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ANSYS
(Analysis Software)
1.0
FINITE ELEMENT CONCEPT
Finite element analysis simulates physical system and their loading conditions mathematically.
Analysis seeks to approximate the behavior of an arbitrary shaped structure under general
loading and constrain conditions. A continuum is divided into discrete number of small regions
called finite elements, whose behavior is easily understood. The entire system is then co-related
to such elements to study the integrated behavior.
1.2

ADVANTAGES OF FEM
Any complex structure can be analyzed
Different boundary conditions can be incorporated suitably
Complicated material properties such as anisotropy, non-linearity can be incorporated
The conventional method of analysis of beam, plates, shells etc are distinctly different from
one another, FEM on other hand adopts uniform approach for all type of structures

1.3

STEPS IN FEM
Discretization of continuum
Selection of displacement model
Derivation of element stiffness matrix
Assembly of element stiffness matrix & application of boundary
Solution for unknown displacements
Computation of element strains & stress from nodal displacement

Element: Element is an entity, into which a system under study can be


divided into. An
element definition can be specified by nodes. The shape (area, length and volume) of the
element depends upon the nodes with which it is made up of.
Nodes: Nodes are the corner points of the element. Nodes are independent entities in the
space. These are similar to points in geometry. By moving a node in space an element shape
can be changed.
.
Degrees of freedom: The mobility at each node, which is used to represent the behavior of
the systems, called the degrees of freedom or the number of independent co-ordinates required
to describe the motion of a system is called degrees of freedom of the system. Thus a free
particle undergoing a general motion will have three degrees of freedom, while a rigid body will
have six degrees of freedom. i.e., three components of position and three angles defining the
orientation. Further more, a continuous elastic body will require an infinite number of coordinates to describe its motion; hence, its degree of freedom is infinite.
In ANSYS the transnational degrees of freedom is represented by U (say Ux, Uy, Uz) and
rotational degrees of freedom is represented by ROT (say ROTx, ROTy, ROTz).
Units and consistency:
Almost all the softwares are independent of the system of units to be used. So it is the
responsibility of the user to use consistent units, CAE softwares wont take care the consistency
of units. Depending on the model dimensions, material properties are to be supplied.
1.4 H- Adaptivity and P-Adaptivity: In traditional finite element analysis as the number of
elements increases, the accuracy of the solution improves. The accuracy of the solution can be
measured quantitatively with various entities, such as strain energies, displacements, and
stresses and so on.
H-Method (Hierarchy Method): In this, to improve the accuracy of the solution we go for a
smaller element size than the existing size there by increasing the number of elements. This is
the usual h-adaptivity method. Each element is formulated mathematically with a certain
predetermined order of shape functions. This polynomial order does not change in the hadaptivity method. The elements associated with this type of capability are called the helements.

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P-Method (Polynomial Method): A different method to modify the subsequent finite element
analysis on the same problem is to increase the polynomial order in each element while
maintaining the original finite element size and mesh.
The increase of the interpolation order is internal, and the solution stops automatically once a
specified error tolerance is satisfied. This is known as the p-adaptivity method. The elements
associated with this capability are called the p-elements.
H-P Method: These two methods can be combined to modify the subsequent analysis on the
same model by simultaneously reducing the element size and increasing the interpolation order
in each element.
This combination is called mixed hp-adaptively.
All the
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

fem packages do the following tasks


Accepting input data
Calculation of element stiffness matrices
Assembly of element stiffness matrices
Solution of simultaneous equations
Calculation of stresses from displacement

1.5

VARIOUS STAGES IN FE ANALYSIS


1.

PREPROCESSING
a) Create or import model geometry
b) Define material properties
c) Choose element type
d) Define geometric constants
e) Generate Finite element Mesh
2. SOLUTION
a) Apply boundary conditions
b) Apply load
c) Solve for unknowns
3. POSTPROCESSING
a) Review results like displacement, stresses, reactions etc.
b) Check validity of solution
Structural analysis is the most common application of the finite element method. The term
structural implies naval, aeronautical and mechanical & civil structures. Various types of
structural analyses are carried out using FEM.
Following are the various types of analysis
Structural Analysis
Thermal Analysis
Vibrations and Dynamics
Modal Analysis.
Buckling Analysis
Harmonic Analysis
Acoustics
Fluid flow simulations
Crash simulations
Mold flow simulations
The primary unknowns (nodal degrees of freedom) calculated in a structural analysis are
displacements. Other quantities, such as strains, stresses, and reaction forces, are then derived
from the nodal displacements.
1.6
Available FEM software Packages
ANSYS (General purpose, PC and workstations)
SDRC/I-DEAS (Complete CAD/CAM/CAE package)
NASTRAN (General purpose FEA on Mainframes)
LS-DYNA 3D (Crash/impact simulations)
ABAQUS (Nonlinear dynamic Analysis)
NISA (A General-purpose FEA tool)
PATRAN (Pre/post processor)

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HYPERMESH (Pre/post processor)


SOLIDWORKS/COSMOS (Complete CAD/CAM/CAE package)

Expt.No: 1

Static Analysis of 2D Transmission Tower

Aim: To perform static Analysis of 2D Transmission Tower as shown in fig.


Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: Link 180
Problem Description:
Material Properties: E= 200GPa
Geometrical Properties: Cross-section area of Truss = 6.25x10-3 sq. m

Diagram:

Results:
1. The Deflection at each joint = -----------2. The stress in each member = ------------3. Reaction forces at the base = ------------

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Practice Problems
1. Static Analysis of Truss Member
Aim: To perform static Analysis on Truss as shown in fig.
Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: Link 180
Given data:
Cross-section area of Truss = 3x10-4 sq m
E= 2.07x1011 N /sq m
Diagram:

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Results:
1. The Maximum stress = --------- Pa
2. Reaction forces at Node 1 and Node5.
3. Compare the above results with the theoretical values.

2. Static Analysis of 2D Four-bar Truss


Aim: To perform static Analysis on Truss as shown in fig.
Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: Link 180
Given data:
Cross-section area of Truss = 60 sq.mm
E= 20000N/mm2

Diagram:

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Results:
1. The Maximum stress = --------- Pa
2. Nodal Displacements
3. Reaction at the joints

Expt.No: 2

Static Analysis of 3D Space Truss

Aim: To perform static Analysis on 3D space truss as shown in fig.


Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: Link 180
Given data:
Cross-section area of Truss = 10x10-4 m2
E= 210GPa
All dimensions are in meters
Diagram:

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Results:
1. The Maximum stress = --------2. The Maximum displacement = ----------

Practice Problem
1. Static Analysis of 3D Space Truss

Aim: To perform Static Analysis on 3D space truss as shown in fig


Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: Link 180
Given data:
Cross-section area of Truss = 4in2
E= 30x106 Psi
All Dimensions are in inches
Diagram:

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Nodes 1-4 are supported by ball and socket joints


Results:
1. The Maximum stress = --------2. Reaction forces at end supports

Expt.No: 3

Date:
Bending Stress Analysis on Beam

Aim: To perform Bending stress analysis on beam


Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: Beam 188 and Beam 189
Given data:
Width and Height of the Beam =0.346 meters (Square Cross-section)
E= 2.8X1010 Pa
Diagram:

Results:
1. The Maximum stress = --------2. Deformation of the Beam
3. Maximum bending stress along the beam
4. Bending moment along the beam

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Practice Problems
1. Static Analysis of Overhanging Beam

Aim: To perform Static analysis of an overhanging beam


Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: Beam 188 and Beam 189
Given data:
Breadth = 300mm and Height of the Beam =0.346 meters, E= 2x10 5N/mm2. Poissons
ratio=0.25
Diagram:

Results:
1. The Maximum stress = --------2. Deformation of the Beam
3. Reaction Forces
4. Bending moment along the beam

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2. Structural Analysis of a Beam with Distributed Loads


Aim: To perform Structural analysis of a beam with distributed loads
Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: Beam 188 and Beam 189
Problem Description:
Material Properties: E = 206.7 X 109 Pa
Geometric Properties: l = 6.096m; a = 3.048m; h = 0.762m; A= 0.0326 m 2;
Izz= 3.283 x10-3m4
Loading: w = 145.9 x103 N/m
Test Case: A beam ,with a cross sectional area A, is supported as shown below and loaded on
the overhangs by a uniformly distributed load w.Determine the maximum bending stress in the
middle portion of the beam and the deflection at the middle of the beam

Results:
1. The Maximum stress = ---------

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2. The Maximum deflections = ---------3. Compare the above results with the theoretical values.
4. Solve the problem by increasing the number of elements and compare the results

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Expt.No: 4

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Static Analysis of an Axisymmetric Pressure vessel

Date:

Aim: To perform Static analysis of an Axisymmetric Pressure Vessel


Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: 8node183 (Plane183)
Problem Description:
Material Properties:

