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VOL. I
INDEX OF SECTIONS
lor Ready Reference
S E C T IO N

Vv
PAGES

1. M IN E R A L O G Y ..........................................................................................

1 -5 3

2. G E O L O G Y A N D M IN E R A L D E P O S I T S .....................................

1 -3 4

3. E A R T H E X C A V A T IO N ..........................................................................

1 -1 9

4. E X P L O S IV E S .............................................................................................

1 -3 2

5. R O C K E X C A V A T IO N ............................................................................

1 -2 9

6 . T U N N E L IN G ..................................................................... ........................

1 -2 9

7. S H A F T S IN K IN G IN R O C K ...................................... ......................

1 -3 3

8 . S H A F T S IN K IN G IN UN STABLE A N D W A T E R B E A R IN G

G R O U N D .................................................................................................

1 -2 5

9. B O R IN G .......................................................................................................

1 -7 1

10. P R O S P E C T IN G , D E V E L O P M E N T A N D E X P L O IT A T IO N
O F M IN E R A L D E P O S IT S .............................................................

1-6 4 0

10-A . G E O P H Y S IC A L P R O S P E C T IN G ......................................................

1 -4 2

I t U N D E R G R O U N D T R A N S P O R T ........................................... ..

1 - 47

12. H O IS T IN G P L A N T , S H A F T P O C K E T S A N D O R E B I N S . 1 - 1 3 6
13. D R A IN A G E O F M I N E S .......................................................................

1 -2 1

14. M IN E V E N T IL A T IO N ...........................................................................

1 -6 6

IN D E X .............................. ............................................................................

1 -8 3

MINING ENGINEERS
HANDBOOK

MINING ENGINEERS
HANDBOOK
W R IT T E N B T A S T A F F O F F O R T Y -S IX S P E C IA L IST S
U N D E R T H E E D IT O R S H IP OF

ROBERT PEELE
L a t e P r ofesso r E m e r it u s o f M in in g E n g in e e r in g in
th e

S ch ool o p M in e s , C o l u m b ia U n iv e r s it y

W IT H T H E C O LL A B O R A TIO N OF

JOHN A. CHURCH
M in in g a n d M e t a l l u r g ic a l E n g in e e b

'

THIRD EDITION

IN TWO VOLUMES'
VOL. I

JOHN

WILEY

& SONS,

n c

New York Chichester * Brisbane 8 Tbronto

PUBLISHERS PREFACE

C o p t b i g h t , 1 9 1 8 , 1 9 2 7 , 1941

BY

JO H N W ELEY & SONS, I nc .

1918 Copyright renewed 1945

A ll Rights Reserved
Reproduction or translation o f any part o f this work beyond that
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right Act without the permission o f the copyright owner is unlaw
ful. Requests for permission or further information should be
addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Copyright Canada, 1941, International Copyright, 1941


J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , I n c ., Proprietors

All Foreign Rights Reserved


Reproduction in whole or in part forbidden

THJBD EDITION

20

ISBN O471 67716 7

P B X N T R 9 I N T H E TTN ITBD S T A T E S OF A M E B IC A

In making plans for new editions o f our handbooks in mechanical engineering and in
electrical engineering, it soon became clear that engineering science and practice had
developed to such an extent that handbooks were growing beyond all practical bounds.
They had become both bulky and inconvenient and contained much duplicated material.
In order to solve the problems presented b y these conditions, the editors o f our various
handbooks were asked to serve as an advisory editorial board.
This board recommended, first, that the fundamental material underlying all engi
neering be published in a separate volume, and, second, hat the existing handbooks as
they are revised be issued in several volumes containing material closely related to the
specialized branches o f engineering. A s a result o f these recommendations, the Wiley
Engineering Handbook Series has been initiated, which in the beginning will comprise the
following: Eshbach s Handbook o f Engineering Fundamentals ; Kant s Mechanical
Engineers H andbook in tw o volumes, viz., Pow er and Design and Shop Practice ;
Pender s Electrical Engineers H andbook in two volumes, viz., Electric Pow er and
Communication and Electronics ; Peele s Mining Engineers Handbook.
This division has also made it possible to devote more space to the various topics so
that the entire new series of handbooks contains mqte complete information-on all topics
than heretofore has been possible. I t is our hope that this new plan will give engineers
information that is more useful, more -complete, and in more convenient form.
J o h n W e lb y & S o n s , I n c .

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION


The first edition of this book was published early in 1918. In preparing the second
edition, issued in 1927, many changes in subject matter were found necessary, as set forth
in the preface to that edition, and references to them need not be repeated here. Most
of these alterations were called for b y the progressive modifications of mining methods
and appliances, and the development of new methods. Much new matter was added,
some of the older text omitted, and some sections o f the book were almost entirely
rewritten.
Rewriting the present edition made necessary the radical revision o f text and illus
trations of Sections 3, 4, 5, 8 , 10, 10A, 12, 14, 15, 16, 22, 24, 26, 27, 32, 33, 35 and 40,
together with minor changes in many other parts of the book.
Especial attention is called to the following: (a) important new matter throughout
Section 10, on further changes in practice in Methods of Mining, b y James F.
McClelland, Vice President of Phelps Dodge Corp; (6) new articles 24 to 28 of renumbered
Section 45; (c) a valuable new Section 44, o n Petroleum Production, b y S. F. Shaw,
has been added; (<2) the marked advance o f ' Geophysical Prospecting during the past
decade has made advisable the addition of an entirely new Section 10A, on that subject,
b y Frederick W . Lee, of the 17. S. Geological Survey. This Section replaces, in greatly
expanded form, the data formerly contained in Articles 3 and 4 o f Section 10; (e) Section 14,
on Mine Ventilation, has been almost wholly rew itten b y George E . McEIroy, of the
TJ. S. Bureau of Mines; (f) radical revisions have also been made in Section 12, Hoist
ing Plant, Shaft Pockets and Ore Bins, b y Professor Philip B. Bucky, o f the Columbia
School of Mines, and o f Section 15, Compressed A ir Practice, b y A . W . Loomis, of the
Ingersoll-Rand C o ; (g) the wide development o f methods and devices for underground
handling and conveying of mineral has led to the transfer o f m ost o f the data, formerly
in Article 92 o f Section 10, to Section 27, the first part of which has been rewritten and
expanded, b y Walter M . Dake, Research Manager o f the McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.
The preparation of this edition has further required resetting the entire book. A
larger format was necessary, since the two volumes o f the Third Edition are N os V I and
V II o f the new Wiley Engineering H andbook Series. This change, together with the
extensive revisions of text already referred to, lias consumed much more time and labor
than were required for the second edition.
T o the list of deaths of the original Associate Editors, noted in the preface to the
second edition, the following names must now be added: Edwin S. Jarrett (Sec. 8 ),
F. Ernest Brackett (Sec. 14), Richard T . Dana (Sec. 15) T. R . Woodbridge (Sec. 29),
E. J. Hall (Sec. 30), and Charles H . Burnside {Sec. 36).
For various reasons, a number o f associate editors o f the second edition were unable
to serve again. Their places have been taken b y : Clinton L. Bogert (Sec. 3),
Samuel R . Russell (Sec. 5), Charles F. Jackson (Sec. 6 ), Ralph H . Chambers (Sec. 8 ),
Philip B. Bucky (Sec. 12), George E . M cEIroy (Sec. 14), A. W . Loomis (Sec. 15),
Walter M . Dake (Sec. 27), J. B. Morrow and staff (part I of Sec. 35), and Theodore
Baumeister, Jr. (Sec. 40). For further information as t o these accessions to the list oi
Associate Editors, see the Table of Contents.
It is a pleasure to acknowledge the efficient collaboration o f m y friend John A . Church,
in connection with this new edition. Besides being tiie Associate Editor o f Section 7,
on Shaft Sinking in R ock, he has done a large amount of work in revising manuscripts,,
as received from the contributors to the book, and in the preparation of illustration^
for the engraver.
R obebt P eelb
N e w Y obe ,

M arch, 1941

vii

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION


There is a considerable literature o f mining, comprising treatises, textbooks, m ono
graphs, papers published in the transactions o f engineering societies, and the contents
of the mining periodicals. The treatises and textbooks are largely descriptive, and are
intended chiefiy for students. Among the best known are those o f Foster, Hughes,
Haton de la Goupilliere, Khler Cambess6des, Gallon, Ponson, Bulman and Redmayne,
Bailes, Boulton, and Pamely. Though many of these books are antiquated in their
engineering features, some o f the older ones (as those o f Callon and Haton) contain
much that is still o f value, and mining engineers would do well to have acquaintance
with them. Besides the general treatises there are the more recent monographs of
Truscot, Hatch and Chalmers, and Denny, on the Witwatersrand goldfields, Charletons
Tin Mines o f the W orld, H oovers "Principles o f Mining, Finlays Cost o f Mining,
and a number of useful books on specific subjects relating to mining, or to the mechanical
engineering of mines.
A valid reason fo r bringing out a new Mining Engineers Handbook m ay be found
in the fact that the two already in existence either omit, or treat too briefly, many sub
jects which constitute important parts o f the professional equipment of the present day
mining engineer. It will be apparent, even on a cursor" examination o f the following
pages, that a handbook of mining must include a greater variety o f subject matter than
books on other branches of engineering, and that* tfle field to be covered is too wide to
be dealt with satisfactorily b y a single writer within* any reasonable period of time.
In February and March, 1913, the Editor o f this book outlined the table of contents,
and invited a number o f Associate Editors to contribute sections on their respective
specialties. Besides those sections dealing with mineralogy, ore deposits, methods of
prospecting, exploration and mining, and mining plant of all kinds, there are others on
certain branches o f civil, electrical and mechanical engineering. I t m ay be thought by
some that this collateral material occupies too much space in a book on mining. But,
in view o f the important part played b y the allied branches o f engineering in equipping
and operating m odem mines, the Editor believes the allotment of space is reasonable.
He has endeavored to meet the demands not only o f engineers concerned with the devel
opment and management of mines, but also of the large number of thc^e who have more
to do with, and greater interest in, the construction details involved in. the installation
o f plant. Therefore, the aim has been to supply such data on machinery, power plant,
electric transmission and structural design, as the mining engineer m ay need when in the
field and out o f reach o f his personal notes and technical library. For office use, there
is at the end o f each section a bibliography o f the more important books and papers on
the subjects dealt with.
In practice, no well-defined boundary exists between the fields o f work of the mining
engineer and the metallurgist. While, under some conditions and in some regions, the
mining engineers functions end with the winning o f the ore and its delivery to a custom
reduction works (mill or smelter), in other cases .the mining com panys plant includes
a concentrating mill, amalgamating or cyaniding works (as at many gold and silver
mines), or even a 3melting establishment, in planning the book, the question arose as
to how much space should properly be given to the processes o f ore treatment. To
cover any considerable part of the great field o f modem metallurgy would be imprac
ticable, without extending the work beyond the limits o f a single volume. Realizing
that the urgent need o f a companion Handbook o f Metallurgy must soon be supplied,
it was decided, as a compromise, to furnish condensed summaries of those processes of
treatment which are frequently carried on b y mining companies themselves. The book,
therefore, contains sections on ore-dressing, ore-testing, gold amalgamation, an outline
of the cyanide process, the preparation o f anthracite, bituminous coal and coke, and a
brief rsum o f certain facts respecting the selling, purchasing, and metallurgical treat
ment of ores, that are of immediate interest to the engineer in control o f mining
operations.
The relatively small space allotted to coal mining is due chiefly to three considerations:
first, a Coal-mining Pocketbook is already in existence; second, metal-mining methods

ix

PREFACE

are more varied than those for coal, due to the greater diversity in form and occurrence
of metalliferous deposits; third, having discussed in Section 10, under Metal-mining
Methods, the operations common to nearly all mining, the articles on coal mining are
properly confined to the methods and data peculiar to that branch of the industry.
The Question of supplying, cost data is difficult. A large number of itemized tables
are included in the sections on Cost of Mining, Exploitation of Mineral Deposits, Boring,
and other subjects, but costs of machines and apparatus are given sparingly throughout
the book. This has been judged best, because of frequent price changes, and the great
diversity of types of mechanical plant. In any case, to make close estimates, the engineer
must apply to the makers for current prices. In some parts of the book, the names of
machinery builders have been used freely, but without intention to indicate a preference
for the product of any particular maker.
While the Editor has aimed to make the style and arrangement uniform, he has had
good reason to realize the difficulty o f securing consistency in these matters, considering
the heterogeneous nature o f the subject matter, and the fact that it has been written
or compiled b y so large a corps of Associate Editors. In these circumstances, unity
and evenness o f treatment can hardly be expected, but an endeavor has been made to
observe a reasonable proportion between the length of each section and its relative
importance. T o save space, abbreviations are employed for a few words in common use
by engineers, and chemical elements and compounds are generally represented b y their
symbols.
The thanks o f the Editor are due to members of the staff for their painstaking work,
in many eases carried on in the intervals between pressing professional engagements
in the field, and to the Publishers for their liberal spirit of cooperation in facilitating
the preparation of the book. The Editor desires to express his especial appreciation
of the valuable suggestions and assistance in revising manuscript and correcting proof,
o f Professor Edward K . Judd, o f the Columbia School of Mines. It was planned to
publish this book in 1916. The breaking out of the Great War, about one year after
the work was begun, is responsible in large measure for the delay.
R obebt P bble
C olumbia. S chool op M in es ,

N ew Y o b x , December, 1917

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Arthur P. Ackerman. Rock Excavation.
Theodore Baumeister, Jr, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia
University; Consulting Engineer. Power and Power Machinery.
Clinton L. Bogert, Consulting Engineer. Earth Excavation.
Charles B. Breed, Professor o f Railway and Highway Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute o f Technology. Surveying.
Philip B. Bucky, E .M ., Associate Professor of Mining, School o f Mines, Columbia
University. H oisting Plant, Shaft Pockets, and Ore Bins.
C. H. Burnside, Late Associate Professor of Mechanics, Columbia University.
Engineers' Tables and Mathematics and M echanics.
P. Ernest Brackett, Late Mining Engineer. M ine Ventilation.
Ralph H. Chambers, D .E ng., Consulting Civil Engineer. Shaft Sinking in Unstable
and Waterbearing Ground.
H omer L. Carr, Mining Engineer. Shaft Sinking in Rock.
John A. Church, Jr., Mining Engineer. Shaft Sinking in Rock.
Walter M . Bake, Research Manager, Mining publications, M cGraw-Hill Publishing
Company Underground M echanical Loading, Conveying, and Handling.
Richard T. Dana, C.E., Late Consulting Engineer. Compressed A ir Practice, Earth
Excavation and Rock Excavation.
D. H. Davis, Chief Chemist, Pittsburgh Coal C o . Preparation and Coking o f
Bituminous Coal.
John V. N . Dorr, Metallurgical Engineer, New Y ork City. Gold Amalgamation and
Cyanidaiion.
Archibald Douglas o f Douglas & Armitage, Counsellors at Law, New York City.
M ining Laws.
Edward L. Dufourcq, Late Consulting Engineer. Gold, Amalgamation and Cyanidatum.
Edward B. Durham, Mining Engineer. A erial Tramways and Cableways.
Howard N. Eavenson, Mining Engineer. Coke.
J. K. Finch, Renwiek Professor of Civil Engineering, Columbia University.
Elements o f Hydraulics and Elements o f Structural Design.
J. R . Finlay, Consulting Mining Engineer. Coat o f M ining and M ine Organization
and Accounts.
Halbert P. Gillette, C .E . Earth Excavation and Rock Excavation
's, J. Hall, Late ^Professor o f Assaying, School o f Mines, Columbia University.
Aesayin'g.
V. D . Hanson, Preparation Engineer, Pittsburgh Coal Co. Preparation and Coking
o f Bitum inous Coal.
H . G. Haskell, E .M . Explosives.
Robert E. Hobart, Mechanical Superintendent, Lehigh Navigation Coal Go.
Drainage o f M ines.
Edwin C. Holden, Consulting Mining Engineer. Underground Transport.
Fletcher B. Holmes, A.B. Explosives.
Charles F. Jackson, Mining Engineer. Tunneling.
Edwin S. Jarrett, C.E. (The Late). Shaft Sinking in Unstable and Waterbearing
Ground.
Edward K. Judd, E .M ., Formerly Assistant Professor of Mining, School o f Mines,
Columbia University. Chemical and Physical Notes and Tables; Prospecting, Develop*

xii

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

ment and Exploitation o f M ineral D eposits; Underground Surveying; and Wages and
W elfare.
James Furman Kemp, Late Professor o f Geology, Columbia University. Geology and
M ineral D eposits.
Edward F, Kc-rn, Formerly Professor of Metallurgy, School of Mines, Columbia Uni
versity. Assaying.
Paul F. Kerr, Professor of Mineralogy, Columbia University. Geology and M ineral
D eposits and M ineralogy.
Arthur LaMotte, Ph.G., B.Se. Explosives.
Frederick W . Lee, Chief, Section o f Geophysics, U S Geological Survey. Geophysical
Prospecting.
F. J. LeMaistre, Ph.G., B.Sc. Explosives.
Robert S. Lewis, Professor o f Mining, University of Utah. Boring.
A. W . Loomis, Mechanical Engineer, Ingersoll-Rand Co. Compressed A ir Practice.
W . W . Lynch, E.M . Prospecting, Development, and Exploitation o f M ineral D eposits.
James F. McClelland, E .M ., Vice President, Phelps Dodge Corporation. Prospecting,
Development, and Exploitation o f M ineral D eposits and Engineers Tables.
George E. McElroy, Senior M ining Engineer, U S Bureau o f Mines. M ine Ventilation.
Charles M . M eans, Consulting Engineer, Pittsburgh. Electric Power for M ine Service.
Alfred J. M oses, Late Professor o f Mineralogy, Columbia University. Mineralogy.
Arthur Rotman, Consulting Engineer. Cost o f M ining and M ine Organization and
Accounts.
Robert Van Arsdale Norris, Late Consulting Mining Engineer. Drainage o f M ines.
S.
M . Parade;, Preparation Engineer, Pittsburgh Coal Co. Preparation and Coking
o f Bituminous Coal.
EC. L. Parr, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University. Mechanical
Engineering M iscellany.
Robert Peele, Professor Emeritus o f Mining Engineering, School of Mines, Columbia
University. Chemical and Physical N otes and Tables and Engineers Tables.
George S. Rice, Formerly Chief Mining Engineer, U S Bureau o f Mines. M in e A ir,
Gases, Dusts, H ygiene, Explosions, and Accidents.
Samuel R . Russell, Explosives D ept, E. I. D uPont de Nemours & Co. Rock Excar*
nation.
Reno H . Sales, Geologist to the Anaconda Copper Mining o , Butte, M ont. M ine
Geologic M aps and Models.
Walter I. Slichtef, Professor o f Electrical Engineering, Columbia University.
Electrical Engineering.
S.
F. Shaw, E .M ., Consulting Engineer, Westgate OE C o, Anglo-Canadian Oil Co,
Ltd, etc . Petroleum Production Methods.
Paul Sterling, Mechanical Engineer, Lehigh Valley Coal Co. Preparation and Storage
o f Anthracite Coal.
Arthur F. Taggart, Professor o f M in e rs Dressing, School o f Mines, Columbia
University. Boring; Breaking, Crushing, and Sorting o f Ores; and Testing o f Ores.
Edward D . Thurston, Jr, Formerly Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University. Engineering Thermodynamics.
Arthur L. Walker, Formerly Professor of Metallurgy, School o f Mines, Columbia
University. Selling, Purchasing, and Treatment o f Ores.
William M . Weigel, E .M . H oisting Plant, Shaft Pockets, and Ore Bins.
William Young Westervelt, Consulting Mining Engineer. M ine Examinations,
Valuations, and Reports.
Horace V. Winchell, Late o f the California Bar. M ining Laws.
George R. W ood, Electrical Engineer. Electric Power fo r M ine Service.
T. R. Woodbridge, Late Consulting Metallurgical Chemist, U S Bureau o f Mines.
Ore Sampling,

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR VOLUME I


Detailed tables of contents are given at the beginning of each section.
appears following Section 14.
SECTION 1.

An alphabetical index

SECTION 9. BORING

MINERALOGY
P.QE

Identification of Minerals................... 02- 10


Occurrence and Association of Min
erals.. .......................................... ..
10- 11
Uses and Products of Minerals........... 12- 14
Descriptive and Determinative Tables. 16- 52
SECTION 2. GEOLOGY AND
MINERAL DEPOSITS
Geology: Hocks, Composition and
Occurrence........................................
02 17
Mineral Deposits, Metalliferous.........
18- 27
Mineral Deposits, Non-metallia.......... 2 8- 32
SECTION S. EARTH EXCAVATION
,
Economics, Physics, Mechanics.......... 02- 04
Excavating Equipment and Methods. 06- 17
Embankments and Dams...............
18
t SECTION 4. EXPLOSIVES
Chemistry and Composition............... 02- 09
Transport, Storage, Handling............. 10- 18
Charging and Firing; Blasting Sup
plies.........................................
19 31
SECTION 8 . ROCK EXCAVATION
Rock Characteristics........................... ...02Drill Bite; Hand and Machine Drilling. 03Blasting; Charging and Firing...............11Loading by Hand and Machine.............21Quarrying; Open-cutting; Trenching,. 23SECTION 6. TUNNELING
Examples and Organization................
Plant and Equipment.........................
Drilling, Blasting, Mucking, Tram
ming .............. ..............................
Ventilating, Timbering; Work in
Loose Ground...................................
Costs.....................................................

03
11
21
23
28

02- 06
06- 08
0820
20- 26
2 6 -2 8

SECTION 7. SHAFT SINKING


IN ROCK
Shape and Size of Shafts.....................
02Plant and Organisation.......................
03Thrilling, Blasting, Mucking, Ventilat
ing.......................... .........................
06Working Shafts; Raising of Shafts.,. .
11Wall Support: Timber, Steel, Con
crete, Etc..........................................
12Kind-Chaudron Method.....................
22Speed and Costs..................................
23-

03
06
11

12
22
23
32

SECTION 8 . SHAFT SINKING IN


UNSTABLE AND WATERBEARING
GROUND
Expedients; Piling........................... . 02- 08
Drop-shafts; Pneumatio; Honigmann. 06- 20
Freezing; Cementation and Grouting. 20- 24

Shallow Work: Augers, Spring-pole,


Empire Drill, Etc.............................
Oil-well Drilling, Casing, Sampling;
Directional Drilling; Costa..............
Churn Drilling for Prospecting; for
Blasting............................................
Diamond-drilling Equipment, Meth
ods, Costa.........................................
Shot or Calyx Drilling.........................
Surveying of Boreholes; Choice of
Boring Method................................

PASS
02- 09
09- 40
4 1 -4 4
44- 61
61- 63
63- 69

SECTION 10. PROSPECTING,


DEVELOPMENT, AND EXPLOITATION
OF MINERAL DEPOSITS
Definitions; Surface Prospecting........ 02- 33
Exploration by Boring; Sampling and
Estimating........................................ 34- 75
Exploration by Shafts, Tunnels, Etc;
Equipment....................................... 7 6- 80
Development: Entry, Drifts and Cross
cuts, Raises, Winzes......................... 81-123
Exploitation: Classification of Meth
ods; Breaking Ground..................... 123132
Open Stopes: Gophering, Breasting,
Room-and-pillar, Under- and Over
hand, Sub-level Methods................. 132197
Squaie-set Stoping; Mitchell and
other Systems; Timber Preservation 197-236
Filled Stopes, Horizontal, Inclined;
Resuing; Crosscut Method............. 237-274
Shrinkage Stopes.................- .............. 274-297
Caving Methods: Top-ahcing; Sublevel Caving; Bioek-caving............. 297-371
Combined Methods: Boston Con,
Ray, Miami, DeBeers, E tc............. 371-398
Mining through Boreholes; Leaching
Ore in Place; Chutes and Gates;
Mechanical Handling; Sand Filling;
Choice of Mining Method...........
398-438
Open-cut Mining, Hand- and Machine
loading; Glory-holing; Coal Strip
ping. .............................................. .. 430-472
Coal Mining: Room-and-pillar; Rob
bing Pillars; Longwali..................... 472-619
Ground Movement and Subsidence... 519-533
Placer and Hydraulic Mining; Sluices
and Riffles; Elevators; Dredges and
Dredging; Drift Mining; Thawing.. 533-619
Mining Alluvial Tin in Malaya.......... 619-629
SECTION 10-A. GEOPHYSICAL
PROSPECTING
Gravimetric, Magnetic, and Electrical
Methods.................................. .
02 21
Seismic Prospecting............................. 21- 26
Temperature,
Radioactivity,
and
Micro-gas Surveys; Choice of
Method............................................. 26- 29

xiii

xiv

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

Physical Properties of Rocks and Min


erals. ................................................

SECTION 11. UNDERGROUND


TRANSPORT
General Considerations; Primitive
Methods...............................................02- 03
Mino Cars, Track, Dumps.....................03- 32
Tramming; Animal Haulage... 3 2 -3 5
Locomotive Haulage........................... ...35- 41
Rope and Miscellaneous Haulage;
Costs; Accidents.............................. ...41 46
SECTION 12. HOISTING PLANT,
SHAFT POCKETS, AND ORE BINS
Hoisting Systems; Drums, Brakes and
Clutches; Sheaves............................ 02- 18
Hoisting Ropes: Vegetable-fiber; Wire 19- 29
Hoisting Cycles: Cylindrical, Conical,
Cylindro-conical Drums................... 2940
Hoists, Types and Calculations; Elec
tric, Steam, Comp-air, E tc.............. 42- 56
Windlass and whim................. ........... 57 58
ffniating in Deep Shafts; Examples
58 60
and Costs..............................
Headframes: Designs in Wood, Steel,
anii Concrete.................................... 61" 82

PAGE

Guides and Tracks; Signal Systems...


Buckets, Cages, Skips: Design and
Construction; Overwinding-----'----Shaft Pockets......................................
Ore Bins: Design and Construction.. .

82- 91
91-119
119-125
126-135

SECTION 1

SECTION 13. DRAINAGE OF MINES


Sources and Control of Mine Water;
Prevention....................................... 02- 04
Sumps, Dams, Tunnels, Siphons;
Hoisting of Water............................ 04- 11
Mine Pumps: Steam, Comp-air, Air
lift, Electric...................................... 11 21

MINERALOGY
BY
A L F R E D J. M O SES

SECTION 14. MINE VENTILATION


Mine Atmosphere; Ventilating Sys
tems .................................................. 02 07
Air Distribution; Velocity and Control 07 14
Auxiliary Ventilation; Leakage; Effect
of Mining Method........................... 14- 21
Measurements; Air Flow; Mine Re
sistance............................................. 2134
Ventilating Methods and Equipment:
Natural; Mechanical....................... 34- 44
Mine Fans: Characteristics, Applica
tions, Selection................................. 44- 54
Cooling and Air Conditioning............. 54- 64

T.ATT! PR O F E SS O R O F M IN E R A L O G Y , CO LU M BIA U N lV B E S il't


R E V IS E D B Y

PAU L F. K EU U
P R O F E SS O R O F M IN E R A L O G Y , C O LU M BIA U N IV E R S IT Y

PAGE

AST

For contents of other handbooks o f this series, see pages following Index of this volume.

DESCRIPTIVE AND DETERMINATIVE


TABLES
General Division

IDENTIFICATION AND STUDY


OF MINERALS
1. Definitions.......................................

2 . Identification by Aid of Crystals. .


3. Important Physical Tests not Directly
Dependent on Crystalline Structure
4. Testing with the Blowpipe.................
5. X-ray Methods of Study..................
Polished Surfaces of Metallic Ores. . .
Examination of Fragments of Non
opaque Minerals..........................
Examination of Thin Sections.......

GBOUP

7
9
9
10

10

OCCURRENCE AND ASSOCIATION


OF MINERALS
9.
10.
11.
12.

Minerals of Rocks and Veins........* .. 10


Minerals of Saline Residues................. ... 11
Minerals of Gravels, Clays, and Marls 11
Contact Minerals.................................. ... 11
USES OF MINERALS

13. Uses of Minerals in their Natural State


14. Products Extracted or Manufactured
from Minerals....................................

12

12

. .

1 2J Minerals of Metallic .or Sub-metallic


n.Luster, Black or Nearly Black in
''Color..............................................
3 4. Minerals of Metallio Luster, Tm
White. Silver White, Lead-Gray or
Steel-Gray in Color...........................
5, 6 . Minerals of Metallic Luster, Metallic
Yellow, Bronze or Red in Color----7, 8 , 9,10. Minerals of Non-metallio Lus
ter, with Decided Taste...................
11,12,13,14,15. Minerals of Non-metallio
Luster, Tasteless, with Colored
Streak...............................................
16,17,18. Minerals of Non-metallic Lus
ter, Tasteless, with White Streak,
Yielding Reactions on Charcoal with
Sodic Carbonate................................
19,20, 21, 22, 23, 24. Minerals of Non-me
tallic Luster, Tasteless, with White
Streak, Yielding no Tests with Sodic
Carbonate......................................
25. Mineral Substances not Easily Deter
minable by a Scheme.......................
Index to Determinative Tables..........
Bibliography.........................................

1-01

16
21
24
25
27

32

36
50
51
63

IDENTIFICATION BY AID OF CRYSTALS

1-03

Divisions or systems based oa symmetry. T he following seven divisions result


readily from this partial determination of symmetry, the statements not implying the
absence of other symmetry elements:
1. Isometric...............
2. Tetragonal.............
3. Hexagonal.............

IDENTIFICATION AND STUDY OF MINERALS

4. Hexagonal.............

1. DEFINITIONS

5. Orthorhombic. . . .

On the basis of several thousand analyses the crust of the earth for a depth o f about
ten miles is estimated b y Clarke, Data o f Geochemistry, to be composed almost entirely
o f compounds o f fourteen elements:

7. Triclinic.................

Per
cent

Per
cent

Per
cent

49.78
26.08
7.34
4.11
3.19

2.33
2.28
2.24
0.95
0.37

0.21

0.19
0.11
0.11

Total____ :...............

99.29

These great elements, and the sixty or so others which form the remaining fraction of
1 % , occur in approximately 1500 different chemical combinations, known as minerals;
that is, as homogeneous substances o f definite chemical com position, found ready-made in
nature, and not directly a product o f the life or decay o f an organism.
The two conditions in which minerals may occur. A mineral, like other chemical
substances, usually occurs either in crystals of characteristic shapes or in m a s s made up
o f many crystals so crowded together that the shapes are not evident, although in each
grain of the aggregation the crystalline structure will be shown b y the constancy o f the
properties in parallel directions and their variation in directions n ot parallel.
Any mineral m ay in solidifying fail to assume a crystalline structure, because o f too
great viscosity, or too rapid cooling, or other cause. I f this condition is invariable, the
mineral is said to be amorphous. Opal is the best example. Amorphous minerals are
few in number.

2. IDENTIFICATION BY AID OF CRYSTALS


T he forms o f crystals are often a great aid in mineral identification- Symmetry,
interfacial angles a id crystal habit are also o f value. Cleavage an&markings on crystal
faces axe significant. '
Symmetry. In every complete crystal there is some repetition o f angles and similarly
grouped faces. B y considering this so-called symmetry crystals m ay be grouped in
divisions, and as all crystals of any one mineral have the same grade o f symmetry,
they belong to the same symmetry division.
In identifying an Tia o f symmetry imagine or actually cause the crystal to revolve
about some prominent line through its centre. Note the groupings o f faces at the initial
position. N ote whether at any stage o f the revolution the crystal faces appear to be ail
coincident (rarely), or all parallel to the initial positions of other faces. Or, in other words,
note whether groups o f faces are replaced during the revolution b y other groups containing
just as many faces at exactly the angles o f the first set. If so, a probable axis o f symmetry
has been determined. I f b y measurement the angles o f one set correspond in value and
order with those of the other sets, then the existence o f the symmetry axis is confirmed.
According to the number .of times corresponding groups or faces recur during a complete
revolution about a symmetry axis the axis is known as two-fold, three-fold, four-fold, or
six-fold. These are the ordinary axes o f symmetry.
I f a plane so divides the crystal that on each side of that plane there are grouped the
same number o f faces at the same angles to it and to each other, this plane is called a
Plane o f Symmetry.

1
02

6 . M onoclinic.............

/ More than one axis o f three-fold symmetry. (Often also more


\ than one o f four-fold.)
One axis of four-fold symmetry and one only.
/ Rhombohedral division one axis of three-fold symmetry and
\
one only.
Hexagonal division one axis o f six-fold syinmetry.
Three axes of two-fold symmetry, but nothing higher than two
fold; or one axis of two-fold symmetry at the intersection
of two planes of symmetry.
/ One axis o f two-fold symmetry and one only, or one plane of
\ symmetry, or both.
Without axes or planes o f symmetry.

Distinguishing species by angles. Although different crystals o f the same substance


may differ-in shape, angles, and number o f faces, the angles between corresponding faces
are constant and characteristic.
Corresponding faces on the same crystal, or on different crystals o f the same substance,
occupy corresponding or analogous positions with reference to the symmetry axes and
usually correspond in lustre and markings. . They frequently do not correspond in shape.
The measuring of a few selected angles will, therefore, usually serve to differentiate
the crystal from others in the same symmetry division.
Angles may be determined within one or two degrees by a very simple apparatus, such as the
Penfield No. 2 goniometer, consisting of a cardboard <5n which is printed a graduated semicircle,
with an arm of celluloid swiveled by an eyelet in the centre of the semicircle, or better a similar
apparatus of metal with removable and adjustable arms. In using, the crystal is placed so that the
card edge and, the swinging arm, or the two metal arms, are each in contact with a face and perpen
dicular to the edge of intersection of the two faces, and the mean of at least three readings is used.
The cleavage directions, obtained as described later, are of great service in orientating the
crystal. These and the angles between them are used in the lists which follow each system.
Zones are composed of faces all parallel to the same line. Their intersections are therefore
parallel to this line and to each other.

Isometric crystals. I f a crystal shows m ore.than one axis of three-fold symmetry


it is an isometric crystal, and n ot otherwise. There will always be present, also, axes
of two-fold or four-fold symmetry. The faces are often squares and equilateral triangles,
or these modified b y cutting off corners. The dimensions are usually approximately equal
in several directions, the forms approaching sometimes to the sphere. Repetitions in any
crystal o f equal angles and corresponding faces are more frequent than in other crystal
systems.
Angles. These are of the same series whatever the species. The important species may be
classed by their habit ; that is, the dominant forms of the crystals, as follows:
Tetrahedral. (Tetrahedron angles, 70 310 boracite, sphalerite, tetrahedrite.
Cubic. With easy cubic cleavage: cobaltite, galena, halite; with octahedral cleavage: fluorite,
smaltite; without marked cleavage: argentite, boracite, cerargyrite, cuprite, pyrite.
Octahedral. (Octahedron angles, 109 29') chromite, cobaltite, cuprite, fluorite, frank]mite,
galena, gold, linnseite, magnetite, pyrite, spinel. Cleavages: galena, cubic; fluorite, octahedral.
Partings: franklinite and magnetite, octahedral.
Dodecahedral. (Dodecahedron angles, 120) boracite, cuprite, garnet, magnetite, sphalerite.
Trapezohedral. (24-faced trapezohedra, approximating spheres; common angles, 131 Id',
146 270 analcite, garnet, leucite.
Pyritohedral. (12-faced pyritohedra; most common angles, 126 53' and 113 350 cobaltite,
pyrite, smaltite.
Tetragonal crystals. I f the crystal shows one axis of four-fold symmetry, and only
one, it is a tetragonal crystal, and n ot otherwise. A section taken at right angles to the
four-fold axis is usually square or octagonal, or more rarely the angles are again truncated.
The dimension in direction o f the.four-fold axis is usually notably greater or less than in
directions at right angles thereto.
Angles, la the zone of faces parallel to the four-fold axis there are no variations in angle
dependent on the species. Between prominent corresponding faces the angles are almost always

1-04

IDENTIFICATION BY AID OF CRYSTALS

MINERALOGY

90, and between prominent adjacent faces either 90 or 135. The characterizing angles lie in
other zones.
,
, ,
...
, .
The principal tetragonal minerals may be classified by angles and cleavage as foilowss Angtes
between corresponding faces oblique to ike four-fold axis: chalcopyrite, 71 20'; wulfemte, 99 38 ;
scheelite, 100 5'; apophyllite, 105; braunite, 109 53'; cassitente, 121 41'; rutile, 123 8 ;
zircon, 123 19'; vesuvianite, 129 21'; wernerite, 136 15'.
_
Braunite scheelite, and wuifenite cleave at the angles mentioned. Wernerite and rutile cleave
parallel to the four-fold axis, giving angles of 90 and 135. Apophyllite cleaves at right angles to
the four-fold axis.
Hexagonal crystals. If the crystal shows one and only one axis of three-fold symmetry
it is a hexagonal crystal, rhombohedrai division. I f the crystal^ shows one and only one
gyjg 0f six-fold symmetry it is a hexagonal crystal, hexagonal division. A section taken
at right angles to the axis o f three-fold or six-fold symmetry is usually a hexagon, or its
most prominent edges form a hexagon or at least an equiangular triangle. N ot infre
quently each angle is replaced b y one or two smaller edges. The dim ension parallel to this
nvig ja usually notably greater or less than the dimensions at right angles thereto.
Angles. In the zone of faces parallel to the three-fold (or six-fold) axis there are no variations
in angle dependent on the species. The angles between prominent corresponding faces are chiefly
120 or 60. Other angles in this zone are usually large and their occurrence leads to an apparently
rounded, often nearly circular, cross-section. The characterizing angles lie in other zones.
The crystals of important hexagonal minerals may be classified by angles between corresponding
faces and by cleavage as follows:
L With evident axis of three-fold symmetry and usually rhombohedrai habit:
Angles which are both interfacial and between cleavage directions. Soda nitre, 73 30'; chabazite, 85 14'; hematite, 86 ; calcite, 105 V ; dolomite, 106 15'; rhodochrosite, 107; adente,
107; magnesite, 107 24'; smithsonite, 107 40'; proustite, 107 58'.
Angles which are interfacial only. Umenite, 85 31'; alunite, 90 SO'; cinnabar, 92 37';
willemite, 115 30'; phenacite, 116 36'; tourmaline, 133 8' or 103.
,
H. With real or apparent
of six-fold symmetry, and usually prismatic habit:
Prisms capped by faces oblique to axis and at angles, for example, corundum, 86 4' or 128 2 ;
quartz, 94 14' or 133 44'; apatite, 142 15'.
. ...
.
Prisms usually capped by single face at right angles to axis. Beryl, lodynte, mimetite, nephelite,
pyrargyrite, pyromorphite, vanadinite.
Tabular. Graphite, molybdenite, iridosmine.
Orthorhombic crystals. If a crystal shows either three axes of two-fold symmetry or
one axis with two planes of symmetry, and nothing o f higher symmetry, it belongs to the
orthorhombic system. Cross-sections taken at right angles to the axes o f symmetry are
in angles, and tend to rectangles and rhombs or to these combined.
Angles. There is no zone of faces which has a constant series of angles for all species.
The interfacial angles in the zones parallel to the axes of symmetry are unlike (except when 90)
and vary with the species. The orientation is brat obtained by reference to cleavages, and on this
basis the important species may be tabulated as follows:
L With one direction of cleavage which bisects prominent angles, for example: stibnite, 90 26';
sillimamte, 91 45'; goethite, 94 52'; manganite, 99 40'; brochantite, 104 32'; atacamite,
113 03'; staurolite, 129 20/. Topaz, with one direction of cleavage, has prominent angles 124 17'
and 90 11', not bisected by the cleavage.
n Crystals with two directions of cleavage or more than two in one zone, and common angles
between faces parallel to two such directions? columbite and olivine, 90; andalusite, 90 48';
nafcrolite 91 15'- enargite, 97 53'; hemimorphite, 103 51'; araenopynte, 112 27'; cerussite,
117a 14'; strontianite, 117 19'; aragonite, 118 12'; chalcoeite, 119 35'.
m Crvstals with three or more directions of cleavage not in one zone, and common angles
between faces parallel to such directions: anhydrite, 90; barite 90 and 101 38'; angledte, 90
e l d 1<^ 44'Tcelestite, 90 and 104 10'; stephanite, 90 and 107 44'.
Monoclinic crystals. If a crystal shows one and only one axis o f two-fold symmetry,
or one and only one plane of symmetry, or both, it is a monoclinic crystal. A ny face in
the zone of the symmetry axis makes a 90 angle with the symmetry plane (or a face
parallel to it). N o other 90 angles occur. The cross-section of the zone of the symmetry
axis is never rectangular, rarely rhombic and usually markedly unsymmetricaL
Anglftg. No zone has a constant series of angles for each species. In this system the one
symmetry plane, the one symmetry a m and the cleavages, all assist in the orientation leading to
the following tabulation:

Easiest cleavage

Angles in zone of
symmetry axis

Species

no 9% in w
Parallel to symmetry

M l 8 6', 124 18'


I 117

Perpendicular to sym-

( 135 14', 137 10',


t 132 45'
106 35'
124 58', 124 43'
Epidote........................ f 115 23', 128 19',
X 155 11'
( 140 48', 87 17',
t 126 29'
99 42', 129 44'
Orthoclase....................
90
130 6'

Angle between easiest


cleavages bisected by
plane of symmetry..'

