize the study of science especially at the senior secondary stage

Statement of Problem
In view of above considerations the study has been entitled as, “An attitude study of students of 10th class of Mandi District towards opting science as a subject at senior secondary level.”

Scope and Limitations of Study
Every study has some peripheral circumvents

which define the coverage area of its piece of work. The present study deals with Mandi district only out of 12 districts of Himachal Pradesh. Due to the time and material restrictions, the sample included only one school each from the four categories viz. GovernmentUrban, Government-Rural, Private-Urban and PrivateRural. The study could have included more districts and school samples from each category of school. The total sample of the study is 200, comprising of 25 boys and 25 girls from each in category of school. and The methodologies of Educational Research are based on research methodologies This part Behavioural of three SocialSciences, as research in these fields emphasis logical– positivism. consists sub-parts; subjects or sample, procedures and data analysis. The


Summary And Suggestions For Further Research…








procedure of the population which researcher aims to study. The procedure section outlines the research plan. It describes what has done, how it has been done, type of data collected, tools to collect data etc. The data analysis details tools and techniques of data analysis and interpretation. I t is often impractical or unethical to arrange occurrences, an analysis or past events or of already existing conditions in such a case research design followed is ex-post-facto. Studying the review of literature and considering the objectives of the study ex-post-facto type of descriptive design was found to be most suited for the present study. The population of the study is the 10th class students of Mandi District of Himachal Pradesh. The selection of schools has been done on the basis of area or cluster sample. The sample of students taken is the batch sample of 25 boys and 25 girls of 10th class of each school. One school each was selected from the categoriesPrivate-Rural Government-Rural, Government-Urban,

and Private-Urban The instrument used to collect the data in the present study is an Attitude scale developed by the investigator himself. Different dimensions and the items included in them are prepared by consulting school teachers, principals and personnel from educational field. The scale has been developed as per the principles of Likert’s Attitude scale. The aim of the study is to study the attitudes of 10th class students towards opting science at senior secondary school level and to have a comparative


Summary And Suggestions For Further Research…

picture of the attitudes. For the latter 15 groups of students were made. The data gathered on the attitude scale was scored and tabulated. Total, Mean, Standard Deviation, Standard Error Difference, ‘t’ Test and Degree of Freedom was calculated using MS-Excel. 5.2 Suggestions for Further Research Any research can be extended beyond the limits of feasibility, practicality and utility. But keeping in mind these parameters the present study can be extended by the future workers so as to: -

include all the districts of Himachal Pradesh. increase number of schools in each category of school. find out correlation between scholastic competency and attitude towards opting science at senior secondary level.


conduct a longitudinal study on the persistence of attitude and relative more success of students in further studies.






statistics to reveal more informative and extensive results.


Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.