E = 14.5 Msi, Poissons ratio = 0.21

Geometric Properties: Pressure P=1700psi


Test Case:
The pressure vessel shown below is made of cast iron (E = 14.5 Msi, = 0.21) and contains an
internal pressure of p = 1700 psi. The cylindrical vessel has an inner diameter of 8 in with
spherical end caps. The end caps have a wall thickness of 0.25 in, while the cylinder walls are
0.5 in thick. In addition, there are two small circumferential grooves of 1/8 in radius along the
inner surface, and a 2 in wide by 0.25 in deep circumferential groove at the center of the
cylinder along the outer surface.
Diagram:

Results:
1. The Maximum stress = --------2. The Maximum deflections = ----------

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Expt.No: 5

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Static Analysis of a Curved Shell due to Internal Pressure

Aim: To perform Static analysis of a shell subjected to internal pressure


Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: 8node183 (Plane183)
Problem Description:
Material Properties:

E = 30x106psi, Poissons ratio = 0.3

Geometric Properties: Pressure P= 1 Psi


Diagram:

Results:
1. The Maximum stress = --------2. The Maximum deflections = ----------

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Date:

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Expt.No:6

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Buckling Analysis of a Column

Aim: To perform Buckling analysis of a column


Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Buckling
Element Type: Beam 188 or Beam 189
Problem Description:
Material Properties:

E = 2.1x105 Pa, Poissons ratio =0.3

Geometric Properties Length= 1000mm; Cross-section 10 mm x 10mm


Diagram:

LOAD = 1 NEWTON

Results:
1. The fundamental frequency of the system is ------------2. Draw at least three modes of the system.

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Expt.No: 7

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Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Date:

Aim: To perform Modal analysis of a cantilever beam


Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: Modal
Element Type: Beam 188 or Beam 189
Problem Description:
Material Properties: E = 206.8 x109 Pa; Poissons ratio = 0.3; Density =7830 kg/m3
Geometrical Properties: Izz= 8.333x10-10m4 ; A= 1x10-4m2, Height =0.01m
Test Case: A simple cantilever beam of 1.0 m, length is considered. Modal analysis is required
to be performed. The frequencies in both reduced and subspace method are to be determined.

Results:
1. The fundamental frequency of the system is ------------2. Draw at least three modes of frequency of the system.
3. Compare the above results with the theoretical values.

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Expt.No: 8

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Date:

Aim: To perform Harmonic analysis of a cantilever beam


Discipline: Harmonic
Analysis Type: Static
Element Type: Beam 188 or Beam189
Problem Description:
Material Properties: E = 206.8 X 109 Pa; Poissons ratio = 0.3; Density =7830 kg/m3
Geometrical Properties: I zz= 8.333e-10 m4 ; A= 1 x10-4m2, Height =0.01m
Test Case: A simple cantilever beam of 1.0 m, length is considered. Modal analysis is required
to be performed. The frequencies in both reduced and subspace method are to be determined.

Results:
1. The fundamental frequency of the system is ------------2. Draw at least three modes of frequency of the system.
3. Compare the above results with the theoretical values

Expt.No: 9

Steady state Heat Transfer Analysis in a Composite Material

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Date:

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Aim: To perform Steady state heat transfer analysis in a composite material


Analysis Type: Thermal
Element Type: Plane 2D quad-8-node
Given data:
Material Properties:

k1 (brick) = 0.8 kcal/m-hr-oc; k2 (cork) = 0.038 kcal/m-hr-oc;


k3 (wood) = 0.15 kcal/m-hr- oc

Test Case: This is a steady state transfer analysis of set of insulators, whose outer face
temperatures are defined. Conduction occurs in-between the insulators. The results of interest
are to plot nodal solutions and read the temperatures at the interfaces and also to obtain heat
flux value.

Results:
1. The interface temperatures = ---------------2

2. The heat flux = ------------------Kcal/m hr

3. Plot the graphs between the Temperature Vs Distance & Heat flux Vs Distance.
4. Compare the above results with the theoretical results.
5. Consider Plane 2D quad-4-node element and check the results.

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Expt.No: 10

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Flow Analysis of Gases in a Venturimeter

Date:

Aim: To perform flow analysis of gasses in a venturimeter.