105 50', 148 40'


Spodumene..................

no 20'
140 4y, 159
* \
.
90 9! 135

1~05

Angles bisected by
symmetry plane
1 107 56', 140 12',
( 126 9'
f 131 30', 143 48',
{ 138 40'
74 26', 132 y
108 2'
100 37', 98 6',
117 49'
99 19', 119 13',
90 53'
87, 122 33', 96 32'
91 58', 71 32'
70 4', 70 29',
63 5'
93 26'
118 47', 90 7'
119 58'
124 II', 148 28'
93 41', 119 10'
(87 10', 120 49,
I 331 31'
87, 91 26
( 113 31', 136 M',
I 67 57'
i l l 5 W , 120 56',
t 1)5 21

The micas and chlorites are usually pseudo-hexagonal.


Triclinic crystals. I f the crystal shows no axes nor planes of symmetry it is a triclinic
crystal. There will be no right angles either between faces or edg&s. The only correspond
ing faces will be opposite (parallel) faees. The crystals of some o f the m ost prominent
triclinic minerals, however, approximate in angles monoclinic crystals but are usually
b y the occurrence o f faces which have no symmetrically placed associates.
Anglea No angle will occur more than twice in any crystal. There are comparatively few
common triclinic species. The following table records a few of their most important angles.
Angles between the two easiest cleavages or the faces parallel
to the cleavages
The Plagioclases:
.............

94 10'

Other angles between common


adjacent faces
127 44', 120 46'
116 3', 98 46', 120 31'
128 3', 98 8', 120 54'

Rhodonite.................

.............

123 lO'

.............

87 32'

120 54'
110 10', 70 22', 103 27'
74 16', 131 42', 78 58'
107 24'

Cleavage and its value as a test. In any crystal, whether with characteristic external
form or not, the cohesion varies in different directions. Under strain there is frequently a
tendency to split or cleave perpendicular to the d ire ctio n s^ weakest cohesion in definite
planes, which are always parallel to possible faces o f simple crystals characteristic of the
substance. All crystals of the same substance yield like cleavages. The number of
directions o f cleavage and the angles between the cleavage planes are characteristic; more
over the cleavages serve to orientate the crystals in many cases. I f the individual crystals
are large enough, cleavage is obtained b y placing the edge o f a knife or chisel upon the
crystal and striking it a sharp, quick blow. I f the individual crystals are very small the
cleavage directions can usually be developed b y crushing with pressure or a blow, and
examining the fragments with a hand glass. In pyrotene, spodumene, corundum, mag
netite, and some other species, some specimens break easily in definite planes, while other*

MINERALOGY

TESTING WITH THE BLOWPIPE

do not. This is n ot true cleavage, but a secondary phenomenon due to pressure, and is
called parting.
Cleavage and parting shapes m ay be microscopically determined. T o do this, sieve
the crushed material through a 100-mesh screen upon a 120-mesh screen. Crushed frag
ments of transparent minerals m ay be placed on a slide, covered with a transparent liquid,
and examined b y the ptrographie microscope, as described b y E. S. Larsen and H. Berman,
SGS, B vll. 848 (1934) (Bib). Thin sections of massive, transparent minerals or rocks
m ay be examined as described in T hinsection M ineralogy, b y A. F. Rogers and P. P. Kerr,
McGraw-Hill, N Y , 1933.

Special specific-gravity balance. An improved form, suitable for non-porous solids, has been
described by Kerr. It is useful for rapid and accurate determinations. Though based upon the
usual chemical balance, it has a notched beam with rollers for weighing.
Heavy liquids. If a fragment of a mineral is floating in a liquid of higher specific gravity and a
diluent is stirred in, drop by drop, until the fragment if pushed down will neither sink nor rise but
stay where pushed, the specific gravity of the liquid as determined by a Westphal balance will be
the specific gravity of the mineral. The heavy liquids moat used are: clerici solution, a mixture of
thallium malonate and thallium formate (4.25), diluent, water; methylene iodide (3.32), diluent,
benzol; bromoform (2.90), diluent, xylol or benzol; solution of mercuric iodide and potassie iodide
(3.2), diluent, water.

1 -0 6

3. IMPORTANT PHYSICAL TESTS NOT DIRECTLY DEPENDENT ON


CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE
The most important o f these tests or characters are Luster, Color and Streak, Hard
ness, and Specific Gravity.
Lustre. The luster of a mineral is dependent upon its refractive power, its
transparency, and its structure. I t may be called the kind o f brilliancy or shine o f the
mineral.
In determinative work minerals are broadly divided into Metallic and Non-metallic.
Metallic luster is the luster o f metals. It is exhibited only b y opaque minerals, and these,
with the exception o f the native metals, have a black or nearly black streak. Opaque darkcolored minerals not distinctly non-metallic are said to be sub-metallic. Non-metallic
luster is exhibited b y all transparent or translucent minerals. It m ay be vitreous or
glassy, adamantine like the cut diamond, resinous like sphalerite, pearly like mother of
pearl, silky like fibrous serpentine, greasy like nephelite, or waxy like chalcedony.
Hardness. The resistance o f a smooth plane surface to abrasion is called its hardness
and is recorded in terms o f the following scale :
6 .0 Orthodase
1 .0 Talc
8 .5 Chrysoberyl
7 .0 Quartz
2 .0 Gypsum
9 .0 Sapphire
7 .5 Zircon
3 .0 Calcite
9 .5 Carborundum
4 .0 Fluorite
8 .0 Topaz
1 0 .0 Diamond
5 .0 Apatite
Approximations may be reached b y use o f finger nail (2 1 / 2), copper coin (3) and knife
( 5 112). Some smooth surface o f the mineral to be tested is selected, on which a point of
the standard is pressed and m oved back and forth several times one-eighth o f an inch or
less. If the mineral is scratched it is softer than the standard. Tw o minerals o f equal
ho.rdnp.afi will scratch each other. Pulverulent or splintery minerals are broken down
b y the test and yield an apparent hardness often much lower than the true hardness.
Rough surfaces also yield doubtful results.
Color and streak. The color o f minerals of metallic luster and the color o f the powder,
or streak, when n ot white, are very much used in sight recognition. Minerals with nonmetallic luster often vary greatly in color. The color is most safely obtained on a fresh
surface. The streak is usually obtained b y rubbing the mineral on a smooth but not
glazed white or black surface, such as a porcelain streak plate or a piece of touchstone
(black quartz). The excess o f powder should be brushed away and the thin adhering
layer considered.
Specific gravity. The specific gravity o f a substance is equal to its weight divided
b y the weight of an equal volume o f distilled water at 4 C. Ordinarily room temperature
is used. Pure com pact material is needed. The most accurate results are obtained b y a
delicate chemical balance, but for determinative purposes the following are more rapid and
sufficiently accurate.
The Jolly balance. Two scale pans are attached, oae below the other, to a spiral spring, parallel
to which is a mirror with a graduated scale. The lower scale pan is kept submerged in distilled
water. The coincidence of a bead on the wire and its image in the mirror give:
A = Heading with nothing in either scale pan.
B =

mineral in upper scale pan.


C=
H
same fragment in lower scale pan.
Sp Gr = CB - A) + (B - O
The Westphal balance; More accurate results are obtained by substituting for the thermometer
float of a Westphal balance a double scale pan, the lower pan of which must be immersed in distilled
water.
A = Weight needed to balance apparatus.
B =

with mineral ia upper scale pan.


C <=

lower scale pan;


Sp Gr <= (A - B) * (C - B)

1 -0 7

4. TESTING WITH THE BLOWPIPE


Apparatus.

The essential pieces o f apparatus for all the tests given are:

1. Either a gas blowpipe, or some form of burner for gas or heavy oil and a plain
blowpipe.
2. Platinum wire about 0.25 mm diameter. Six inches of it will make four wires. A
holder is needed.
3. Platinum-pointed forceps.
4. Charcoal in convenient sizes and with smooth surfaces (say 4 b y 1 b y 5/s in).
6 . Tubes of hard glass about 3 b y 3/l6 in, closed at one en d
6 . Pocket lens o f good quality,
7. Simple goniometer.
8 . Merwin Color Screen (G. M . Flint, Cambridge, Mass).
Por the other apparatus considerable latitude is possible and substitutes can be impro
vised for the regular stock article. The needed list would be: watch glasses, bottles (I oz)
for reagents, hammer, anvil, and magnet.
s
A bout ten reagents are used, the principal beingsborax, salt o f phosphorus, sodic car
bonate, potassie bisulphate, cobaltic nitrate, and hydrochloric acid. Tw o others are
needed in preparing the bismuth flux and there will be needed occasionally metallic tin and
nitric or sulphuric acid.
A continuous blowpipe blast is obtained b y distending the cheeks and using the mouth
as an air reservoir, breathing regularly through the nose and from time to time admitting
more air from the lungs through the throat to the mouth.
A ny luminous flame may be used and, b y regulating the relative amounts of air and
flame, may be blown " a s a clear blue flame or a yellow flame, both o f which owe their
color to incomplete combustion (CO or C) and therefore tend to reduce, that is, to take
oxygen from substances placed therein. Hereafter this fame is designated b y the letters
R.P. A practically non-luminous colorless envelope surrounds the blue flame and less
distinctly the yellow flame. In this there is an excess o f oxygen and it' therefore tends to
oxidize substances placed therein. Hereafter this flame is designated b y the letters O.F.
Fusion or fusibility. The ease o f fusibility and the phenomena during fusion are con
venient tests. The hottest portion o f the flame is just beyond the tip o f the blue flame.
Some substances, noticeably certain iron orea, which are infusible in the oxidizing flame
are fusible in the reducing flame.
..
The test is most safely made b y first heating on charcoal a fragment o f the substance
the size of a pin s head, to prove presence or absence o f volatile or easily-reducible elemente,
which are likely to alloy with platinum. I f these are present the fusion test must be
limited to the test on charcoal. I f reducible metals or volatile constituents axe absent,
a small sharp-edged fragment is heated in-the platinum forceps, a t the tip o f the blue
flame, directing the flame upon the point. Fragments long enough to project beyond the
platinum should be used and it is always well to examine the splinter with a magnifying
glass, before and after heating. Fragments fo r comparison must be approximately o f same
size and shape.
The degree of fusibility is stated either in terms of a scale of fusibility, suggested by vos KobeD,
or more simply as easily fusible, fusible, fusible with difficulty, or infusible:
Easily fusible
coarse splinters fuse in a candle flame.
' (2 . Ckalcopyrite, small fragmento fuse in the Bunsen burner flame.
f3. Garnet (almande), coarse splinters easily fuse before the blowpipe.
Fusible: |
Not fusible in Bunsen burner.
14. ctincle, fine splinters fuse easily before the blowpipe,
f 5. Orthodase, fused only in fine splinters or on thin edges before the
Fusible with difficulty: j
blowpipe.
16. Hemimorphite, finest edge only rounded in hottest part of fiame.
Infusible: 7. Quartz, infusible, retaining the edge is all its sharpness.

1-09

MINERALOGY

POLISHED SURFACES OF METALLIC ORES

The result of the fusion may be a glass or slag, which is clear and transparent, or white and
opaque, or of some color, or filled with bubbles; during the fusion there may be a frothing or intu
mescence, or a swelling and splitting (exfoliation). In certain instances the color and form may
ehange without fusion, or the substance may take fire and burn, or fusion may follow the loss of
some volatile constituent.

Vol 30, p 571), consisting of three colored strips of celluloid; N o. 1, blue. No. 2; over
lapping blue and violet, No. 3, violet. These absorb different portions of the spectrum
as follows:

1 -0 8

Solubility. Acids, especially dilute (1 : 1) hydrochloric acid, are used not only to deter
mine composition but also to determine the ease or degree of solubility. This test fails
only from carelessness. The substance must be selected as nearly pure as possible, finely
ground
added to the acid in successive small quantities. A clear solution should be
aimed at, acid being added if more is needed until everything has dissolved. If complete
solution cannot be obtained, the liquid must be filtered and the clear filtrate slowly and
partially evaporated until separation commences. If doubt exists as to solubility the
liquid must be evaporated to dryness, a residue proving solution to have taken place. Solu
bility may be accompanied b y effervescence with or without odor in cold acid, or only on
heating. The evaporation may be difficult and incomplete, or there m ay be separation
of a perfect jelly, or of separate lumps of jelly, or of powder, or of crystals. The solution
may be of a characteristic color.
Testing for chemical components. The tests used are described in place in the deter
minative tables following A rt 14. The manipulations and precautions axe briefly as
foEows:
L Testing in closed tubes. A narrow tube of hard glass, about 3 m by_ 3 /i 8 m and
closed at one end, is best. Enough o f the substance is slid down a narrow strip o f paper,
previously inserted in the tube, to fill it to the height of about
in the paper is with
drawn, and the inclined tube heated gradually at the lower end to a red heat. Soda or
other reagents are sometimes mixed with the substance. The results may be: evolution
of water, odorous or non-odorous vapors, sublimates of various colors, decrepitation,
phosphorescence, fusion, charring, change o f coior, and magnetization.
n . Testing on charcoal. A shallow cavity, to prevent the substance from slipping,
is bored at one end of the charcoal, and a small fragment o f the mineral is placed in it. The
charcoal is held in the left hand, the surface tipped at about 120 to the direction in which
the flame is blown, and a gentle O.F. is blown on the substance. If no sublimate forms
the heat is increased, still keeping the flame oxidizing. Another fragment is tested in the
R .F ., the substance being kept covered for several minutes with the yellow flame.
The sublimates, their color, position on the charcoal, ease of removal b y heating in the
O.F. or R .F ., and the colors'imparted to the flame are all noted. Chemical changes may
also be indicated b y reduced metal, magnetic residues, alkalinity, etc.
. m . Testing with soda on charcoal. Sodic carbonate ( S od a ), heated on char
coal, acts as a flux; it also exerts a reducing action, attributed to the formation of sodio
cyanide, nascent sodium, and carbon monoxide. It combines with many substances,
forming both fusible and infusible compounds. The m ost satisfactory general method
is to mix one part o f the substance to be tested with three parte of moistened soda and a
little borax, and treat with a good R .F . on charcoal until everything that can be absorbed
has disappeared.
IV. Testing with bismuth flux on charcoal and on plaster tablets. Sublimates of
brilliantly colored iodides and sulpho-iodides axe obtained if bismuth flux (two parts
sulphur, one part potassium iodide, and one part acid potassium sulphate) is mixed with
certain powdered minerals, placed on charcoal, or a plaster tablet, .and heated gently.
The larger series o f tests are obtained on plaster, the sublimates differing in position and to
some extent in color from those obtained on charcoal. Plaster tablets' are prepared by
spreading a thick paste of plaster o f Paris and water upon a sheet of oiled glass, and smooth
ing to a uniform thickness t 1 Is in to
in). While still soft, the paste is cut with a knife
into uniform slabs, 4 in b y U /2 in. i t is then dried, after which the tablets are easily
detached from the glass.
V. Flame coloration. A number o f minerals when heated color the flame, some at
gentle heat, some only at the highest heat attainable. Repeated dipping o f the mineral
in hydrochloric acid usually assists b y forming volatile chlorides. A good method to
cover all cases is as follows: Arrange a black background, such as a piece of charcoal,
powder the substance finely, flatten the end o f a clean platinum wire and dip it in dilute
acid, then in the powder, and hold it first just touching the flame near the blowpipe and
then at the tip o f the blue'flame; again dip in the acid and.again heat as before.
Concentrated sulphuric acid, and also a paste made of water, 4 1 /<? parte acid potassium
sulphate nr! 1 part of calcium fluoride, are also used to release certain flame-ccricring
constituents, especially boron, phosphorus and lithium.
Red flames of calcium, strontium, lithium, and the violet flames o f potassium in the
presence of sodium, are m ost conveniently studied b y Merwina Color Scale (Science,

No. 1
Absorbed
Blue-violet
Strontium or lithium......................................

Greenish yellow
Absorbed

No. 2

No. 3

Absorbed
( Violet and
( Violet-red
Absorbed
Absorbed

Absorbed
f Violet and
( Violet-red
Faint crimson
Crimson

These elements are still more exactly distinguished b y use of a small pocket spectro
scope. The mineral is moistened with hydrochloric acid and brought on a platinum
wire into the non-luminous flame o f the Bunsen burner. This is viewed through the spec
troscope and bright lines are seen. T he yellow sodium line is almost invariably present
and the position of the other lines is best fixed b y their situation relative to this bright
yellow line.
VI. Bead tests with borax and with salt of phosphorus. The oxides o f certain elemente
dissolve in borax and salt o f phosphorus and impart characteristic colors to the mass,
which may differ when hot and cold and according to the degree of oxidation or reduction.
Preliminary to bead tests, sulphides, arsenides, arsenates, etc, may be converted into
oxides b y treating in a shallow cavity on charcoal at a duE red heat; first with a feeble
oxidizing flame, then a feeble reducing flame, then again an oxidizing flame, and so on as
long as odors or fumes are noticeable.
T o mal? a bead. M ake a loop in platinum wire b y bending it around a pencil point
so that the end meets but does n ot cross the straight part. Heat the loop, dip it into the
flux, and fuse to a clear bead the portion that adheres. A dd more flux until the bead is of
fuE rounded shape. W ith salt of phosphorus the ie a d should be held a little above the
flame so that the ascending hot gases wiE help to retain the flux upon the wire. Touch
the warm bead to the substance, place it in the O.F., and treat until clear. Note the
colors, hot and cold. Then treat in the R .F . and note colors as before.
Flaming. Some substances heated with a strong flame wiE give clear glasses until
saturated; but if heated slowly and gently or intermittently, wiE yield opaque or enamel-like beads before saturation.
VII. Testing with cobalt solution. Certain substances become colored, when moist*
ened with a solution of cobalt nitrate in ten parts of water and then heated to a white heat.
The test is usually made on charcoal. Certain other substances yield colors if strongly
heated, cooled, and then moistened with the cobalt solution without reheating. Certain
minerala boiled with cobalt solution are colored thereby.

5. X-RAY METHODS OF STUDY


Recent years have witnessed the development o f X -ra y methods of mineral study.
X -ray powder photographs m ay be used to aid in identifying many minerals. Clays,
bauxite, fne> micaceous silicates, poorly crystaUized metallics and other natural products,
n ot readily identified in other ways, are often readily identified b y comparison of X-ray,
diffraction photographs with known standards. The methods o f X -ra y study applicable
to minpirals have been described b y Hull, D avey, W yckoff, Bragg, and others.
Sirigte crystals are most frequently used for X -ra y studies, to yield information regard
ing internal structures. The earliest to be developed was the method o f Laue, making
use o f a pinhole beam of X -rays passing through a small crystal. The Braggs later devel
oped the X -ray spectrometer, which depends upon the reflection o f X -rays from single
crystal faces. Lately, students of crystal structure have found the Weissenberg X-ray
goniometer especiaEy useful.

6. POLISHED SURFACES OF METALLIC OSES


Many textures and mineral combinations, not readily visible to the unaided eye, may
be observed with the reflecting microscope. Polished surfaces must be prepared in
advance with considerable care to produce flat, nearly uniform surfaces, as free from
scratches as possible. Such surfaces m ay be etched and observed under the microscope
and also examined b y reflected polarized light.
Microchemical technique is also applied to small fragmente of- metallic minerals,
removed from a polished surface with a needle while the surface is under microscopic

1-10

MLNEKALOGY

CONTACT MINERALS

observation. Among the comprehensive treatments of microscopic examination of


metallic ores are the works of Van der Veen, Schneiderhhn and Ramdohr, and Short.

zone. Antimony, argentite, arsenic, arsenopyrite, barite, bornite, braunite, calcite, calaverite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, cobaltite, copper, dolomite, fluorite, galena, gold, graphite,
jamesonite, linnite, marcasite, millerite, niccolite, orpiment, orthodase, pentlandite,
proustite, pyrargyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quartz, realgar, smaltite, sphalerite, staanite,
stephanite, stibnite,__sylvanite, tetrahedrite, uraninite.

7. EXAMINATION OF FRAGMENTS OF NON-OPAQUE MINERALS

1--11

Fragments of non-opaque minerals, about 100 to 120 mesh in size, m ay often be


studied and identified b y the polarizing microscope. The fragments are placed on a
glass slide
immersed in an inert liquid of known refractive index, the indices of the
minral being compared with the index of the immersion liquid. Repeated mounts, made
with liquids of different indices, b y comparison yield the indices of refraction of a mineral
with a fair degree of precision. Other optical properties may be determined at the same
time. The methods m ay often be applied to examination of non-opaque constituents of
t.pilinga. The optical properties of many minerals observable with the microscope have
been listed b y Larsen.and Berman.

Minerals of tin veins. Albite, amblygonite, apatite, arsenopyrite, bismuth, calcite, cassiterite,
chlorite, columbite, fluorite, galena, kaolin, lepidolite, molybdenite, pyrite, pyroxene, quartz, scheelite,
wernerite, wolframite.
Minerals of apatite veins. Albite, amphibole, apatite, biotite, calcite, enstatite, hematite,
ilmenite, magnetite, oligoclase, pyrite, quartz, rutile, sphene, tourmaline, wernerite.
Minerals due to volcanic exhalations. Alunite, sassolite, sulphur, and relatively aaii quanti
ties of other species, as amphibole, hematite, sal-ammoniac, etc, occur as the result of gases given off
during volcanic action.

8. EXAMINATION OF THIN SECTIONS

These exist as sdiments precipitated from solution in natural waters, springs, rivers, marshes,
lakes, seaa, and oceans.
From springs. Alunogen, aragonite, barite, baimte (?), calcite, celestite, chalcedony, cinnabar,
fluorite, hydrozincite, kalinite, limonite, pyrite, sassolite, aiderite, sulphur.
From soda and borax lakes and lagoons. Anhydrite, calcite, borax, celestite, cerargyrite, colemanite, dolomite, embolite, gold, gypsum, halite, mirabilite, sassolite, soda nitre, sulphur, trotta,
ulexite.
From oceans, seas, lakes, and marshes. Apatite, anhydrite, bauxite, boracite, calcite, carnallite,
celeatite, cerargyrite, dolomite, epsomite, gypsum, halite, kainite, Meserite, limonite, siderite, wad.
Local saline residues (often incrustations or efflorescences). Alunite, alunogen, chalcanthite,
copiapite, epsomite, kalinite, mirabilite.

The structures and textures o f non-opaque minerals are-best examined in thin sections
beneath the microscope. T he polarizing microscope of the types manufactured by
E. Leitz, Zeiss-Winkel, Bausch and Lomb, or the Spencer Lens Co, are useful for this
purpose. M any optical criteria n ot obvious in ordinary specimens m ay be used in such
an examination- The methods have been outlined b y Winchell, Johannsen, and Rogers
and Kerr.

10. MINERALS FOUND IN SALINE RESIDUES

OCCURRENCE AND ASSOCIATION OF MINERALS


11. MINERALS IN GRAVELS, SANDS, CLAYS, AND MARLS
9. MINERALS OF ROCKS AND VEINS
Associates. M ost minerals are found under a variety o f conditions, and with different
groups of associates. T he most probable associates of any mineral in any particular
occurrence are: 1. The com mon minerals of that deposit. 2. Minerals containing some
prominent element or elements of the given mineral. In the following lists, which include
the rock-forming minerals, com mon minerals, and those of_economic importance, the species
in italics are relatively rare.

Minerals of the igneous rocks. These minerals in general have either separated from
a fusion solution or magma (each separating whenever for the existing temperature
and pressure the magma, is supersaturated with it), or they have formed later, as secondary
minoralq. b y the decomposition or alteration of the primary minerals.
Principal primary minerals of igneous rocks. Amphibole (hornblende), biotite,
chrysolite (olivine), enstatite, hypersthene, leueite, muscovite, nepheline (elaeolite),
orthodase, plagioclase, pyroxene, (augite), quartz, sodalite.
_
Minor primary minerals .of igneous rocks. A nalcite, apatite, chcdcopyriie, chrysoberyl,
chromite, cinnabar, corundum, epidote, garnet (almandite, andradite, pyrope), goethite,
gold, graphite, hematite, ilxnenite, lepidolite, magnetite, m lente, molybdenite, monazite,
pyrite, pyroxene (diopside), pyrrhotite, rutile.
Secondary minerals haTigneous rocks. Albite, alunite, analcite, apophylliie, aragonite, azurite,
barite, cafcite, cfaabazite, chalcedony, ckalcanthite, ckalcopyrite, chlorite, ehrysocolla, copper, datolite,
epidote, kaolin, lepidolite, limonite, magnetite, malachite, muscovite, natrokte, opal, pyrargynte,
quartz, serpentine, aiderite, sphalerite, stibaite, tale, tetrahedrite, turquois,_weruente. _ . . ,
Minerals of pegmatite veins. Vein-like portions of gramtea or other igneous rocks in which the
minerals of the rock are found in much larger crystals and in which many other minerals occur not
noticed in the adjoining rocks.
.

, , .. ,, ..
,
.
_
, ...
Albite amblygonite, apatite, beryl, biotite, camtente, chabaztte, cklorUe, chrysoberyl, columbxte,
crvoite diamond, galena, garnet (almandite and spessartite), graphite, lepidolite, magnetite, microcline, molybdenite, monazite, muscovite, nepheline, orthodase, pyrxte, pyrrhotite, quartz, spodumene,
topaz, tourmaline, uranimte, zircon.
Minerals o f ore veins. For convenience these have been listed under two headings:
Minerals in zone o f weathering or oxidation, and minerals of unoxidized zone. In zone of
oxidation.. Anglesite, azurite, brochantite, calamine, celestite,; cerargynte, cerussite,
chalcantkite, chrysocolla, copper, crocoite, cuprite, embolite, erythrite, goethite, gold,
iodyrite, limonite, malachite, manganite, mimetite, pyromorphite, rhodoehrosite, sidente,
silver, smithsonite, strontianite, sulphur, vanadinite, vivianite, wulfenite. In unoxidized

Minerals common to all. Biotite, calcite, chlorite, garnet, hematite, kaolinite, limonite, mag~
rietite, muscovite, orthodase, plagioclase, pyrite, pyrophyllite, pyroxene, rutile, siderite, sphene,
tourmaline.
Gem minerals and ores in gravels and sands. Cassiterite,. chrysoberyl, chrysolite, corundum,
diamond, gold, ilmenite, monazite, platinum, spinel, tourmaline, topaz, zircon.
Minor minerals in gravels and sands. Amphibole, andalusite, apatite, cyanite, dolomite, ensta
tite, epidote, hypersthene, microcline, sepiolite, serpentine, sillimanite.
Ores in clays. Galena, limonite, manganite, psilomelane, pyroluaite, wad.
Minor minerals in clays and marls. Amphibole, aragonite, barite, celestite, gypsum, halloysite,
orpiment, realgar,.strontianite, vivianite.
Minerals in sandstones. Chiefly quartz, orthodase, plagioclase, limonite, muscovite. Minor
minerals are carnotite, galena, gold, marcasite, manganite, pyrite, pyrolusite, aiderite, sphalerite.
Minerals in sedimentary limestone. Aragonite, calcite, dolomite, fluorite, galena, limonite
(bog ore), nitre, opal, aiderite, soda nitre, sulphur, sphalerite.
In serpentine and soapstones. Amphibole, aragonite, arsenopyrite, calcite, chlorite, chromite,
chrysolite, cinnabar, diamond, dolomite, enstatite, epidote, garnet (pyrope), gamierite, ilmenite,
magnesite, magnetite, phlogopite, platinum, pyroxene, pyrophyllite, quartz, sepiolite, serpentine* talc.

12. CONTACT MINERALS


When an igneous rook penetrates a prexisting rock the heat, pressure, and evolved
vapors frequently produce new minerals at and near the surface o f contact.
Contacts with limestone. Amphibole (tremolite), anorthite, biotite, bornite, chondrodite, dinozofcite, corundum, danburite, enstatite, epidote, fluorite, garnet (grossular and
andradite), graphite, lazurite, molybdenite, phlogopite, pyrite, pyroxene (diopside),
scheelite, spinel, tourmaline, vesuvianite, wemerite, wollastonite and zoisite.
Contacte with silicate rocks (clay, shale, slate, or crystalline schists). Amphibole
(hornblende), andalusite (hiastolite), biotite, chlorite, corundum, kyanite, epidote, garnet,
ilmenite, magnetite, pyroxene (augite), quartz, rutile, sillimanite, spinel, staurolite, sphene,
tourmaline, topaz, wemerite, zircon.

Minerals of Metamorphic Rocks


'Hie minerals o f the metamorphic rocks include many species o f the original rocks,
and many species already listed under contact minerals. A partial list follows: In
Crystalline limestones, and dolomites: amphibole (tremolite), apatite,, aragonite, calcite,
<ihondrodite, corundum, dolomite, franklinite, molybdenite, phlogopite, pyroxene, pyrrho-

1-12

M IN E R A L O G Y

tite, rhodonite, serpentine, smithsonite, spinel, talc, willemite, zincite, zircon. In Gneisses
and Schists: the contact minerals of the second list (contacts with silicate rocks). Also
aetinolite, apatite, beryl, biotite, calcite, chalcopyrite, chrysoberyl, datolite, fluorite, gibbsite,
graphite, hematite, molybdenite, monazite, muscovite, orthoelase, plagioclaae, pyrite,
pyrophyllite, pyrrhotite, tale, tetrahedrite, vesuviamte, zeolites.

th e

u ses

of

m in e r a l s

This list includes only the principal uses o f the minerals as such, and their uses aa the
material from which other substances are directly extracted or manufactured. The
secondary products derived from these primary products are not mentioned.

13. USES OF MINERALS IK THEIR NATURAL STATE


Abrasives. Quartz, garnet, opal (tripolite and diatomaceous earth), corundum and emery,
riteTT.nr.il (bort), orthoelase. Leucite and alunite rocks have been used as millstones.
Building stones. Quartz, orthoelase, plagioclase, muscovite, biotite, pyroxene and amphibole
In varying proportions, forming igneous rocks commercially known as granite and trap; talc and
pyrophyllite (soapstones), serpentines; calcite and dolomite (limestones and marbles), quartz
( B a n d s tone).
,
. . . .
Electrical insulators. Muscovite, phlogopite, calcite (marble), andalusite, kyamte, sillimamte,
and dumortierite.
.
,
,
Fertilizers. Camallite and kainite for potash; soda nitre for nitrogen; gypsum and calcite
for lime; apatite (phosphate rock) for phosphoric acid. Muscovite and biotite as retainers of mois
ture.
Fluxes. Calcite, fluorite, borax, pyrolusite.
Glass. Chiefly quartz (sand and sandstone) and calcite (limestone) ; to a less extent orthoelase,
plagioclase, cryolite, and pyrolusite.
Lubricants. Graphite, talc, muscovite.
_
.
Paints and pigments. Hematite and limonite as "metallic paint ; the same minerals associated
with clay, ocher. Calcite (chalk) as whiting ; wad, barite, gypsum, asbestos, muscovite, talc,
kaolin, quartz, magnesite, azurite, graphite, asphaltum, rutile.
Paper manufacture. Tale (fibrous), gypsum (selenite), as constituents of sheets. Bante, cal
cite, kaolin, magnesite, bauxite, muscovite, for weight and glaae.
Porcelain, pottery, etc. Kaolin and other clays, quartz, orthoelase, albite, halite, gypsum and
pyrophyllite.
,
,
,
Precious stones. Diamond, beryl, emerald, corundum (sapphire and .ruby), chrysoberyl
(alexandrite), garnet (demantoid), spinel (ruby spinel)i Semi-precious stones. Other varieties
of beryl, corundum, chrysoberyl, spinel, and garnet. Also opal, chrysolite (peridot), quartz (ame
thyst and yellow), topaz, tourmaline, turquoise, zircon, spodumene (knzite, hiddenite), orthoelase
(moonstone). Ornamental stones. Amber, chalcedony (onyx, earnelian, sard, agate, etc), quartz
(rose cats eye, aventurine, smoky, etc), orthoelase (amazon stone), plagioclase (labradonte and
sunstone)i Amphibole (jade), lasurite (lapis lazuli), malachite, azunte, calamine, smithsonite,
chrysocolia, fluorite, gypsum (satin spar), Serpentine, hmatite, pyrite, rhodonite, talc. Occasional
faceted stones are cut from apatite, andalusite, cassiterite, chondrodlte* cyamte, pyroxene (diopside),
enstatite, epidot, prehnite, staurolite, sphene and vesuviamte.
Refractory
and Seat insulators. Asbestos, bauxite, chromite, dolomite, graphite,
ilmenite, kaolin, magnesite, muscovite, opal (diatomaceous earth), serpentine (chrysotile), quartz,
pyrophyllite, talc (soapstone), sillimanite, andalusite, kyamte and vermiculite.
Rubber manufacture. Sulphur, stibnit, barite, calcite, talc, pyrophyllite.
Soap and washing powders, toilet articles. Borax, opal (diatomaceous earth), talc, quartz,
magnesite, orthoelase.
,
Sundries. Coloring or decolorizing: pyrolusite, psilomelane, rutile. Condiments: haute.
Explosives: nitre, sulphur. Filters: opal (tripolite). Enamels: fluorite, borax. Matches: stibnite
sulphur. Optical: quartz, calcite, fluorite, gypsum, muscoviWi Pencils: graphite, talc, pyro
phyllite. Pipes: sepiolite (meerschaum), succinite (amber).

14. PRODUCTS EXTRACTED OR MANUFACTURED DIRECTLY


FROM MINERALS
Aluminum from bauxite, possibly gibbsite, with cryolite as flux.
Alundum (AljOj) from bauxite.
Aluminium sulphate and alum from alunite, cryolite* bauxite, kaolin.
Antimony from stibnite and its alteration products and lead ores carrying antimony.
Arsenic from araenopyiite and sometimes from smaltite, cobaltite, enargite, etc.
Barium hydroxide otid barium sulphide from barite.
Beryllium and beryllium oxide from beryl.
Bismuth from native bismuth, bismutite, ahd bismite.
Borax and boric acid, from coiemanite, ulexifce, borax, and sassolite.

PROD U CTS

EXTRACTED

D IR E C T L Y

FROM

M IN E R A L S

1 -1 3

Bromine from halite (salt brine).


Cadmium from sphalerite and smithsonite containing greenockite.
Calcium oxide (lime) from calcite (limestone).
Calcium sulphate (hemi-hydrate) or plaster from gypsum.
Calcium superphosphate from apatite.
Cements from calcite and clays.
Carbonic acid from magnesite and calcite.
Chlorine from hydrochloric acid and pyrolusite, the former being derived from halite.
Chromium alloys, especially ferrochrome from chromite.
Cobalt oxide and cobalt arsenate (zaffre) from smaltite, cobaltite, and cobaltiferous limonite.
Copper principally from chalcocite, native copper, chalcopyrite, bornite, cuprite, malachite, and
azurite, although enargite, tetrahedrite, atacamite, brochantite, chalcanthite, and chrysocolia are
all sources of copper in certain districts. In addition to these the iron sulphides often carry copper
which is extracted after burning for sulphuric add.
Copper sulphate from chalcopyrite.
Gold from gold and the gold tellurides (sylvanite, oaiaverite, petzite), from silver and copper ores
and from pyrite, arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite, and sphalerite and other sulphides or tellurides.
Hydrochloric add from halite.
Hydrofluoric acid from fluorite and cryolite.
Iodine from sodium iodate obtained from soda nitre.
Iridium from iridosmine.
Iron from hematite, limonite, magnetite, and siderite, goethite, and turgite (commercially in
cluded with limonite), some ilmenite, and rarely residues from the roasting of pyrites.
Iron sulphate (ferrous) or copperas" from pyrite and chalcopyrite.
Iron manganese'alloy from franklinite and certain manganiferous hematites and siderites; also
from pyrolusite, psilomelane, manganite and other manganese oxides.
Lead, chiefly from galena aad cerussite. Angleaite and pyromorphite sometimes occur in
quantity.
Lead sulphate (sublimed white lead and blue lead) from galena.
Lithium carbonate from spodumene, lepidolite, and amblygohite.
Magnesium from carnallite.
_
_
i_
.
Magnesium carbonate from dolomite. Basic carbonate from kieserite.
Magnesium oxide from magnesite, and indirectly kieserite.
Magnesium chloride from carnallite.
_
Magnesium sulphate (epsom salts) from kieserite and less often from magnesite and dolomite.
Manganese alloys from pyrolusite, psilomelane and braunite, or with intermixed rhodochrosite
and rhodonite.
Manganese salts from pyrolusite.
Mercury from cinnabar.
Molybdenum and ammonic molybdate from molybdenite.
. _
Nickel from pentlandite, garnierite, nickeliferous pyrrhotite, and to a less extent from millente,
niccolite and the cobalt minerals, cobaltite and luuueite.
Nitric acid from soda-nitre and nitre.
Palladium from copper ores and platinum.
Phosphorus from an impure calcium phosphate (sombrerite), or from bone ash.
Platinum from native platinum and sperrylite, and from some gold and copper ores.
Potassium from carnallite.
Potassium dichromate from chromite.
Potassium sulphate from kainite.
Potassium nitrate from soda nitre and carnallite.
Radium chloride from uraninite, camotite, and autunite.
Rhodium from platinum.
Selenium from sulphur, chalcopyrite, and pyrite.
Silicon carbide (carborundum) from quartz and coke.
Silicon alloys (ferro-silicon) from quartz.
Silver from native silver, argentite, cerargyrite, embolite, proustite, pyrargyrite, and less im
portant, hessite, polybasite, and iodyrite. Included in other minerals, notably, galena and
cerussite, but also in copper ores, manganese ores and with gold in pyntc and arsenopyrite.
Sodium borate (borax) from coiemanite, ulexite, sassolite, kemite, and native borax.
Sodium stannate from cassiterite.
_
Sodium sulphate (salt-cake) from halite, and from this, caustic soda, carbonate, bicarbonate.
Strontium nitrate and ckloride from strontianite.
.
Sulphuric acid, sulphurous acid, from native sulphur, pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite,
pyrrhotite, and other sulphide ores.
Tantalum from columbite.
Thorium nitrate and thorium oxide from monazite, thorite, thonamte.
Tin and sodium stannate from cassiterite.
Titanium, titanium oxide, and ferro-titanium from ilmenite.
Titanium carbide from rutile.
Tungsten, ferro-tungsten, from wolframite and scheelite.
Tungstate of soda from wolframite.
TJranium yellow or sodium diuranate from uraninite, camotite.
Vanadium, and ferro-vanadium from camotite, patronite, roscoelite, vanadinite, desclomls.
Vanadic oxide from mottramite.

