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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF

CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY 10 % FLY ASH AND 4 % SILICA FUME

ABSTRACT:-In developed countries use of mineral admixtures such as fly ash


and silica fume has already adopted in making concrete. This includes
commercial application on large scale either for addition or for replacement of
cement. In India too much replacement has been already accepted with the
introduction of ready mixed concrete and the process has been accelerated in
recent times. An investigation was undertaken to study the effects of fly ash
and silica fume in concrete. Mechanical properties at different levels of
replacements were found. Silica fume from M/S Elkem India Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai
and fly ash from Vijayawada thermal power station, Vijayawada, A.P were used.
Maximum size of coarse aggregate was 20 mm. water to cementitious materials
ratio was 0.4 Cement replacement levels by fly ash were 0, 10 by silica fume
were 0, 4 percentages. Compressive, were found at the age 7 days. The results
are presented in tables and graphs.

Introduction:- In India about 110 million tones of fly ash have been
produced by 68 major thermal power stations and are likely to be doubled
within the next 10 years. It has been a published fact from research that
waste silica fume etc., through their use as construction materials can be
converted into meaningful wealth.The fly ash in concrete makes efficient
use of product of hydration of cement, such as calcium hydroxide (C-H)
which is otherwise a source of weakness in normal cement concrete
converts it into denser and stronger C-S-H compounds by pozzolanic
reaction
A properly proportioned fly ash and silica fume in concrete mix improves
properties of the concrete that may not be achievable through the use of
Portland cement alone. The resulting concrete mix becomes strong,
durable and economical and also eco-friendly as it utilizes an ecological
hazardous material. Extremely small size of silica fume is to be beneficial
for replacement of cement in conventional concrete. Researchers have
reported that silica fume having smaller in size and round shape fill the
voids between the coarser cement particles otherwise the same may be
occupied by water.

ADVANTAGES OF SCMS (Supplementary cementitious


materials ) IN CONCRETE MIXTURE: Reduced heat of hydration
Refinement of pore structures
Reduced permeability to external agents
Enhanced resistance to chemical attack
INTRODUCTION TO FLY ASH:Fly ash is finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of
powdered coal and transported by the flue gases and collected by
electrostatic precipitator. Fly ash is the most widely used
pozzolanic material all over the world. In the recent time, the
importance and use of fly ash in concrete has grown so much that
it has almost become a common ingredient in concrete,
particularly for making high strength and high performance
concrete.Extensive research has been done all over the world on
the benefits that could be accrued in the utilization of fly ash as a
supplementary cementitious material. High volume fly ash
concrete is a subject of current all over the world.
ADVANTAGES OF FLY ASH:

Reduced cost of production

Increased workability of the mix due to rounded shape of the fly ash
particles

Reduced dosage of super plasticizer to achieve a target workability

Improvement in the microstructure of the transition zone by pore


refinement due to pozzolanic action and thereby enhancement of
durability.

MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION

Reduced overall heat of hydration

Hydrated silicate group, Ex: Kaolinite

Carbonate group, Ex: Calcite and Siderite

Sulphates group, Ex: Marcasite and Pyrites

Accessory minerals, Ex: Quartz, Feldspar, Apatite


On instantaneous combustions at high temperatures in the boilers,
these minerals undergo thermal changes to products like Mullite,
Magnetite, Hematite, Quartz, Tridymite and Glass in the fly ash.

SILICA FUME:

Silica fume, also referred to as micro silica or condensed silica fume, is


another material that is used an artificial pozzolanic admixture. It is a
product resulting from reduction of high purity quartz with coal in an
electric arc furnace in the manufacture of silicon or ferrosilicon alloy.

Silica fume rises as an oxidized vapour. It cools, condenses and is


collected in bags. It is further processed to remove impurities and to
control particle size. Condensed silica fume essentially silicon dioxide
(more than 96 percent) in no crystalline form.