Discipline: Structural
Analysis Type: CFD
Software used: Solid works 2013, Ansys workbench (fluent)
Given data: Dimensions of venturimeter, initial velocity = 40 m/s, gauge pressure = 1 pa

Solidworks sketch

Results:
1. Maximum pressure = -----------2. Minimum pressure = -----------3. Maximum velocity = -------------

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Expt.No: 11

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CFD Analysis of an Aerofoil

Aim: To perform CFD analysis of an aerofoil


Analysis Type: CFD
Software used: Ansys workbench (fluent)
Given data:
Profile of an aerofoil is shown in figure below; also the flow velocity of air is 2 m/s

Figure

Results:
1. Compute and plot the velocity distribution over the airfoil
2. Compute Lift and drag force

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Date:

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MATLAB Exercises

Expt.No: 12

Date:

Structural Analysis of a Bar using Link Element


Aim: To determine the nodal displacement, stresses in each material and reaction forces of the
given structural problem using link element also solve the problem in MATLAB and compare with
ANSYS solution.
Test Case:

Element type: Link 180


Geometrical and material specifications:
Aluminum: A1=2400 mm2, E1=70x109 N/m2; Steel: A2=600 mm2, E2=200x109 N/m2
Finite element model:

Result:
Parameter
1.Nodal displacement
mm
2. Stress in N/m2
3. Reaction forces in N

in

MATLAB
q1
q2
q3
s1
s2
r1
r2

ANSYS

2. Plot the maximum stress positions

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B)

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Structural Analysis of a Beam using Beam Element

Aim: To determine the nodal displacement, bending moments and bending stresses for a given
beam problem. Solve the problem in MATLAB and compare with ANSYS solution.
Test Case:

Element type: Beam 188 and Beam 189


Geometrical and material specifications: E= 200GPa, I=24x10-6
Finite element model:

Result:
Parameter
1.Nodal Displacement in

MATLAB

ANSYS

mm

2.Bending stress N/mm2


3.Bending moment N-m
Comment:

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C)

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Structural Analysis of a Plate using 2D Plane Element

Aim: To determine the displacement of node 1 and node 2 and the element stresses for plane
stress conditions using 2D CST elements. Solve the problem in MATLAB and compare with ANSYS
solution.
Test Case:

Geometrical and material specifications:


T= 0.5mm, E= 200x109N/mm2
Element type: Constant strain triangle
Finite element model:

Results:

1.

Parameter
1.Displacement at node 2 in mm
2.Displacement at node 2 in mm
3.Element stress in element 1 in
mm
4.Element stress in element 2 in
mm

2. Plot the maximum stress position.


Comment:

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MATLAB

ANSYS

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TUTORIALS
1. Nonlinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Aim: To perform Nonlinear analysis of a cantilever beam
Element Type: Beam 188 and Beam 189
Discipline: Nonlinear
Analysis Type: Static
Problem Description:
Material Properties: Ex = 34000 MPa; Ey = 6530MPa; Ez= 6530MPa; vxy = 0.217;
Vyz = 0.366; vzx = 0.217; density = 2.6x10-6 kg/mm3
Diagram:

Results:
1. The Translation displacements = ---------- mm
2. The maximum Stress = ----------

2. Coupled Field (Structural/Thermal) Analysis

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Aim: To perform couple field analysis on a solid structure connected with a link
Element Types: Thermal mass (Link33)
Discipline: Structural-Thermal
Analysis Type: Static and Thermal
Problem Description:
Material Properties: E = 206.8 X 109 Pa; Thermal conductivity= 60.5W/m *K
Thermal Expansion Coefficient = 12e-06/K.
A steel link, with no internal stresses, is pinned between two solid structures at a reference
temperature of 0 C (273 K). One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348
K). As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link, the link will attempt to expand.
However, since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such, stress is created in the link.

Results:
1. The stress in the link = ---------------- MPa.
2. Compare the above result with theoretical result.

3. Static Analysis of Plate with a Hole

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Aim: To perform Static analysis of a plate with a hole


Element Type: 2D Quad, PLANE 145
Discipline: Structural
Problem Description:
Material Properties: E=200GPa, Poissons Ratio=0.29.
Geometrical Properties:
Height =10mm
Width =20mm
Radius =5mm

Problem Description:
A steel plate with a hole in the center is subjected to a tensile pressure. Due to the symmetric
nature of the geometry and loading, only of the structure modeled (as shown below).
Symmetry boundary conditions are to be applied, and local convergence criteria be specified.
Results:
1. The Maximum stress = --------- Pa
2. The Maximum displacement = ---------- mm
3. Stress concentration Factor deformations
4. Compare the above results with the theoretical values.
5. Solve the problem by increasing the number of elements and compare the results

4. Heat Transfer Analysis of Chimney


Aim: To perform Steady state heat transfer Analysis of Cross section of Chimney.