1 -1 4

MINERALOGY

Zinc, nine dust," and zinc oxide from sphalerite, smithaoaite, and calamine; and in New Jersey,
wiilemite and ziacite.
Zinc sulphate from sphalerite.
Zirconium oxide from zircon.

DESCRIPTIVE AND DETERMINATIVE TABLES


Rare species without economic value are omitted. Their inclusion would greatly
increase the complexity of the tables and also increase the difficulty o f determination.
Rare minerals require special methods beyond the scope o f a simple set o f mineral
tables; chemical analyses, optical, and X -ra y determinations are usually necessary.
Due to the limited space the species are described only in the tables, and the
accompanying diagrammatic index will enable the user to find-a brief-description o f any
species. (For example, scheelite. A reference to 22 in the diagram will give composi
tion, crystal system, hardness, specific gravity, colors, solubility, flame coloration, behavior
with fluxes a id general appearance.)
.
The uses and occurrence of minerals are summarized m separate tables. In using tfae
tables the customary precautions are understood to be taken:
1. Tests must be made upon homogeneous materials, and lusters and colora observed
on fresh fractures.
.
2. Classifying tests must be decided; n ot weak, nor indefinite. I f undecided, tne
species on both sides o f the dividing line must be considered.
.
3.
tests should be assumed to be within say one half; th at is, a determination
H - S should for safety be taken as 4.5 to 5.5.
A s shown b y the accompanying key, the principal subdivision is between metallic and
non-metaliic luster. T he blowpipe test is made subordinate for minerals o f metallic
luster and minerals o f non-metallic luster with colored streaks; but, for minerals o f nonmetalUc luster w ith white streaks, experience proves that the blowpipe or the microscope
iead to a determination with less repetition than such qualities as color and hardness.
A novel feature o f the tables is the scheme within a scheme, b y which the order of
testing m ay be varied. For instance, in 16, 1 7 ,1 8 the arrangement is b y blowpipe tests
in order o f hardness, but the parallel columns permit color to be used as the classifying
test; that is, the order of testing m ay be color and hardness or blowpipe test and hardness.
Similarly in 5, 6 the arrangement o f the metallic white and gray minerals is b y streak
and hardness, but the parallel columns permit the behavior on charcoal in oxidizing and
reducing flame to be used as the classifying test; that is, the order o f testing m ay be color,
streak and hardness, or color Mid behavior on charcoal.
Chemical symbols are used only for the formulas o f the species and for the common
solvents, H a , H 2SO 4, HNOs, K O H , etc. Aside from these a few abbreviations are used,
the principal being:
.
..
Systems of crystallization are indicated b y the lettera: I (Isom etnc), T (Tetragonal),
O (Orthorhombie), M (Monoclinic), T ri (Triclinio), H (Hexagonal).
_
Terms in blowpipe teste. Soda for sodic carbonate, S. Ph. for salt of phosphorus,
O. F. and R . F. for oxidizing and reducing flame, Co. Sol. for cobalt solution, coal for
The + sign in any column opposite any mineral indicates that the quality indicated
is a character of that mineral.
, ,
, . ., , '
The following diagram furnishes at a glance the procedure t o be followed in identifying
an unknown mineral :

DESCRIPTIVE AND DETERMINATIVE TABLES

1 -1 5

Minerals o f Metallic or Sub-Metallic Luster, Black or Nearly Black in Color


(Including arbitrarily some dark-colored minerals of doubtful luster)
*

On coal in 0 . F. and R. F.

Crystal system:
name, composition,
hordneas and specific gravity

Residue

Odor
Sublimates
As

S02

io
I o 13
3 a

Mag
netic

* 1

Fusibility

Solubility

Heated in
closed tube

3
f?
Mn02
H
ta H = i to 2.5
M

In CuSOi solution Shining flakes and


in contact with masses or dull, impure
zinc quickly cop masses. Soft, greasy
per-plated. (Mo^ t^nd cold,to the touch.
lybdenite is slowly Shining mark on paper.
plated)

SbjSj
H =2

Slowly
burned

0=2.1 to 2.2

+
G 4.7 to 4.8
+

Dense white

Becomes
brown
1

G 4.5 to 4.6

I
8

AgjS
H 2 to 2.5

1.5

+
G =7.2 to 7.6

i
W

AgsSbS*
H =2 to 2.5 G =6.2 to 6.3

PbS
H<=2.5

Yellow R. F.

0. Polybasite.......................
(Ag-CubSbSa
H = 2 to 3
G = 6 to 6.2

Donee wbito.
Some yellow

Dense white

Volatile white

Tenori te...............................
CuO
H 3
G 5.6 to 6.2
I. Tetrahedrite....................
CusSb2S7
H = 3 to 4.5 G =4.5 to 5.1

Sol. HNO. Fuses. No


sublimate
(Residue
S. Ppt.
with HC1)
Sol. HNOj
(white
residue)

Fuses. Slight D ecom posed by Fine-grained, often dis-.


red subli
KOH. HC1 gives seminated. Sometimes
crystals. Soft but brit
orange ppt.
mate
tle.

hot HC1

Decrepitates. "Bismuth Flux on Granular and cleavable


coal gives greeniak masses and cubic crys
A little
white subli yellow sublimat tals which cleave into
oubes.
mate

Sol. HN0a. F u ses. N o M etallic residue Beat known in six-sided


(Ppt. with sublimate
ignited with HC1 plates. In thin splint
HC1)
gives azure blue ers is cherry red by
flame
transmitted light.

2 to 2.5

Sol. HN0 3 F u ses. N o E m era ld green Compact masses, nod


(residue S) sublimate
flame made azure ules and disseminated.
blue by HC1
Often coated with the
g reen c a r b o n a te .
Rarely crystals.

times

Dense white

1.5

Sol. HNOj

(evolution
Cl)

water

Like enargite

Dull earthy masses,


powder and shining
Fine-grained masses and
tetrahedral crys
tals. Sometimes coated
with ohalcopyrite.

Massive with smooth


thystino 0. F. So rounded surfaces, or
lutions usually s ta la o titic . N ever
give white ppt. crystallized.
with H2SO4

Infus. 0. F. Sol. (boiled


Fus. diff. with tin is
R. F.
violet)

S. Ph. bead. O.F.


red. R. F. violet grains, sand and tabu
lar hexagonal crystals.

Infus.

Solutions give yel


low ppt, with am
m on ia . B o ra x
0. F. flames
y ellow enamel
near saturation

-G 4.5 tp 5
times

Like enargite

Fuses. Dark
red s u b li
mate

G =4.5 to 5

I. Uraninite........... ..............
UOrUO*, PbO, etc.
H =5.5
G = 9 to 9.7

M etallic residue Columnar, granular and


Yellow subi, ignited with HC1 compact masses and
then fuses gives azure blue prisms, sometimes ra
and gives flame
diating.
red sub.

Infus. 0. F. Soluble
Fus. R. F.

Sol HNOs
(yellow)

&

o
a

Needle crystals, or bus*


gives greenish yel like or felted; also com
low sublimate
pact and fibrous mas
sive.

Sol. HN0s

Pi

With eoda, metallic Coatings and dissemi


Ag and S reaction nated plates. Rarely
crystals.
Cuts like
metallic lead. Streak
is shining.

MnO, BaO, HjjO, etc.

FeTiO
H = 5 to6

Fuses. Subli Made yellow by Bright columnar, bladed


mate black KOH and par or fine-grained masses,
odor HiS)
hot, red cold tially dissolved. less frequently in pris
HC1 gives orange matic crystals or inter
laced bunches of needle
ppt.
crystals.

Sol. (witb
Brownish red
odor H2S; sublimate

G =5.5 to 5.8

0 . Enargite.........................
CujAsS4
H =3
G =4.4

H = 5 to 6

Yields oxygen Colors borax ame Bright, easily bruised


Sol. HC1
thystine in 0. F. needles or fibers or
(evolution and often
dull masses. Dull mark
water
of a>
on paper.

G =7.4 to 7.6

PbSbzSi
H 2.5
G = 5.i to 6

C uS
H = 2.5 to 3

reddens

Appearanoe

11

Insoluble
C
H = lt o 2

Other tests

Massive botryoidal or
granular.
Pitch-like
luster. Rarely small
crystals.

CO

8
t-t
H3

%
g
y

Sd

fe
3
H
1-9

wI
H-*

<1

Minerals of Metallic or Sub-Metallic Luster, Black or Nearly Black in Color Continued_____________________________ Jj*
On coal in O. F. and R- F.
Crystal system:

Residue

Odor
Sublimates

hardness and specific gravity


As

BO*

1o
a
S

Fusibility
on coal

I*

Heated in
closed tube

Solubility

5.5
inR . F.

Sol. HC1

heating but loses masses and sand and


m agnetism in octrahedral crystals.
Strongly attracted by
0 . F.
a steel magnet. Some
times, itself a magnet
(lodestone).

M
mq

g jj

Infusible

Infusible

Fused KHSO4 and Prismatic crystals, often


boiled HC1 and iridescent, in pegma
tin give deep blue tite dikes. Also mas
sive.

Insoluble

Fc(CbTa)iOs
H =6
G 5.4 to 6.5

COtf
MttzOg
H = 6 to 6.5

G =4.7 to 4.8
+

Dense white

AgsSbSg
11=2.5
G =5.7 to 5.8

3
A
K

ZnS
H 3 .5 to 4

White cold

G =>3.9 to 4.1

Appearance

FejOi
a 5.5 to 6.5 G =4.9 to 5.2

3*

Other tests

+
MnO (OH)
H 4
G=3.7to4!

Fine-grained masses and


A little water Colors bora* ameSol. HC1
occasional small pyra
(evolution no oxygen
S olution often mids almost isometric.
Cl)
yields silica jelly
Veins or crusts with a
Sol. HNO* Subl. black D ecom posed by
White resi hot, red cold KOH. HCl pro luster showing red tint,
duces orange ppt
due
in thin layers. Rare
crystals. Streak purplish-red.

Black and gray crystals


Infusible Effervesces. No sublimatt Sublimate on cos
made bright greei
Gives odo
(or fus.
grained masses. Streak
by
ignition
wit!
with diffi HsS
pale brown.
cobalt solution
culty)
CrystalB
often grouped
Borax
O.
F.
ameMuch water.
Infusible. Sol. HC1.
(Become (Evolves
eive,
granular
or stagen
Cl)
brown)
iactitie. Streak dark
brown.

----Limonile........... ...............
F^(OH)8*FegOj
H =5 to 5.5 G = 3 .6 to 4

5 to 5.5 to Soluble

Often reacts ror Cellular and pulveru


Reddens.
Yields much manganese and len t or as com pact
water
may give jelly masses often radiated
or stalactitic and with
residue
varnish-like surfaces.
Never crystallized.
Streak yellow ish brown.
Often reacts for Occurs massive but is
Reddens.
Yields water manganese. (Soda beet known as crys
bead O. F. bluish tals, often flattened
like scales, or neediegreen)
like, or in parallel posi
tion. These shade into
feather-like and vel
vety crusts.

a
G0

O. Goethito.......................
FeO (OH)
H*5 to 5.5 G =4 to 4.4

5 to 5.5
to slag

Soluble

T. Hausmannite..................
MD84
H 5 to 5.5 G =4.7 to 4.8

Infusible

Sol. HC1.
(Evolves
Cl)

M. Wolframite..............
(FeMn) W0 4
H =5 to 5.5 G =7.1 to 7.5

Partial
3 to 4
(crystal
line bead)

Solutions become Heavy monoclinic crys


deep blue on addi tals and eleavable,
tion of tin. Solu bladed and granular
tionofS.Ph.bead masses. Streak brown
ish black.
in HC1 beBt

Boras O. F. ame Granular masses occa


sionally in twinned
thystine
p y ra m id s. S treak
chestnut brown.

Ilmenite.............................
FoTiOa
H 5 to6
G =4.5 to 5

InfuB. O. F. Partial
Slightly
R. F.

Filtered solution Usually compact mass


boiled with tin be es, often thin plates or
imbedded grains or as
comes violet
sand. Rarely in tabu
lar hexagonal crystals.
Streak brownish red.

I. TJraninite.......................
U0 8-U0 2, eto
H=5.5
G =9 to 9.7

Infusible Sol. HNO*


(or fused (to yellow
with diffi Uquid)
culty)

Solution gives yel Botryoid&l or granular


low ppt. with am with pitch-like luster.
monia. Borax R Rarely in small isometStreak
F. green, near sat ric crystals.
dark green.
uration blackens

I. Chromite....................
FeCr-jOi
H=5.5
G =4.3 to 4.6

Infusible
O. F.
Slightly
R.F.

Insoluble

Borax or S. Ph., Granular or compact


O. F. or R. F., em or rarely in small oc
tahedral crysta ls.
erald green cold
Pitch-like luBter. Often
with serpentine. Streak
dark brown.

P3

xjl

h*
t
O

Minerals

of Metallic or Sub-Metallic Luster, Black or Hearty Black in C d o r -C m * *

k
On coal in O. F. and R.. F.
Residue

Odor

Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity

O
o2

Sublimates

Solubility

Heated in
closed tube

2 fl
Infusible

H. Hematite..................
Fe20 8
H = 5.5 to 6.5 G = 4.9 to 5.3

Coarse to fine micaceous


masses and tabularor
coarser crystals with
brilliant luster. Occa
s io n a lly k id n e y shaped. Streak brown
ish red.

Soluble

Infusible

Insoluble

Infusible

Slowly in
HC1 evolv
ing Cl

O. Columbite.................
Fe (CbTa)20 9
H =6
G =5.4 to 6.5
Slight white

I. Franklinite........... . -

(FeMnZn) O (FeM n)08

H = 6 to 6.5

G ==5 to 5.2

Infusible

Insoluble

-4- Infusible

Insoluble

T. Rutile.............................
H = 6 to 6.5

Appearance

Other tests

-1

S0 2

Ab

Fusibility
on coal

G =4.1 to 4.2
Some varieties
give white
sublimate

T. Casaiterito......................
Sn02
H = 6 to 7
G=6.8to7.1

and brilliant,
Fused with KOH
and boiled with olten iridescent, pris
matic
crystals.
Streak
HCi and tin gives
dark red.
blue solution.
Sodabead O. F. blu C o m p a c t m a s s e s ,
rounded grains and
ish green
octahedral crystals.
Slightly magnetic. Red
zincite and yellow to
green wiUemite axe
associates. Streak dark
brown.
S. Ph. bead in R.
violet

Masses and crystals with


considerable luster.
Streak pale yellow.

With soda or sul Brilliant crystals, usu


phur on coal is ally with brown tinpo.
strong heat a subl Streak pale yellow.
yellow hot, white
cold, made bluish
green by ignition
with cobalt solu
tion

of Metallic Luster, Tin-W hite, Silver-White, Lead-Gray or Steel-Gray in Color


On coal in O. F. and R. F.
Odor

Residue
Fusi
bility

Sublimates
S02

White, O. F.
Yellow R. F.

Sol. HCI hot. Decrepitates. Greenish yellow subl. Lead-gray granular and cleav(Crystals A little
on coal with Bi flux able masses and cubic crystals
on cooling) white subli
which cleave into cubes.
mate

Dense white

1.5

Sol. HIQ*

Non-volatile
white subli
mate (yel
low hot)

1.5

Sol. HNO?
(green with
white
residue)

I. Linnseite........................
(Co-Ni)sS4
H=5.S
G =4.8 to 5

Fuses. Dark- M e t a llic re sid u e Steel-gray fine-grained masses


red subli
ignited with HCI and tetrahedral crystals.
mate
gives azure blue
flame
Subl. on coal becomes Steel-gray, massive, granular.
bluish green by igni Often intermixed with yellow
tion with cobalt so chalcopyrite.
lution

Sol. HN0 3 Slight yellow Borax deep blue O. F. Steel-gray granular or com
(red with sublimate
and R. F.
pact masses, or small octahe
sulphur
dral crystals.
residue)
Volatile white
sublimate

Easy Sol. HNOa Unaltered


(red with
white resi
due)

Like linnite

Gray masses and tin-white


crystals. Often a red tarnish.

1-21

I. Cobaltite.......................
CoAS2
H=5.5
G 6 to 6.1

Steel-gray to dark-gray needle


crystals, or hair-like or felted;
also compact and fibrous mas
sive.

TABLES

I. Tetrahedrite.................... Some
times
CugSbSj
H = 3 to 4.5 G =4.5 to 5.1

Sol. (with Subl. brown Like galenite


odor H2S) ish red cold

D E T E R M IN A T IV E

Dense white
Some yel
low, volatile

Appearance

Sol. HCI hot Fuses, yields Solution in upper part Lead-gray columnar or fine
(odor H2S) subl. black test tube repptd. as grained _masses or prisms.
hot, brown orange by H2S from Cleaves into lath-shaped frag
ish red cold dissolving portion
ments.

O. Jamesonite...................
PbSb2S6
H =2.5
G =5.5 to 6

I. Stannite.................
(Cu-Sn-Fe) S '
H =4
G =4.5

Other teBts

AND

I. Galenite...........................
PbS
H = 2.5
G 7.4 to 7.6

Heated in
closed tube

I3
Dense white.
Volatile

O.Stibnite..................
SbzSa
H =2
G =4.5

Solubility

D E SC R IP TIV E

Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity

1-22

Minerals of Metallic Luster, Tin-White, Silver-White, Lead-Gray or Steel-Gray in ColotContinued


On coal in 0 . F. and R. F.
Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and sp nfio gravity

NOT BLACK
STREAK

I. Sperrylite.
PtAs2
0 = 10.6
H = 6 to 7

Volatile white
sublimate

Slight vol.
sublimate

Easy Sol. HN0 8 Mirror and Like linnsite


black subli
(red to
mate
green)

Subl. of small With Bi flu* on plas A tin-white liquid found in scat


ter, volatile, scarlet tered globules or in cavitieB
metallic
with cinnabar.
and yellow subl.
globules

Volatil Sol. HNOj


izes
Infua.

Slight white
and bronze

Steel-gray masses and tin-white


crystals usually cubes, often
with erythrite.

In open tube white Tin-white grains and minute


subl. and spongy crystals
residue

G = 13.6
+

Appearanoe

Sol. HNO Brownish red After short ignition Tin-white to gray masses or
sub. Later on coal, dissolves in crystals often striated, the
(sulphur
residue)
mirror : and HCI with odor of sections of which are rhombic
H2S and yellow ppt. and rectangular.
black
Easy Insoluble

H. Molybdenite...................
MoS
H = 1 to 1.5 Gi =4.6 to 4.9

Other tests

r
Volatile white
sublimate

G =6.4 to 6.6
+

Heated in
closed tube

Solubility

Sol. cono.
HNO#
(luminous)

Colors flame yellow Bluish gray scales and foliated


ish green and is red maBBee cleaving to flexible
non-elastic plates. Streak
dened
greenish-gray on glazed porce
lain.

Grayish white

Sol. HNO*
(gold resi
due).
In
hot H2S0<
purple.

The Bublimate placed Steel gray to silver white, some


on porcelain moiB times inclined to yellow. Intened with conc crusting or in small veins.
H2SO4 and warmed Streak silver white to gray.
is violet

H. Bismuth......................... Some*
times
Bi (often with As)
H =2 to 2.5 G =9.7 to 9.8

Yellow and -f
white subli
mates

Sol. HNO*
(white ppt.
by water)

Chocolate brown and Silver white with reddish tinge,


red subl. with Bi often " branching " or in iso
flux on plaster tablet lated grains. Streak silver
white.

Slight gray
sublimate

Gold tellurides...................
(Au-Ag)Tea
H 1.5 to 2.5 G=7.9 to 9

(Au-Ag)Te
H =2 to 2.5 G =8.3 to 8.6

Slight gray
sublimate

Pt (Fe)
H =4 to4.5

Tin-white, fine-grained or mi
nute hexagonal prisms. Streak
tin-white.

Sol. HNO*
or H2S04

times

volatile

Volatile white +

Some
times

-f

Whitevolatile

Sol. HNOb
(green with
white reddue)
+

G = 14to 19

Infua.

Pale '* silver white branching


and g iv e cu rd y crystals, wire flakes and
white ppt. with HCI masses. Tarnishes brown to
black. Malleable. Streak sil
ver-white.

Soluble

Volatil Sol. HNOj


izes

G =5.6 to 5.7

H. Iridoamine......................
(ir-Os)
H = 6 to 7
G = !9 to 21

Like gold telluride

CugSbaS?
H =3 to 4.5 G =4.5 to 5.1

Easy In hot
H2S04 is
purple

Burns with yellowgreen flame


ated. Very brittle.

Decrepitates Solutions blue with


brownish
ammonia. Roasted and tetrahedral crystals.
red subli
residue ignited with Streak cherry red.
mate
HCI azure blue flame
scales and nuggets. Malleable
and sometimes attracted by
the magnet. Streak shining
steel-gray.

TABLES

Ag
H =3.5

Gray, fine-grained to coarse


grained or in isometrio crys
tals. Streak gray.

D E T E R M IN A T IV E

STREAK

Antimony............................
Sb
H =3 to 3.5 G =6.5 to 6.7

Like gold telluride

Mirror
flame

Sol. aqua
regia only

unpleasant odor

black. Usually massive, with


rounded surfaces. Sometimes
in concentric layers. Streak
tin white.

flat grains and hexagonal


plates. Streak steel gray.

1-23

Infus. Insoluble
(Un
pleasant
odor)

AND

WOT BLACK

I. Silver...............................
Ag
H = 2 .5 to 3 G = 10.1 to II.1

Easy Sol. HNO*.


In hot
H2S04
purple

D E SC RIPTIV E

H. Tellurium.......................
Te with-Se-S
H = 2 to 2.5 G=6.1 to 6.3

WITH

M IN E R A LO G Y

4 . -^nxH

SO2

O. Arsenopyrite.................
FeAsS
H =5.5 to 6 G = 6 to 6.2

Mercury.
Hg
H =~

Fusi
bility

Sublimates
As

I. Smaltite.
CoAsS
H =5 to 6

Residue

Odor

Minerals of Metallic Luster, Metallic Yellow, Bronze or Red in Color

Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity

On coal in O. F. and R. F.
Residue

Odor

S02

As

Fusi
t'3 bility
si o>
s fl

Sublimates

H. Millerite.........................
NiS
H - 3 to 3.5 G =5.3 to 5.6
T. Chalcopyrite..................
CuFeSa
H -3 .5 to 4.1 G =4.1 to 4.3
. Pentlandite..................
(Fe-Ni) S
H =3.5 to 4 G =4.6 to 5

Volatile,
white

I. Pyrite.........................
FeS"
H = 6 to 6.5 G =4.9 to 5.2

O. Marcaeite..................
FeS2
S = 6 to 6.5 G =4.6 to 4.9

I. G old................................
Au .
H =2.5 to 3 G=15.6to 19.3

Heated in
closed tube

Other tests

Appearance

Red bronze on fresh fracture.


brittle with red frae Tarnishes in blue, purple and
ture and ignited black tints. Very brittle and
with HC1 gives azure usually massive.
blue flame
oolored in hair-like or
Roasted colors borax
1.5 to 2 Sol. aqua,
0. F. red hot, brown needle crystals. Crusts made
regia
up of radiating needles.
cold
2 to 2.5 Sol. HN0 8 Darkens, may Like bondto except Bright-yellow brassy masses
and crystals, tarnishing in
{residue S) give yellow gray fracture "
peacock colors.
sublimate
Fused globule yellow Light bronze-yellow masses re
1.5 to 2
on fracture. Borax sembling pyrrhotite but not
O. F. reddish brown attracted by a steel magnet.
Cleavage octahedral.
Slightly magnetic be Bronze-yellow masses, tarnish
Easy Effervesces A little S
ing brown. Powder attracted
fore fusion
(odor H2S)
by a steel magnet.
Mirror subli Boraxand roasted ma Pale copper-red masses some
Partial
terial give blue, times enclosed in white metal
mate
green, brown, suc lic crust.
cessively as borax is
changed
2.5 Sol. HNOs Fusible subli Fused mass efferves Pale brass-yellow cubes or other
ces in HC1 with odor crystals, isolated or grouped
(residue S) mate red
in crustB or bounding a mass.
hot, yellow H2S
Also massive globular, nodu
cold
lar stalactitic.
Pale brass-yellow " spear,
2.5 Sol. HNOs Fusible subli Like pyrite
cockscomb and simple
(residue 8 mate red
tabular crystals. Often radi
hot, yellow
ated. Fresh fracture whiter
cold
than that of pyrite.
2.5

I. Bornite............................
Cu5FeS4
H =3
G =4.9 to 5.4

H. Pyrrhotite.................
Fe8
H ==3.5 to 4.5 G =4.5to 4.6
H. Niccolite...................
NiAs
H =5 to 5.5 G =7.2 to 7.7

Solubility

2.5

I. Copper.............................
Ou
E =2.5 to 3 G = 8.8 to 8.9

Sol. HNOg Blackens


(residue S)

Sol. aqua
regia

Sol. HN0 2
(green)

i is yel- Golden yellow to pale yellow


nuggets, grains and aoaleB or
distorted crystals, passing into
wire, fern and leaf forms.
Malleable. Streak golden yel
low to pale yellow.
Fused mass is red and Copper red,disseminatcdgrains,.
ignited with HCl sheets and irregular masses or
gives azure blue groupsofextendedandbranchflame
ing crysta ls. M alleable.'
Streak copper red and shining.

H
is

So
>40
feu

Taste

M. Alunogen........ ................. Astringent


Al2 (S04) 3 I8H20
H 1,5 to 2
G =1.6 to 1.8

Heated on charcal

K}

The fused i
low

Heated in dosed tube Reorystallization in


a drop of water

loses water be- Much water, S02 and Feathery


infusible. Deep SOg at high heat
blue with Co. sol.

a
Appearance
White efflorescence or fibrous crusts.

O. EpBomite...................
MgS04 7 H20
H =2 to 2.5
G = 1.7

Bitter

M. Copiapite................; . . . .
Fe3 (0H)a (S04)s la n o
H =2.5
G =3.1

Metallic, nauseous Fuses, becomes mag MuclrsSia water


netic

M. Borax.......................
NajB407-f-10 H20
H =2 to 2.5
G = 1.7

Sweetish alkaline

F. = I to 1.5. Swells and Puffs up. Gives much Unsymmetrical


water
polygons
gives clear glass

Snow white crystals, crusts or por


ous masaos.

M. Kernite........................
Na2B40 7 + 4 H20
H =3
G =1.953

Trace of sweetish
taste

F. = !. Swells and gives Puffs up; gives much Unsymmetrioal


a clear glass
water
polygons

Transparent, cleavable, colorless


crystals, resembling selenite.

Tri. Sassolite..................
HgBOj
H l
0 = 1.4

Acid

F. =2. With intumes Water and a little am Six-sided plates and White pearly scales or plates.
threads
cence to dear glass
monia

Like alunogen but pink Water. Acid at high Lath shaped


with Co. sol.
temperature

H
W
5

Minerals of Non-Metallic Luster and with D ecided Taste (Soluble in Water)


Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity

White fibers or crusts.

No recrystallization Yellow scales or granular

Tri. Chaicanthite.................... Metallic, nauseous Fuses. Reduoes with Swells, whitens. Yields Blue crystals
CuS04 5 H20
effervescence to copper water
H =2.5
G =2.1 to 2.3
button

Blue glassy crystals, veins and


crusts.

co

to
Ol

1-26

Minerals of Non-Metallic Luster ad with Decided Taste (Soluble in Water) Continued


Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness a'iid specific gravity

Heated in dosed tube Recrystallization in


a drop of water

Appearance

F. = 1 to 1.5. Ignited Much water


with Co. sol, pink

0. Nitre................................... Salty and cooling


KNO*
H =2
G=2.1

F . l.

1. Kalinite............................... Astringent
KA1 (804) 2+ 12 H20
H=2.5
G = 1.7

2
Bo

F. = 1. Swells, froths, Much water. Acid at Ootahedron. (Three- White fibers or mealy efflorescence.
will stain silver
high heat
six- and four-sided
polygons)

M. Kainite.............................. Salty and bitter

F as easily and if fused Water


with soda will stain
silver

Rectangles

White to brownish red granular


masses.

tt

Su

MgS04KCl+5H20

White to reddish granular masses.


Very deliquescent.

With KHSO4 brown Lath shaped


vapor

White needles or thin crusts.

Q t

H =2.5 to 3

&

I. Sylvite................................ Bitter
KC1
H =2
G = 1.97 to J.99

F. = 1.5

Residue alkaline on
moist test paper

Square (cubes)

White or colorless. May be bluish


or yellowish red.

H. Soda nitre.......................... Cooling


NaNOa"
H = 1.5 to 2
G =2.2

F. I. Deflagrates

With KHSO4 brown


vapor

Rhombic outlines

White, pale red or pale yellow masses


and crystals with forms and angles
of calcite.

M. Mirabilite........... ............. Bitter

Fuses and will stain di Water


ver

Lath shaped

White efflorescence or powdery


crust.

I..Halite.................................. Salty
NaCl
H =2.5
G =2.4 to 2.6

F. = 1.5

A little water

Square (cubes)

White or colorless or impure brown,


yellow or red masses and crystals
with cubic cleavage.

M. Trona................................ Alkaline
NaC0g.NaHC08+ 2 H 20
H=2.5 to 3
G =2.1

Fuses easily

Water

Spherulitic

White glistening crusts.

S|

gs
O
OB
93

1
0
p<

yO
UO

G =2 to 2.2

Rectangles

Na2804+iOHaO

H = 1.5 to 2

G = i.5

M IN E R A LO G Y

ot

Heated on charcoal

O. Carhallite.......................... Salty and bitter


KCI.MgCl.6 H2O
H =l
G o li
o
%

Taste

Minerals of Non-Metallic Luster, Tasteless and with Colored Streak


Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity

e>

M. Azurite..........................
Cu3{0H )2 (C0 2) 2
H 3 .5 to 4
G =3.8
I. Lazurite..........................
Na4(NaS,Al)Al2 (Si04)3
H =5 to 5.5 G =2.6 to 2.9

+
(Separation
of silica)

O. Ataeamite.......................
Cu2(OH)8Cl
H =3 to 3.5 G =3.7 to 3.8

TurnB
brown

Other tests

Appearance

flame with H2SOi


(con c.). Yellow
pt. with ammonic
molybdate

Bluish-green to dark blue, often


earthy and filling shells, horn,
etc. Rarely as colorless or
glassy crystals, gradually be
coming blue.

Infusible.
Blackens.
(Blackens) Yields
water

Enamel-like crusts, veins, or


masses.
.

(Odor H2S)

Chlorite group.....................
H = J to 2.5 G =2.6 to 2.9
(Micaceous dark-green min
erals such as clinochlore
HeMgsAJiSijOis)

Garnierite............................
H2(Ni-Mg)Si0 4 + H20
H = 2 to 3
G =2.3 to 2.8

2 to 2.5.
(Magnetic)

Heated in
closed tube

(Black)

Yields
water

3.5
(White)

Water.
Green
glow

(Colored)

(Separation
of silica)
+
(Green)

Infusible.
Blackens.
(Magnetic) Yields
water
3 to 4
(Copper)

Solutions blue with er blue crusts, velvety, dull or


ammonia
oarthy masses.
Yellow flam

concentrated H2S04

.
brown cold

Deep-blue fine-grained masses,


usually spangled with pyrite
and intermixed with other
minerals.
Dark-green masses of coarse to
very fine scales. Tabular and
curiously twisted six-sided
crystals and fan-shaped groups
which cleave into thin soft
pliable b,;t not elastic plates.
Abo as a pigment in other
minerals.
Dark emerald-green masses,
often cellular and very crum
bly and paler-green masses
and crusts. Luster dull.

Deep emerald-green, confused


White and red sub aggregates and slender prisms.
limates
Formerly found as a sand.

1-27

fi

. Chrysocolla..................
CuSiOa-2 H20
H = 2 to 4
G =2 to 2.3

Fusibility
on coal

TABLES

Insoluble

D E T E R M IN A T IV E

M. Vivianite........................
Fe3(P0j) 2 + 8 H20
H = 1.5 to 2 G =2.6 to 2.7

Simple
solution

AND

There is
a residue
of jelly

D E SC R IP TIV E

S3

In powder boiled with hydrochloric acid


There is
efferves
cence

Minerals of Non-Metellic Luster, Tasteless and with Colored StreakContinued


In powder boiled with hydrochloric acid
Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity
M. Malachite....................
Cu2 (0H) 2C0 2
H =3.5 to 4 G =3.9 to 4

There is
efferves
cence

Kin

w
H

Insoluble

Fuses.
(Copper)

Infusible.
(.Brown)

Turquois........................
Ala (0H) 8P0 4H20
H =6
G =2.6 to 2.8
H. Iodyrite.........................
Agl
H =>I
G =5.6 to 5.7

Fuses.
(Silver)

Sulphur, S...........................
H = 1.5 to 2.5 G =2.0 to 2.1

O. Orpiment........................
AS2S3
H<= 1.5 to 2 G =3.4 to 3.6

+
(Green)

O. Autunite........................
C a ( 0 2)2 (P0)2+8H 20
H = 2 to 2.5 G =3 to 3.2
H. Greenockite.................
CdS
H =3 to 3.5 G =4.9 to 5

+
(Odor H2S)

H. Vanadinite..................
Pb6Cl (VO*)s
H<=3
G = 6.6 to 7.'

+
(Residue)

H. Pyromorphite...............
Pb6Cl (POs)a
H 3.5 to 4 G =5.9 to 7.

+
(Residue)

Liznonite............................
FeaOi-Fe2(OH)6
H =5 to 5.5 G =3.6 to 4

T. CasBiterite......................
Sb Oji
H = 6 to 7
G =>6.8 to 7.1

Heated in
closed tube

Other tests

Appearance

Green flame, blue Bright-green radiating fibers or


Blackens.
crusts, often banded in shades
Much water with HC1
of green, sometimes staiactitic.
Also dull green and earthy.
Rarely, slender crystals.
Water. May Green flame, blue Emerald-green needle crystals.
with HC1. Fused Fibrous veins and 1
blacken.
with soda, stains
Acid at
high tem
silver
perature
Yellow ppt. as in vivi- Sky-blue to green nearly opaque
Biackens.
anite. Green flame nodules or veins, with luster
Yieldfl
of wax.
blue with HC1
water
C losed tu b e w ith Yellow or yellowish-green, thin
Fuses,
KHSO4 violet vapor veins or flexible plates or crys
orange
hot, yellow and globule deep tals. Cuts like wax and is not
red hot, yellow cold affected by sunlight. Streak
cold
yellow.
Unchanged by sun
Sulphur yellow to brown, trans
Fusible subl
lucent crystals, irregular
brown hot,
masses, crusts, stalactites and
yellow cold
powder. Streak pale yellow.
Soluble in nitrio acid Lemon yellow, foliated and
Boils.
Transpar with separation of eleavable to flexible scales,
also granular, and as small
ent yellow sulphur
crystals. Streak lemon yellow.
sublimate

(Arsenical
odor.
Blue
fame)
Easy
Fades.
(Blaok
Yields
water
and crys
talline)
Infusible
Carmine
hot, yellow
but
cold
brown
sublimate

Yellow ppt. aBin vivi


anite. Borax odor
le s s O. F., gree
R. F.
The coal may show
also a variegated
tarnish

%
tei
PS
O

S
1

Yellow tabular nearly square


crystals and scales and foliated
aggregates. Streak pale yel
low.
Bright yellow coating or inclu
sion w ith zin c m in era ls.
Streak orange yellow.

With

On coal greenish yel Red, yellow or brown. Sharp


low subl. with Bi hexagonal prisms, sometimes
Red hot,
fiux. With S. Ph. hollow. Also globular masBeB.
yellow cold 0. F. amber, R. F. Streak pale yellow.
K H S O i.

Yellow ppt. as in vivi- Green, brown or gray. Hexag


anite. Greenish yel onal prisms and tapering
low subl. on coal groups in parallel position.
with Bi flux
Also rounded and moss-like
aggregations.
5
Blackens,
Solution gives dark- Brown cru stB of curved (rhom(Black
becomes
blue ppt. with po- bohedral) crystals, or massive
and
magnetic
tassic ferricyanide with cleavage at 107, or gran
magnetic)
(ferrous iron)
ular. Streak pale yellow.
Infusible
No subli
On coal subl. yellow Yellow-brown or black trans
or with
mate
h ot, w h ite co ld , parent to translucent crystals
difficulty
bright green if ig and eleavable masses with
nited with oobalt strong resinous luster, and
solution
compact fine-grained masses or
alternate concentric layers with
galena. Streak pale brown.
5 to 5.5 Water.
On coal R. F. strong Occurs massive but is best
(Black.
Reddens
ly magnetic
known aB yellowish to brown
Mag
and red needles, scales and
netic)
velvety crusts. Streak yel
low to yellowish brown.
5 W&Sr Much water. Like goethite
Brown dull-lustered heterogene
(Black.
Reddens
ous bog ore, cellular staiactitic
Mag
and pipe-like concretions of
netic)
rusty brown to nearly biack,
often fibrous smooth masses.
Infusible
S. Ph. O. F. slowly to Brownish red to nearly black
yellow, made violet crystals with brilliant luster
R. F.
often parallel or netted. More
rarely massive. Streak pale
brown.
Infusible
On ooa l stro n g ly Brown to red and nearly black.
heated and aided D u ll, kidn ey-shaped and
by soda or sulphur rounded pebbles.
Brilliant
gives button and crystals, and disseminated
subl. yellow hot, grains. Streak pale brown.
white, cold, bluish
green if ignited with
cobalt solution
(Recrystallizes)

I. Sphalerite......................
+
ZnS
(Odor H2S)
H 3.5 to 4 G 3.9 to 4.1

T. Rutile..............................
TiOa
H =6 to 6.5 G =4.1 to 4.2

I
(SO2 odor.
Biue
fame)

1.5
(Black)

B'. Siderite...........................
+
FeCOs
(Slowly in
H = 3.5 to 4 G =3.8 to 3.9 cold acid)

O. Goethite........................
FeO (OH)
H = 5 to 5 .5
G 4 to 4 .4

Fusibility
on ooal
3. (Black)

s*
a

Simple
solution

0. Brochantite...............
CiiB 3 Cu (OH)a
H =3.5 to 4 G =3.9

W
ta
$

There b
a residue
of jelly

01
O

PS

%
a

CO

Minerals of Non-Metallic Luster, Tasteless and with Colored Streak Continued


In powder boiled with hydrochloric acid
Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity

M. Erythrite................ .
Cog (Ab04)2-8 H2O
H = 1.5 to 2.5 G =2.9

There is
efferves
cence

There is
a residue
of jelly

Simple
solution

Insoluble

+
(Light red)

H. Cinnabar......................
H gS

H 2 to 2.5

G = 8 to 8.2

H. Proustite........................
AgsAS
H = 2 to 2.5 G =5.6 to 5.7

H. Pyrargyrite..........
AgsSbSa
H =2.5
G =5.6

Appearance

Volatilizes
without
fusion

Black.subl., Closed tube with soda Vermilion, scarlet and dark


red if
m e t a llic m irror brownish-red fine-grained
which can be col masses. Crystalline crusts.
rubbed
lected into visible Streak scarlet.
globules.
Soluble
aqua'regia

r
(Garlic
odor.
Silver)
1

Infusible

Other tests

Water

(W h ite

Alai} (Ofi>4

Heated in
closed tube

Fuses.
(Garlic
odor)

subl.
Silver)

Bauxite................................
H = it o 3

Fusibility
on coal

G >=2.4 to 2.5

B ora x deep b lu e, Pink earthy crusts or powder


O. F. and R. F.
or crimson fibers. Streak pink
to crimson.

Fuses.
Soluble HN03. De Scarlet to vermilion crusts or
Slight red
composed by boil masses. Rare six-sided prisms
subl., yel
ing KOH and a yel with brilliant adamantine
low cold
low ppt. by HC!
luster. Streak scarlet.
Fuses. Subl. As with proustite but Blackish red veins or crusts
black hot, ppt. is orange
with a brilliant adamantine
red cold
luster. Red tint stronger in
thin layers. Rare crystals.
Streak purplish red.
Water at
high heat

Deep blue if ignited Red to reddish-brown masses


with cobalt solution of rounded grains or clay-like.
Dull in luster. Streak reddish
brow n .

