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ORACLE APPLICATIONS WHITE PAPER

ACCOUNTING IN R12 ORACLE PAYABLES


SEP 2011

Author:

Mohamed Nazih
CPA, PMP, Oracle Financials Consultant
m.nazih@gmail.com

Version

1.0

Accounting in Oracle EBS Payables 2011

Contents
About the Author ................................................................................................... 3
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 3
Purpose.................................................................................................................. 3
Scope ..................................................................................................................... 3
Audience ................................................................................................................ 4
Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables ........................................................................ 5
Determinants - Accounts ................................................................................................................... 5
Financial Options Accounts....................................................................................................................................... 6
Payables Options - Currency ..................................................................................................................................... 7
Payables Options - Invoice ........................................................................................................................................ 8
Payables Options - Interest....................................................................................................................................... 9
Supplier Site Accounting ........................................................................................................................................... 9
Bank Account Control ............................................................................................................................................. 10
Withholding Tax ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

Determinants - Options ................................................................................................................... 11


Payables Hierarchy ................................................................................................................................................. 11
Payables Options .................................................................................................................................................... 12

Payables Journal Entries .................................................................................................................. 14


AP-1 Invoice ............................................................................................................................................................ 14
AP-2 Prepayment .................................................................................................................................................... 16
AP-3 Prepayment Application ................................................................................................................................. 16
AP-4 Payment ......................................................................................................................................................... 16
AP-5 Payment maturity ........................................................................................................................................... 17
AP-6 Clearing........................................................................................................................................................... 17

Out of Scope Accounts ..................................................................................................................... 18


Information Sources ......................................................................................................................... 18
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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

About the Author


Mohamed Nazih is a proficient functional consultant in Oracle e-Business Suite with more
than seven years of experience of solutions design, configuration, testing and documentation
and three full life cycle implementations.
Prior to Oracle, he worked as a certified accountant and auditor for six years. This experience
gave him an advantage to team up with financial staff in many companies in delivering high
quality professional services, such as consulting, support, and training.
While not working, Mohamed Nazih takes care of his family. Furthermore, he is a self-learner
and avid reader in project management, change management, business intelligence, science,
and environment issues.
Mohamed Nazih values an atmosphere of ethics, punctuality, and team-working.

Introduction
Accounting Journal Entries are embedded in every aspect of Oracle Financials Applications.
Since they are Financials, you must have a good understanding of how these journals are
generated and integrated. This understanding affects how you design and implement solution
and it is the ground of discussion with customers representatives in this sector. They may
have little knowledge of Oracle but, mostly, are good accountants.

Purpose
This whitepaper will provide a detailed overview of accounting events, entries, and source.
Such an overview may help:
Customers representatives design a better chart of accounts
Consultants justify decisions taken to setup system parameters and options

Scope
This whitepaper will cover Oracle R12 Payables except for transactions related to:
Encumbrances
Oracle Internet Expenses
XML Gateways and iSuppliers
Automatic Offsetting
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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Cash Pooling

Audience
This whitepaper is aimed to super users and functional consultants and implementers as well
as applications auditors.

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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables


Determinants - Accounts
Payables Journal Entries are controlled by the definition of:
1. Financials options
2. Payable options
3. Supplier Site
4. Bank Account
5. Withholding Tax
6. Invoice
7. EB-Tax
Account

Qualifier

Financials
Options

Liability

Prepayment

Asset

Bills Payable

Liability

Discount Taken

Expense

PO Rate Variance Gain

Revenue

PO Rate Variance Loss

Expense

Expenses Clearing

Expense

Miscellaneous

Expense

Retainage

Liability

Realized Gain

Revenue

Realized Loss

Expense

Rounding

Expense

Freight

Expense

Tax Difference Account

Liability

Interest Expense

Expense

Interest Liability

Liability

Liability

Payable
Options

Supplier
Site

Bank
Account

Cash

Asset

Cash Clearing

Asset

Bank Charges

Expense

Bank Errors

Expense

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Invoice

Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Financial Options Accounts

Figure 1

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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Payables Options - Currency

Figure 2

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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Payables Options - Invoice

Figure 3

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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Payables Options - Interest

Figure 4

Supplier Site Accounting

Figure 5

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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Bank Account Control

Figure 6

Withholding Tax

Figure 7
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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Determinants - Options
Payables Hierarchy
If an account can be defined in more than one place, Oracle Payables applies the following
hierarchy, where lower level can override higher level(s):

Figure 8

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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Payables Options
Have a role in determining accounts to be defaulted for:

Prepayment
Bills Payable
Discount
Interest

Payables Options Accounting Options

Figure 9

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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Payables Options Withholding Tax

Figure 10

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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

Payables Journal Entries


Oracle Payables has the following accounting events:
1. Invoice
2. Prepayment
3. Prepayment application
4. Payment
5. Payment maturity
6. Reconciliation

AP-1 Invoice
20B

Accounts

Debit

Expense (or AP Accrual) (1)

Tax (2)

Freight (3)

Credit

Retainage (4)

Liability (5)

Invoice Price Variance (IPV) (6)


P

Quantity Variance (7)


P

PO Exchange Rate Variance (ERV) (8)


P

Tax Variance (9)


P

Accounts

Debit

Retainage (10)

Tax

Liability

Accounts
Interest Expense (11)
P

Interest Liability

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Credit

Debit

Credit

X
X

Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

(1)

Expense account is usually used if invoice is entered manually. AP Accrual account is


defaulted by system if invoice matched against Receipt/PO for goods items

(2)