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Discipline: Thermal
Analysis Type: Steady state heat transfer (h method)
Element Type: Solid, Quad 4 node, Plane 55
Problem Description:
Material Properties: K=1.0 Btu/hr-ft-0F, hi=12 Btu/hr-ft2-0F,h0=3.0 Btu/hr-ft2-0F(1Btu=0.293
watt-hr)
Geometrical Properties: a=4 ft, b=1 ft (1 Ft=30.48 cm)
Loading: Tg=1000 F, Ta=0oF

Result:

5. Solidification of a Casting
Aim: To perform analysis during solidification of casting

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Given data:
Material Properties for Sand: (1Btu=0.293 watt-hr), 1lb/in3=271 KN/m3, 1lb = 4.451N)
Conductivity (KXX) = 0.025Btu/ (hr-in-0 F);
Density (DENS) = 0.054 lb/in3
Specific heat (c) = 0.28 Btu/ (lb-0 F)
Conductivity for Steel (KXX):
At 00 F = 1.44Btu (hr-in-0 F) at 26430 F = 1.54 Btu (hr-in-0 F);
At 27500 F = 1.22 Btu (hr-in-0 F) at 28750 F = 1.22 Btu (hr-in-0 F)
Enthalpy for steel:
At 00 F = 0.0 Btu/in3; at 26430 F =128.1 Btu/in3; at 27500 F = 163.8 Btu/in3
At 28750 F =174.2 Btu/in3
Initial conditions:
Temperature of steel = 28750 F; Temperature of sand = 800 F
Convection Properties:
Film coefficient = 0.014 Btu (hr-in2 - 0 F)
Ambient temperature =800 F
Test Case: This is a transient heat transfer analysis of a casting process. The objective is to
track the temperature distribution in the steel casting and the mold during the solidification
process, which occurs over duration of 3 hours. The casting is made in an L-shaped sand mold
with 4 inch thick walls. Conduction occurs between the sand mold and the ambient air.

Results:
1. The maximum temperature is -----------------------2. Indicate the temperature distribution

6. Static Analysis of a Connecting rod


Aim: To determine the Maximum Stress locations in the given connecting rod.
Discipline: Structural

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Analysis type: Static


Element Type: 3D tetrahedron element.
Given data:
Material Properties:

E = 206.8 X 109 Pa; Poisson ratio = 0.3; Density =7830 kg/m3

Note: All Dimensions are in mm.

Results:
1. Indicate the maximum stress locations in the component.
2. The Von-Misses Stress ------------------3. The maximum deflection in the component ---------------------

VIVA Questions
1. What are the different approximate solution methods?
2. What do you mean by continuum?
3. Define term node?
4. Define term element?

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5. What is convergence?
6. What are the types of convergence?
7. What is p-convergence?
8. What is h convergence?
9. What is a higher order element?
10. Give example for higher order elements.
11. What do you mean by compatible elements?
12. What is geometric invariance?
13. Why do we use Pascals triangle in FEA?
14. What are the steps involved in FEA?
15. What is stiffness matrix?
16. How to obtain stiffness matrix?
17. What are the properties of stiffness matrix?
18. What is displacement function?
19. How to identify order of elements?
20. Mention different types of elements.
21. Mention some application of FEA.
22. What is connectivity?
23. What are the methods to improve problem solution?
24. Define symmetry in matrix.
25. What is plane stress?
26. What is plane strain?
27. Compare FEA with solid mechanics.
28. What are the packages available for FEA?
29. Define potential energy.
30. Define minimum potential energy.
31. Write potential energy equation for cantilever beam.
32. Mention two different methods to approach the model of physical system.
33. Difference between global coordinate and local coordinate?
34. What is local coordinate?
35. What is global coordinate?
36. What is shape function?
37. What are two general natural coordinate?
38. Mention the range of natural coordinate.
39. Number of shape function in CST
40. Number of shape function in quadrilateral.
41. Explain one point formula and Explain two point formula.
42. Why we are using polynomial equation in FEA?
43. Mention two schemes to represent band width?
44. What are forces involved in work potential?
45. What are anisotropic elements?
46. What are isotropic elements?

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47. What are the two different approaches to study elasticity?


48. List the properties of shape functions.
49. Define truss.
50. What is weighted residual methods?
51. What different methods to solve weighed residual problem?
52. Explain the principle of virtual work?
53. Mention some advantages of FEA over solid mechanics.
54. Mention different types of elastic constants.
55. Which is the most accepted form of numerical integration in
FEM?
56. List the different approaches to derive integral equation.
57. What are the different types of errors in FEA?
58. Define Beam & Its types.
59. Define Conduction, Convection and radiation.
60. Define Heat flux, Heat flow & Heat generation
61. Define adiabatic surfaces.
62. Define Density, film coefficient.
63. Define Thermal gradient & Thermal conductivity.

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