If
el

3
(Copper)

H. Ilmenite........................
FeTiOj
H 5 to 6
G = 4.5t o 5

+
(Slowly)

Infusible
O. F.
with diffi
culty R. F.

Solution boiled with


tin becomes violet.
Fused with soda is
magnetic

Infusible
(Mag
netic)

Dark-blue ppt. with Dull dark red, massive, oolitic,


potassio ferrocy- or earthy, sometimes kidneyanide
shaped and fibrous. Streak
brownish red.

xn H. Hematite........................
38
FeOj
H =5.5 to 6.5-G = 4.9 to 5.3

M. Crocoite.........................
PbCr04
H=2.5 to 3 G=5.9 to 6.1

(Burns
blue
l.iK*
(Lead)

Brownieh-black to rusty-brown
plates, grains and masses and
thin tabular crystals. Streak
brownish red.

Boils, gives Soluble KOH. HC1 Orange-red granular masses of


subl. black ppts. yellow flakes. resinous luster and transpar
hot, red
Soluble HNOa
ent crystals. Streak orange
cold
red.
With
KHSO4
dark violet
hot, green
ish cold

In S. Ph. 0. F. and Hyacinth red prisms,


R. F. bright green. orange yellow.
On coal Bi flux
greenish yellow

Streak

Fuses
(Lead)

Some water In S. Ph. O. F. amber, Black, brown or red crusts


R. F. green. On of minute crystals. Streak
coal with Bi flux brownish orange.
greenish yellow

H. Zincite............................
ZnO
= 4 to 4.5 G =5.4 to 5.7

Infusible
(Subli
mate)

Blackens

Sublimate ignited Deep red to brick-red adaman


with cobalt solution tine masees.
Granular or
is bright green
cleavable. Very rare crystals.
Streak orange yellow.

TABLES

0. Descloisite......................
(PbOH) VO4 (Pb, Zn)
H = 3.5
G 5.9 to 6.2

D E T E R M IN A T IV E

M. Realgar..........................
AsjSs
H = 1.5 to 2 G = 3.4 to 3.6

Ignited with HC1, Dark-red to brick-red masses,


azure-blue flame
Deep-red to crimson isometric
crystals, sometimes hair-liko.
Streak brownish red, shining.

AND

+
(Brown)

D ESCRIPTIVE

I. Cuprite............................
CU2O
H = 3.5 to 4 G =5.8 to 6.1

Minerals of Non-Metallic Luster, Tasteless and with White Streak, and Yielding Reactions on Charcoal with Sodic Carbonate

FUSED ON CHARCOAL WITH

H=
W

Black

Colorless
! or white

Brown
+

Gray

Yellow
+

Red

Green

Blue

Solubility

Insoluble

Flame
coloration

Blue

S
1.5 to 2.5 G 2 to 2.1

Zn3COs (OH)
H =2 to 2.5 G =3.6 to 3.8

effervescence

Heated in
dosed tube

to
w
3
*

a
10

Yellow
green
(Coal
R. F.)

+
SbOg
H =2.5 to 3 G =5.6
+

Bright translucent crys


Ta^es fire and
burns with odor tals and masses or
S0 2
powder with resinous
or dull luster.

Water.
Yellow hot

On coal R. F. heavy Chalk-like masses or


white subl. made crusts on other 2ino
bright green by minerals.
ignition with co
balt Bolution

Fuses, partly
sublimes

Volatile white subl. W h ite silk y m inute


on coal
crystals or radiating
fibers.

Decrepitates

Bright yellow subl. Simple crystals, often


on coal with Bi transparent and color
less. White brittle
flux
masses and compact
granular masses of
gray color from inter
mixed galena.

PbS0 4
H =3
G=6.1 to 6.4

fe
+

H. Vonadinite....................
PbjCl (VOj ),
H =3
G = 6.6 to 7.2

4-

O. Cerussite.......................
PbCOs
H =3 to 3.5 G =6.5 to 6.6

green
solution

Like anglesite. Also Tabular square crystals


Darkens.
Decrepitates solution, cooled of resinous luster.
d ilu ted boilec
with tin is blue

Hemimorpbite (calamine)
(ZnOH)2SiOs
H =4.5 to 5 G =4.3 to 4.5

Sol. with
effervescence
in hot HC1.
Crystals on
cooling

Turns yellow
then red,
cools yellow

Like anglesite

Twinned crystals or in
terlaced fibers or gran
ular masses, often with

Sol. HNOa

Like anglesite. Also Hexagonal prisms and


fuses O. F. and on taperi g groups in porcooling has facets alei position. Also
rounded and moss-like
aggregations.

Sol. with
efferves
cence and
odor H2S

On coal R, F. heavy Transparent to transluwhite B u b l. made e e n t c r y s t a ls and


bright green by deavabie masses with
ignition with co strong resinous luster.
balt solution
Compact masses or
alternate layers with
galena. Barely a
white powder.

Sol. with jelly

Water

Like sp h a lerite White masses, the cavi


(best if soda and ties lined with crys
borax added in ig tals, often showing
nition)
only ends, usually par
allel, forming ridges.
The fracture shows
the crystals like par
allel fibers.

Sol. with
efferves
cence

Yellow hot,
if pure

Like sphalerite

Porous, oellular masses.


Crusts with smooth
rou n d ed su rfa ce s.
Occasional drusy sur
faces, the crystal ends
being three-faced.

TABLES

H. Bmithsonite............. .. .
ZqCOj
H =5
G =4.3 to 4.5

3. Ph. O. F. amber, Sharp hexagonal prisms,


R. F. green
sometimes, hollow.
Also parallel groups
and globular masses.

D E T E R M IN A T IV E

I. Spbaler'te......................
ZnS
H =3.5 to 4 G 3.9 to 4.1

With
KHSO4
yellow to
red hot,
yellow cold

AND

SODIC CARBONATE YIELDS:

H. Pyromorphite..............
Pb8Ci (PO|)
H =3.5 to 4 G =5.9 to 7.1

Sol. HNOj to
yellow
solution

D ESCRIPTIVE

FUSED ON CHARCOAL WITH

PbMoOi
H =3
G = 6.7to 7

Appearance

Yellow
fusible.
Sublimate
brown hot

6
0

Other tests

M IN ER A LO G Y

SODIC CARBONATE YIELDS:

The color of the mineral is:


Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity

CO

Minerals of Non-Metallic Luster, Tasteless and with White Streak, and Yielding Reactions on Charcoal with Sodic Carbonate Continued

The color of the mineral is:


Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity

Flame
coloration

Solubility

H. Willemite......................
ZdSO
H =>5.5
Q =3.9 to 4.2

T. Caasiterite....................
SnC>2
H = 6 to 7
G = 6.8 to 7.1

I. Cerargyrite..................
AgCl
H = ! to 1.5 G - 5 to 5.5

Heated in
closed tube

Other tests

Appearance

Sol. with jelly

Like sphalerite

Insoluble

On coal with soda Crystals with brilliant


non-volatile eubl. adam antine luster,
made bluish green disseminated grains
by ignition with and rounded heavy
cobalt solution
pebbles dull and often
with radiating struc
ture.

Granular masses inter


mixed usually with
black and red grains.
Rarely large reddish
or brownish crystals.
Luster resinous.

Insoluble

With KHS04 On coal acrid odor T h in cr u s ts w h ich


yellow hot,
and silver button
darken in sunlight and
white cold,
cut like wax with shin
violet in sun
ing surface after cut
ting.

3 8 c I. Embolite......................
Ag (Cl-Br)
H = 1 to 1.5 G = 5.3 to 5.

Insoluble

With KHSO4 Like cerargyrite


dark red hot,
dark yellow
cold, dark
green in sun

asg Chrysocolla......................
CuSi03 -2H20

Sol. with
residue

mu

W3

31

I
o 2
m

H = 2 to 4

G = 2 to 2.3

H. Siderite........................
FeCOj
H =3.5 to 4 G =3.8 to 3.9

Emerald
green

Slow effer
vescence
in cold acid

CaS04 2 H20
H = 1.5 to 2 G=2.3

P
m

Soluble.
Rccrystallizes on
evaporation

Whitens.
Yields water

10

1
BaS04
H =2.5to3.5 G=4.3to4.6

Insoluble

Like cerargyrite.

Blackens.
Witb soda on coal, E nam ei-like cruets,
Yields water a copper button
v e in s or c o m p a c t
masses. Never crys
tals.
Black and
magnetic

red

On coal becomes Compact, fine-grained


black and mag and cleavable masses
netic
and rhom bohedrai
cu rv e d c r y s t a ls .
Cleavage angles 107.

Soft, colorless or slightly


tinted masses, which
may be scaly, silky
fibrous or compaot or
may be masses and
crystals, cleaving in
three direction^ to a
rhombic plate of 66.

SrS04
H =3 to 3.5 G =4

gs

CaS0 4
H 3 to 3.5 G =2.9 to 3

Insoluble

Crimson
tale and fibrous, lam
ellar and granular
masses. Cleaves in
three directions to
rhombic plates of 76.

Soluble.
White ppt.
with BaClj

Yellowish
red

Partial

Violet.
(Color
Screen)

Water at
high heat

Blue b y ignition 1
with Co. solution small cuboids, usually
mixed with hard, sili
ceous material.

Yellow

Water and
green
glow

Blue in fine powder I

gr a in e d m a s s e s .
CleaveB in three direc-'
tions at 90.

02tx,
H

K(A103) (S04>2+3H20
H =3.5 to 4.5 G =2.6 to 2.7

Na* (NaSjAl)
AI2 (Si04)$
H = 5 to 5.5 G =2.4

fib r o u s . Crystals
common. Cleaves in
three directions to
rh o m b ic p la te s of
78ya.

02

oB

ICO

H3

Yellowish
green

H
U|z
g

+
jelly and
odor HjS

I
h3

spangled with pyrite


and intermixed with
other minerals.
CO
Cn

Minerals oi Hon-MrtdUc luster, Tasteless end w itl WUte Streak, and Yielding Ho Tests with Sodic Carbonate

Gray

+
AlNa8F6
H = 2.5

Colorless
or white

Red

1
g

Brown

Yellow

Solubility

Heated in
Flame
coloration closed tube

Slight in
EEC!

Crimson

Soluble

Yellow

G = 2.9 to 3

+
CaFg
H =4

orange

G =3 to 3.3

o
H
. H4R2AI2 (SiOs>6 + 4H20
S?
G = 2.lto2.2
4o* H = 3 .5 to 4
H

sCO

<8
(CaNo2) Al (Si04)8 6 H20
M H=4.5
G ==2.0to 2.1
CO
W

Soluble with
residue

Soluble witl
lumps jellj

Hi4K 2Ca8 (Si0a)i6 9H 20


H =4.5 to 5
G =2.3 to 2.4

Appearance

Masses of ooarse or fine scaleB


with easy cleavage into thin
ner plates.
Etches tube Blueif ignited with Translucent masses resem
bling watery snow. Rarely
small six-sided monoclinic
crystals nearly cubes.
Phosphor-

Other tests

Wifch
KHSO4
etches tube
Water

Transparent cubes and masses


of glassy luster which cleave
in four directions at angles
70 31'. Color usually bril
liant. Sometimes banded.

M IN ERA LO G Y

M. Lepidolite........................
(KLi)jAl (Si08)8
S
H 2 to 2.5
G =2.8 to 3.2

Blue

Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and speoifio gravity

Purple
or violet

The color of the mineral is:

Swells greatly dur Sheaf-like groups or many


small crystals forming a
ing fusion
crust or lining. One easy
cleavage giving symmetrical
pearly face.

Much water Intumescence dur Groups of small rhombohedral


crystals which are nearly
ing fusion
cubes.

Tabular or cubic or pointed


Soluble witl Pale viole Much wate Exfoliates durinj
lumps jell}r (Color
cence. Occasionally lamellar.
Screen)
One easy cleavage.

1S

Bubbles in fused Coarse thick crystals with


material
octagonal or square crosssection.
Cleavage angles
135 or 90. Cleavages faint
ly fibrous. More rarely mas
sive columnar or fiae-grained
aggregates.
Masses and crystals with two
easy cleavages, nearly but
not exactly 90. Often show
parallel striations. Some
times opalescent.

Insoluble
Partial

Yellow

Insoluble

Crimson to Water and Momentary blue- Cleavable masses and rough


yellowish etching of green flame with crystals. One easy cleavage.
red
tube
h 2s o 4

Soluble

H. Tourmaline......................
R ibB (SiOs)<
H = 6 to 6.5
G =2.8 to 2.9

Insoluble

Green with
KHSO*
+CaF 2

After ignition die Prismatic crystals often hemisolves leaving morphio and roughly tri
jelly
angular in cross-section.

I. Boracite.
H o>7

Soluble

Yellowish
green

Violet if ignited Minute glassy crystals.


with cobalt solu
tion

G =2.9 to 3

A little
water

After fusion dis Lining cavities as smooth


solves leaving rounded cruets or as sheafjelly
like groups of tabular crys
tals. Sometimes in barrel
shaped crystals.

TABLES

O. Prehnite...........................
HaCaAla (SO)j
H = 6 to 6.5
G =2.8 to 2.9

D E T E R M IN A T IV E

Tri. Amblygonite..............
Li (A1F) P 0 4
a =6
G =3 to 3.1

Yellow

AND

fri Plagiociase......................
nNaAlSiaOfi-fmCaAlSiiOg
K = 5 to 7
G =2.6 to 2.7
(Albite)..........................
(Labradorite).................

Imperfeot

D ESCRIPTIVE

T. Wernerite Group. . . .
Silicates of NaCaAl
H =*5 to 6
G =2.7

1-37

J_3g

Minerals of Non-Metaliie Luster, Tasteless and with White Streak, and Yielding No Tests with Sodic Carhonat^ -C on tin u ed
The color of the mineral is:
Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardneBs and spedfic gravity

Soluble

Ulexite...........................
CaNaB80a-8H20
H=1
Q = 1.65

o.

M. Colemanite................
Ca2Bfi0 n -5 H 2O
EE 4 to 4.5
G =2.2 to 2.3

?tG
og
y* 0 O. Natrolite.....................
Na2Al;;SaOso+ 2HjO
Qtn H <=5 to 5.5
G =2.2
SH
Of*
<5 I. Analcime.....................
M
NaAl(Si03)2 -H20
Cfl H =5 to 5.5
G =2.2 to 2.3
g
M.
Datolite.........................
g
Ca (B0H)8i0 4
H =5 to 5.5
G 2.9 to 3

NagAIgSisOsi
H =5.5 to 6
G =3.2 to 3.6

10
3

10

Pyroxene (diopside)..............
CaMg (SiOg) 2
H =5 to 6
G =3.2 to 3.6

M. Amphibole (tremolile) . ..
CaMga (Si08) 4
H =5 to 6
G =2.9 to 3.4

Reddish
yellow

Much water Green flame with Nodular masses of silky fibers.


KHSOandCaF2
Decrepitates be
fore fusing

Water

Soluble with Yellow


jelly

Water

Soluble with Yellow


lumps jdly

Water, but Becomes opaque Trapezohedral crystals usually


forming a lining. Hardy
before fusion
keeps
granular.
luster

Soluble with Green


jolly

Water at
high heat

Slender prisms with square


cross-section and fiat pyra
mid at end.

Brilliant small highly modi


fied glassy crystals lining
a cavity, also porcelain
masses. No easy cleavage.

Soluble with Yellow


jelly

Insoluble

Usually prismatic crystals


with eight-sided cross-sec
tion and angles between
alternate faces 90 or 87.
Cleavage angle of 87.

Insoluble

Fibrous and columnar, often


radiating. Also crystals with
cross-section, a rhomb of
!24 or six-sided section.
Cleavage at 124.

Blue if ignited with Translucent masses and coarse


cobalt solution
hexagonal crystals with pecu
liar greasy luster.
More
rarely highly modified small
white crystals.

1-4

Masses and crystals with two


easy cleavages, nearly but
not exactly 90. Often show
parallel striations. Some
times opalescent.

to
3
03

(Anorthite) CaAJ2Si20g___

i
to

(Oligodase) Aba to 6 An -..

Soluble witb
jelly

Insoluble

Yellow

Usually pure white, often


granular with curved cleav
age surfaces.
White ppt. with
H2S0 4

Highly modified glassy crys


tals or grayish-white larger
crystals

Yellow
lions. Sometimes spangled
(Suasione).

i
(Labradorite) AbAnj to s-

Beautiful
play of color.

LiAl (SOj)
H =6.5 to 7
G = 3.1 to 3.2

Insoluble

Sprouts and be
comes opaque deavage at 87. Often sepa
during fusion
rate in broad plates (bisect
ing cleavage angle). Often
striated and etched or rough
ened.

1-39

Crimson

TABLES

(Albite) NaAlSisOg...........

D E T E R M IN A T IV E

Tri. Plagioclase.....................
nNaAlSisOa+ mCaAl2
Si20g
H H = 5 to 7
G =2.6 to 2.7
Il

AND

o
H

Highly modified crystals with


one easy deavage, deavable
or fine-grained compact
porcelain-like" or loose,
chalk-like masses.

Green
Soluble
(with crys
tals on
cooling)

D E SCR IPTIVE

01

Other tests

1
<3 8

M IN E R A LO G Y

Heated in
Flame
coloration dosed tube

Solubility

Minerals of Hoa-Metafflc Luster, Tasteless and with White Streak, and Yielding Ho Tests with Sodic C&xbomte Continued

The color of the mineral is:


Crystal ayatem:
name, composition,
hardness aad specific gravity

Solubility

M. Sphene............................
CaSiTiOe
H =5 to 5.5
G =3.4 to 3.5

Pyroxene...............................
RSiOj. Many varieties
(Augite)
(R CaMgFeAl)
H = 5 to 6
G =3.2 to 3.6
M. Amphibole RSiOg
H = 5 to6
G =2.9 to 3.4
(Aotinolite)........................
Ca (MgFe)a (SiOa)4

Soluble
slowly

Insoluble
or nearly

Partially
soluble

M. Epidote.....................
Caa (Al-Fe)2
(AlOH) (SiO<)8
H = 6 to 7
G =3.2 to 3.5

Insoluble
or nearly

T. Idocraae (vesuvianite)....
CaeAlj (OH-F) (Si04)c
H =6.5
G =3.3 to 3.4

Soluble with
white
residue

Insoluble
or nearly

Water at
high heat

Insoluble

After fusion will Imbedded crystals, often


gelatinize
nearly spherical or in druses
and granular, lamellar and
compact maeses. Also found
in alluvial material as
rounded grains.

53w

<c2
wo
o

wo

O. Talc............
HMgj (SiO,)4
= 1 to 1.5
G =2. 5 to 2.9

(Clinoohlore)......................
(HgMg&AljSiaOjs)
H = Ito 2.5
G =2.6 to 2.9
+

Water

Blue if ig n ited Radiated folia or fibers and


with cobalt solu compact masses. Smooth
tion
and aoft like talc.

Insoluble

Water

Pink if ign ited Foliated compact and fibrous


with cobalt solu maeses with soapy feeling.
tion
The foliated talc cleaves
into non-elastic plates.

Milky solu
tion with
conc.
H2S04
Like pro
chlorite

Much water

Sol. with
jelly

Water

Much
water

of coarse to very fine


Tabular and curiionsly twisted six-sided crys
tals and fan-shaped groups
which cleave into thin, soft
pliable but not elastic plates.
Also as a pigment in other
minerals.
Pink if ig n ited Soft, compact, smooth feeling
with cobalt solu' masses of very light weighs.
Rarely fibrous.
tion

1-41

Sepiolite........................
HfMgSiaOio
H = 2 to 2.5
G = 1 to 2

Partial

TABLES

M. Chlorite Group
(Prochlorite)......................
Hg (Mg, F0)tAljSiaOio
H>=l to 2
G =2.8 to 2.9

After fusion will Prismatic crystals, the crossgelatinize


section often showing a tri
angular prism. Often the
color is different at opposite
ends or center and outer
shell. Also radiating aggre
gates and in compact masses.

Green with
KHSO4
CaF

D E T E R M IN A T IV E

Pyrophyllite..........................
HAI (SiOj)*
H = 1 to 2
G =2.8 to 2.9

insoluble

AND

H. Tourmaline....................
RisB2 (Si06>4
H = 7 to 7.5
G =3 to 3.2

After fusion will Square and octagonal prisms


gelatinize
and radiated columnar or
granular masses 01 compact
resembling jade.
D E SCRIPTIVE

?tn I. Garnet...............................
Hoi
R3R2 (Si04)3
H =6.5 to 7.5 G = 3 .1 to 4.3
(most varieties)

Appearance

Bladed non-terminated crys


tals, divergent fibers and
granules.
Crystals six-aided crosssection, with angles 124
and 116, also fibrous and
compact masses.
Some
times with luster of horn.
After fusion at Foliated aggregates some
tracted by mag t im e s w it h p e c u l i a r
Schiller or pearly effect.
net
Borax, 0. F. ame Fine-grained or cleavable
masses and disseminated
thystine
grains, often coated with a
black oxide. Sometimes in
crystals.
After fusion will A secondary mineral often
Water at
with the original mineral as
gelatinize
high heat
grains or needles. Less fre
quently in distinct crystals.

Insoluble
or nearly

O. Hypersthene...............
(Mg-Fe) SiOj
H =5 to 6
G =3.4 to 3.5
Tri. Rhodonite................
MnSiOa
H = 6 to 6.5
G =3.4 to 3.7

Other teats

May become S. Ph. O. F. slowly Wedge-shaped or tabular


soluble. Undis- crystals, with adamantine
yellow
solved portion luster. Also massive. Easy
milk white, R. F cieavageB give monoclinio
violet
Usually eight-sided
with angles between alter
nate faces 90 and 87.
Cleavage angle 87.

Insoluble

(Hornblende). . . .
CaMgFeAl, etc

O'
K

Heated in
Flame
coloration dosed tube

Minerals of Ron-Metallic Luster, Tasteless and with White Streak, and Yielding No Tests with Sodic Carbonate Continued

Black

Colorless
or white

Red

Brown

Gray

Yellow

(HK) AlSi04
H = 2 io 2.5
G 2 .8 to 3

Green

Blue

The color of tue mineral is:


Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardnesB and specific gravity

Flame
Heated in
coloration closed tube

Solubility

even in
H2SO4

high heat

like prochlorite

high heat

Like proohlorite

high heat

Other testB

Plates and mosses of scales


and crystals, often large and
rough, with rhombic or hex
agonal cross-section. Luster
pearly, cleavage very easy
into thin elastic plates.

CO

(H-K )2 (Mg-Fe)2
AI55(SO4) 3
coco
H =2. 5 to 3
G =2.7

20

(K-H)3MgiAl (SiO^s
H =2.5 to 3
G =2.8
oB

H4Mg88208
H =3 to 4
G =2.5 to 2.6

BS

Water
residue

m2

SrCOg
M

to
ti

H =3 to 3.5

G =3.7

CaSiO*
H =4 to 5

G =2.8 to 2.9

CaW04
H =4.5 to 5

G =5.9 to 6.1

H. Apatite....................
Ca6 (Cl-F) (P04)3
H 4.5 to 5
G =3.2

Pale red

Fibrous to compact masses.


Rarely tabular crystals. Usu
ally intermixed with calcite.

Pale red

S. Ph. O. F. color Very heavy masses with resi

yellow resi
due made
blue by tin

- f Soluble

o
coai
O. Enetatite.................
(Mg-Fe)Si08
g g H =5.5
G 3.1 to 3.3
l
Orthoclase......................
KAlSisOg
H =6 to 6.5
G =2.5 to 2.6

Insoluble
or nearly

gS

Insoluble

gi

H. Beryl................................
BejAl (SiOj)g
H 7.5 to 8
G =2.6 to 2.8

Insoluble

Insoluble

&

O
8
h

Pink or brownish Compact masses with little


red if powder ig luster and smooth somewhat
nited with cobalt greasy feel, often with veins
solution
of silky fibers or foliated.
Sprouts and glows Masses of parallel or radiating
intensely during imperfect needle crystals.
fusion
More rarely fine granular.

Soluble

Rough prisms with hexagonal


or rhombic sections. Also
disseminated scales. Cleaves
easily into thin elastic plates.

Effervesces Crimson
in cold di
lute acids

withC0 2 -F-S0 4
H =2-5
G 2.6-2.9

Hg
.Ha H. Tourmaline....................
R 18B2 (Si06)4
H =7 to 7.5
G =3 to 3.2

Scales or aggregates. Rarely


large sheets or pseudo hex
agonal crystals cleaving eas
ily into thin elastic plates.
Luster pearly.'

jelly

Collophano (am orphous). . .


essen tially C b j P Os H2O

Appearance

less to
milk nous luster. Square pyramids
white. R. F.deep and drusy crusts.
blue

Yellowish
red. Mo
mentary
green with
H2S0 4
Yellowish Water
red. Mo
mentary
green with
HjS04

Solution added to
nitric solution of
ammonium molybdate g iv e s
bright yellowppt.

Green with
KH804
CaFi

GO

Yellow ppt. with Usually massive and without


HNO3 and am- form. May be o 8litio or
monium molyb- show bone structure.
date
Like serpentine

Violet
(Color
screen)

Usually hexagonal prisms.


Luster of oiled glass, dull if
altered. Also compact, dull,
massive bone phosphate.

I
d

Lamellar to fibrous masses,


often with pearly iusierMaeeea and crystals which
cleave in two directions at
exactly 90. Except in the
variety microcliae the sur
faces . resulting are not
grooved. Sometimes opales
cent.

After fusion will Prismatic crystals, often


gelatinize
showing a triangular prism.
The color may differ at op
posite ends or center and
outer shell. Also radiating
aggregates and in compact
Often becomes
Hexagonal prisms, from mere
white on fusion threads to several ieet in
length.
Sometimes also
in columnar or granular
masses.

h3

TJ

09


Minerals of Non-Metallic Luster, Tasteless and with White

Streak, and Yielding N o Tests with Sodic Carbonat*-C m tinued

The color of the mineral is:


Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity

Si
s '!

4>
II

Flame
Solubility coloration

fi

O
to ag
KM

ps

5<i
P,tH
Bn

Soluble

M. Aluminite..................
Al^SOu 9 H20
H = 1 to 2
G = 1-6

o ff
wt> Bauxite...........................
If)
A120 (OH)*
O
jcn H l t o 3
G = 2.4 t o 2.5

Other tests

Appearance

oj

A
M

Heated in
closed
tube

Soluble
slowly

B oh
M. Gibbeifco..
WE
Al(OH)8
G =2.4
Q ~ H=2.5 to 3.5
CO(M
on
h
K O. Andalusite..................
(Chiastolite)
AljSiOj
nin
H =4 to 5
G =2.1

Dull day-like or mealy


Greasy feel.

Insoluble

Water

Often plastic
with water

Insoluble

Water

Often swells in Often occurs in soapy or waxlike mases of day.


water

Soluble

Water

Exfoliates on
heating

M. Kaolinite...
H4Al2Si20s
G =2.6
H = 2to 2.5
M. Montmorillonite..........
(MajCa) 0, A120 8 5Si02NH20
H = I to 2
0=2+

Rounded chalky masses with


Much acid Infusible with peculiar, harsh (meager) feel.
soda but mass
water.
Odor S02 will stain silver
Masses of rounded grains
Water at May become
(pisolites or oiiSitea) or
high heat magnetic in
earthy or clay-like.
No
R. F.
luster.

Sd

Small stalactites or thin,


smooth crusts, with in
ternally fibrous structure.
Rarely in small crystals.
Coarse, rounded prisms.
Often superficially black.
Cross-sections show a cross
or checked figure.

Insoluble

A Tri. Kyanite.............................
WK
Al2SiOs
HO
Q m H = 5 to 7
G =3.6 to 3.7

Insoluble

Triclinio blade-like crystals


and blade-like masse., cleav
ing parallel largest face. Col
or deeper along center.

Leucite......................................
KAI (SiOi)2
H =5.5 to 6
G =2.4 to 2.5

Soiuble
Violet
with res (Color
idue
screen)-

Translucent nearly spherical


crystals and grains in vol-canio rocks.

O. Sillimanite...................
Al2SiO*
H = 6 to 7
G =3.2

Insoluble

Thin, almost fibrous prisma


and tough fibrous aggre
gates.

O. Andalusite............................
Ai (AIO) S1O4
G =3.1 to 3.2
g o H =7 to 7.5
J
O. Dumortierite........... ..........
8 A120 B2O36 SiO-HO
g s H =7
G =3.26 to 3.36
05H
tan
Topass........................................
g
AliSigOjjFjo
H=8
G =3.4 to 3.6
esBH

Insoluble

oS

0
a

So

g s go
<0

fo
rh
2

feto

2S
SS
L_ 0

InediS

Insoluble

Coarse, nearly square prisma


or tough, columnar or gran
ular masses.
Water

Blade-like or fibrous crystals.

03
o
w
h-t
tf

Heated in open Glassy crystals with one easy


tube with fused cleavage.
Also columnar
S. Ph. etches aggregates, and water-worn
orystala in alluvial deposit.

GO

Minerals of Non-Metallic Luster, Tasteless and with White Streak, and Yielding N o Tests with Sodic Carbonai^-Continued
The color of the mineral is:
Crystal system:
name, composition,
hardness and specific gravity

s iP5
o 8

I. Spinel...............................
9a H = 8MgAlgOj G =3.5 to 4.5

aiO
Hu

S3

IB

O. Chrysoberyl..........................
BftAlgOi
H =8,5
G =3.5 to 3.8

ii
is

H. Corundum..........................
AI2O8
HO H = 9
G =3.9 to 4.1
M
WfM
(Sapphire) or (Ruby).

g
&|g
hm

Flame Heated in
Solubility coloration closed
tube

Often changes Simple or twinned octahedral


color on heat crystals and rolled pebbles.
ing

Insoluble

Usually pseudohexagohal
crystals or pebbles. Emerald
green crystals by transmitted
light are purplish red; some
pebbles show an internal

Insoluble

Coarse crystals or masses with


partings in four directions at
86 and 57, or granular,
slightly translucent.

Insoluble

Color changed Transparent to translucent,


usually in crystals and of
by heating
fine colors.

O. Aragonite....................
CaCOg
H 3.5 to 4
G 2.9

..

H. Dolomite..............................
CaMg (COa)a
H =3.5 to 4
G 2.8 to 2.9

H. Magnesite..........................
MgCOg
H ==3.5 to 4.5
G =3 to 3.1

H. Rhodochrosite.................. ..
MnCOs
H =4.5
G =3.5 to 4.5
M. Monazite.............................
(Ce-La-Di) PO*
H =5 to 5.5
G =4.9 to 5.3

Opaque, granular corundum,


intimately mixed with hemaI tite or magnetite.

(Emery).

Orange
Lumps
rapidly, red
effer
vesces in
cold dilute acid

Unchanged
when boiled
with cobalt
solution

Like cal Orange


cite
red

Becomes lilac if Simple or pseudohexagonal


boiled with co crystals. Also columnar and
balt solution
needle masses, oolitic, stalactitic and coral-like. Two
easy cleavages with angles
near 120 (116, 122).

Lumps
Orange
slowly,
red
effer
vesces in
cold di
lute acid

Pink if ignited Curved rhombohedral crys


with cobait
tals, or coarse to fine-grained
solution
masses. Cleaves in three di
rections to rhombohedron
of 106,

Effete..

Like dolomite

vesces
only in
warm
acid
+

Appearanoe

Insoluble

H. Caloite........................
CaCOs
H =3
G =2.7

Other teste

Crystals of many
which cleave in three direc
tions to rhombohedron of
105. Cleavabie, coarse and
fine-grained, fibrous and
loosely coherent masses.
Crusts, stalactites.

Compact, dull nodules or


veins in serpentine. Shell
like fracture. Rarely cleava
ble.

Like do!o
mite

Darkens on ig Rhombohedral crystals often


nition. Borax, with curved edges cleavable
O. F. amethys and granular masses. Some
tine
times as a crust.

Soluble Momen
white
tary
residue
green
with
H2SO4

Yellow ppt. if Translucent grains in some


solution added sands and small imbedded
to nitric solu resinous crystals.
tion of ammo
nio molybdate,

H
co

I
H3

I
F
a
Ui

Minerals of Non-Meteliic

with White Streak, and Yielding N o Tests with Sodic Carbonate Continued

Tasteless

The color of the minorai is:


CryBtal system:
name,composition,
liarfiiiPRR and specific gravity

flame Heated in
Solubility coloration closed
tube

&
11
8*

Sol.HNOg Green
(Cu)

Turquois..........................
A h (0H)iP0iH20
H =5 to 6
G >=2.6

ria:
Mg

M. Chondrodite..................
HMgiaSigOstF4
H =6.5
G ==3.1 to 3.2

O. Chrysolite.......................
wen
(M(tFe)2Si04
H=6.5
7
G =3.3 to 3.6

Opal...................................
SiOnHjO
H =5.5 to 6.5
G = 2 .1 to 2.2

Chalcedony......................
Si02
H =6.5
G 2.6

Whitens on
heating

SiOj

H =7

Insoluble

In S. Ph. R. F Crystals with brilliant luster


often parallel or netted.
gives violet
More rarely massive.

Insoluble

Translucent crusts and cavity


linings with smooth rounded
surfaces, often in concentric
layers with wax-like luBter.
Never in crystals.
_

Glassy hexagonal crystals and


glaesy shapeless material be
tween crystals of other minerals. Also nearly opaque
material,- containing much
iron and alumina.

Insoluble

Crystals only.

T. Zircon..........................
ZrSi04
H=7.5
G =4.7

0. Staurolite.............................
Fe (A10) 4 (A10H)
(SO4)
H =7.5
G =3.6 to 3.7
H. Tourmaline........................
Rl8B2(Si06>4
H = 7 to 7.5
G =3 to 3.2

Insoluble

Glows intensely Sharp-cut square prisms, long


on
or short, usually imbedded
in the associated mineral.
Luster usually adamantine
or greasy. Also rounded
pebbles.

Insoluble

Insoluble Green
with
KHSO4
CaF2
Insoluble

A little
water

Prisms often twinned, or in


threes, crossing at 90 and
120. Surfaces bright if un
altered,
Glassy hexagonal prisms dif
ferently faced at the two
ends. Cross-section often
suggests a triangle.
In powder is
Crystals often rounded with
burned to CO2 luster suggesting oiled glass,
and cleavage in four direc
tions at 70 31'.

TABLES

I. Diamond......................
C
H = 10
G 0.3.5

D E T E R M IN A T IV E

Insoluble

tr4
O

AND

sS

Slowly soluble Translucent veins or lining


A little
in caustic al with internal color reflec
water;
tions, or without opales
kali
becomes
cence and with waxy luster,
opaque
and ehell-like fracture. Also
dull like pumice and like
d r o p B of melted; '

G 2.6

I. Garnet (Ouvarovitt).............
CajCrj (Si04) 3
H =7
G 3.1 to 4.3

E
SSS

Transparent to translucent
granular masses or glassy
grains, or sand.

D E SC R IP TIV E

EL Quartz........................

Nearly opaque material with


wax-like luster found filling
cracks and cavities in igne
ous rocks.

Sol. with
jelly

Ss

Like monazite

H.iated in open Compact masses, dissemi


tube with fused nated grains and crystals of
S. Ph. etches great complexity.

S'S

T. Rutile............................
2
BB H =>6Ti0
to 6.5
G 4.1 to 4.2
2

Appearance

Sol. with
jelly

Insoluble

Other tests

1-49

1-50

M IN E R A L O G Y

MINERAL SUBSTANCES NOT EASILY DETERMINABLE


BY A SCHEME
The following mineral substances of economic importance have not been included in the
determinative tables, some because they lack fixed characters, others because their characters are
list in those of their associated substances and others because they occur only in one known locality.
Amber, once the most prized of gems, now used sometimes in jewelry, oftener as a mouthpiece
for pipes, is a name given to those fossil resins which contain succinic acid and were derived from a
particular extinct species of pine. The amber of the Baltic Sea and the Sicilian amber are the most
valued. Color, garnet red, reddish, yellow, brownish, sometimes with bluish fluorescence. Luster
resinous, streak white, H 2 to 2.5. G = 1.096. Melts quietly at 125 to 150 C. and gives off
a choking vapor.
Asphalts are rather indefinite mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxidized products. They
vary from thick, highly viscous liquids to solids, are generally black in color with pitch-like luster,
and bum easily with a pitchy odor. They are slightly heavier than water. Examples: the pitch
lakes of Trinidad and of Bermudez, Yenzuela; the manjak of Barbados; the elastic elaterite of
Derbyshire, England; the albertite of New Brunswick, and the gilsonite of Utah. Sandstones
and limestones impregnated with asphalt occur in many localities.
Brucite Mg(OH)a. A white, compact, flnely-crystalline mineral, with slightly greenish tint.
Soluble in dilute HC1, yielding tests for Mg; also yields water in closed tube. Found in a large
deposit on western sitie of Paradise Range, Nevada, associated with magnesite and dolomite, along
a contact of granite with a magnesite-dolomite series. Other forms, of non-commercial importance,
sometimes associated with serpentine, are apt to be micaceous or fibrous.
Camotite, 2 U0 jV20 sK20 -3 EfeO (?). A .canary yellow, pulvurulent mineral, in minute scales,
filling the interstices of sandstone in several counties in Colorado. Rarely compact and wax-like.
It contains radium, and is an impure vanadate of uranium and potassium, or uranium and lime,
or both. Is a commercial source of radium, uranium, and vanadium.
Clays are mixtures of mineral fragments, due to rock decay. They are usually plastic when wet,
can be molded, and harden on heating. By analysis they are principally silica and alumina, with
some iron oxide and small amounts of other elements. Mineralogicaliy they contain hydrous
silicates of alumina, free quartz, and varying amounts of many other minerals. In origin they may
have resulted from decay in place (residual clays) or may have been transported by water, ice, or
wind (sedimentary clays). The most important clays are:
Kaolins. White-burning, residual clays, often not plastic, approaching kaolinite in composi
tion, but not necessarily composed chiefly of that mineral. They are the basis of white wares and
porcelain, etc.
Ball clays. White-burning sedimentary clays. They are highly plastic and are added to
kaolin to give plasticity.
Fire clays. Either sedimentary or residual clays, which stand high degrees of heat without
fusion. Composition very variable and apparently best with little free silica, lime, magnesia, or
Fullers earth. A montmorillonite-bearing clay, greenish in color when moist. Is a natural
adsorbent for coloring matter in oiL
Stoneware clays. Clays sufficiently plastic and tough to be turned on a potters wheeL
Terra-cotta days. Usually buff-burning clays, with low shrinkage and dense-burning character.
Sewer pipe and paving-brick clays. Vitrifiable, high in fluxes.
Brick clayB. Low-grade clays, with considerable plasticity, which harden at a comparatively
low temperature.
Slip clays. Melt at a comparatively low temperature and form a glaze.
Paper clays. White clays free from sand; used for mixing with pulp fiber.
Bentonite. Composed essentially of the mineral montmorillonite, usually formed by alteration
of volcanic ash. Many bentonites swell in water. Some bentonitic clays extensively used for
clarifying oiL
Diatomite. An extremely light porous, white, mass of microscopio, opaline, organisms (diatoms),
chiefly silica, but yielding much water in the closed tube. Used as a heat insulator, also for brick
or in filtration.
Gilsonite. An asphaltite. Sp gr = 1.01 to 1.10; melting point, 230 to 400 F; found in veins
in NE Utah. Was probably distilled by heat from the underlying Green River shale. Used for
varnishes and Japans, printing and rotogravure inks, and in various commercial products; 32 227
tons reported mined in 19S5.
Grahamite or Glance Pitch. An asphaltite. Sp gr of about 1.15 or more. Largely mined ia
Cuba, where found in sedimentary and serpentinous rocks. Formerly mined in Pushmatoka Co.
Okla, and Ritchie Co, W VaKieserite (MgSOj - f H 2O) is the source of Epsom salts, and an important source of magnesium
oxide and basic carbonate (magnesia alba). It occurs at Stassfurt, Prussia, as about'one-fifth of a
layor 190 ft thick, chiefly halit and carnallite, and as one of the constituents of the overlying mixed
salts. Exposed to the air it becomes epsomite. After removal of associates there remains a mass
slowly soluble in water and easily fusible. H = 3 to 3.5, G = 3.5. Rarely orthorhombic crystals.
Livingstonite (HgSbiS?). Found in Mexico, at Huitzuco and Guadaloazar and said to have
been used as a source of mercury. It resembles stibnite in appearance, has metallic luster, lead
gray color, red streak, H = 2, G => 4.81, and occurs in groups of slender prismatic crystals.