Tax (e.g., Sales Tax or VAT) is defined in Oracle EB-Tax and inserted upon invoice validation

(3)

Freight account is defaulted if a line of type Freight is used and allocated to line(s) of
type Item

(4)

Retainage account is defaulted if invoice is matched to a service procurement PO/Receipt

(5)

Liability account is sourced from Suppliers Site

(6)

Quantity Variance results if, upon matching invoice to PO/Receipt, quantity entered for
invoice is different from this specified in PO. For inventory items, variance booked to
Inventory AP Accrual Account defined in Organization Parameters window in Inventory.
For expense items, it booked to Expense AP Accrual Account

(7)

Invoice Price Variance results if, upon matching invoice to PO/Receipt, price entered for
invoice is different from this specified in PO. For inventory items, variance booked to
Invoice Price Variance Account defined in Organization Parameters window in Inventory.
For expense items, it booked to Charge Account

(8)

PO Exchange Rate Variance results if, upon matching invoice to PO/Receipt, Foreign
Currency Exchange Rate entered for invoice is different from this specified in PO. For
inventory items, variance booked to Exchange PO Rate Variance Gain or Loss Account. For
expense items, it booked to Charge Account

(9)

Tax variance results if, upon matching invoice to PO/Receipt, tax on invoice is different
from tax on PO. Three tax-related variances can occur:

Tax Rate Variance (TRV) when there is a difference between invoice and PO
distributions due to difference in tax rate. For inventory items, variance booked to
Invoice Price Variance Account defined in Organization Parameters window in
Inventory. For expense items, it booked to Charge Account

Tax Invoice Price Variance (TIPV) when there is a difference between invoice and PO
distributions due to price variance. For inventory items, variance booked to Invoice
Price Variance Account defined in Organization Parameters window in Inventory. For
expense items, it booked to Charge Account

Tax Exchange Rate Variance (TERV) when there is a difference between the invoice
and PO distributions due to exchange rate variance. For inventory items, variance
booked to Exchange PO Rate Variance Gain or Loss Account. For expense items, it
booked to Charge Account

Tax Quantity Variance (TQV) is calculated, but is shown as a non-variance distribution

(10) Retainage account is debited upon creating an invoice of type Retainage Release
(11) Interest Expense account is debited for system created invoice of type Interest on
condition that Payables Option for interest = System Account. If Prorate Across Invoice
selected, original invoice distribution(s) will be debited

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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

AP-2 Prepayment
Accounts
Prepayment (12)

Debit

Credit

Liability

(12) Prepayment account is sourced from Suppliers Site

AP-3 Prepayment Application


Accounts
Liability

Debit

Credit

Prepayment

Tax Difference (13)

(13) Tax Difference account is defaulted if tax applied for invoice is greater than this applied for
prepayment. If it is lesser, workaround is needed to prohibit crediting Tax difference
account (review 3-198 of Oracle Payables User's Guide)

AP-4 Payment
(Maturity date = Current date)
Accounts
Liability

Debit

Credit

Cash Clearing (14)

Discount Taken (15)

Withholding Tax (16)

Realized Gain/ Loss (17)

(14) Cash Clearing account is sourced from Bank Account


(15)

Discount Taken account is defaulted if an accelerated cash payment term (e.g., 2/10,
net/30) is used and payment is made during the discount period

(16) Withholding Tax account is credited upon payment on condition that Apply Withholding
Tax = At Payment Time

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Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

(17) Realized Gain or Loss results if Foreign Currency Exchange Rate upon payment is different
from this used upon accrual (in invoice)

(Maturity date = Future date)


Accounts
Liability

Debit

Credit

Withholding Tax

Bills Payables (18)

(18) Bills Payables account is default from either Bank Account (Organization Access> Payables
Options) or Suppliers Site according to option specified in Payables Options (Note: instead
of Bank Account, the form erroneously used Payment Document which is no longer
available in R12)

AP-5 Payment maturity


Accounts
Bills Payables

Debit

Credit

Cash Clearing

Discount Taken

Realized Gain/ Loss (19)

(19) Realized Gain or Loss results if Foreign Currency Exchange Rate upon maturity is different
from this used upon payment

AP-6 Clearing
Accounts

Debit

Cash Clearing

Bank Charges / Errors (20)

Cash
Realized Gain/ Loss (21)
Rounding (22)

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Credit

Accounting in R12 Oracle Payables

(20) Bank Charges or Error account is used for difference between cleared amount and
transaction amount. Cash Management checks the Tolerance Differences parameter (in
Bank Account Controls region of Bank Account) to determine whether the difference is
due to charges or errors.
(21) Realized Gain or Loss results if Foreign Currency Exchange Rate upon clearing is different
from this used upon maturity
(22) Rounding account may be used upon payment, maturity, or clearing if:

Multiple currencies are used with bank account and payment currency does not round
within payment currency precision.

Functional currency amount of payments do not equal amount of liability.

Out of Scope Accounts

Expenses Clearing: is used as a temporary account to record credit card transaction


activity related to Oracle Internet Expenses.

Miscellaneous: Used only when importing invoices submitted in XML Gateway.

Foreign Exchange Charges: used with Cash Management Cashflow as on option to


account for differences between cleared amount and transactions amount

Information Sources
o Oracle Payables User's Guide Release 12.1 Part No. E12797-04
o Oracle Payables Implementation Guide Release 12.1 Part No. E12795-04

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