Silica fume as an admixture in concrete has opened up one more chapter


on the advancement in concrete technology.

The use of silica fume in conjunction with super plasticizer has been the
backbone of modern high performance concrete. It should be realized that
silica fume by itself, do not contribute to the strength dramatically,
although it does contribute to the strength property by being very fine
pozzolanic material and also creating dense packing and pore filler of
cement paste

ADVANTAGES OF MICRO-SILICA/SILICA FUME:-

The silica fume has a profound effect on strength, impermeability and


hence durability which are the main consideration in the HPC. With high
cement content, use of super-plasticizer with low w/c ratio provides a
good remedy.

In many field applications, concrete is required to meet certain specific


performance requirements besides high strength.

Pre-stressed concrete bridges the concrete should have not only strength
but also reduced shrinkage and creep. For bridges, off-shore structures,
high-rise

buildings,

highways

and

airport

pavements,

machine

foundations concrete should posses high fatigue strength.

For nuclear containers exposed to very high temperatures, the concrete


must have less porosity is for the mix to have particles graded down to the
finest size. This is achieved by the use of silica fume which fills the spaces
between the cement particles and between aggregates.

COMPARISION OF PROPERTIES:FLY ASH:

Fly ash pozzolanic light grey powder.

It results from combustion of pulverized coal in electric power generating


plant. During combustion of mineral impurities such as clay and quartz
fuse and solidify in to spherical fly ash particles.

Most of particles are solid sphere and some are hollow cenosphere

Particle size 1 to 100.Typical size 20.

Surface area or fineness 2000 7000 Sq.cm/gm.

Silica up to 60-70 percent.

Carbon content 2-5 percent.

Sp. Gr. 2.2 2.8

Prevent alkali aggregate reaction

Reduction in sulphate attack in concrete.

Fly ash reduces water demand in concrete.

Water reduces or plasticizers are not required for workability point of view
while using fly ash in concrete.

Heat of hydration very low some times 40 percent that of OPC (ordinary
Portland cement).

Silica fume aids the early strength of fly ash concrete. Fly ash concrete
may give 1000 kg/Sq.cm compressive strength

SILICA FUME:

It is also pozzolanic dark grey or bluish green.

It results from reduction of high purity quartz with coal in an electric arc
furnace in the manufacture of silicon or ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume
rises as vapour at a temperature of 2000 deg C. it is then processed to
remove impurities and control particle size.

It is an airborne like fly ash spherical shape, noncrystalline.

Less than 1, typical size 0.1

200000 Sq

Silica > 90 percent.

Carbon content nil

2.10 2.25

Prevent alkali aggregate reaction

Reduction in sulphate attack in concrete.

Silica fume increases water demand in concrete. So it is preferable to use


water reducers with silica fume.

So water reducers or plasticizers must be required while using silica fume


in concrete.

Heat of hydration is increased by the presence of super plasticizers to an


amount greater than would be obtained with OPC.

Silica fume may give 2000 Kg/Sq.cm as compressive strength of the


concrete in which it is used.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS:M40 grade concrete is designed as per the design Mix and the
compressive strengths of the specimens are noted in the given table.A
total of 6 samples are tested for each case and the average of the 6 cubes
are taken as the final compressive strength.

7 DAYS CUBE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH RESULTS (M40


Grade Concrete)
MIX

TOTAL REPLACEMENT BY
COMPRESSIVE
FLY ASH SILICA FUME (%)
STRENGTH
(MPa)

0-0

0%

39.33

10 - 4

14 %

46.82

CONCLUSIONS: From the obtained results shown in tables it can seen that
supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) used are
comparable with materials used elsewhere in concrete
making. Silica fume used, however, contained only 84
percent of silica, compared to above 90 percent value of that
available in Norway and some other countries.
The results indicate that compressive strength increased. The
results of cube compression strength. This may be due to the
fact that the increase of strength characteristics in concrete
due to the pozzolonic reaction and filler effects of silica fume.