IN D E X

TO

D E T E R M IN A T IV E

TABLES

1-51

_ Blottramite (CuPtygVjOio-S HjO). The vanadium of commerce was formerly obtained from
thin, blackish incrustations of mottramite upon the Keuper sandstone, Cheshire, England. Streak
yellow, H = 3, G = 5.9.
.Ocher, commercially, is a golden-yellow intimate mixture of clay with 20% or more of hydrated
ferric oxide. Mineralogists use the name also for pulverulent yellow iron oxide (xanthosiderite)
and for pulverulent red hematite.
Ozocerite, or mineral wax, is essertiaUy a paraffine, colorless to white when pure, but oftener
greenish or brown, and possessing all the properties of beeswax except its stickiness. A little is
mined in Utah and about 3 000 tons are imported annually from Galicia and Moldavia. Used in
crude state as insulation for electric wires. By distilling it yields ceresine, used for candles, burning
oils, paraffine, a product like vaseline and a residuum which, with india-rubbur, constitutes the
insulating material called okonite.
Patronite (vanadium sulphide). At the one locality of Cerro de Pasco, Peru, there is a vein
7 or 8 ft thick of a nearly black material resembling slaty coaL About two-thirds of this is patronite
and one-third metallic sulphides and free sulphur. Below it is 1 to 2 ft of coke-like material, chiefly
carbon, which blends into a lustrous black material 4 to 6 ft thick, containing more sulphur
carbon, but known as asphaltite. The ashes of these two associates are also rich in vanadium, H
the roasted or burned material is exported.
Petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons, obtained from the earth. It varies from a light, easily
flowing liquid, to a thick viscous oil, and is usually of a dark brown or greenish color, with a distinct
fluorescence. Chemically the American petroleum consists principally of hydrocarbons of tha
paraffine ssries CnH2n+2, with smaller amounts of the series CnHjn and CnHjn-ts. The oils from
Baku, on the Caspian, Rangoon, Galicia, and the Caucasus, contain more of the CH 2n or olefin
series.
Roscoelite (vanadium mica). A mica of brown to brownish-green color, long known as an
associate of gold in certain mines of California, and containing approximately 25% V2OJ, is now
commercially obtained from a soft Colorado sandstone of greenish color, in which the roscoelita
fills the interstices between the grains.
Thorianite (ThOaUsOg). Small water-worn blackish cubic crystals found in the Ceylon gem
gravels and used as a source of thoria. H = 5.5 to 6, G = 9.3. It is radioactive.
Thorite (ThSiOi). Black or orange-yellow, zircon-likeicrystals and masses, occurring in Nor
way in small quantity; used as a source of thoria. H
4.5 to 5, G = 4.8 to 5.2. Infusible;
gelatinizes with acids.
Tripoli. A fine, siliceous powder, containing chalceddhy or opal; used as abrasive; day-like
in appearance, but quite gritty.
Umber is drab-colored mixture of iron and aluminum silicates, containing manganese oxide.
It becomes reddish brown on burning. Sienna is similar, but with less manganese and lighter in
color.
Vermiculite. Various forms of soft, pliable or inelastic mica; when heated, slowly expanded
material useful in heat insulation.
Wad. Earthy to compact indefinite mixtures of oxides, especially of manganese, cobalt or
copper, are known as wad. They have no constant characters, but may be valuable ores. Usually
dark brown to black in color.

INDEX TO DETERMINATIVE TABLES*


(Numbers indicate the sections in the tables)
Actinolite (see Amphibole)
Albite (see Plagioclase)
Aluminite, 23
Alunite, 18
Alunogen, 7
Amber, 25
Amblygonite, 19
Amphibole, 20, 21
Analoime, 20
Andalusite, 23
Anglesite, 16
Anhydrite, 18
Anorthite (see Plagioclase)
Antimony, 4
Apatite, 22
Apophyllite, 19
Aragonite, 24
Argentite, 1
Arsenic,4
Arsenopyrite, 3
Asbestos (see Amphibole)
Asphalt, 25

Atacamite, 12
Augite (see Pyroxene)
Autunite, 13
Azurite, 11
Barite, 18
Bauxite, 14, 23
Bentonite, 25
Beryl, 22
Biotite, 22
Bismuth, 4
Boracite, 19
Borax, 8
Bornite, 5
Braunite, 1
Brochantite, 12
Brucite, 25
Calamine (see Hemimorphite)
Calaverite (see Gold telluride)
Caldte, 24
Carnallite, 9
Carnotite, 25
Caesiterite, 2, 13, 18

Celestite, 18
Cerargyrite, 17
Ceruasite, 16
Chabazite, 19
Chalcanthite, 8
Chalcedony, 24
Chalcocite, 1
Chalcopyrite, 5
Chiastolite (see Andalusite)
Chlorite Group, 12, 22
Chondrodite, 24
Chromite, 2
Chrysoberyl, 23
Chrysocolla, 17
Chrysolite (see Olivine)
Chrysotile (see Serpentinn;
Cinnabar, 14
Clays, 25
Ciinochlore (see Chlorite
Group)
Cobaltite, 3
Colemanite, 20

*
Mineral names correspond with recommendations of Committee on Nomenclature, of Min
eraiogicai Soo of America.

1 -5 2
Collaphane, 22
Columbite, 1, 2
Copiapifce, 7
Copper; 6
Corundum, 23
Crocoite, 15
Cryolite, 19
Cuprite, 14
.Cyanite (see Kyanite)
Datolifce, 20
Descloizite, 15
Diamond, 24
Diatomite, 25
Diopside (see Pyroxene)
Dolomite, 24
Dumortierite, 23
Elaeolite (see Nephelite)
Embolite, 17
Emerald (see Beryl)
Emery (see Corundum)
Enargite, 1
Ensfcatite, 22
Epidote, 21
Epsomite, 7
Erythrite, 14
Fluorite, 19
Franklinite, 2
Fuller s earth, 25
Galena, 1, 3
Garnet, 21, 24
Garnierite, 12
Gibbaite, 23
Gilsonite, 25
Glance pitch, 25
Goetbite, 2, 13
Gold, 6
Gold tellurides, 4
Grahamite, 25
Graphite, 1
Greenookifce, 13
Gypsum, 18
Halite, 10
Hausmannite, 2
Hematite, 2, 14
Hemimorphite, 16
Hessite, 4
Hornblende (see Amphibole)
Hydrozineite, 16
Hypersthene, 21
Idocrase, 21
Hmenite, 1, 2, 14
Iodyrite, 13
Iridoamine, 4
Jamesonite, 1, 3
Kainite, 9
Kalinite, 9
Kaolinite, 23, 25
Kernite, 8
Kieaeriie, 25

BIBLIOGRAPHY

MINERALOGY
Kyanite, 23
Labradorite (see Plagioolaee)
Lapis Lazuli (see Lazurite)
Lazurite, 11, 18
Lepidolite, 19
Leucite, 23
Limonite, 2 13
Linnaeite, 3
Livingatonite, 25
.Magnesite, 24
Magnetite, 1
Malachite, 12
Manganite, 2
Marcasite, 5
Mercury, 4.
Miorocline (see Orthoolase)
Millerite, 5
Mixabilite, 10
Mi8pickel (see Araeaopyrite)
Molybdenite, 4
Monazite, 24
MontmoriUomte, 23
Mottramite, 25
Mundio (see Pyrrhotite)
Muscovite, 22
Natrolite, 20
Nepheline, 20
Niccolite, 5
Nitre, 9
Ocher, 25
Oligoclase (see Plagioclase)
Olivine, 24
Opal, 24
Orpiment, 13
Orthoolase, 22
Patronite, 25
Pentlandite, 5
Petroleum, 25
Phlogopite, 22
Pitchblende (see Uraninite)
Flagiodase, 19, 20
Platinum, 4
Polybasite, 1
Prochlorite (see Clinochlore)
Proustite, 14
Pailomelane, 1
Pyrargyrite, 2, 14
Pyrite, 5
Pyrolusite, 1
Pyromorphite, 13,16
Pyrophyllite, 22
Pyroxene, 20, 21
Pyrrhotite, 5
Quartz, 24
Realgar, 15
Rhodochrosite, 24
Rhodonite, 21
Roscoelite, 25
Ruby (see Corundum)

Ruby silver (see Proustite and


Pyrargyrite)
Rutile, 2,13,24
Sapphire (see Corundum;
Sassolite, 8
Scheelite, 22.
Sepiolite, 22
Serpentine, 22
Siderite, 13,17
Sillimanite, 23
Silver, 4
Smaltite, 3
Smithsonite, 16
Soda nitre, 10
Specular iron (see Hematite)
Sperrylite, 3
Sphalerite, 2,13, 16
Sphene, 21
Spinel, 23
Spodumese, 20
Stanmte, 3
Staurolite, 24
Stephanite, 1
Stibnite, 3
Stilbite, 19
Stream tin (see Cassiterite)
Strontianite, 22
Sulphur, 13,16
Sylvanite (see Gold telluride.
Sylvite, 9
Talc, 22
Tellurium, 4
Tenorite, 1
Tetrahedrits, 1, 3
Thorianite, 25
Thorite, 25
Titanite (see Sphene)
Topaz, 23
Tourmaline, 19, 21, 22, 24
Tremolite (see Amphibole)
Tripoli, 25
Trona, 10
Turquois, 12, 24
Ulexite, 20
Umber, 25
Uraninite, 1, 2
Valentinite, 16
Vanadinite, 13, 16
Vermiculite, 25
Vesuvianite (see Idoorase,
Vivianite, 11
Wad, 25
Wernerite, 19
Willemite, 16
Wolframite, 2
Wollastoniie, 22
Wulfenite, IS
Zincite, 15
Zircon, 24

1 -5 3

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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1892
Hintze, Carl. Handbuch der Mineralogie. Bd 1, 1897; Bd 2,1904. von Veit & Co, Leipzig
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Cahern and Wooton. The Mineralogy oi the Rarer Metals. 2nd ed. Charles Griffin &
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Dana-Fora. Textbook of Mineralogy. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, N Y, 1932
Kraus, E. H., Hunt, W. F. and Ramsdell, L. S. Mineralogy. Introduction to the study
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Miers, H. A. Mineralogy. An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Minerals. Macmillan
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Rogers, A. F. Introduction to the Study of Minerals. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y,
1937
Brush-Penfield. Manual of Determinative Mineralogy. 16th ed. John Wiley & Sons, N Y,
1906
Fraser-Brown. Tables for the Determination of Minerals. 6th ed. J. B. Lippincott Co,
Philadelphia, 1910
Kraus-Hunt. Tables for the Determination of Minerals. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book
Co, N Y, 1930
Lewis, J. V. Determinative Mineralogy. 14th ed. Revised by A. C. Hawkins. John Wiley
& Sons, N Y, 1931
Plattner-Koibeck. Probierkunst mit der Ltrohre. 7th ed. Johann Barth, Leipzig, 1907
Warren, C. H. Determinative Mineralogy. MeGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y, 1921
Crystallography
Bayley, W. S. Elementary Crystallography. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y, 1910
Groth-Jackson. The Optical Properties of Crystals. Translated from 4th ed. John Wiley
& Sons, N Y, 1910
Groth-Marahali. Introduction to Chemical Crystallography. John Wiley & Sons, N Y, 1906
Lewis, W. J. A Treatise on Crystallography. Univ Press, Cambridge, England, 1899
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& Co, London, 1922
|
Minerals in Thin Section
^
Iddings, J. P. Rook Minerals. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, N Y, 1912
Johannsen, A. Essentials for the Microscopic Determination of Rock Forming Minerals and
Rooks. Univ of Chicago Press, 1922
Johannsen, A. Manual of Petrographie Methods. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y, 1914
Pirsson, L. V. Rocks and Rock Minerals. John Wiley & Sons, N Y, 1908
Rogers, A. F., and Kerr, P. F. Thin Section Mineralogy. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y, 1933
Wemschenck-CIark. Petrographie Methods. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y, 1912
Microscopic Study of Mineral Fragments
Larsen, E. S., and Berman, H. Mioroscopic Determination of the Non-opaque Minerals. U S
G 8 , Bull 848, 1934
Schroeder van de Kolk, J. L. C. Tabellen zur mikroskopischen Bestimmung der Mineralien
nach ihren Brechnungs-exponenten. 2nd ed. Wiesbaden, 1906
Winchell, A. N. Elements of Optical Mineralogy. Part L 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons, N Y,
1937
Microscopic Study of Opaque Ore~mineral8
Davy-Famham. Microscopic Examination of Ore Minerals. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y,
1920
Murdoch, J. Microscopic'Determination of Opaque Minerals. John Wiley & Sons, N Y, 1916
Schneiderhhn, H. and Ramdohr, P. Lehrbuch der Erzmikroskopie. Berlin, 1934
Short, M. N. Microscopic Determination of Ore Minerals. U S G S Bull 825, 1931
Van der Veen, R. W. Mineragraphy and Ore-deposition. G. NaeS, The Hague, 1925
Occurrence, Association and Origin of Minerals
Byschlag-Krusch-Vogt. Die Lagersttten der nutsbaren Mineralien und Gesteine.
Enke, Stuttgart, 1909
Clarke, F. W. l i e Data of Geochemistry. Bulletin 770, U S G S, 1924
Merrill, G. P. The Non-metallio Minerals. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, N Y
Van Hise, C. R. A Treatise on Metamorphism. Monograph 47, U S G S, 1904

Ferdinand

Uses of Minerals
Ladoo, R. B. Non-metallic Minerals. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y, 1925
Mineral Resources of the United States. Annually since 1883, U S G S; from 1932, Bur Mines
The Mineral Industry. Annually since 1892, McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y
Spurr-Wormser. Marketing of Metals and Minerals. McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1925
Mineral Raw Materials. U S Bur Mines Staff, 1937
Qems and JPrecious Stones
Bauer, Max. Precious Stones. Trans by L. J. Spencer. 1904 _
Bauer, Max. Edelsteinkunde. Revised by Schlossmaoher. Leipzig, 1932
Cattelle, W. R. Precious Stones. J. B. Lippincott Co, Philadelphia, 1903
Eppler, A. Die Schmuck- und Edelsteine. Felix Krais, Stuttgart, 1912
Kraus-Holaen. Gems and Gem Minerals. 2nd ed McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y , 1931
Smith, G. F. H. Gem Stones. Methuen & Co, Ltd, London

SECTION 2
GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS
BY

JA M E S F U R M A N K E M P
L A T E PB O F E SS O B O F G E O LO G Y , CO LU M BIA TJNTVEB8ITY
B E V I BED B Y

PAU L F. K E R R
PB O F E SS O B O F M IN E B A L O G Y , C O LU M BIA U N IV E R S IT Y

GEOLOGY
PAGE
1. Introduction..........................................
02
2. Chemical Composition of Rock-forming
Minerals............................................. 02
3. Rock-forming Minerals......................... 02
4. Igneous Rooks....................................... 03
5. Sedimentary Rooks............................... 07
8. Metamorphic Rooks.............................
09
7. Forme Assumed by Igneous Rocks___ 09
8 . Forms Assumed by Sedimentary and
Metamorphic Rocks........ . ...............
11
9. Rock Disturbances...............................
IX
13
l 6. Faults.....................................................
11. Joints, Unconformities, Outcrops and
Erosion...............................................
15
12. Summary of Stratigraphic Geology.. .
17
AST.

MINERAL DEPOSITS: ORES


13. Introduction. Definitions of Ore.. . .
14. Metals in the Earths Crust.................

18
18

AST.

PAGE

15. Calvities in Rooks; Ground-waters.. . . 18


16. Mimerais and Localization of Ore.............................................19
17. Classification of Ore-deposits
...20
...20
18. Iron....................................
19. Copper...............
...22
20. Lead and Zinc................
...23
21. Silver and Gold
...24
22 . Minor Metals
...26
MINERAL DEPOSITS: WON-METALLIC
MINERALS
23. Abrasives. Asbestos. Asphalt
... 28
24. Building Stone, Clay, Cements, Limes 28
25. Carbon Minerals: Coals, Petroleum,
etc......... ................................................ 29
26. Miscellaneous Non-metallio Minerals.... 32
Bibliography......................
... 33

17ote. N u m b e r s i n p a ren th eses i n t e x t r e fe r t o B ib lio g r a p h y a t e n d o f th is seotien .

2-01

IG N E O U S R O C K S

GEOLOGY
1. INTRODUCTION
A rock is a mineral or aggregate o f minerals, forming an essential part of the earth;
but many important mineral bodies, such as ores o f metals, are not to be considered as
rocks. Of about 1 500 species of minerals, only 20 or 30 are important as rock constituents.
The three great classes of rocks are: I g n e o u s , solidified from fusion; S e d i m e n t a r y ,
deposited in water or air; M e t a m o r p h i c , recrystallized or otherwise altered igneous and
sedimentary rocks, such that their original character has been obscured. Igneous rocks
are believed to have been the predecessors and source o f all others (1, 2, 3).
An analysis, illustrating g b o s s c o m p o s i t i o n of the outer 10 miles of the earth, is given in Sec I,
Art 1. Compared with the percentages there stated, niekel and iron probably become increasingly
abundant toward the earths center.
Most abundant elements of rook-forming minerals are: silicon, oxygen, aluminum, iron, mag
nesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, and hydrogen; secondarily, carbon, chlorine, phosphorus,
titanium, manganese, and sulphur. All other elements, even the familiar copper, lead and sino,
and the precious metals, or an abundant atmospheric gas, as nitrogen, are small in amount.

2,

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ROCK-FORMING MINERALS

Rock-forming minerals comprise silicates, oxides, carbonates, sulphates, chlorides,


phosphates, sulphides, and native elements.
Silicates are the most important, whence silicic acid, in various forms, is the foremost
acid in Nature. Three principal forms of silicic acid are represented in the rock-makinjg
minerals: HiSiOs (metasilicic), H 4S1O 4 (orthosilicic), and HiSijOg. Pyroxenes, amphiboles, and leucite are salts o f metasilicic acid. Micas, olivine, anorthite, nephelite, garnet,
and many minor minerals are orthosilicates. Orthoclase and albite are salts of HiSiaOa.
Some silicates have only the usual bases, aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, and the
alkalies, and are called a n h y b b o u s ; others, usually formed b y weathering or alteration
o f the first, contain hydrogen and oxygen in such proportions as to be driven off as water,
and are called h y d r a t e d s i l i c a t e s . This distinction is rendered important b y the gen
eral secondary character of hydrated silicates. The chief anhydrous silicates in igneous
rocks embrace the following mineral groups: feldspars and feldspathoids, pyroxenes,
amphiboles, micas, and olivine. Rarer and less important are: zircon, sphene, tourmaline,
and analeime. On weathering or other alteration, the hydrated silicates, kaoiimte,
chlorite, and serpentine, usually result. Metamorphic rocks contain a few characteristic
silicates, besides the common ones o f igneous rocks, v iz: staurolite, sillimanite, kyamte,
andalusite, scapolite, and epidote.
Oxides are next important, o f which quartz (SiOz) stands first, being abundant in the
great classes o f rocks. The related forms o f silica, chalcedony, cristobalite and tridymite,
pnd the hydrated variety, opal, should also be noted. Next are the oxides o f iron, magnetite
and hematite, and the hydrated form, Jimonite. W ith magnetite are associated chromite
and ilmenite (FeO -TiO i), Water, whether liquid or ice, is technically a mineral.
Carbonates are calcite, dolomite, and siderite, with their intermediate mixtures.
They are of chief importance in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, occurring rarely in
igneous rocks, except as products of weathering. There are two common s u l p h a t e s ,
anhydrite and gypsum. One c h l o r i d e , common salt, alone merits attention. The
p h o s p h a t e s are apatite and collophane.
Tw o s u l p h i d e s , pyrite and pyrrhotite, are
widely distributed. The one n a t i v e rock-forming element is graphite.

3. ROCK-FORMING MINERALS (1, 2, 3)


Minerals o f t h e i g n e o u s r o c k s are grouped according to their usual order o f c r y B t a lliz a - *
tion into: 1. Iron ores and minute associates. 2. Ferromagnesian silicates (olivine,
pyroxenes, amphiboles, and micas). 3. Feldspars and feldspathoids (piagioclase, ortho
clase, nephelite, leucite, and analeime). 4. Quartz, in acidic a n d higher m e d i u m rocks
only. For descriptions, see Sec I, Determinative Tables.

2-02

2-03

Minerals of the sedimentary rocks are ordinarily fragments of minerals from igneous
rocks. Quartz is most resistant to solution, alteration, and abrasion, and therefore appears
in almost all aanda and sandstones. The others are less frequent. After quartz, carbon
ates are of chief interest. Calcite and dolomite constitute the limestones, sometimes with
slight admixture of siderite. Kaolin!te, montmorillonite and hydromica enter the fine
sediments. T he tw o sulphates, gypsum, the more abundant, and anhydrite, appear only
in sedimentary rocks. T he same is true of the chloride, rock salt.
Minerals of the metamorphic rocks. The components, of both sedimentary and igneous
rocks, when deeply buried, with attendant heat and pressure, recrystallize. at times to
distinctively metamorphic minerals. Silica, being omnipresent, survives as quartz.
The aluminous components afford andalusite, sillimanite, and kyanite. Magnesias, iron,
and aluminous compounds yield abundant biotite and occasional epidote. Lime, in asso
ciation with ferric iron or alumina, makes garnet possible, but orthoclase may become
muscovite. The feldspars are important components. The ferromagnesian minerals
(chlorite and serpentine) are derived from magnesium- and iron-bearing originals.

Summary of Rock-forming Minerals


Igneous Rocks.

Q uabtz
F e l d s p a b s : o r t h o c la s e , p ia g io c la s e
F e l d s p a t h o id b : n e p h e lin e , le u c it e , a n a le im e , m e lilite
P y e o x b n e b : h y p e r s th e n e , d io p s id e , a u g ite , s o d a -p y r o x e n e s
A m p h ib o l e s : h o r n b le n d e , s o d a -a m p h ib o ie s
M i c a s : b io t it e , m u s c o v it e
O t h e b M in e b a l s :

o liv in e , m a g n e t it e , ilm e n it e , a p a tite , z ir c o n

Sedimentary Rocks. Fragments from igneous rocks, especially quartz and feldspars; kaolinite,
montmorillonite, hydromica, calcite, dolomite, siderite, limonite
Metamorphic Rocks. Quartz, feldspars, biotite, muscovite, hornblende, epidote, garnet,
sillimanite, andsJusite, calcite, dolomite, serpentipe, talc, chlorite
!

4. IGNEOUS SHOCKS
Structures and textures. In a broad way, igneous rocks, as contrasted with sedimen
tary and metamorphic, have a massive structure; that is, their minerals are not arranged
in parallel or distinct layers. Massive is in many respects a synonym of igneous. Exam
ined more in detail, as in hand-specimens, they have 4 common textures. Where the
molten mass has been too quickly chilled to crystallize, the texture is g l a s s y . This texture
appears on outer borders o f thin masses, on upper surfaces o f lava flows, and, in relatively
infusible varieties, it may extend through an entire flow. I t is most frequent in siliceous
rocks, which have high fusing points; it is rare in the medium, and scarcely known in the
bade. Where molten masses have cooled rather rapidly, and yet n ot so quickly as to
prevent crystallization, very fine-grained textures result, called f e l s i t i c . But, if older,
larger, and already well-formed crystals at the time be swimming in the magma, which
then crystallizes in relatively small components, the texture is called p o b p h y k e t i c . The
Urge crystals are called p h e n o c r y s t s and the matrix the g b o u m p - m a s s . Phenocrysts of
acidic rocks are chiefly quartz and feldspars; the dark ferromagnesian silicates are much
less common. In medium rocks, quartz practically fails, and feldspars are associated
with more of the ferromagnesian minerals. In basic porphyritic rocks, feldspars decline,
while augite and olivine, and very rarely biotite and hornblende, gradually replace them.
When a molten magma crystallizes into an aggregate o f fairly coarse components o f about
the same size, the texture is g r a n i t o i d (like granite). Rarely, in these coarsely crystalline
rocks, the feldspars become unusually large and stand out in contrast with the rest.
As a result of explosive outbreaks at volcanic vents, igneous rocks are sometimes blown out as
fragments of all sizes, from impalpable dust to large bombs. The fragments settle down on the sides
of the cone or at greater distances, and yield rocks with marked fragmental texture, allied to sedi
ments. If coarse, they are called b b e c c i a s ; if fine, t u t f b .
Chemical composition of igneous rocks. S i l i c a ranges from about 80% to a theoretical
minimum of 0 % in certain igneous iron ores; only in rare cases does it fall below 40% .
Igneous rocks containing above 65% silica are called a c i d i c ; those with 55 to 65%,
m e d i u m ; below 50% , b a s i c .
Of a l u m i n a the superior lim it is 25 to 3 0 % ; general range,
12 to 1 8 % ; minimum, nearly 0 . I b o n o x i d e s are low, 1 % or less, in the most acidic
rocks, but increase in the basic to 10 to 2 0 % ; in rare extremes, 90 to 95% . M a g n e s i a
sinks to a mere trace in the acidic, rising with fail o f silica to 30% in the extremely basic.
L i m e is low in the acidic, gradually increasing to about 15% maximum in certain basic
rocks, P o t a s h is highest in the rare leucite rocks, reaching 10 or 12% ; it ranges from

Peridotite

Ice

Water

Olivinegabbro

J.
lA

Andesite
tuffs and
breccias

?
O
iti

o
*
3 te

_ 3

5
f-i
*E l
z

Phonolite
-.tuffs and
breocias

l-S l| 1
I - 3 -

Diorite

Gabbro

&S
O

S 2 S
& 2 3
oie S
? k
h
o
2 8.3
8

Fragmental

S 5 -0

Beds,
Strata

Meteorites
OlivineDioriteGabbroporphyry porphyry gabbroporphyry

DaciteAndesiteporphyry porphyry

!
o
*3
at

A
A
a

Quartzdiorite

Hooks of this series are: t b a c h t t e , felsitic texture, few phenocryais; t b a c h t t e - p o b p h ^ t


(syns, porphyry, orthoclase-porphyry), felsitic ground-mass, abundant phenocrysts; s t b k i t e p o h p h y b t . predominant phenocrysts, subordinate ground-mass; s y e n i t e , granitoid texture, some*
times varied by abnormally large feldspars. Syenitic-pegmatities are known, but are leas frequent
than granitic,

M
0
1

Syenite

Trachyte-syenite series embraces igneous magmas containing: silica, 55 to 65% ;


flfonmift, 15 to 2 0 % ; iron oxides, 1 to 3 % ; magnesia, 1 to 2 % ; lime, 1 to 3 % ; potash and
soda, 7 to 12% . Th ey are much less common than the rhyolite-granite series. On
crystallizing they yield finely to coarsely crystalline rocks, consisting of orthoclase, acidic
plagioclase, and usually notable proportions o f the dark silicates, biotite, hornblende, and
augite, one or several. Quartz fails, or, at most, is extremely subordinate. Light-colored
minerals are in excess.

Surface
Flows

i
a 5*2
a a
S W w
?
fe
'S to w
3 1
O
S

m
I& -&

oS
<A
Ut

Granite

n *

i *1
--c'
41
a

I
n
a

Granitoid

1 -t

5
a

Laccoliths,
Batholiths

Cellular,
Glassy or
Felsitic,
Pheno
crysts few

s j|
Jf'3
o*
-a
3
<

TJ

*
'B'q 3
P 3 ft

Porphyritic. EhyolitePhenocrysts porphyry Trachyte- jPhonoliteprominent (Quartz- porphyry porphyry


porphyry)

Dacito
(Felsite)
Trachyte
(Felsite)

s
o
8 3
Pk -g <5

Augititeporphyry

Augitite
Basalt
/
s
s i
"O*3
46

T
2
Ph
2

g?

Pyroxenite- Peridotiteporphyry
porphyry

y'

i
i l
*< 3

Rhyolite
(Felsite)

?
'S
'

&

Phonolite
(rare),
Leucite
rocks
(very rare)

V
A

o
a
5?
Pk

.3
:3 * **
la -

a .5 2

1 *

Olivine

$
I
O

8 1

3 a

8 oJ g
'5 # | * o S C
gg
5~& " I - 8 g S
2 b -5.-0 J H
<
a
a

Quartz

5 -o
a,

ja-g o
2 w S
2J s a
s i

S
ta
as

+ Quartz

I
O

+
e
a
s

i
o
a
;g
o
+

Nepheline
or Leucite

iJ
B
S
J3
&

- Quartz

+ Olivine

fi

is

Olivine

3
9 a

Basic segre
gations
in normal
magmas

Ultrabasic
rocks
1 ?

Glassy

'

to
o
3

1 &

1
H
3

Crusts,
Surface
Flows

Rocks of this series are: h h t o u t b (syn, liparite), felsitic or partly glassy texture, few phenocrysts; e h t o l i t e - p o b p h t b t (syn, quartz-porphyry), felsitic ground-mass, abundant phenocrysts;
g b a n i t e - p o b p h y b y , predominant phenocrysts, subordinate ground-mass; g r a n i t e , granitoid tex
ture, components of about the same size, but feldspars sometimes abnormally large. P e g m a t i t e s :
crystallization of granite is often accompanied by separation of portions of the magma, in association
with abnormally large admixtures of dissolved gases. These portions pass outward into wall-rocks
as dikes, often for great distances and in large size; on crystallizing, they yield very coarse aggre
gates of same minerals as appear in granite itself, with many rare elements concentrated in them,
and are called pegmatite.
In thi series the prominent minerals are feldspars and quartz; dark silicates are subordinate.
They are closely related to the dacite-quartz-diorite series, from which to distinguish them micro
scopic examination may be necessary. The distinction is practically of small moment. This series
is very abundant and widely .distributed. Its tuffs and breccias are also frequent.

13

+ Quartz

Glassy rocks are the most evident results o f cooling from fusion. Th ey are almost
always acidic and are represented b y the rhyolites and dacites, described later. More
basic varieties are known, but are less frequent. Commonest glasses are the o b s i d i a n s ,
black, red, and brown, with 0.5 to 1% water. Th ey m ay be assumed to be quicklychilled rhyolites or dacites. P om ice is an excessively cellular obsidian. A rarer glass,
which ftWll into an aggregate of shot-like spheroids, is p b a s u t b or p h a s ic - s t o n e , usually
containing 2 to 4 % water. T he last glass deserving mention is the rare, resinous p i t c h s t o n e , having 5 to 10% water and is more easily fusible with blowpipe than the others.
Rhyoiiie-granite series embraces igneous magmas containing; silica, 65 to 8 0 % ;
alumina, 12 to 15% ; iron oxides, 1 to 3 % ; magnesia, less than 1 % ; lime, 1 to 2 % ;
potash and soda, 5 to 8 % . Th ey are common in Nature, and on crystallizing yield finely
to coarsely crystalline rocks, consisting chiefly o f orthoclase, acidic plagioclase, and quartz,
together w ith relatively small amounts of the dark silicates, biotite, hornblende, and
augite, stated in order o f frequency. Light-colored minerals are in great excess.

Biotite (or) (and)


Hornblende

The table gives a general view of the igneous rocks and defines those commonly met in mining.
For close determination greater refinement may be desirable. In some mining districts in the
western U S are found the GBANO-DiOBrrES (intermediate between granites and quartz-dioritea),
not mentioned in the table; they have about the same amounts of orthociase and plagioclase. Inter
mediate between syenites and diorites are the m o n z o n i t e s . If they have a little quartz, but not
as much as grano-diorites, they are termed quartz-monzonites. Butte granite, containing the
copper veins, is usually described as quartz-monzonite. Several great bodies of porphyry coppers
are in monzonite-porphyries. The varieties of gabbro containing hyperathene instead of common
augite are called n o b i t e ; important because they contain the nickel-copper ores at Sudbury, Ont.
(For meaning of names of other rare igneous rocks, sometimes appearing in reports, see glossary in
later editions of Kemps Handbook of Bocks. )

.
i?
teng

a
a
: Glasees,
Scorias, Tachylyte,
Basal t-Obsidian

Classification of igneous rocks shown in Table 1 has general acceptance b y geologists.


R o d s range from acidic on left o f table to basic on right; from quickly-chilled rocks above
to slowly-cooled rocks below, a still lower line o f fragmentals marking transition to sedi
ments. The forms assumed in Nature are in extreme left-hand column; to be defined
after the descriptions. T he rocks are further subdivided in vertical columns on basis of
mineralogy. Feldspars and feldspathoids are the fundamental basis of subdivision;
other minerals are subordinate.

Excess of Dark-colored Minerals B a s i o

It ie important to connect chemical compositions with the resultant minerals and vice versa.
Chemical composition obviously determines the minerals, and, in so far as extremely acidic rocks
have relatively high fusing points and chill more easily, it also influences texture.

2-05

r o c e :s

ig n e o u s

4 to 7 % in medium rooks with much orthoclase, and disappears in basic types. Soda.
has a similar maximum in the rare nepheline rocks, and the same range in medium rocks
rich in. albite, approaching extinction in the extremely basic. W a teb , of 0.5 or 1% ,
usually indicates weathered rocks.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

Dikes,
Intrusive
Sheets,
Laccoliths Porphyritic.
Phenocrysts GraniteSyenitepredomi
porphyry porphyry
nate

2 -0 4

O
S

s
5?
tf\
'O
A
O
o
eo

o
3

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

In this series, feldspars are most prominent; dark silicates, subordinate. Lack of quartz is the
chief distinction from rhyolites and granites. Tuffs and breccias are known.

finely crystalline that no minerals can be identified is called felaite, if light-colored; or basalt, if
dark. Microscopic examination is necessary for further refinement. Greatly altered rocks, such
as are commonly adjacent to mineral veins, can often be determined through surviving characters
only discernible with microscope. If stained with chlorite, they are called g r e e n s t o n e s .

Phonolite-nepheline-syeniie series embraces igneous magmas containing; silica, 50 to


60 % ; alumina, 18 to 2 2 % ; iron oxides, 1 to 3 % ; magnesia, 1 to 2 % ; lime, X t o 2 % ;
potash and soda, 10 to 15% . They occur infrequently. On crystallizing they yield finely
to coarsely crystalline rocks, consisting of orthoclase, less abundant plagiociase, nepheline
(more rarely leucite), and pyroxene. Though rare, they are of great scientific interest.
Rocks of this series are: f h o n o u t e , felsitic or porphyritic, with few phenocrysts; p h o n o u t e f o b p h y b y , felsitic ground-mass, abundant phenocrysts, of which orthoclase is chief, nepheline being
usually confined to ground-mass; n e p h e u n e - s y e n i t b - p o b p h y b y , predominant phenocrysts,
subordinate groundtmass; n e p h b l i n e - s y e n i t e , granitoid texture, from rather fine to extremely
coarse varieties, shading into pegmatites.
In most of these rocks, orthoclase is most prominent, but in the last-named, nepheline is at times
abundant. Many varieties have been recognized, depending on entrance of minerals less usual
than those named, and the decline of normal components. Sodalite is sometimes very prominent.
Biotite and hornblende are not so frequent as pyroxene. Rocks with leucite are known, but are far
less common than those with nepheline.

5,

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

There are 4 groups (Table 2 ): (c) Breccias and mechanical sediments, not limestones;
(&) Limestones; (c) Organic remains, n ot limestones; (d) Precipitates from solution.
Table 2.

Fragmentais, not
Limestones
Breccias

Dacite-quartz-diorite series embraces igneous magmas containing: silica 60 to 70% ;


alumina, 12 to 15% ; iron oxides, 1 to 3 % ; magnesia, 1 to 3 % ; iime, 2 to 4 % ; soda and
potash (soda in excess), 4 to 7 % . Th ey are common in eruptive centers. On crystallizing
they yield finely to coarsely crystalline rocks, consisting of plagiociase, less orthociase, and
quartz, as the most prominent minerals, with biotite, hornblende, and pyroxene, one or
several. The light-colored minerals are in excess.

Faultbreccias

of this series are: b a c i t e , felsitic or partly glassy textures, few phenocrysts; b a c i t e f o b p h y b y , felsitic ground-mass, with abundant phenocrysts; q u a b t z - d i o b t t b
p o b p h y b y , pre
dominant phenocrysts, subordinate ground-mass; q t t a b t z - b i o b i t e , granitoid texture.

Talus-

Consol
idated

Loose

- Gravel
O

Con
glom
erate

Andesite-diorite series embraces igneous magmas containing: silica, 50 t o 6 5 % ;


alumina, 15 to 18% ; iron oxides, 4 to 9 % ; magnesia, 2 to 7 % ; lime, 3 to 8 % ; soda,
3 to 5 % ; potash, 2 to 3 % . Th ey are very widespread. On crystallizing, they yield
finely to coarsely crystalline rocks, consisting of plagiociase, a little orthoclase, and biotite,
hornblende, or augite, one or several. The light-colored minerals are in excess and are
the chief phenocrysts. The rocks have usually light gray colors.
Eruptivebrecdas

Fine to Medium

R ocks

Rocks of this series are: a n d e s i t b (varieties, mica-andesite, hornblende-andesite, augiteandeaite), felsitic textures, few phenocrysts; a n d e s i t e - f o b p k y b y , felsitic ground-mass, with abun
dant phenocrysts; d i o b i t e - p o b p b t b y , predominant phenocrysts, ground-mass subordinate;
d i o k t t b , granitoid texture.
Andesites are important in many western mining districts; in the
recently extinct and active volcanoes along Pacific coast, in Mexico, and in other parte of world.
Basalt-gabbro series embraces igneous magmas containing: silica, 40 to 55% ;Balumina,
16 to 2 0 % ; iron oxides, 6 to 1 5 % ; magnesia, 5 to 10% ; lime, 6 to 12% ; soda, 2 to 4 % ;
potash, 1 to 2 % . They are very widespread. _ On crystallizing they yield finely to
coarsely crystalline heavy rocks, consisting of plagiociase, little or no orthoclase, and large
proportions of pyroxene, olivine, and magnetite. The dark silicates are in excess and give
rocks dark gray or black colors.
R o c k s o f t h i s s e r i e s a x e : b a s a l t , f e l s i t i c t e x t u r e s , f e w p h e n o c r y s t B ; b a b a i / t- p o b p h y b t , f e l s i t i o
g r o u n d -m a s s ,
g r o u n d -m a s s ;

abundant
d ia b a s e

p h en ocry sts;

g a b b b o -p o b p h y b y

p r e d o m in a n t

p h en ocry sts,

s u b o r d in a te

, g r a n i t o id t e x t u r e , f e ld s p a r s l o n g r e c t a n g u la r , p y r o x e n e ir r e g u la r ,

in

spaces

the w e l l - c r y s t a l l i z e d f e l d s p a r s ; g a b b r o , g r a n i t o i d , c o m p o n e n t s a s b r o a d a s l o n g .
Basalt-gabbro r o c k B are very abundant. Phenocrysits are almost entirely olivine and pyroxene.
The
texture of diabase, due to feldspars completing their crystallization before the
pyroxenes, contrary to rule, gives it a special place. Varieties of pyroxene afford special varieties
of both basalts and gabbros. Hornblende and biotite are rarely observed; nepheline, leucite,
analcite, and melilite sometimes-appear and may displace the plagiociase. All feldspars and
feldapathoids may fail, giving the rare basalts, limburgite and augitite, and the rare gabbros,
peridotite and pyroxenite (Table 1).
Ultra-basic rocks. There are a few rare igneous rocks with less than 40% silica and corre
spondingly high bases. The most important are the igneous magnetites, often titaniferous; in
some places they are independent dikes and sheets, in others, segregations in igneous rocks.
Determination of igneous rocks. Their crystalline, massive character usually serves to identify
them as igneous, but a warning may be given respecting certain dense contact-products, cailed
h o bn fels.
First decide on predominance of light- or dark-colored minerals; next, on texture. If
light-colored minerals are in excess, feldspar is determined as orthoclase (no striations on cleavage
faces), or plagiociase (striated). Quartz is looked for. Having thus decided general name, the dark
silicate is determined. If dark-colored minerals are in excess, and phenocrysts are also dark, the
rock is placed in the basalt-gabbro series and identified more sharply by its textures. A rook so
am ong

2 -0 7

Sands

Sand
stone

Miid

Argilla
ceous
sand
stone
Shale

sot

Clay

Sedimentary Rocks

Transi
tion to
Lime
stone
Consol
idated
Calca
reous

Limeston
Organic Rocks,
not
Limestones

Precipi
tates from
Solution

Consol
idated

Loose
Limestonerubble

Rock salt,
gypsum,
stalactites,

Rubblelime-

.a
3

Calcirudites

Shell or
coral
sands

jlandlime
stones
Coquina
Calcarenites

Infusorial or
Silidfied
diatoma1

ceous earth wood


Some cherts
S Some sinters Some sinters

Calca
reous
sand
stone
Calca
reous
shale

Shell or
coral
muds

Mud
lime
stones
Calcilutites

a Some limonite

Somelimonite

Marl

Calca
reous
slimes
or ooze

Litho
graphic
lime
stone

Carbonaceous

-0 6

Aaphaltites

glom
erate

Coral
heads.
etc

Mexican
onyx,
travertine

<

%
St

Peat
Lignite
Bituminous
coal
Anthracite

Determination of sedimentary rocks. Almost all may be recognized on sight. It is important


to make effervescing teats with acid, to identify limestones, calcareous shales, etc. Scraping up a
little heap of powdered rook favors effervescence. Warming -a corner or edge of the rock even in
flame of a match does the same, and may make stubborn dolomite yield to acid.
The

rock B

o f group (a) may be

arranged

Coarse

Breccia

Gravel and
Conglomerate

from

coarse

to fine, as follows:

to

Sand and
Sandstone

Argillaceous
sandstone,
Calcareous
sandstone

Fine
Silt and
Shale,
Calcareous
shale

Clay,
Marl

Breccias consist of angular fragments and are of 3 kinds: fault, talus, and eruptive,
the names being equivalent to definitions. Mechanical sediments, or gravels, contain
rounded or water-worn fragments, and when consolidated are c o n g l o m e r a t e s . They
pass into Sa n t 'S as the boulders or pebbles disappear; and when consolidated, b a u d st o n e s

2-08

.a

S'B
a

*5

21

a- * -a
I I
o o ft

iis

CO

g*
^.f

J 1

gs

Contact rocks embrace both the chilled border fades of intrusive (internal or
and the recrystallized products from shales, slates, or limestones (external
or exomobphic ) . Other rocks, such as sandstones and regionally metamorphie varieties
are much less influenced by m trusives. The general name for densely crystalline altered
shales is h o b o tb is . Prom limestones a series of lime-silicates results; among them
garnet, pyroxene, epidote, and vesuvianite are commonest. Copper ores and maenetite
often occur with them .
w
bndomobphic)

ll

Regionally metamorphie rocks embrace representatives of both igneous and sedimen


tary types, mineralogically resembling sometimes one, sometimes the other. They include
gneisses, m ica-, hornblende-, and chlorite-schists, quarte-schists, quartzites, slates, mar
bles, ophicalcites, serpentines, and soapstones. G n eisses are banded or foliated rocks
of the gramtoid-igneous types, but are m ost commonly like the granites. M iCA-scm sra
are more finely foliated, and richer in mica than the gneisses. H obnblende - schists are
finely foliated, roughly parallel aggregates of prismatic hornblende, with relatively few
other minerals. C h lobite - schists, qtiabtz- schibt^, etc, are finely foliated, with the
characteristic mineral ^prominently developed. Q ^ abtzites are sandstones W d m e d
and solidified with newly deposited silica. S lates af derived from shales and clays with
a new cleavage produced by pressure, but having no definite relation to original beddinc.
Irregularly breaking, metamorphosed, sandy shales, and volcanic tuffs and breccias, are

G^TTCACKB- M abblbs are recrystallized limestones, often dolomites mineralogically. Ih ey m ay be m ottled with serpentine, forming ophzcalcites. Sebpentines
are usually metamorphosed peridotites. Soapstones are higher in silica, and consist of
talc, lh e y m ay be old pyroxenites or siliceous magnwicr limestones.

3*

os

i
Si

1 .1 J
>a .a

fa

II

SI
CD

3-S a o

,.4
fl 5 S
*
^
&*8 l
c

(B

M9

o*3

's a

S a

el
m
A

a
1.5

IQ C

a !

3
S '3

.s tc

*Q

aO
B
ja

to 2
a .s

a m
A
0 *
.a u
Ji

o d ^23 '
o e-t b o

'g |-

Si

S13J
O
S a | a
a <s a a tc

S 3 -2
1 3 1

flag'
o~J

These are of 3 p e a t classes: contact bocks, produced by intrusive igneous rocks


from their immediate w alls; regionally metamobphic types , which extend over great
areas; and products o f w eath ebin g .

I J j *8*8 w

s||
s

OH

6. METAMORPHIC ROCKS

'I a ll

s !

2 -0 9

result. Sands, with admixture of clay or m ud, become s h a le s ; as the saadjjsappeara,


81MB and c la y s ; if calcareous, they are calcareous sandstone, calcareous shale, and Mi W ,
Limestones m ay be coarsely or finely fragmental, but are almost always derived from
remains of organisms. Other organic remains yielding rocks are the siliceous diatoms and
sponges, and carbonaceous plants in coal seams. Precipitates are rock salt, gypsum, and
stalagmitic marbles. Certain ferruginous rocks also are probably of this nature.

-tl
s-U

c2&a&a
a .2

111
3 fl-g

Table 3. Metamorphie Rocks

POEMS ASSUMED BY IGNEOUS ROCKS

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

5
ll

^ r^5f c t s * w e a th e r in g c o n stitu te t h e m a n tle o f d e c o m p o s itio n p r o d u c ts , r e s tin g u p o n freah


b e & o e k t o a .g r e a te r o r less degree, w h ic h is d u e p a r t ly t o m ec h a n ic a l b re a k in g u p o f t h e orig in a l
r o ck , p a r t ly t o a lte ra tio n a n d d isin teg ra tion b y r e m o v a l o f so lu b le in g red ien ts. Q u a rtz a n d alu m i
n ous h y d r a te d s ilica te s, w ith f e m e h y d r a te , b e c o m e r e la tiv e ly e n rich ed , w h ile t h e o t h e r o x id e s g o
o ff m s o lu tio n . S oils a n d su b s oils resu lt, a n d sed im en ts a r e a ffo r d e d f o r m a k in g se d im e n ta r y r o c k s.
G eneral n a m es f o r th e m a n tle o f w ea th ered p r o d u c ts are: s a p b o l i t e o r r o t te n r o e k ; l a t e b it e
residual so ils, e t c . L a te n a a tio n is m o s t p r o n o u n c e d i n tr o p ic a l clim a tes
'
D e te rm in a tio n o f m e ta m o rp h ie r o c k s is r a r e ly d ifficu lt. D e fin itio n s c o n v e y th e id e a o f ch ar
acters. D e n s e h o r n fe k e s so m e tim e s rese m b le fe la t e s , a n d m a y r e q u ir e m ic r o s c o p ic d e te r m in a tio n .
Gneisses,_ w ith m orea ein g ly fin e fo lia tio n , s h a d e in t o m ica -eeh ists a n d m ica -sch is ts i n t o slates,-, so
th at d istin ction s m a y b e m a tte rs o f ju d g m e n t. T h e o th e r r o c k s o f th is series g iv e lit t le d ifficu lty .

7. FORMS ASSUMED BY IGNEOUS ROCKS


lS l9 d
S'S
*m

g - t l- f

gea.

>
,3 ^8
iS
! .3 .2

m
h
1 a Is

G?

S-d g
S g I

O ,3
%S a

S'S S

3 5.

U
|
3 'ES
-9 a
o
I

.i S a

llII

m the field, igneous rocks are found in dikes, necks, bosses, stocks, surface flows,
intrusive shefets or sills, laccoliths, and batholiths. The size and shape of these bodies
exercise an important influence on texture of the component rock. Small bodies chill
quickly and are glassy or felsitic; large bodies cool slowly and are porphyritic or granitoid.
Designating one horizontal dimension as length (L), the horizontal dimension at right
angles to I as breadth (B), a id the vertical dimension as depth ( ) , a mathematical
expression can be roughly formulated for each type.
,
31-6 *on&> narrow bodies of igneous rock, filling fissures in older rocks, into which
it has entered in molten condition. In dikes, L and D are great, B relatively sm all; they
vary from less than 1 in wide and a few yards long, to fractions of a mil* in width and
many miles in length. They usually have steep dips; are often intimately associated with
orebodies, and in one place or another embrace all varieties of igneous rocks. They
may mark the last outbreaks in a series of eruptions in a particular district, and are then
usually very basic, as at Cripple Creek, Colo.
...
^
r a d ia te fr o m a n ig n eou s c e n t e r fo r m iles in t o th e s u rro u n d in g s tra ta , a s .in th e C r a z y
M ts, M o n t , o r t h e T r in id a d c o a l r e g io n , C o lo . T h e y m a y a p p ea r h u n d red s o f m iles fr o m oth er

2-10

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

RCEL DISTURBANCES

known igneous rooks, as in the coal measures of S W Pennsylvania. A dike derived from solidified
molten rock, even though a magma be regarded as a solution, practically all of which crystallizes
in situ, is contrasted with, vein, similar in shape and inrelations to the walls, but which is deposited
from solution, the solvent passing on- Yet, in the case of pegmatites, it is not clear whether the
term dike or vein should be used; they may be considered the result of aqueo-igneous processes of
fusion.

B a th olith s are huge masses of intrusive rock, of irregular shape and great extent; L, B, and D
are all great. Granite masses, square miles in area and sometimes cubic miles in volume, are
illustrations. They are specially abundant in pre-Cambrian strata.

F e ck is the solidified mass of lava that remains in the throat of a volcano after its
last outbreak. When first congealed, it connects the lava that has poured from the crater
with the unerupted residue in depth, just as a human neck connects head and trunk.
As seen in the field, it is usually a decapitated neck, in that it is exposed to view only after
removal o f the lava flow and much of the cone b y erosion. L and B are small, D great.
In volcanoes, which yield both lavas and explosive products, the neck, may be part solid lava
and part breccia. Necks project in a rudely columnar manner from remnants of the old crater and
from dbris furnished by their own disintegration.
Bosses are roughly cylindrical masses of igneous rock, projecting above surrounding
wall rocks like the boss on an old-time circular shield. Coarse granite or pegmatite,
because of its relative resistance to erosion, often projects from surrounding mica-schiats
or other softer rocks. Bosses differ from necks in not being due to volcanic activity. As
in case of necks, however, L and B are relatively small, D great-Stocks are large, roughly cylindrical masses of intrusive porphyritic or granitoid rock
in the midst of older walls. They do not necessarily stand in relief, but otherwise resemble.
bosses; L and B are small with respect to D , although absolutely rather large.
. The name stock is the German word for floor or story in a house, and was applied to
of igneous rock of cylindrical shape, because certain granite bodies of rounded outline, containing
disseminated cassiterite, were formerly mined in horizontal slices or floors. Finally the mass of
rook itself came to be called a stock. For good illustrations, see Telluride foiio of U S Geol Surv.
Surface flows are.produced when lava wells out from a vent, and flows over surface in a
relatively thin sheet; L and B are large, D small. In upper and under portions are many
cavities, caused b y expanding gases; the middle part is usually dense, ar>d in a thick flow
m ay be comparatively coarse-grained. The cavities are flattened and rounded like an
almond, whence, from the Greek, they are called a m y g d a l o e d s .
The top of a flow may be a rough, slaggy scoria, even consisting of cakes of chilled and broken
crust. Where dissolved gases have all escaped before consolidation and while lava is yet molten,
the final chilled surface may be comparatively smooth. Surfaee flows may bury one another in
succession, or be covered -with later sediments. They are distinguished from intrusive sheets,
because their heat can at most affect only underlying rocks, not those formed above them after
cooling; whereas intrusive sheets bake both walls. More than 100 successive surface flows of basalt
have been cut by deep shafts in the Lake Superior copper district.
Intrusive sheets or sills are masses o f igneous rock which have been forced between
strata o f older rocks, and have solidified parallel with th an. L and B are great, D
The shape resembles that of a surface flow, and when a surface flow resting on sediments is
buried under subsequent beds the result is much the same. The heat o f intrusive sheets,
however, always affects the sediments above and below them, and yirnAtimes produces
important contact zones.

2 -1 1

8. FORMS ASSUMED BY SEDIMENTARY AND


METAMORPHIC ROCKS
The distinguishing feature o f sedimentary rocks is their arrangement in parallel layers,
during formation. Variations in deposition of sediment from high and low tides, storms
anrf calms, floods and droughts, produce contrasts in coarseness and fineness. A t the
outset they are flat, except for the slight inclination o f the sea bottom, and irregularities
due to delta formation and swift currents. The inclined position often seen in exposures
today is due to subsequent disturbances.
Stratification. T he smallest division o f a sedimentary rock is a l a t e r or l a m i n a . It
may be a fraction o f an inch thick and marks one period of especially abundant deposit.
Layers go together to form b e d s , the natural units of sedimentary rocks. Bedding planes
are recognizable and thick- and thin-bedded sedimentaries are distinguished. Beds
combine to constitute a s t r a t u m , or tabular mass o f one kind o f sedimentary rock between
others which are different. A stratum may range from 1 to 1 000 ft thick. Thin strata
are called s e a m s , as of coal. Limestones, shales, and sandstones afford thick strata.
In geological mapping, a thick and persistent stratum is often called a f o r m a t i o n .
Sedimentary rocks present all the features of the bottom, or of the strand between high and low
water: as ripple marks, tracks, stranded shells, rill-marks, mud-cracks, flow and plunge from swift
currents, irregular beddings, and cross-bedding in individual layers, as in deltas. Since the greatest
thickness of sediments gathers along subsiding shore lines, with attendant advances of sea over
land, there are found in normal succession: conglomerates, which represent old shore shingle, fol
lowed by sandstones, representing off-shore shallows; nextt shales, corresponding to deeper, quieter
water; lastly, as representing still deeper water, free of, mechanical sediments, are limestones,
consisting largely of organic remains. This normal succession is not always found, since estuaries
and rivers destroy uniformity, but it is not infrequent. There are also desert accumulations,
wherein wind-blown particles are important, and are associated with beds from temporary streams,
lakes, and floods. Land accumulations are characteristically red, from oxidation of iron,

9. ROCK DISTURBANCES
World-wide observation has shown that the rocky outer portion of the earth has been
subject to many disturbances. Great masses may rise or ink without changing the local
attitude of the rocks. These continental movements are of scientific interest, but seldom
of importance to the engineer. Localized movements, due to elevation o f a long and rela
tively narrow belt in a mountain chain, and disturbances incident to intrusive entrance of
bodies o f igneous rock, are more important. The results of these movements are termed
f o l d s and f a u l t s .
Folds are bendings in strata, whereby each layer assumes a curved form, approximat
ing a portion o f a cylinder. When classified in order from least to greatest, folds embrace
m o n o c l i n e s , A N T r c u N E S , and s y n c u n e s o f several types, also
DOMES AND BASINS.

Intrusive sheets vary from a few feet thick, and of no great known extent, to such a sill as the
Palisades of Hudson River, visible 50 miles, ,traceable by i l l 25 miles more; its thickness reaches
600 ft, but is usually Iras. Intrusive sheets doubtless rise from the depths along fissures, like dikes,
but then turn sidewise between strata along a line of least resistance. They are sometimes asso^
ciated with ore-deposita, as at Leadville, Colo, and Mercur, Utah.
Laccoliths are a variation of the intrusive sheet and are lenticular in shape. If a sill be supposed
to start from its feeding dike, sidewise between strata, and to find it easier to raise the overlying
beds of a limited area than to force its way with uniform thickness fia: and wide, a lenticular m
will result, tapering from a- central maximum thickness to a thin edge. Hence, L and 3 are rela
tively large, D smaller but variable. Laccoliths which are fed outwardly from a central supply
fissure are symmetrical; but this fissure is sometimes a fault, with hard strata opposite soft ones, so
that the intrusive can penetrate outwardly only on one side. Unsymmetrical masses, practically
half-laccoliths, result. Laccoliths heave up overlying strata in domes, and when these are eroded the
laccolith is exposed in midst of outwardly dipping beds. The entrance of laccoliths may have
been aided by incipient folding or arching of beds under compression. Laccoliths are widespread
in the western states. The name was coined by G. K. Gilbert from the Greek word for cistern, as
the shape suggested the ancient dome-covered vaults for storing water.
Chonoliths are irregular intrusive bodies, either filling a pre-existing cavity, or rending apart
the rocks to make a way for itself. The name was coined by R. A. Daly from the Greek word for a
mould in which metal is east. No definite expression in terms of L, B, and D is possible.

Monoclines (Fig 1) are terrace-like bendings of strata,


with inclination varying in amount, but always in same direc
tion* as the name implies. A roll at top of the terrace marks a
belt of especial strain in the strata affected, and m ay be accom
panied b y numerous cracks. A t fo o t o f the terrace is a second
roll in reversed direction; with attendant strains and cracks. Fig 1. Monocline, in a
Succession of Beds
In the upper roll, overlying beds are subject to tension, under
lying to compression; in the lower roll, the upper beds are compressed, the lower tense.
Between these areas is necessarily a surface of no strain.
Monoclines which involve porous beds, such as open-textured sandstones between tight shales,
are sometimes important places for accumulation and storage of natural gas and petroleum. The
Bearch for these is essentially an endeavor to locate, with the drill, favorable monoclines or gentle
anticlines. Monoclines have been, described as arrested anticlines. In a series of sediments com
prising shales or other soft strata, monoclines or even more violent folds in stiffer strata may at
depth disappear entirely in the adjustment of soft underlying shales, the piastic movement of which
takes up and distributes the fold until it is diffused and lost. The name monocline (or monoclinal
structure) is sometimes applied to a remaining half of an eroded anticline or syncliae, the other half
of whioh is not apparent; inclination of the beds is all in one direction.

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

FAULTS

Anticline and syncline (Fig 2) axe complementary terms; one rarely appears without
the other. A n anticline is an arch-like bend, a syncline a corresponding trough. The
upper part of an anticline i s called the o e b s t ; its sloping sides, l i m b s or i ^ g s ; the central
portion, running parallel with the axis of the concentric partial cylinders, the surfaces of
which are represented b y each folded bed, is the a x i s . The bottom of a syncline iB the
trough. Beneath anticlinial crest-and synclinal trough the beds are especially strained
and cracked; the cracks tending to gape upward in the anticline and downward in the
syncline. The limbs o f each type of fold are less strained than crest or trough. Thus,
good building stone will be found on the limbs
rather than at crest or in trough. On the
contrary, veins Mid mineral deposits from
circulating waters find natural resting places
in crest and trough.

word for mountain being added to type of fold. When great Sat folds occupy an appreciable-part
of earths surface, they are called respectively g e a n t i c l i n e s and g e o s y n c l i n e s , prefixing Greek
word for earth to name of fold. Folds are of great importance in engineering work, not only in
mining bedded minerals like coal, salt, and some iron ores, or in the discovery of petroleum and gas,
but also in connection with railway tunnels, aqueducts, and other engineering work.

2 -1 2

2-13

Dip and strike. D ip is the angle o f inclination o f a vein or bed below horizontal.
Strike (course or bearing) is t i e direction o f line o f intersection o f an inclined vein or
bed with a horizontal plane.
The dip angle is the angle between two perpendiculars, one in the inclined plane, the other in
the horizontal, let fall from a common point on their line of intersection (the strike). The strike
is stated in degrees and minutes, E or W of N or S, for example N 25 3CK E. Since piant. of dip is
at right angles to line of strike, it is recorded in degrees E or W of strike; thus, a strike of N 25 E
and dip of 50 N W signifies that the plane in which dip is measured runs 65 west of north. Some
observers note exact direction and amount of dip, leaving strike to be inferred. Thus, a record of
a sandstone bed dipping 50 in a direction N 85 W, implies a strike of N 25 E. First mode of
statement is customary in America. A g e o l o g i s t s c o u p as s has one flat side, and usually a pen
dulum, swinging around a graduated semi-circle, so as to give direct dip reading. In plotting, each
observation of strike may be corrected for variation of needle, or, in more elaborate compasses, the
graduated circle may be turned to read directly observations referred to true north.

10. FAULTS
Troajii'?'90
Fig 2. Anticline and Syncline,
with Horizontal Asia

Fig 3. Pitching"1Anticline, Showing Concen


trically Curving Outcrops of Eroded Beds

Anticlines and synclines, when followed for a mile or more, seldom have horizontal axes as
shown in Fig 2. The axes usually pitch downward (Fig 3), though they may afterward rise again.
In Fig 2, the component beds, if eroded, would appear at surface in parallel bands. When pitching
folds are eroded, the several beds appear at surface as concentric curves (Fig 3). In anticlines the
upper or later beds are outside, the under or older, inside; in aynciines the under or older beds are
outside, the upper or later, inside. Because of these relations, geologio structure may sometimes
be inferred from a colored geologio map.
Anticlines received their name because the observer was assumed to stand at the crest, from which
the beds inclined outwardly in opposite directions; hence the prefix anti, for opposed. Stand
ing in the trough of the syncline the observer sees the inclined beds sloping toward him, hence the
prefix "syn, for together. Anticlines and synclines of which the inclination is the same on both
sides of axis (see diagrams) are called s y m m e t b i c a l . Symmetrical folds may
vary from those of comparatively slight disturbance to tightly compressed folds.
In the former, where the limbs of a bed are separated by other beds, the fold is
called o p e n ; but where from extreme compression the limbs of a single bed are
brought tightly together, the fold is c l o s e d . Fig 2 shows open symmetrical folds;
Fig 4 'closed symmetrical folds. A limiting ease of the anticline, speaking mathe
matically, is the s o m e , in which the beds pitch radially in all directions from a
central point. The variable direction of the inclination haa suggested the name
q t t a q c a v e b s a i ..
A dome is an anticline of which the axis is reduced to a point.
Domes are chiefly developed above laccoliths; seldom in other relations. A
b
a
s
i
n
is
a
syncline
the axis of which is a point, toward which the strata con
Fig 4. Closed
verge. Basins in this strict sense are rare, and result from local removal of sup
Fold
port and collapse of strata.. The term is also used in the geology of coal for a
synclinal arrangement of strata, wherein a rising pitch of the axis in opposite directions brings the
measures to the surface. The seams thus form concentric canoe-shaped or spoon-bowl synclines.
Unsymmetrical folds. Strains which caused a foid m ay have pushed on lim b under
or over the other, thus producing unsymmetrical inclinations. From relatively slight
differences, the overturn m ay increaseomtil the overturned portion
rests on an underlying portion. Such folds m ay even be S-shaped
( s i g m o i d ) or b e c u m b e n t .
On a small scale, these often occur
in metamorphic districts; on a large scale they occur mainly in
regions o f violent disturbance.
Type names may be used, such as the Jura type for symmetrical
folds; Appalachian type for those steeper on one side than the other
(Fig 5). Closed folds are those of which the limbs are squeezed so
tightly at one spot as to cause a great bulge of an upper or under core of
rock. When the surrounding strata incline away radially from the
Overturned
Appalachian
compressed area, like ribs of a fan, the fold is called a fan-fold.
Type
Folds vary in size from small wrinkles and puckers, as in schists, to
aria having chords of yards, miles, or hundreds of miles. Folds aTe
sometimes designated as of the first, second, third, or higher orders. A mountain range, consisting
of an pntH 'n or a syncline, is respectively called an a n t c c h n o h i u m or s y n c u n o b i t t m , the-Greek

A fault is a dislocation in otherwise continuous strata o r masses. I t results when


rocks are so excessively strained that they yifeld along a crack or series of cracks, one side
altering its position with respect to other. - One side m ay rise, sink, m ove laterally, or
(as resultant o f all 3 movements) diagonally, with respect to other aide. In nearly ail
cases the fault plane or planes are inclined to horizontal, the upper and under sides being
designated b y the miners terms, h a n g i n g w a l l and f o o t w a l l . lim itin g cases are
vertical and horizontal faults.
|
Classification of faults (11, 12). T he commonest are: normal, reverse and shift
faults (Fig 6 , 7 and 8 ). In n o b m a l p a t r w ( normal here meaning usual or com
mon ) the hanging wall has slipped down with reference
to foot wall. The movement is rarely directly down
line of dip o f fault plane, but usually on a diagonal.
The position o f any point in dislocated portion is
referred to the 3 axes of solid geometry: the vertical
Bam

Fig 6. Normal Fault,


Displacing Flat Coalseam. Cross-section

Fig 7. Reverse Fault,


Begun as an Over
turned Fold. Crosssection

Fig 8. Shift Fault in Vein Dip


ping 50 . Same Effect would be
Produced by Normal Fault, with
Diagonal Displacement Involv
ing Shift Component Away from
Observer; or by a Large Throw,
Straight Down the Dip

component is the t h h o w ; horizontal component perpendicular to the strike of the fault


plane is the h e a v e ; and horizontal component in fault plane is the s h i f t . These mathe
matical factors assist in determining direction and amount o f movement, the line o f which
is the diagonal o f the rectangular prism the edges o f which are the heave, throw, and shift.
Faolt-breccia. Movement o f fault walls, or of one wail on the other, often crushes
adjacent rock to a mass o f angular fragments, mixed with more finely comminuted material.
Circulating waters m ay cement the whole into a solid mass, b y depositing new minm-nte,
sometimes producing valuable ore. This mass- is a f a u w - b b b c c i a . Fragments o f any
bed, dike, or vein, involved in the fault movement, will be dragged along from stationary
side in direction o f movement; or will be left behind b y moving side; and if followed along
fault plane, will indicate direction o f movement. Such fragments furnish valuable evi
dence and b y F. T . Freeland have been aptly termed the t r a i l o p t h e p a x t l t . Should
a vein be cut off b y a fault, with attendant breccia, fragments o f the vein should be sought
in the breccia and the trail followed to i>ick up continuation o f vein.
Drag. Faults often cut relatively soft beds, as shales or shaly sandstones. Friction
of the walls upon each other causes a downward bend in the beds o f stationary or lifted
side Mid an upward bend in those of the moving or dropped side. These bends, called
d b a g , show the direction of movement (Fig 6 ).
Drag is not found in strong rocks, lika
granites or heavily-bedded limestones.

-14

JOINTS, UNCONFORMITIES, OUTCROPS, EROSION

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

Slickensides are polished and usually grooved surfaces, often caused b y movement <rf
walIs of a fault or vein. Upon the wall-rock the grooves indicate direction o f movement,
but do not necessarily show which side has gone up, or down, or laterally.
Some observers have thought that by scraping finger nail or finger across the grooves, one side
of them will be found steeper than the other. If the grooves are tested in slickensides on underside
of plane of movement, such steep ridge is considered to be the lower side of groove, or the aide which
resisted bearing down of hanging wall while moving diagonally downward in fault plane. It will
thus indicate the actual direction of movement. Should the steep ndge be on upper side of grooves,
an upward movement of hanging wall is indicated. Others have thought that when the finger is
moved along the groove the greater roughness is felt in the direction of movement of the part felt.
Slickensides on fragments in fault-breccia are of little significance, since they are not tn sttu.

2-15

iay off ma and mb to represent dips of vein and fault; draw mo perpendicular and ob parallel to mn.
Then oa and ob are the distances by which, in descending a vertical distance mo, the planes of vein
and fault depart horizontally from vertical. In main part of K g 9, oa and ob are drawn respectively
perpendicular to strikes of vein and fault; and ac and de, passing through g, are parallel to those
strikes. Whence g lies in the horizontal projection of intersection of vein and fault.
In Fig 10 is shown a similar relation of vein and fault, except that the vein lies east and explora
tory drift should turn east, as shown. Both solutions depend on assumption that the hanging wall
of fault (i e, its south wall) has slipped with little shift down on its foot wall. With strongly diagonal
movement the fault might still be normal, but the solution might lead miner in wrong direction.
Therefore check all rules by trail, drag, slickensides, etc.
^

Ctwctto n i i

Horses are large disconnected masses of wall rock, involved in faults, or produced
by forking of a fault fissure around a split-off fragment, and especially when related to
subsequent vein-formation along fault.
,
Shear-zones. When a fault movement is distributed along a number o f parallel
planes not widely spaced, the wall rocks are broken into parallel tabular masses, and are
said to be s h e e t e d . The resulting fault is distributed," and the sheeted strip is a
sh ea b - zo n e .
G o u g e is a sheet o f clay, often occurring along the outer edge of fault
breccias, especially those subsequently mineralized b y circulating waters. Other names
a xe: s e l v a g e a n d fltjcan .

Fault-scarp. If a fault involves an appreciable vertical component, the relatively


lifted side may stand out as a terrace or escarpment, the fault-scarp. Erosion soon wears
it down, so that fresh fault-scarps are rarely recognizable. Faults have sometimes aided
the deposition of ore bodies b y furnishing waterways. When they are developed across
an older mineral deposit, serious displacement m ay be caused.
Rules for solving faults have been formulated b y Schmidt (1 3 ), Zimmermann (1 5 ),
Freeland (9) and others. In studying a fault, observe trail, drag and slickensides. Strati-,
graphical succession, if known, will reveal amount o f displacement. Bore-holes are useful.
Models assist, and are sometimes superior to projections on paper. If there be no evidence
to contrary, the assumption that fault is normal is justified, because moat faults, are such.
Nevertheless, experience showa that a reverse fault occasionally appears in a series of
normal faults, that shift faults m ay occur, and that fault movement may be rotational
(normal at one extreme of fault plane,.reverse at other). On encountering a fault, a
mathematical solution is attractive, but, despite many text-book discussions, the necessary
data are seldom obtainable. Attention should be concentrated on the fault plane and the
movement along it (1 4 ). The dislocated portion of a tabular body is to be sought, pr&senting a broad surface, if rightly attacked. As a rule, it is easier to dn fth oraontally,
than to sink or raise; the procedure is largely determined b y the w ay the vein or bed lies.
Assume a series of stratified roots, the succession and thickness of which are known by
previous
operations, by study of the surface, or b y borings. If a bed on far side
of fault is recognizable, and its place in the series known, the direction and amount or
movement m ay be determined. As gulches often occur on faults, because o f easy erosion
o f crushed rock, faults may sometimes be solved more readily b y study o f surface exposures
w observation solely underground. Directions o f slickensides, drag, and trail,
commonly found in faulted stratified rocks, are highly significant. IS none o f these evi
dences is decisive in dealing with a mineral deposit cut b y a fault, there is strong probability
that the fault is normal. On this assumption, if a fault be encountered on its under side
the rule is to cross it and sink; if on its upper side, to cross it and raise. This is expressed
in the old rule: follow the obtuse angle. But, if the fault happens to be reverse, the
rule would lead in wrong direction.
x
, ,. .
, ,.c ,
In dealing with steeply dipping veins in massive rocks, or steeply dipping stratified
rocks containing coal seams or other interstratified deposits, the succession o f strata
must be known to determine the movement. Then, solving tentatively as a normal fault,
due weight must be given to throw and shift, as possible components of diagonal move
ment That is, besides the heave and throw o f a normal fault, a large shift-component
might cause displacement opposite to that anticipated, instead o f straight down the dip.
The occurrence o f slickensides, trail, and drag m ay then be essential to correct solution.
Zimmennann's rule (15), for steep faults, cutting steeply dipping vans. Suppose (Fig 9),
in driving a level on vein so, striking N 30 W and dipping 60 W, f a u l t / / met, striking N 80 B
and dipping 45 S. At intersection o, draw ob perpendicular to strike of fault, and prolong it toward
I, beyond the fault. Project upon plane of level the intersection og of fault and vein. Line og is
horizontal, and passes obliquely through o, into unexplored ground, toward h, on one side or other
of ol Then if exploratory drift on far side of fault be turned from ok toward ol, and parallel to
strike of fault, the displaced segment xy of vein will in most cases be found.
The horizontal projection og is found as in small diagram of Fig 9. Draw horizontal line mn,

Fig 9. Zimmennanns Solution of a Fault


(Projection on Horizontal Plane)

K g 10. Zitnmermanns Solution of a Fault.


Construction as in Fig 9, but Vein Dips
East, whence Exploratory Drift Turns
E 3St

The following additional terms apply to faults. | In tilted, stratified rocks, faults
striking parallel with the strata are s t r i k e - f a p x / t s , often resulting when folds pass into
faults. Faults running across strike and parallel wit line o f dip are m p - f a u l t s . S t e p ? a t j l t s are series of parallel faults, dipping in same direction. The h a d e is the angle
made by a fault plane y it h a vertical plane; hence, hade is the complement of dip, and is a
superfluous term.. '
Various puzzling'cases of faulting have become classic. Fig 11 shows a Cornish ease, from de la
Beehe; Fig 12, a case of two contrasted pegmatites in Sweden, observed by A. G. Hogbom. Two
parallel veins may be so faulted as to bring dislocated part of one opposite sundered end of another,
and temporarily conceal the existence of a fault. In a certain shift fault, cutting a vein at rigHt
angles to veins strike, the amount of shift was ob
served to grow gradually less in depth, leading to
inference of a b 2 n g e ~ f a t j i . t , or possibly a b o t a t z o n a i .
Vciu
F A U LT.

I
Vein
Normal faults are often explained as due to ten
sion strains in earths cnat, leading to drawing apart
t
of the two sides of fault, and the slipping down of
upper portion on lower; hence, they have been called
* Veia
tension-or gravity faults. Reverse faults, by contrast,
Vein!
a
are called compression or t h r u s t faults; they often
Vein B
begin as overturned folds. If these stresses do pro
duce their respective faults, then reverse faults
K g 11. Two Veins,
K g 12. Two Veins,
with Converging
should customarily have low dips, since, on approach
with Converging
D ips, Normally
Dips, Dropped Be
ing the perpendicular, friction would increase pro
Faulted
low their Inter
hibitively. But, if tenaional stress were relieved
section
by. a Nor
by a series of parallel faults, and one fault block
mal Fault
were to drop below its neighbors, there would be a
normal fault on one side of ^dropped block and a reverse fault .on the other.
Compressive strains along the strike can easily develop normal faults by. downward bulge of
hanging wall and upward bulge of foot. Where comparatively short faults die out at each end, this
explanation has weight. Again, assuming that in depth rocks are capable of viscous flow and
transfer, pressure transmitted upward from such moving masaeB may cause faults from stresses
wholly different from any previously mentioned. Where faults are inclined, fault blocks with the
larger base would be relatively lifted, as compared with those having smaller base. Foot-walls
would therefore rise relatively, causing normal faults (6 , 7, 8 , 10).

11. JOINTS, UNCONFORMITIES, OUTCROPS, EROSION


Joints are cracks which cross strata and masses, without producing dislocation o f walls.
Notwithstanding absence of dislocation, there m ay be difficulty in discriminating between
joints and distributed faults of slight displacement, which produce sheeted structure.

2 -1 6

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS


SUM M ARY

OF

S T R A T IG R A P H IC

2-17

GEOLOGY

11 joints are due to easing of some land of strain; as contractions in cooling of igneous rook,

expansion of cold rock under the suns heat, shrinkage from drying of water-soaked sediments,
tenaional strains at crests of anticlines or in outer layers in bottoms of aynclinea, and torsional
stresses produced over wide areas by warping of earths crust. As a result rocks break into poly
gonal columns of greater or less regularity. In joints produced by contraction of igneous magmas
during consolidation, the long a x of the prisms are theoretically perpendicular to cooling surface.
If tbe magma be homogeneous and transfer of heat uniform, regular hexagonal columns result,
parted also across their axes by cup-shaped joints. Occasionally, as at Giants Causeway, theoret
ical perfection is almost attained; usually, the columns are of all numbers of sides, from 3 to 8.
Similar forms result from drying.
Strong heat of sun and weathering cause massive rocks to shell oB in thin layers. Angular
blocks produced by jointing may become rounded boulders. In granite quarries the s h e e t i n g
in great concentric curves, like a huge onion, has probably been caused either by contraction strains
in cooling, or compression strains in earths crust. Cracks which yawn upward at crests of anti
clines, and gape downward in troughs of aynelines, are common features of folds. In certain dis
tricts of flat sedimentapr rocks (as in southern central New York), joint in two series, intersecting
each other_at nearly right angles (usually about 80), run with remarkable regularity; probably
due to torsional strains from warping. In areas of massive or metamorphio rocks, while a principal
series can be traced, other joints show no regularity. Observed strikes may be plotted over a wide
area, as lines intersecting at a common center like a clock-face, resulting in detection of prevailing
strikes. The predominant joint Is called a m a s t e b j o i n t ; the others, minor joints. Joints are of
great practical importance in quarrying and in mining.
Unconformities. Tilted strata may subsequently be eroded, a id buried under later
sediments, with great discordance o f dip; the lower strata being steeply inclined, the upper
flat (K g 13). A great time interval is thus indicated and an important break in the geo
logical record. Unconformities are the best bases for division o f geological time.
Practically flat strata may be carved by erosion into gorges
of narrow valleys; which, if again submerged, may be filled with
new, flat sediments, showing no discordance of dip with older
strata, but perhaps bringing sandstones sharply against limestones
or other strata. This relation is a disconfobmity (Fig 14).
Should the sea, because of gradual submergence of shore, creep
gradually upward and bring younger flat strata on top of much
older ones, a sbdimbntaby overt, ap ^ formed.

Fig 13. Unconformity of


Manlius Limestone on Hud
son River Ordovician Sand
stone, Marking a Time
Interval of nearly a Geol
Period.
Sandstones were
Deposited Flat, then Tilted,
Eroded, and Covered by
Limestones, which were at
first Flat. Near Rondout,.

Outcrops are portions o f solid rock i n p l a c e , projecting


at surface. B y observations upon them questions are solved
regarding structure and stratigraphic relations. Regions
without outcrops must be explored b y trenches, pits, or
bore-holes; in northern latitudes glacial drift is the chief
obstacle; in southern, the products o f rock weathering or
decay. H eavy vegetation m ay increase difficulty.

moving stream might carry in suspension a great quantity of small particles. Its competence is
small, but its capacity is great. These principles are important in the development of placers; they
also underlie the artificial concentration of ores.
Waves on a shore line batter cliffs, and with the ammunition provided by boulders do great
execution during storms. In creeping across a subsiding shore they may ultimately level every
eminence in their way. Off-shore currents are vehicles of transport, building up bars, spits, etc.
In association with sedimentation by rivers, such currents wear away points and fill coastal bays.
Winds are specially effective in desert regioor, the loose surface materials lacking protection
of vegetation. Small particles as dust are carried by milder winds; while by storms even gravel
may be swept along. The march of sand dunes is one of the results.
Glaciers are powerful agents in carrying away loosened pieces from cliffs, and grinding
particles from rocks on their sides and bottoms. Deposited products of glacial action are called
HOBAiNEB, with terminal, lateral, and ground moraines as varieties. The material is rarely sorted,
so that very coarse and very fine are mingled. Unsorted glacial deposits are usually associated
with others worked over by water.

12. SUMMARY OF STRATIGRAPHIC GEOLOGY


Definite periods of time are assignable for the formation o f strata o f earths crust, H
each period is characterized b y presence o f remains o f distinctive organisms. During the
19th century, geologists succeeded in classifying according to geological age nearly all
strata o f earth s surface, however remote the region, provided properly preserved organic
remains or fossils were present. Strata without fossils, or so metamorphosed as to destroy
their fossils, were either classified b y their relations to determined strata, or else proved
insoluble problems. Recognizing the importance of uniformity o f usage in time divisions
and their corresponding strata, the International Geological Congress, Paris, 1900, adopted
the following:
T im e

1. Era
2. Period
3. Epoch

Stbata

No equivalent
System
Series

Erosion, the wearing down o f land and transfer o f loose particles b y water, wind, or
ice, to places o f deposition at lower altitudes, is in one sense destructive; in another,
constructive, for sedimentary rocks are thereby composed.
Water erosion b y streams, waves, or currents along shore lines, is the most important.
Matter carried in suspension facilitates wear o f rock masses exposed to moving grit. Of
the same substance, larger particles require swifter currents for their removal than do the
smaller, the surfaces o f which are relatively greater compared to their masses. Small
particles o f high specific gravity m ay require as great velocity o f current as large particles
o f low specific gravity. As velocity decreases, sorting action takes place; the large and
the heavy small particles sink first, small particles remaining in suspension, though presence
of solutions o f mineral salts or of acids facilitates clearing o f fresh water emulsions. The
transporting ability o f a current increases with sixth power o f velocity. Thus, if a cur
rent can m ove a 1-in cube o f quartz, b y doubling its velocity it can m ove a 4-in cube, or
64 cu in; because, twice as m uch water strikes the cube, with twice the velocity.
Competence of a stream refers to the maximum size of particle of given sp gr which, at a given
velocity, the stream will move. Thus, a small, rapid stream can move a.relatively large particle.
Its competence is great, but total transported material will be email. Conversely, a large, slow-

Tura
4, Age
5. Phase

St b a ta

Stage
Zone

This table signifies that, during a period, strata constituting a system were formed;
during the shorter epoch, a series, and so on. A system may embrace several series, each
o f which has atageB, in turn divisible into zones. In the geological mapping o f a district
it is customary to work primarily on basis o f periods-systems, and then under each to
apply a local, geographical name to any stratum sufficiently persistent and well defined
to be recognizable over an extensive area. T he following table summarizes the gn*nHy
accepted conclusions. For periods the older names are given, but it is now mmmnTi to
terminate periodic names in ic
thus, Carbonic for Carboniferous, etc.
Eras

Fig 14. Diaeonformity, Vert Sec. Older Sandstones Eroded,


and Resulting Valley filled with Conglomerate, with no Discor
dance of Dip

i
\

Quaternary]
or
k
Psychozoic >
Tertiary 1
Cenozoic i

Mesozoic.

Periods
[Recent
t Pleistocene, or
I Glacial

Eras

Paleozoic...

Pre-Cambrian
or
Archean

Keweenawan
Huronian
Laurentian
Keewatin

Pliocene
Miocene
Oligocene
Eocene

Cretaceous
Comanchean
Jurassic
Triassio

Periods
Permian
Carboniferous
Devonian:
Silurian
Ordovician
Cambrian

Pre-Cambrian. Igneous rocks and metamorphio sedimenta predominate; including gneisses,


schists, quartzitea, slates, and marbles, with associated deep-seated and volcanic igneous rocks.
In North America the most extensive exposures are in Canada, constituting a vast V-shaped area,
with Hudson's Bay in the opening and the point at the Great Lakes. Underlying the entire con
tinent, they also appear in backbones of the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains, and occasionally
project elsewhere in small patches. Though almost devoid of fossil remains, sponges, alg, and
trails of moving organisms have in recent years been discovered in the Huronian, in Lake Superior
region and Montana. Pre-Cambrian strata are very productive of metals, especially iron. Kbewatin greenstones contain the gold veins at Porcupine, some of the Cobalt silver veins, and iron ore
of Vermilion Range, Minn. L a t j b e n t i a n consists of intrusive igneous rocks, poor in ore deposit*.
Httbonian embraces a great series of metamorphosed sediments, with some igneous rooks, and
yields the chief American iron ores in the Lake region. It has also most of the silver veins at

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

[-18

Cobalt, Ont. K e w e e n a w a n is largely a succession of basaltic-rooks and minor sediments; it


contains the copper mines of Keweenaw Point, Mich.
Paleozoic. Around the edges of pre-Cambrian areas are the,earliest Paleozoic strata (unless
from overlap later ones have crept inward over the earlier). The successive strata of the 6 periods
are often marked ofi by unconformities, upturned by disturbances, and are sometimes missing in
individual cases, where land conditions prevailed. In North America they are in greatest develop
ment in the U S, east of the Mississippi, and in states just west of it. la the Cordilleran region the
areas are smaller and scattered. The Clinton iron ores appear in the east in the S i l u b i a n ; the
eastern coal supply comes from the C a b b o n i f e b o o s ; the eastern oil and gas are mainly in the
O b d o v i c i a n , D e v o n i a n , and C a b b o n i f e b o o s .
Mesozoic strata are chief components of western half of North America; are of vast develop
ment in the Great Plains, the Cordillera, and Mexico. The western coals are chiefly in C b e t a c e o b s
strata, but appear also in E o c e n e beds of nest era. The mountain upheavals at close of Ceetac e o t j s , with attendant igneous outbreaks, are largely repoasible for the western ore deposits.
Cenozoic strata appear in the east in a coastal fringe. In the west they are represented by
old land or lake deposits in the Great Plains, and marine strata along the Pacific. Because of the
great development of mammals, the fossil remains are of great interest, especially in their bearings
on doctrine of evolution.
Quaternary (sometimes called PsTCH0 z0ic)is the era of mans especial development. It is marked
by the continental ice sheet in its early portion in the north; in the south, by products of weathering
and recent sediments. The strata of the closing G l a c i a l or P l e i s t o c e n e (Pleistocene is term
especially used for regions south of glacial drift) pass gradually into coastal deposits now forming.
Note.For full discussion of eras and periods, see Bibliog, numbers 17 to 22.

MINERAL DEPOSITS: ORES

MINERALS AND LOCALIZATION OF ORE DEPOSITS

2-19

1% of the volume in dense rocks, up to 10% or more in porous sandstones. Cavities of


larger size are found in pumice, amygdaloids, jointed rocks, faults, and caves.
Ground-waters, or waters which are below the earths surface, are of 3 kinds: meteoric,
connate, and magmatic. M e t e o r i c water descends as rain and snow, in part soaking
into the ground, and forming the standing body of water which requires pumping in mines,
etc. C o n n a t e water is contained in sediments deposited beneath sea or lakes, having
been carried down with the sediments as they were buried beneath later strata. M a g m a t i o
water is set free in the cooling and consolidation o f molten masses of igneous rock, becom
ing manifest at volcanic vents and presumably in hot springs, which nearly always accom
pany expiring vulcanism.

Formerly, in discussing the formation of orebodies by underground circulation, only meteoric


waters were considered. They were believed to descend to the general limit of cavities, to migrate
extensively through small cavities in rocks; and, when heated from below and charged with ore
and gangue, to return by larger channels towards the surface, forming veins and other orebodies.
Connate waters were recognized in brines, often pumped to surface for salt. But, as experience in
deep mines proved that meteoric water is almost always limited to the upper zone of about 1 000 ft,
geologists have attributed more and more importance to magmatic waters to which the primary
introduction of ore and gangue can be referred with fewer difficulties. This view is strengthened
by the common association of ore deposits with intrusive igneous rocks, by study of contact zones
and pegmatites, and by observations upon volcanic emissions. Apparently, magmatic waters or
vapors or gases emerge from the igneous mass charged with the components of ores and gangue;
but in subsequent circulation, they make take up more minerals, and bring all to a piace of precipi
tation. The heat of an intrusive, igneous mass is a powerful agent in promoting underground
circulations. It is more efficient than the norma! increase of temperature with depth, or than
natural head from high points of entrance and low points of emergence, the friction of small passages
being considered (29).

13. INTRODUCTION, DEFINITIONS OF OSS


Mineral deposits include both ores and non-metallic minerals. In earlier years the
metals -were chiefly mined, but in recent time non-metallic minerals have greatly increased
in relative importance. Metalliferous minerals only are included under the head o f ore
deposits, non-metallies being treated separately.
Scientifically, the word ore comprehends all metal-bearing minerals which are com
mercial sources o f the metals, percentages n ot being considered. Technically, an ore is a
metal-bearing mineral, or. aggregate of such minerals, mixed with barren matter, called
gangue, and capable of being mined at a profit. B y contrast, where the element of
profit is uncertain or impossible, the term mineral deposit m ay be used instead o f ore
deposit.
Thus, pay. ore or commercial ore is contrasted with an orebody o f uncertain
yield. The richer part of an ore deposit is the pay-streak or ore-shoot; very rich
parts, bonanzas. The phrase the ores is sometimes employed b y students o f the
microscopic characters of igneous rocks, to designate the group o f minute minerals which
first crystallize in the cooling of a molten magma. Magnetite is ita moat conspicuous
member (25).

14. METALS IN THE EARTHS CRUST


Ore deposits are portions of earth s crust enormously enriched with metals as compared
with the rest. On basis of composition of the crust given in Sec X, Art 1 (fuller details in
Bull 491, U S Geol Surv, pp 27, 33), it is seen that among percentages down to a minimum
o f 0.03, a few common metals are named, viz: aluminum, 7.28; iron, 4.12; manganese,
0.0S. In igneous rocks, considered alone, nickel, 0.023, and chromium, 0.033, are also
found. Copper m ay reach 0.01% , but all others, lead, zinc, silver, gold, quicksilver, tin,
etc, are-expressed in very small decimals of 1 % . A n ore deposit, therefore, is a relatively
enormous local concentration of metals, from a minimum o f 4 times for low-grade aluminum
ores, 7 times for low-grade iron ores, and 200 times for low-grade copper ores, to a concen
tration which, for the other metals, m ay reach thousands or hundreds o f thousands. Ore
deposits are largely produced b y concentration b y circulating waters in earths crust.

15.

CAVITIES IN ROCKS; GROUND-WATERS

Cavities in rocks. From the point of view o f physics, the smallest cavities are those
below capillaries, i e, below tubes 0.0002 mm diam, or tabular spaces 0.0001 m m across.
In these, under ordinary conditions, adhesion prevents circulation. Capillaries range
from th above HimAnsmng to 0.5 m m for tubes and 0.25 mm for tabular spaces. In rocks
these small cavities, called voids, appear as surviving and unfilled pores o f crystals, contact
spaces between minerals or grains, and cleavage cracks. Th ey are expressed in tenths of

16. MINERALS AND LOCALIZATION OF ORE DEPOSITS


Ore minerals are primary and secondary. The p W h a r y are those originally deposited
in forming an orebody; the s e c o n d a r y are produced b y alteration of primary minprala
under certain conditions. Except aluminum, iron, manganese, chromium platinum and
tin, all primary ore minerals are sulphides, arsenides, sulpharsenides, sulphantimonides,
or similar compounds. Sulphides are o f chief importance. Though secondary minerals
are largely oxidized compounds, they also comprise a few very important sulphides.
The importance of the distinction lies in the following relations to the surface. Ground-waters
stand at varying depths, depending on local rainfall, rock texture and local geological structure.
Between ground-water level and the surface, is a zone called by Posepny the vadose zone, by Van
Hise the zone of weathering, through which the oxidizing and dissolving rain waters freely descend.
Within this vertical range, sulphides become oxidized to sulphates, and pass extensively into solu
tion. Migrating downward, the solutions merge into the standing and protecting ground-waters,
and often precipitate their dissolved metals in a zone of s e c o n d a b y e n b i c h m e n t , at or near ground
water level. The reaction is especially important in copper mineB.
Gangue minerals comprise quartz, calcite, fluorite, barite, rhodochrosite, rhodonite,
and admixed minerals of the country rock. Decomposition or alteration under influence
of thermal waters gives rise to much sericite, kaolimte, and related speeies.
Localization of ore deposits. Ore deposits resulting from processes outlined above are developed
where circulating mineral-bearing solutions find favorable places to precipitate their contents.
One method of classification is to arrange in a logical scheme the favorable geological places for this
reaction. For the formation of some kinds of ore deposit, however, circulating solutions are not
required. Ores may crystallize directly from molten magmas, and, either by sinking in the fluid
mass because of higher specific gravity, or for some reason, not well understood, may enrich the
rock mass to the requirements of mining. Again, and in contrast with the reactions above indicated,
moving .waters in streams, or by wave action, may liberate and concentrate heavy minerals in
sedimentary deposits, to the point of profitable mining. Again, in residua! deposits, heavy and
resistant minerals may be left behind in a concentrated condition by removal of products of
weathering. In a few cases, chiefly iron ores, the processes of sedimentation, or associated precipi
tation, have given rise to bedded ore deposits. Experience shows, therefore, that it is difficult
consistently to classify orebodies on any one of these subordinate principles. But, as compared
with old-time schemes, based on shape, the broad principle of m o d e o p o b i g x n has become increas
ingly important. In the following classification, the endeavor has been to pass from igneous
phenomena, pure and simple, to surface reactions not connected with igneous phenomena, empha
sizing especially the p l a c e where orebodies originate.
Zonal distribution. Closer study7of mining regions in the Cordilleran region of North America
leads to following conclusions: (a) Ore deposition follows intrusions of igneous rocks, most fre
quently those related to granites or species intermediate between granites and diorites (as, granodiorites and quartz-monzonites). The ores are products-of the cooling stages, precipitated in largest

IR O N

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

2 -2 0

, ,
__ ..
,
ij,\ rwe and eangue minerals are distributed outwardly from the
part from magnaatic waters (30) . ( o ) ^ e a M g a n g t e m p e r a t u r e s and high pressures

r s s s s s is M is t
= l s ^ r : o ^
dikes and contact zones; then,
2jne.hlende bearing phases in which ainc replaces
copper-bearing pyrite-quartz veins, P ^ a g
repiaces zine-biende, and yields in succession
copper, while pynte i,er8, 8t8- . , F^ ^ dr ^ fcimoay ores, and others. Finally, gangue minerals

So
i s s (5 r s v s S p ff 1 *5 -' di,?ibutlo of * * ' dto
has proved o! great value as a guide to mine development.
17.

^ S Z

m i e l ^ S S T A A r dikes'and sheets of igneous magnetite are known.

TT Denosited by emissions from cooling and solidifying magmas.

5 y j. *.* -

z z S t t t t ^ % !? J 2 l

often with tourmaline,

in nature between dikes and veins; sometimes

sa
"S f-.o-SSffiKiJTStfinSSi 2SES3 S2;5^
jtt.

- -

Deposited by circulating ground-waters.

, Deposits in
'S t J S S S J S ^ t c l o s f y V c e d
precipitations of quartz or other minerals, a t ^
down its flanks. Inverted
with diminishing thickness for varying but us J
aided precipitation, (f) D epute
saddles appear in synchnes. Apparent^ arcing
^
^
in joints with greater or less replacement and .pF ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ t5on8 0f volcanic agglomerates in the
because limited to a single stratum or sheet
l replacement of

SSL

s ^ s s s s ^ s s s r ^

*. < **- * * * . * * -

conduit may be obscure.


IV. Deposited or concentrated by aid o f surface waters.
<j) Surface precipitations, which
removal of the
(fc) Resistant or insoluble minerals,
^ ay tea. m Placers or concentrations of heavy
S S i s S i L a n d S v e k by action of moving water. Gold placers; stream tin.

18.
* . in-rals . W

IRON ORES
-

'

&

S
*

w it-

2 ."

2-21

even fco American furnaces. Average of all iron ore mined in the U S in 1925 was not far from 50%
iron. The grade wiil doubtless gradually decline. Alabama Clinton red hematites run 36 to 37%.
Some crude ore is even lower. The principal local supply of continental Europe, from the minette
ores, averages about 30%. The nearness of good fuels, markets, mixtures, etc, determine limiting
percentages.
In the U S about four-fifths of the ore comes from Lake Superior region. Nest in order are the
red hematites of Alabama and Tennessee, the brown hematites and the magnetites of Appalachian
belt. Individual mines in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico have fed the iron and steel plant
at Pueblo, Colo. Magnetites will be produced in time on the Pacific coast for a future industry to
be located presumably in the Puget Sound region,
Lake Superior iron districts. In order o f productiveness in the Lake Superior region
are Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Ontario has one productive range, and possi
bility o f developing others. T he ores o f this region are all in pre-Cambrian strata:
Keweenawan: sandstones, basalt fiows. Copper. Huronian. Upper, Middle and Lower:
sedimentary and some igneous rocka. Iron ores in the sediments. Laurentian: granites. leewatin:
green schists, from ancient basic eruptives. Some sediments with iron ores.

CLASSIFICATION OF ORE DEPOSITS (37)

c o S u m f

^ S m

ORES

72" % '

goethite (FesOa-SsO).
j_ated ferroUs or ferric aluminum silicate); greenalite (hydrated
aluminum silicate); thunngite (hydr
..
_iacej jjy magnesium and calcium. With
ferrous silicate). Siderite
may appear with all the
brown hematites, mat^aneae imnerais are not
J*d p 088ible of utilization for poor
ores, and, when largely freed of its euiphur, inajy ua *
n^enite (Fe0-Ti02) is mechamgrades of iron. Pjrrhotite
Objectionable ingredients of iron ores are S and P; definite
cally mingled with many magnetites.
3
variable, due to possible admixtures in furnace
limits of these for merchantable grades of
aoid bessemer pig, permissible phosphorus mar
practice; in general, the less the better.
therefore, about 0.06% is max with richest ores.
I 0.001 part of the percentage of ^ o ^ ^ ^ c ^ e s . In America lump ^ gn etite om
Magnetites 8f d
but today practically only magnetically concentrated are
1 5 1 , S S iS L d ,
*
01

As now mined the ores are chiefly soft, partially hydrated hematites, their percentage
o f water not reaching that o f limonite. Th ey have been produced b y alteration o f great
beds o f cherty carbonates of iron, o f hydrated ferrous silicate, and o f associated pyrite,
under the general processes o f weathering. Soft earthy masses o f ore have thus resulted;
of enormous volume, accessible, cheaply mined, and of relative purity as regards phos
phorus and sulphur. Th ey occupy synclinal basins, troughs produced b y intersection of
igneous dikes with each other or with impervious strata, o r other minor places where
circulating aid oxidizing meteoric ground-waters have been temporarily obstructed in
their flow. Besides soft ores there are lenticular bodies o f hard specular hematite, pro
duced b y metamorphism o f ancient soft-ore bodies; also great bodies of jaspery or siliceous
iron-bearing strata, o f 3 5 % and above in iron, which, partly as concentrating ore, partly
as low-grade lump ores, with the gradual exhaustion o f better grades, will be available for
a long time to come. T he grade is well above that o t present European ores. These ores
originally formed beds precipitated at surface (Art 17, IV , j ) . They became bured in a
stratified series, and afterward b y weathering yielded residual deposits (Art 17, IV, k ), some
of which extend to great depths and Me cases o f secondary enrichment. Some have been
metamorphosed to specular hematite, and even magnetite. I a northeastern Minnesota
gabbros occur with igneous titaniferous magnetites, n o t y e t shown to be valuable
(Art 17, I, a) (38).
Clinton red hematites are next in productiveness. They appear as beds of
oolitic, often fossiliferous ore, associated with olive-green shales and subordinate lime
stones o f the Clinton stage, at base o f Silurian system. They outcrop in S E Wisconsin,
western Ohio, central Kentucky, western New York, south of Lake Ontario, and farther
east at town o f Clinton (whence their nam e); in Pennsylvania, Virginia, eastern Tennessee,
Georgia, and Alabama. Their greatest development is in Alabama, where they form an
inner terrace, called R ed Mountain, in the Birmingham anticlinal valley. G ood coking
coals and limestone are near, so that low-cost pig can be produced even from 35 and 40%
ores. A t outcrops the ores are siliceous; below ground-water level, they become basic.
All are moderately high in phosphorus. Th ey are probably oolitic beds, precipitated in
shallow estuaries, fed b y iron-bearing drainage' (C. H. Smyth). Although utilized in
Tennessee and Georgia, they are m ost important in Alabama. In time those in N ew York,
Kentucky and Wisconsin are destined to be o f greater moment than now.
Brown hTnnti*i=m ( brown ores ) of the TJ S are produced chiefly along that portion of the
Appalachian mountains formed by early Paleozoic strata, and just west of the earlier crystallines.
They are products of weathering of ferruginous rocks, especially limestones. In almost all the
mines they must be freed of ochers and c l a y B by washing.
Magnetites occur in tw o chief types of deposits. T he commoner is a lenticular or
pod-shaped mass, in gneisses, parallel with the foliation. They appear widely in the
ancient Appalachian crystallines, but are most productive in the Adirondacks. The
second type appears in the contact zones (A rt 17, II, c), produced b y intrusive igneous rocks
on limestones or limey shales. The greatest deposit o f this type in the East is at Cornwall,
Penn. T he igneous rock is diabase and the limestone, Cambro-Ordovician. In the West
many such deposits are known, in Utah (Iron Springs Dist), Nevada, California, and
dong the northwest coast.
ia Europe, Germany, England, and Prance follow the U S in order of production of iron ores,
the greatest eingla source being found in a series of Jurassic beds in and near Luxemburg, and in the
northeast of
The ores (called minette )iare of 30% or a little higher, and are brown

-22

GEOLOGY AND MINEKAL DEPOSITS

LEAD AND ZINC

hematites, carbonates, and various silicates. Minor orefaodies are in veins, of carbonates, and in
beds of clay iron-stone and biack-band. Spain ships from Bilbao great quantities of partially
hydrated hematite, the weathered product of spathic ores in depth. Sweden is a heavy exporter
of magnetites, especially from the igneous sheet of magnetite at Kiruna, Lapland. Many lenticular
magnetites have been worked in middle Sweden. Great bodies of igneous magnetites exist in the
Urals. Algiere ships important amount of red, partly hydrated hematites.
Large orebodies have recently been developed in N E Cuba, where ancient serpentines have
weathered for ages, leaving a residual soil, rich enough in iron to form ore. Great reserves of specular
hematite, of ancient geological age, occur in eastern Brazil, state of Minas Geraes. With the opening
of the Panama canal, iron ores reached American furnaces from Chile. In S E Newfoundland, at
Wabana, extensive beds of red hematite have been developed in recent years (39).

B. Irregular masses of copper-bearing sulphides in contact zones (c) and associated


with lime silicates. Secondary enrichment, incident to oxidation, m ay be necessary to
increase percentage to mining requirements. Various minor forms of deposit may be
associated. Bisbee and Morenci, Ariz, are best illustrations.
C. Veins along faults, with greater or less replacement and impregnation o f the walls
(d), as at Butte, Mont, where walls are granite. Innumerable other veins are known
in all parts of world.
D. Lenticular or pod-shaped bodies of pyrite or pyrrhotite, with chalcopyrite (usually
of later introduction). The lenses favor schists or elates, and lie parallel with the foliation.
These rocks m ay be sheared eruptives, o r m ay be sediments (Ducktown, Tenn, and
many orebodies along Appalachians). Other examples appear in foot-hills of Sierra
Nevadas, Cai. R io Tinto, Spain, is one of the largest bodies yet discovered.

19.

COPPER ORES

These orebodies were probably originally veins (d) parallel to structural planes of wall-rooks,
and subsequently pinched into lenses by pressure. The type called Kieslager may be of sedi
mentary origin, or introduced as veins and pinched by pressure. Some have been considered
igneous intrusives, as at Sulitelma, Norway, and Bodenmais, Bavaria.

The minerals in Table 4 constitute the common ores o f copper:


Table 4.
Sulphides

Chalcopyrite,

CuFeS2(Cu2S'Fe2S3)..........

% Cu

Bornite, CusFeSs(2 CujS-Fe^Ss).


Covellite, CuS............................
Chalcocite, CU2S.........................

34.60
55.50
66.48
79.80

SuLpharaenides and Svlpkantimonidea


Enargite, Cu3AsS(3 CU2S AS2S5) ...........

48.40

Tetrahedrite,

CufiSb2S7(4Cu^-SbiSs)..............

52.06

Oxides

Melaconite, CuO.
Cuprite, CujO

78.86
88.80

Copper Ores
Sulphates

Chaleanthite, CuSO4-51120..
Brochantite, CuiCOHisSO*.,.

% Cu
25.38
56. 0

Carbonates

Malachite, CuCOg Cu(OH)2Azurite, 2 CuCOs -Cu(OH)2.

57.27
55.10

Silicate

Chrysocolla, CuSiOs 2H2O .

36.00

OxyMoride
Atacamite, Cu2Cl (OB3 s......
Native Metal

59.29

Native copper, Cu....... ........

2 -2 3

100,00

The distinction between primary and secondary minerals is more important with
copper than with any other metal. Some copper minerals appear in both groups. P bim ib t : chalcopyrite, bornite, chaicocite, enargite, tetrahedrite (some native copper in
T,a.k Superior mines). S e c o n d a r y : chaicocite, covellite, melaconite, cuprite, chalcanfchite, brochantite, malachite, azurite, chrysocolla, atacamite, and native copper. Possibly
chalcopyrite and bornite are secondary in some cases. As a primary mineral lean copperbearing pyrite is very important, especially in intrusive rocks. When oxidized b y meteoric
waters in the vadose zone (belt o f weathering), all copper-bearing sulphides yield some
form o f sulphate. This soluble salt, in deposits in siliceous rocks, trickles downward
until, in contact with some reducing agent, like pyrite, the copper is precipitated as chai
cocite. This causes great concentration of copper, at or near ground-water level, termed
s e c o n d a b y ENBiCHMBNT.
From bodies of copper-bearing sulphides, in regions of abun
dant rainfall, as at Ducktown, Tenn, an upper zone or g o s s a n o f brown hematite results,
which may form an iron ore. Below this, near ground-water level, a belt of rich chaicocite
(black ore) appears, containing m ost of the copper once distributed throughout upper part
of deposit. Still lower are unaltered, primary sulphides. In a comparatively arid region,
when copper-bearing sulphides, usually in form of cupriferous pyrite, are disseminated in
intrusive igneous rocks, or quartzites, or schists (which m ay be crushed or rendered opentextured along a zone of movement), descending waters of the vadose zone develop an
upper leached belt, underlain b y a chalcocite-bearing section o f maximum richness; and
below this is a belt o f slight secondary enrichment. Thus have originated the disseminated
copper ores, now being extensively mined in the southwest. If oxidizing reactions occur
in open-textured tuffs, or contact lime silicates, chrysocolla often results, instead of chai
cocite; if in presence of limestone, the blue and green carbonates and cuprite are
characteristic products. In North America most of the copper produced comes from
chaicocite. The region o f Northern Bhodesia, with adjacent portions o f Katanga, con
tains the largest copper-bearing area known.
Examples o f copper deposits Getters in parentheses refer to Classification, A rt 17).
A Bodies o f copper-bearing sulphides, chiefly chalcopyrite or lean, copper-bearing
pyrite in igneous rocks (c). Chalcopyrite m ay be associated with a nickel-bearing sul
phide, pentlandite, and with pyrrhotite, in basic intrusives (Sudbury, Ontario). Lean
copper-bearing pyrite of igneous intrusive masses, usually xnonzonites, requires secondary
enrichment for profitable operation (Bingham Canyon, Utah, and near Ely, Nevada).

E. Native copper in nodules, sheets, minute scales, and sometimes large branching
masses, in amygdaioidal basalts, and associated conglomerates (fii). Keweenaw Point,
Michigan, is chief example. Introduction of the copper is a disputed subject, whether a
product of expiring igneous activity, or o f circulating meteoric and connate waters.
F. Impregnations of sedimentary rocks with sulphides or their oxidized products,
often deposited on organic remains (k ). Mansfeld, Germany, is best known example,
where a black shale, with abundant organic remains, is impregnated with copper minerals
for a width less than 1 ft, but over a great area. I t is uncertain whether the copper was
precipitated from Permian sea-water along with the sediments, or introduced b y circulat
ing ground-waters long after sediments were deposited. Triassic strata of the U S have
many copper impregnations, m ostly small.
|
The percentage of copper for successful mining depends on widely varying conditions. Native
copper rock, on Keweenaw Point, Mich, yielding only 0,65% (13 lb per tor.), has been treated
successfully. The disseminated chaicocite of Bingham Canyon, Utah, has yielded average assays
over 3 months periods as low as 1%, with approx a seven-eighths recovery. Raw smelting ores,
of slightly above 2% and with little aid from precious metals, have been worked at Ducktown,
Tenn. In early days in western U S, ores of 10 to 20% were frequent in oxidized and enriched parts
of deposits. Vast quantities of 10% ore are now reported from S E Congo State, Central Africa.
To be valuable, all low-grade deposits must be of great size (40).

20. LEAD A ID ZINC ORES


Lead. Following minerals constitute the common ores o f lead: galena, PbS, 86 . 6 %
lead; anglesite, PbSOi, 68 .3% ; cerussite, PbCO j, 77.5% ; pyromorphite, 3 (Pb 0 *P 20 $)
PbCh, 76.2% (much rarer than the others). Other compounds sometimes appear in
small amount, as wulfenite, crocoite and vanadinite.
Galena is the cjiief primary lead ore, o f which others are oxidation products. It is
frequently associated with zinc blende and pyrite. A il lead ores are commoner in lime
stones than with other wall rocks. M any lead ores carry silver in commercial amounts,
especially in regions characteristically productive o f precious metals. Gold is a rarer
associate. The oxidized product o f galena is oftener cerussite than anglesite. A ll oxi
dized ores are mingled with limonite in varying degree, and with silica and earthy minerals
from alteration o f wall rocks. Lead and zinc can best be discussed together.
Zinc. Following minerals constitute the common ores of zinc: sphalerite or sinn
blende, ZnS, 67% zinc, hemimorphite (calamine), 2 ZnO -H jO -SK ^, 54.2% ; smithsonite,
ZnCOs, 52.1% ; willemite, 2 Zn 0 -Si0 2 , 58.6% ; zincite, ZnO, 80.3% ; franklinite,
(Fe,M n,Zn)0(Fe,M n) 2O 3, variable, about 6.0% . Willemite, zincite and franklinite,
exceptional in their occurrence in northern New Jersey, form a group b y themselves.
Zinc blende ia the almost universal primary mineral; calamine and smithsonite are its oxidation
products. The latter two are often inseparably mixed, and together are known as galmei in
Europe. Dry-bone is a local name in Mississippi Valley, the oxidation products suggesting
old bones. (The significance of the names calamine and smithsonite in England is the exact reverse
of the American meaning, smithsonite being used for the hydrated silicate.) The oxidized com
pounds are characteristic of the vadose zone. They may coat bedrock beneath a cap of residual
products. The deposits are summarized from those with lead alone to those with zinc alone,
intimate mixtures of both ores afford one of the great metallurgical problems today. Neither
lead nor ainc deposits have been found in immediate association with igneous rocks, such that a
direct igneous origin could be ascribed to them. They reach their places of precipitation in solution.

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

SILVER AND GOLD

Examples of lead and zinc -deposits. (Letters in parentheses refer to A rt 17.)


A. Disseminated and sometimes coalescing deposits of galena with associated sul
phides, in sedimentary strata. T he galena impregnates the older sediment; believed to
have been introduced in solution, and to have replaced preexisting minerals; source is
conjectural (A and i). In S E Missouri, the chief American source o f lead for lead alone,
Cambrian limestones are impregnated.

tellurium, they yield extremely fine particles, n ot readily panned and resisting amalgama
tion; called rusty gold. Gold, presumably as chloride, sometimes descends in solution
from oxidized portions o f veins containing manganese minerals, and is reprecipitated at
or near water level. Presence o f calcite m ay interfere with the reaction. The high sp gr
and resistance o f gold to natural solvents greatly favor the formation of placer deposits.

2 -2 4

Near Laurium, Greece, galena replaces limestones involved with mica schists. At Leadviile,.
Colo, Carboniferous limestone has been replaced with silver-bearing galena, pyxite, manganese
compounds and sometimes zinc bleade, along under sides of sills of rhyolite-porphyry ( white
porphyry")- Extensive oxidation developed carbonate ores for the early miners. Galena may
yield to aine blende in amount. In Belgium, Luxemburg, and near Aix-la-Chappelle, huge amounts
of subordinate lead ores have been mined in Devonian and Carboniferous limestone along great
faults. Zinc blende was doubtless the original mineral. In Silesia the ainc and lead ores are in
Triassie limestones.
.
_ _
At Commera, Germany, knots of galena are disseminated in Tnassic sandstone. In Cceur
dAlene district, Idaho, silver-bearing galena, with siderite, appears in great bodies in pre-Cambrian
quartzite, along or near extensive faults. Zinc blende has been met in some mines; copper ores in a
few others. Siderite seems to have first replaced the quartzite, and then yielded to galena. The
reaction is much the same as with original limestones.
In S W Missouri zinc blende and subordinate galena impregnate brecciaa o f chert,
interbedded in Lower Carboniferous limestones.
B. Galena, zinc blende and associated sulphides in joints (** gash veins ) and related
cavities ( /). In S W Wisconsin and neighboring states of Upper Mississippi Valley the
Ordovician Galena limestone has numerous vertical gash veins, with horizontal runs
and inclined pitches, containing galena, zinc blende, marcasite, and calcite.
C. Galena
Tin blende in fissure veins, often together, often separate, usually
with other sulphides (d). Precious metals are frequently associated. Such deposits are
world-wide, and in all kinds of wall-rocks.
D . Lenticular deposits containing wHlemite, franklimte, subordinate zincite and many
lima silicates, are folded in pitching synclinal troughs in pre-Cambrian limestones. I t is
difficult to classify these deposits. Their zinc-bearing minerals are unique. The
mineralogy suggests contact zones (c), but the actual metamorphosing igneous rock is
n ot apparent.

21. SILVER AND GOLD OSES


Though deposits are known containing either gold or silver alone, these metals are
generally associated and must be discussed together. Both are extensively obtained in
connection with copper and lead. Lead ores are often called wet ores, because metallic
lead, freed in smelting, acts as a solvent for the precious metals, the distinctive ores of
which are called dry ores. Zinc desilveiization for base bullion, electrolytic refining
for copper, and the substitution of cyanidation for amalgamation, have greatly facilitated
treatment of silver and gold ores.
Silver-bearing minerals: argentite ( silver glance ), AgjS, 87.1% silver; hessite,
AgsFe, 62.8% ; proustite ( light riiby ore ), AgaSjAs or 3 A g 2S 'A s 2Sa, 65.5% ;
pyrargyrite ( dark ruby ore ), AgjSsSb, or 3 AgsS-SbaSa, 59.8% ; stephamte ( brittle
silver ore ), AgiSiSb or 5 AgiS-SbaS*, 68.5% ; cerargyrite ( horn silver ), AgCl, 75.3% ;
native silver, Ag, 100%.
Galena almost always contains at least a trace o f silver, which probably occurs as. an
isomorphous sulphide, but n ot appearing separately in polished plates. Silver is a com po
nent o f certain varieties o f tetrahedrite, and in this form is often found in copper ores.
Galena is probably a base for other copper minerals. Silver is sometimes found in sdno blende,
but rarely in pyrite. Modern silver production is chiefly in connection with base metals.
Cerargyrite and native silver are habitually secondary minerals, resulting from alteration in the
vadose zone of other minerals mentioned above, or from silver-bearing, base-metal minerals. Argen
tite is sometimes secondary; it certainly is also primary. The others are generally primary.
Gold-bearing minerals: calaverite, AuTe 2, 44.5% gold;
sylvanite ( graphic
), (AuAg) Tes, variable; native gold, alloyed with silver, etc, variable. Gold
m ost com monly occurs in quartz veins, both as native, and as scales and wires mechanically
mixed in pyrite. It may be set free b y oxidation and removal of the pynte. I t also
accompanies mispickel, chaleopyrite, and rarely galena. In some o f these minerals, when
the ores are refractory, it m ay exist as an involved tellunde, or as a bismuth compound
(Richard Pearce). The tellurides o f gold (a number of rare mixed tellurides o f gold and
other metals are n ot mentioned above) are primary minerals. On oxidizing and losing

2 -2 5

German writers sometimes classified precious metal deposits into an older series, in geological
age, and a later series. The great silver-gold veins associated with mountain upheaval and igneous
outbreaks, at close of the Cretaceous and in the opening Tertiary periods can thus be disfcinpiiehed
from older ones. Each group can then be subdivided on associated minerals, of which aseries of subtypes can be established. Other writers have placed less emphasis on variations in tima and
mineralogy. Admitting some characteristic mineral associations, which might miake possible finer
subdivision, the following large types are permissible (see Classification, Art 17).
Predominant silver. A. Fissure veins, with distinctively silver minerals in quartz
gangue, often amethystine and associated with manganese minerals and some calcite.
Galena, zinc blende, pyrite and copper minerals, are very subordinate. M any great veins
of Mexico, as at Pachuca, Beal del Monte, and Guanajuato, exhibit these characters.
The Butte silver veins are similar, but now, in instances, have developed copper in'depth.
In general, argentite is the chief source o f silver (d).
B. Fissure veins yielding silver with little gold, in association with galana, zinc blende,
copper minerals, and pyrite, in gangue o f quartz, calcite, barite, fluorite, one or several (<).
Veins o f this mineralogy are world-wide in distribution.
C. Ifative silver and minor silver minerals, with arsenides of cobalt and nickel, in
shrinkage cracks or fissures involving slight displacement (d and f ) . Cobalt, Ont., is best
example, where veins are predominantly in Huronian conglomerate, associated with a
diabase sOl, which has some veins, and Keewatin green schists, which contain a few.
D. Impregnations o f porous rocks, sandstones, tuffs, etc., with argentite, cerargyrite, and native silver; supply fissures obscure; some copper minerals m ay occur. (Silver
Reef, Utah, Silver Cliff, Colo.)
*
E. Impregnations and replacements of crushed rocks along faults {silver-bearing
galena in Coeur dAlene, Idaho, A rt 20, A ).
F. Replacements of calcareous rocks with silver-bearing gftltma and associated sul
phides. Leadviile, Colo. (See A rt 20, A, for other cases.)
Predominant gold. A. Fissure veins containing native gold, alone, or mechanically
mixed in pyrite and much rarer base-metal sulphides, in quartz gangue. Gray; greasylooking quartz seems to accompany best values. T he common association o f quartz
with gold makes this type o f world-wide distribution. Veins appear most frequently in
schists, slates, or other metamorphic rocks, and in association with intrusive rocks, of
which granite is commonest.
B. Impregnations and replacements o f open-textured rocks with gold-bearing pyrite.
The banket o f gold-bearing conglomerates of Transvaal, the chief producers today,
is the best example.
C. Saddle-reefs, or arch-like deposits o f gold-bearing quartz at crests of anticlines (e)
(Bendigo, Victoria, and gold reefs o f N ova Scotia). Saddle-reefs m ay succeed one another
in depth. Slates o r slaty schists are common wall-rocks.
D. Veins carrying gold tellurides. A t Cripple Creek, Colo, they are associated'with
an eroded Eocene volcano, often favoring neighborhood o f minor HiWps of phonolite and
basaltic rocks, with which volcanic activity closed. Purple fluorite is a characteristic
associate. In Boulder Co, Colo, veins are in gneisses; at Kalgoorlie, Western
in amphibolites; in Hungary, altered andesitic rocks, called propylites. Once considered
extremely rare, tellurides have been very productive in Cripple Creek and Kalgoorlie.
E. Lateral impregnations and replacements o f calcareous shales, with tellurides along
supply fissures, called verticals. Example, so-called Potsdam or refractory' ores,
of the Black Hills, S Dak, the walls o f which are of Cambrian ag.
F. Contact zones, on the border of intrusive igneous rock and limestone, containing
gold-bearing mispickel in lime silicates (Nickel Plate m ine,-B C ). The usual contact
zone o f this type carries copper sulphides with a little gold (Art 19, B).
G. Placer deposits o f gold-bearing gravels, which m ay be: residual, from weathering
of rocks in situ; river gravels in active streams; river gravels in abandoned mid often
buried channels; alluvial fans; sea-beaches with active surf; sea-beaches now elevated
and inland. Gold in streams favors places where current has been checked, as the.inside
of bends; junctions o f tributaries; heads o f quiet reaches. G old favors gravel next the
bedrock, or next a false bedrock o f clay, but fine particles m ay be generally distributed
in a thick vertical section. Magnetite, zircon, garnet, and various resistant, heavy min
erals are characteristic associates, yielding black sands (42).

1-26

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS


22. MINOR METALS

MINOR METALS
-

Ainminnm ig obtained today from bauxite, hydrous aluminum oxide, which is treated electro*
lytically ia a bath of cryolite (3 NaF-AlF3). Bauxite is developed by weathering of aluminous
rocks, and may appear as a residual product. It may also be produced by solvent action of sul
phuric acid, from oxidizing pyrite, upon aluminous rocks, such as shales. _ The resulting acid
solution of aluminum sulphate may be neutralized by limestone, with precipitation of aluminum
hydrate, which may then form concretionary masses. Ia America bauxite is largely produced ia
Georgia, where the last named reaction is believed to explain its occurrence. In Arkansas, it is
associated with syenitic eruptives, to the alteration of which its formation is attributed. Cryolite
is commercially obtained only on west coast of Greenland, where it constitutes a large, flat vein in
gneiss. Siderite, galena, zinc blende, and a few other minerals are sparingly mingled with it.
Antimony is obtain! from its sulphide, atibnite (Sb^s); sometimes from the oxide, senarmontite (SbsOj); and as an alloy from antimonial lead ores. Characteristic occurrence of stibnite
is in quartzose veins, but less regular deposits in sandstone are recorded. The industry is Bmall.
Arsenic is produced largely as a by-product in smelting arsenical lead, copper, gold or cobalt ores,
chiefly enargite (Cu*AsS^. It is sold as oxide, but maoh more could be saved were there a better
market for it.
Barium is chiefly consumed as the sulphate (BaSO*). Barite characteristically appears ia
veins in limestones; is also a frequent gangue with lead and copper ores, regardless of nature of vein
wails. Chief output in U S comes from deposits in Georgia, Missouri,-and California.
Bismuth is a rare by-product in lead-silver refining. A few districts, as Leadville, Colo, and
Cobalt, Canada, produce bismuth ore.
Cadmium is a minor associate of ainc, and whenever separated is a small by-product'in zino
metallurgy, or in treatment of zinc-bearing lead ores. Greenockite (CdS) is the chief mineral.
Casslum is a rare alkaline element of much the same associations as rubidium.
Cerium, with didymium, erbium, lanthanum, thorium, and yttrium, constitutes a group called
the cerium group of rare earths. Their compounds, especially those of thorium, have incandescent
properties when heated, for which purpose they are sought. They are obtained as phosphates in
monazite and xenotime, and are characteristic of pegmatites. They may appear in normal granite.
Being resistant and heavy, monazite and xenotime have accumulated in placers in the drainage of
pegmatite and granite areas of the Carolinas; also on sea coast of Bahia, Brazil.
Chromium (FeO-Ch^Oj),
(FeM g )0 (Cr A1 -Fe^Oa, is a characteristic associate
of richly magnesian, basic igneous rocks, usually altered to serpentine. The chromite is believed
to be a direct crystallization from molten magma. It forms irregular, sometimes large, distributed
masses, and being extremely resistant may be freed and concentrated as a residual product in
weathering. Commercial chromite should contain at least 40% Cr20 g. Rhodesia is a great pro
ducer of chromite ore.
Cobalt forms a variety of arsenides and sulphides, practically always in association with nickel.
Iannseite (CosS.4), smaltite (C0AS2), cobaltite (CoAsS), and the oxidized product erythrite or
cobalt bloom (CojAsaOs-S H*0). Cobalt has long been derived from the o r of Cobalt, Oat;
Belgian Congo, Rhodeeia, and French Morocco are also important produce.
Didymium (see Cerium).
Erbium (see Cerium).
Iridium (see Platinum).
Lanthanum (see Cerium).
T^tiinm is obtained from amblygonite Li(AlF)P 04, lepidolite, the lithia-mica IiK [Al(O H , IDj]'
Al(SiO$)g, withlitMa (LijO) 2 to 5% ; andspodumene (Li0 *Al20**4 SiOz) witb Iithia 7.5%. Both
are pegmatite minerals, occurring mainly in Black Hills, S Dak. The commercial importance of
lithium has increased in recent years.
Magnesium is chiefly used as the earthy carbonate, magnesite, a refractory material. In
Washington, magnesite lenses are found in metamorphosed dolomite. Magnesite also favors asso
ciation with serpentines, in the alteration of which it is formed in veins in California. Russia,
Austria and the U S have recently been the chief producers.
Manganese. The chief minerals are pyrolusite (MnOs), psilomelane (MnOa-NHaO, plus
K, Ba, etc), wad (an earthy Ma mineral),.manganite (MnsOi-HaO), rhodochrosite (MnCOs) and
franklinite (FeZaMa) 0 (Fe Mn^Oj. Russia, Gold Coast, India, Brazil and Cuba supply most of
the manganese used in the US. In geological relations of its ores, manganese is similar to the brown
hematites (Art 6).. The ores are usually residual products of weathering, and are found as nodules
in tilhy or as masses on surface. They should be relatively low in phosphorus, for use in spiegeleisen, and not too high in silica (43).
Mercury has one chief ore, cinnabar (HgSa), with which a little native mercury may be asso
ciated. Cinnabar appears in veins with quartz, caleite, altered wall-rock and bitumen. It may
also impregnate porous beds, such as sandstones. In practice mercury is called quicksilver or
quick. In the-U S, cinnabar is mined in Calif, Nev, Ark, and Texas. .
Molybdenum is obtained from molybdenite (M 0S2). Wulfenite (PbMoO*) has attracted
some attention. The molybdenite deposits at Climax, Colo, are among the largest known in the
world. The ore occurs in a large circular stock of granite. The bottom of the mineralization has
not been determined.
Hickel has 3 varieties of ores: (a) sulphides and arsenides (millerite, NiS, niccolite,
NiAs) and related minerals, all o f small moment today; (&) pentlandite, (Fe Ni)S, the
nickel, iron and sulphur being each about one third. (Although nickel was formerly

2-27

thought to replace iron in pyrrhotite, it is now considered to be in mechanically inter


mingled pentlandite); (c) a series of hydrated silicates o f nickel and magnesium, somewhal
analogous to serpentine in general composition and forming veins in serpentine, or pro
duced in the alteration o f very basic igneous rooks.
The nickel industry today is practically limited to 2 localities. At Sudbury, Ont, and vicinity,
pentlandite with pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite are concentrated at bottom of a huge intrusive sheet,
which varies from norite at the base, where the ores appear, to acid, micrographic granite at its
upper surface. The sheet is folded into a huge basin, 40 miles across, and is buried in center
beneath overlying sediments and volcanics. The ores favor embaymnts in the underlying older
rocks, and one offsetting dike at the outer periphery. The underside of sheet dips inward at 60,
and is impregnated with nickel and copper ores up to widths of 100 or 150 ft. The gangue is selffiiung.' The ore bodies are generally classed under a, Art 17, but the 3 sulphides seem to have
crystallized in serial order, and at times to have undergone some redepoaition. The hydrated
silicates of nickel are found, in workable richness, in the serpentinous district of New Caledonia.
They constitute veins, and are the second but much smaller factor in the worlds supply (44).
Osmium is a characteristic associate of platinum, ia the placera of which its one source, iridosmine, is found, in scales or scaly nuggets And "colors.
Palladium is a characteristic associate of platinum in placera, and in the few cases where plati
num has been discovered in copper ores. In latter ease careful assays are necessary to avoid mis
taking palladium for platinum.
Platinum appears in metallic grains and nuggets, more or less alloyed with iron, palladium,
and rarer metals of the platinum group. It is characteristically associated with peridotites and
pyroxenites_, in which it is a direct crystallization from the original fused magma. Platinum is
frequently intergrown with chromite. Aside from natural alloys, its one compound is sperrylite
(PtAsj), a minute associate of the Sudbury nickel-copper ores, and rarely elsewhere (45). Russia,
Canada, Colombia and So Africa are the chief producers.
Potassium is treated as a saline (see Non-Metallic Minerals).
Radium is. an extremely rare associate of the more abundant uranium, from the minerals of
which it is separated (see Uranium).
Rhodium is a minor associate of platinum.
Rubidium is a rare alkaline element, associated ia minute amounts with lithium in lepidolite
and other lithium minerals.
\
Ruthenium is an extremely rare associate of platinum.
Sodium is treated as a saline (see Non-Metallic Minerals).
Strontium is obtained from the sulphate, celeatite (SrSO*), occurring like barite, but less abun
dant (see Barium).
Thorium (see Cerium). Thorianite is also found commercially in Ceylon and Australia.
Tin has one ore, cassiterite (SnO), and one rare sulphide, stannite. Cassiterite is
almost always associated with granites and pegmatites, or veins closely alrin to pegma
tites. In weathering and erosion o f these, being heavy and resistant, it is concentrated in
placers as pebbles and finer particles, called stream tin. Cassiterite is obtained both b y
deep mining and placer working. It has been observed associated with rhyolites. Tin
is also obtained in important quantities from Bolivian silver veins. ' Bolivia is now one
of the largest producers o f tin.
Titanium appears in the titaniferous magnetites, in which it has hitherto been a disadvantage
to the iron._ Thenelsonite rocks of Virginia furnish titanium oxide in the form of rutile. Large
amounts of ilmenite, (FeTi) O3, are found in the sands of Travancore, India.
Tungsten, now an important metal in steel manufacture, is obtained from several
tungstates, viz: wolframite, (FeMn)WC>4; huebnerite, MnW O*; scheelite, CaWO*.
In the U S it is found chiefly in contact metamorphic deposits, where scheelite occurs
associated with garnet and epidote, as at M ill City, Nev. The quartz veins at Atolxa,
Caiif, have had an important history o f scheelite production. The wolframite ores of
China are extensively produced.
Uranium has gained great prominence as the associate o f radium, but bag also uses of
its own. Pitchblende or uraninite, (UPbz) SU2O 2, the earlier and still prized source, is a
rare but characteristic mineral of pegmatites and reiated veins. A series o f phosphatea,
torbemite, autunite, etc, have similar geological relations. Camotite, a vanadate,
KsO-2 TJaOa-VaOfi-S I^ O , with 15 to 18% vanadium oxide, is found impregnating sand
stones in western Colorado and eastern Utah. The uranium-bearing veins o f R.fangtt,
Belgian Congo, are an important source o f radium. The Great Bear Lake district of
Canada is also important.
Vanadium is a minor component of titaniferous iron ores, and o f the uranium-bearing
camotite, and, in a series o f vanadium sulphides and their oxidized derivatives, appears in
asphaitite veins in Per. Vanadium is also found in the camotite ores o f western Colo
and Utah.
Yttrium (see Cerium).
Zirconium has one mineral, zircon (ZrSiO.4), an associate of granites and other feldspathia
rocks and pegmatites, from which on weathering it is freed and concentrated in placers.

2 -2 8

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

NON-METALLIC MINERALS
Here is included a miscellaneous serie3 with no fundamental relations; hence, arranged
alphabetically. The carbon series is the most important (46).

THE CARBON MINERALS

2 -2 9

producing district. As limestones contain increasing amounts of alumina and silica, they develop
hydraulic properties when burned, and in varieties of special excellence afford natural rock cement.
The crude stone is called a water-iime. Although important in former years, the natural cements
have given way to "Portland cement, which is an artificial mixture of limestone and clay or shale,
entirely under control of the chemist, and being therefore more uniform in properties. In Portland
cement magnesia is kept very low, not over 2 or 3%. The Lehigh Valley, Penn, is chief center of
manufacture in U S, but plants are widely distributed (64);

23. ABRASIVES; ASBESTOS; ASPHALT

25. THE CARBON MINERALS

Abrasives. Corundum and emery (emery is a mixture of corundum, spinel, magnetite and
other hard and heavy minerals) are found in two principal geological relations: corundum crystal
lizes from rare igneous magmas containing excess- of AfeOs above requirements of ordinary rockmaking minerals. Most of the worlds supply of corundum comes from the Transvaal, where the
mineral is found in syenite pegmatites. E m e b y is commonly found at igneous contacts or where
inclusions of aluminous sediments are involved and partly digested in igneous rocks. A vein
or bed at Chester, Mass, containing emery in metamorphia rocks, is still different. G a s s e t , either
in hornblende schist, as in the Adirondacks, or in mica schist, as at Reading, Conn, is a minor
abrasive. Crushed, angular fragments of q u a b t z are used for aand-paper. D i a t o m a c e o u s e a b t h
and decomposed chert ( t b i p o l x ) are soft abrasives. W h e t s t o n e s are made of gritty slates, which
sometimes owe their tooth to minute garnets or other hard minerals; or of novaculite, a fine
grained siliceous rock in which the solution and removal of minute rhombs of calcite have left
sharp-edged cavities. Coarse .varieties are'sandstones, or sandy schists, in which are set rutile,
garnet, etc. G r i n d s t o n e s are made of sandstones sufficiently friable not to wear smooth (SO).
Asbestos of commerce, a variety of serpentine, called chrysotile, appears as veins with cross
fibers in some serpentine districts (most important is in southern Quebec). Poorer grades appear
along slips in the serpentine and in the mass of the rock. Some believe the Canadian asbestos to
be a deep-seated alteration product of basic igneous rocks; others, that it is developed from serpen
tine in fissures near intrusive dikes of aplite, a variety of granite (SI).
Asphalt (see Carbon Minerals).

These embrace Coals and their relatives, and the Petroleum series, including Natural
Gas, Maltha, Asphalt, and Asphaltites.
Coals and their relatives are vegetable remains so preserved in sedimentary strata as
to become progressively enriched in carbon. They begin as some form o f w oody tissue,
perhaps also in part spores, alga, and resins; under conditions o f retarded oxidation they
pass toward a theoretical limit o f nearly pure carbon, and finally to mineral ash. Cellulose,
the principal original contributor, is CaHjoOs (approx, C 50% , H 6 % , and O 4 4 % ), but
there was always also a little N , S, and mineral matter in original deposit. I f vegetable
tissue accumulates under a protecting layer o f water, oxidation is retarded and relative
enrichment in carbon ensues. On subsidence of the land, or, in case of lakes and swamps,
as result of heavy floods, sedimente bury the accumulated vegetable tissue. The com
plete process comprises several stages. P e a t is still brown; a visible aggregate o f stems,
leaves, etc; high in O and H and relatively low in C. L i g n i t e is firmer, often black, but
has a brown streak, and usually still shows evidence of vegetable tissue; has less O and H
than peat and relatively more C. Sub-bituminous coals or black lignites are a stage
beyond typical lignite, but are not typically bituminous. B i t u m i n o u s c o a l s (Sec 35)
are black, solider, lower in O, higher in C, and at times possess coking properties. Semib o t j m i n o u b and s e m i - a n t h r a c i t e mark passages to a k t h e a c t t b (Sec 34) in which the C
is greatly enriched and the coal hard and firm. Sti^ further stages toward graphite are
known.
Table 5. Characteristic Chemical Composition of Coal Series

24. BUILDING STONE, CLAY, LIMES, CEMENTS


The granite Industry is mainly developed along Atlantic seaboard; secondarily, in Wisconsin,
Missouri, and California. Among igneous rocks, granite breaks best in the quarry. When of good
grade, it is homogeneous in texture, though sometimes suffering from black inclusions, local coarse
crystallisations, and development of gneissoid structure. S a n d s t o n e s are widely quarried. The
brownstone of eastern U S is. a Triassic sandstone, from Longmeadow, Mass; Portland, Conn;
Avon, N J; Hummelstown, near Harrisburg, Penn. Bluestone, of .Hudson River region, is a
Devonian argillaceous sandstone, specially adapted to flagstones, curbing, sills, and lintels. Pots
dam red sandstone or quartzite is Cambrian; quarried on western side of Adirondack. A softer
stone of nearly the same geological horizon is produced on south shore of Lake Superior. Meiina
pink sandstone of the Silurian is extensively obtained along the Erie Canal, between Rochester and
Lockport, N Y. Cleveland or Ohio sandstone is a gray or pale-blue stone, of Mississippian (Lower
Carboniferous) age, developed in outskirts of Cleveland. L i m e s t o n e s . Preeminent is the Indiana
or Bedford oolitic stone, of Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) age. which outcrops in an extended.
N and S belt in S W Indiana. M a e b i . e s , of Cambrian and Ordovician age, are extensively devel
oped along the border o f Western Vermont, Eastern Tennessee, and Georgia; of other age, in Colo.
S l a t e s appear in S . W Vermont and neighboring parts ,of N Y, and in- the Lehigh Valley, Penn.
They are in leas'degree produced in Virginia, the Lake Superior region, and Newfoundland. Wales
is a famous source oi slate and of skilled workers in slate. S e b p e n t i n e is quarried in southeastern
Pennsylvania and the neighboring parts of 'Maryland (52).
Clays belong to three general groups: (1) kaolin group, in which the chief mineral is kaolinite,
AI2O2-2 SiOs-2 H2O; (2) montmorillonite group, in which the chief mineral in montmorillonite,
CaO-MgO, A120s-3 Si0 2 -nH20 ; (3) alkali-bearing clay mineral group. Kaolin is _chiefly of two
kinds,-, residual, or transported, which are the finest sediments of still water. Residual clays are
commonest south of the terminal moraine of Glacial epoch. They are impure and variable. Trans
ported clays were extensively deposited by the floods which followed the melting of the continental
glacier. They are very abundant in the valleys of the Connecticut and Hudson rivers, and are the
basis of a great brick industry. .Fireclay for refractory materials should be as free as possible from
other ingredients than SiO?, AljOs, and HaO. It is often found beneath coal seams. In these
r=llB>.i'nr|B fireclays are mined in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, and at Cheltenham, Mo. Other
fireclays of Cretaceous age are developed at Woodbridge and its neighborhood, N J, and near
Golden, Colo (53). Clays of the montmorillonite group are extensively derived by the alteration
of volcanic ash and find an important application in the purification of petroleum products.
Shales often possess properties which fit them for vitrified brick. They are then ground,
moulded, and hard-burned. They are useful for pavements, especially where no good rock is avail
able for macadam.
Limes and cements. For quicklime, calcium carbonate should be pure, free from coloring
ingredients, such as iron compounds, and is preferred with little mgnesium carbonate. Silica and
alumina together develop hydraulic properties, and injure fat limes. Kilns are widespread and,
for local use, any reasonably pure limestone answers. Rockland, Me, is the principal Amerioan

Cellulose

Peat

Lignite

Bituminous

Anthracite

C 50
H 6
0 43
N 1

59

69.0
5.5
25.0
0.5

82.0
4.5
13.0
0.5

95.0
2.5
2.5
trace

33
2

Sulphur is also present in varying percentages, up to several units, and mineral ash never fails.
Coals are analyzed commercially in 2 ways, proximate and elementary. In f b o x i m a t s
moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash and sulphur are usually determined. Sample
is dried, weighed, ignited until flames cease or for a standard time over, a standard Bunsen burner,
weighed, ignited again to consume the carbon; after which residue is weighed for ash. Sulphur is
determined in a separate sample. This analysis shows if the coal is high or low in water; is high or
low in volatiles; has a long or short flame; cokes or not; is high or low in ash; is sulphurous or not.
These are the most important points regarding a fuel. Dividing the percentage of fixed carbon' by
the percentage of volatiles gives the fuel ratio, characteristic for eachparticular coal. Anthra
cites give high, and richly bituminous coals low ratios. Ratios vary from less than 1, to about 30.
E l e m e n t a e y a n a l y s i s of a dried sample gives the C, H, 0 , N, S, and ash.
It affords a better idea
of the heat units in the coal, a matter of growing importance each year, but does not indicate coking
properties nor volatile. It is known that the O in coals is already combined with C or H, and is as
inert as ash, besides reducing the available C and H. Since H has a high calorific value, the neces
sary proportion to yield H3O with the O present is often called combined hydrogen; the excess,
disposable hydrogen. Relatively high values of the latter are esteemed.
a n a l y s is ,

Table 6 .

Characteristic Proximate Analyses


Moisture

Volatiles

20.22
17.75
13.43
1.26
.23
1.29
4.12

52.31
37.85
37.15
30.11
15.47
8.10

3.08

Fixed
carbon
24.52
37.40
45.57
59.62
73,51
83.35
86.38

Ash

Sulphur

2.95
6.20

0.80

3.85
8.23
9.09
6.23
5.92

0.78
0.70
1.03
0.50

2-30

GEOLOGY AND
Table 7.

M IN E R A L

D E P O S IT S

TH E

Characteristic Elementary Analyses


Mois
ture

13.60
22.63
11.05
3.36
1.53
i . 97

40.78
54.91
59.08
68; 69
82.87
91.40

5.55
6.39
5.37
4.84
4.76
2 . 8!

N *

30.95
3.40
32.59 . 1..02
21.52' l'. 33 '
11.49 - 1"5*
1: 68*
4.99
0 . 21-'
1.83

Ash

0.58
0.59
1.73

20.74
4.50
10.97
12.43
5.05
3.04

1.01

0.65
0.71

Heat units are expressed as British thermal units (B t u), or aa French (calories). High ash
or high-oxygen coals give low thermal values. The usual range is as follows, the peat being excep
tionally good (Sussex Co, N J):

High
8 260

Bituminous coal

Lignite

Peat

Anthracite

Low

High

Low

High

Low

High

7 204

10 143

10 242

13 790

12 047

14 686

Moisture in coal is a serious drawback, and varies so much in unprotected samples, especially
of lignites and sub-bituminous coals, that the sample, as soon as cut in. the mine, should be put into
an air-tight glass jar, and analyzed as soon as possible after top is unscrewed.
Classification. Many attempts have been made to classify coals, but for eastern coals the
scheme suggested by H. D. Rogers, State Geologist of Penn, about 1855, is still widely current:
Volatiles, greater than 18
Bituminous
18 to 12
Semi-bituminous
12 to 8
Semi-anthracite
less
than 8
Anthracite
More recent schemes are those of: M. R. Campbell, based on 0 + H ratio, as shown by elementary
analysis; F. G. Grout, who employs ratios based oa sum of volatiles and fixed carbon of a proximate
analysis, and the elementary carbon of ultimate analysis; and D. B. Dowling, who employs what he
calls the split-volatile ratio. All these give greater attention to western iipites and sub-bituminous
coals, which in earlier years were practically unknown. Elaborate classifications are unimportant
commercially. The B t us and the physical and coking properties are the essentials.
Geological associates o f coal seams are almost always shales and sandstones. They
often have a fireclay floor; are seldom associated with limestones. A seam m ay be broken
up into benches b y a parting o f shale, called slate b y miners. A parting m ay
increase in thickness and separate a seam into 2 distinct seams. Seams may be cut out by
old drainage channels, either contemporaneous with the old swamp, or later and long after
c o d was formed. Pot-holes and channels in Carboniferous coals were developed even in
the Glacial epoch and filled with gravel. Coal seams m ay be pinched b y the upward bulge
o f a relatively plastic clay floor, and may have cracks filled with clay gouge.
Coal
are subject .to faults and folds; are very often in syndines ( " basins ),
left disconnected b y erosion o f intervening anticlines. Folds m ay be violent, as in middle
anthracite fields o f Penn, and in Belgian and French areas. Coal seams are o f all thick
nesses from a fraction o f an inch to many feet. The thickest single seam, reasonably free
(except
considered the minimum o f workability.
W ith increase o f ash (20% ash is the usual commercial m aximum) coals pass into
bony cods, then into bone and into bituminous shale or slate. Foreign matter
may be minutely interstratified with thin layers o f relatively pure coal; or be invisibly
mingled. If the layers are sufficiently coarse, crushing and washing m ay greatly reduce
the ash (Sec 34 and 35). In a cross-section of a good seam can be recognized: bright
lustrous glance coal and dull, lusterless splint coai. The proportions vary; one
variety m ay be in great excess. There is a third variety, porous, tender, and often show
ing plant structure, called " mother of coal or mineral charcoal. It affords an
unfortunate place of precipitation for gypsum, pyrite, and other undesirables. The
sulphur in c o d is partly in pyrite, when half passes off in burning; partly in gypsum, when
all passes into the ash; and partly in sulphurous hydrocarbons. In coking or other'
combustion, roughly one-half the sulphur passes off.
In geological age coal ranges practically from Carboniferous period through Tertiary. Anthra
cite is even reported in remote pre-Cambrian strata of Finland, but no seams of importance are yet

CARBON

M IN E R A L S

2-31

known older than Carboniferous- The oldest seam in America is in the Pocono sandstone series, of
the Misaissippian (Lower Carboniferous) strata of S W Virginia (Altona and elsewhere). The
really important coals begin with the Pennsylvanian. In eastern half of North America, they range
up into the Permian and even Triassic (in Va and N C). In the western U S, coals range from early
Cretaceous to Pliocene. The Laramie of Cretaceous and Eocene Tertiary are most productive. The
later coals are often lignitic, especially if in relatively undisturbed strata (55).
Petroleum series. Coals are residual accumulations; petroleums are evolved, and m ove
from their sources elsewhere for storage. The petroleum series embraces gases, liquids,
and solids. The chemistry is very complex, but most o f the members belong to the marshgas or paraffine series of compounds, CraH 2n+2- Up to CjHio they are gases at ordinary
temperatures; from C 20H 42 up they are solids. The gases are called natural gas; the liquids,
petroleum; the thick, black, tarry liquids, maltha; the solids at ordinary temperatures, of
tough leathery character, asphalt; the brittle, coal-like substances, asphaltite; the
natural paraffines, ozocerite. Shales impregnated with bituminous matter are called oil
shales. They may be rich in paraffines. (See Sec 44.)
Natural gases are chiefly C H 4, but have some higher members, -with a little o f the
olefine series CnH 2n, more or less of H 2S, N, O, CO 2, and others rarer.
Petroleums include the liquids at ordinary temperatures. Some are of low sp gr,
some high. These characters are expressed in degrees BeaumS, a scale in which 10
Beaume is sp gr 1. Others are calculated b y the formula: (140 -J- sp gr) 130, Light
petroleums range from 35 B u p; the heavy drop below 20 B. Lighter oils give higher
percentages of illuminants and are the most valuable. Heavy oils have an asphalt base.
Some oils contain sulphur compounds. Malthas are much rarer than petroleums, and
have different uses; asphalts are employed for paving; asphaltites for varnishes, etc.
Origin of petroleums. There are two radically different views: the inorganic (now discarded)
and the organic. There is some support for the theory attributing hydrocarbons to igneous sources,
but most geologists favor the organic explanations. Tbeseiassume original plant or animal matter
in the sediments, by decomposition in the rock (T. S. Hilnt); or distillation from internal heat
(J. S. Newberry); or, the modern view, by bacterial decomposition while freshly deposited, the
hydrocarbons being later squeezed out of the shales and mud-rocks, by pressure of overlying accumu
lations, into porous beds for storage. The latter genesis certainly applies to CH4, but has not been
proved for oils.
Storage is the rocks is better understood. The moat extensive pools are found under low
anticlinal folds, in which an impervious shale rests upon a porous sandstone or limestone, so as to
imprison the gas and oil; which, from some source of the hydrocarbons rise through the heavier
ground-waters and are finally oaught beneath the crest. Theoretically, and sometimes actually,
there is an uppermost layer of gas, a layer beneath of oil, and a bottom layer of water or connate
brine. Usually either gas or oil rests on brine. Other deposits favor lenticular or pod-like bodies
of sandstone in shales, apparently old sand-bars, or similar accumulations. Prospecting is usually
guided in recent years by the anticlinal view. The axes of anticlines rise and fall, and pools are thus
non-aontinuous along their trend. A very gentle anticline or even a slight monocline may suffice.
Pools sometimes seem to lie to one side of the observed anticlinial crest (Sec 44).
Geologically, the oldest gases and oils are tapped from Ordovician (or Lower Silurian) strata,
of which the Trenton limestone is very productive in Ohio and Indiana. Higher in the Paleozoic,
the Silurian (or Upper Silurian), Devonian and Carboniferous strata are all productive in the
Eastern States. A sandstone at base of the Coai Measures (Carboniferous) is very productive in
Illinois, Kansas, and Oklahoma. Cretaceous sandstones carry oil in Wyoming; and Cretaceous
limestones are the apparent source of Mexican petroleum, even though tapped from overlying
Tertiary beds. Various Tertiary horizons yield oils in different parts of the world, but the Miocene
is especially rich. In America are the following fields: Appalachian; Lima-Indiana (western Ohio
and Indiana); Illinois; Mid-Continental, in Kansas, Oklahoma and northern Texas; Gulf, in
Louisiana and Texas; Mexican, in the coastal plain or tierra caliente, west of Tampico and farther
south; and California. There are many smaller areas in Colorado, Wyoming, Alberta, and Alaska.
Trinidad is productive, aiso Venezuela. Abroad, Rumania, Baku on the Caspian Sea, Dutch East
Indies, and Japan are the chief producers, but some oil has also been found in Germany (56).
Maltha is a rather unusual product, but appears at times where oils with an asphaltic base rise
to surface and lose their more volatile constituents. Maltha may impregnate porous sandstone.
Asphalt, a further stage in the process, m ay accumulate in pools, or impregnate porous
sandstones or limestones. Sometimes oils have risen in fissures and have changed with
loss of volatiles to brittle substances, suggesting coal. Illustrations: aibertite, of N B ;
grahamite, of West Va; uintaite and wurtzilite, of Utah. Oils with a paraffine base have
left behind the natural paraffine, ozocerite, in fissures in sandstone (57).
Graphite is the final metamorphic stage of all carbon minerals. It appears sometimes
ia pegmatite veins, but more often impregnates sandstones, schists, and crystalline lime
stones, from which it may be separated b y concentrating the lieht, components (58).

2-32

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

26. MISCELLANEOUS NON-METALLIC MINERALS

and western Nevada), where local drainage contains these rare salts. Tlic soils of the northern
Chilean desert have become charged with sodium nitrate; also in a few other arid localities (61)

Gems are objects of mining, but the geological relations are very diverse. Diamonds seem to
be original crystallizations in very basic igneous rocks, in South Africa and in western Arkansas
They are elsewhere obtained from placer deposits. Sapphires may be in contact zones, or com
ponents of an igneous dike, as at Yogo, Mont. Beryls are pegmatite minerals, but the variety
emerald may be in contact zones. Turquoise appears in small veinlets in various rocks, where
copper salts have circulated. No brief summary can include more than a few of the widely con
trasted'associations (59).
Graphite (see Carbon Minerals).
Gums (see Carbon Minerals).
Gypsum (see Salines).
Mica, in commercial quantities, occurs as a constituent of coarsely crystallized pegmatites*
both muscovite (white) and phlogopite (amber) are utilized, the former produced mainly in India
and N Carolina the latter in Ontario and Quebec provinces, Canada. Market requirements are
(a) minimum size of rectangular trimmed sheet, 2 sq in (larger sizes bring higher prices). Demand
for pulverized mica is amply supplied by trimmings from sheet-mica mines, (b) Softness; the softer
the mica the better adapted it is for electric commutator insulation, (c) Freedom from inclusions
which are generally iron minerals and diminish insulating properties, (d) Flexibility. Value of a
given mica can be ascertained only by submitting samples to a dealer. Electrical manufacturers
are the largest consumers.
imes (see Building Stone).
Natural Gas (see Carbon minerals).
Ozocerite (see Carbon Minerals).
paints (mineral paints, pigments), or the bases for them, are sometimes the objects of mining.
Practically all are minerals of iron. Limonite, deposits containing iron carbonate, and red bema^
yte, are all utilized. The crude product is usually calcined to insure uniformity of color or shade,
fine clays stained with limonite yield ochers. Barite and even refuse slate are ground for fillers.
petroleum (see Carbon Minerals).
Phosphates axe dug or quarried for fertilizers. They are o f 2 kinds: (a) Crystalline
apatite, which generally appears on borders of igneous intrusive rocks and is especially
associated with pre-Cambrian limestones, along the Ottawa River in Ontario and Quebec.
Apatite in different geological relations is obtained as tailings in magnetic concentration
of richly phosphatic magnetites, at Mineviile, N Y . (Z>) Earthy phosphates, such as
fossil bones, coprolites, and replacements o f CaCOs in limestones b y phosphate o f lime.
Along the seacoast of South Carolina, Tertiary beds have long been dug for fossil phosphates
and replaced limestone nodules. More recent discoveries of Florida rock phosphates, and of pebble
phosphates in deltas in the drainage of rock-phosphate areas, have afforded very low-cost product.
In the Peace River, Fla, is done much dredging, and concentration similar to that in placer gold' 1
deposits- Beds of rock phosphate in sedimentary series have been still more recently discovered
and utilized in Tennessee. Other beds have been discovered by prospectors in N E Utah, but have
been withdrawn from location by the Federal Government. These phosphates form interstratified'
beds, probably produced by reaction upon limestone of phosphoric acid from organic remains.
Guano, formed by the droppings of wild-fowl in regions of slight rainfall, is now practically
e x h a u ste d (6 0 ).

Besins:(fossil) (see Carbon Minerals).


Salines. When circulating ground-waters have traversed rocks containing alkali
gaits, and have afterwards been impounded and evaporated to dryness, or when bodies of'
sea water are.isolated and evaporated, the dissolved salts are precipitated in the inverse.order of solubility. From sea water, gypsum precipitates first, then common salt, and
then rarely the less abundant potassium salts. In general, potassium-bearing final
mother-liquors seem to have escaped, or else their very soluble precipitates were removed
in next inrush o f salt water.
From isolated bodies of the ocean, cut off perhaps by a barrier cast up during a storm, relatively
thin beds of salt and their associates have been derivei Thick beds of hundreds of feet in section
are difficult to explain in this way. A substitute explanation is the Bar Theory" of Ochsenius.
A deep estuary is assumed to be isolated by a broad bar from the open sea. Evaporation on the1
bar leads to the passage down inner side of bar, of heavy concentrated brine, until salt is deposited
in the estuarys depths. Thick beds may also be precipitated in salt lakes, in deep depressions
without outlet, yet so situated as to be fed by salt-bearing streams. Great Salt Lake is an illus-tion. Salt deposits at Petite Anse, Louisiana, and elsewhere along Gulf of Mexico, appear ia*
columnar or chimney-like form, crossing sedimentary strata as great cylindrical masses, above
which are domes or mounds, and around which the beds turn up. These are brat explained byuprising salt springs and the expansive force of growing crystals, which may have thrust the strata
asidS and upward. Important beds of potassium salts occur in the Staasfurt region, western.
Germany, and large deposits have been found'in the Permian rocks of New Mexico and Texas;Beds of NajSOi are not infrequent in arid regions, and less often waters or even beds charged with:NaaCOa and sodium and calcium borates, likewise occur in a few districts (as southern California

2 -3 3

Borax is obtained, b y chemical treatment, mainly from 2 minerals: boracite, occurring


in fumaroles in northern Italy, and in diy-lake deposits in many desert regions of the
world; and colemanite (borate of lime) occurring as beaded saline deposits in southern
California. M ore recently, K em ite (NaiB 4O 74 H 2O ), has been found in great quantities
in tabular deposits in the M ojave desert region of Calif.
Sulphur. _In native state, sulphur is found in 2 types of deposit: (a) In or near volcanic
craters, expiring or largely dormant. Emitted as vapor, sulphur condenses on walls of
cavities and impregnates porous tuffs and breccias. I t is possible, but not highly probable,
that SO2 and H 2S when mingled h ot react to deposit sulphur, (fe) In association with
gypsum in sedimentary strata, as in Sicily, Louisiana, and Texas. The sulphur was
formerly believed to result from reduction o f gypsum (CaS04-2 H 20 ) , b y organic matter
jn circulating ground-waters. There is at present a disposition to refer it to minute organ
isms now known to-secrete elementary sulphur, and to favor its precipitation amid deposits
of decaying organic matter, at bottom of certain bodies o f water. Gypsum is a universal
associate (62). The sulphur deposits in Louisiana and Texas occur with limestone, in
the capping above salt domes.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bocks and their Minerals All good treatises on geology have chapters on rocks
1. Harker, A. Petrology for Students. Longmans, Green & Co, London and N Y. Revised ed.
(B a s e d o n m ic r o s c o p ic s tu d y )

2. Kemp, J. F. Handbook of Rocks. 5th ed. D. Van Nostrand Co, N Y


3. Pirsson, L. V. Rocks and Rock Minerals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, N Y. Iddinaa, J. P.
Igneous Rocks. 2 vol. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, |N Y, 1913
4. Alling, H, L. Interpretative Petrology of the Igneous Rocks. McGraw-Hill, 1936
5. Grout, F. F. Petrography and Petrology. McGraw-Hill, 1932
Faults Current textbooks on ore deposits, mining and geology, usually have a chapter on faults
6. Church, J. A. Cause of Faulting. Trans A I M E, Vol 21, p 782
7. Dannenberg, Robert. Ueber Verwerfungen. Freiberg, 1884
8. Emmons, S. F. Faulting in Veins. E & M Jour, Vol 53, p 548
9. Freeland, F. T. Fault rules. Trans A I M E, Vol 21, p 491. A clear exposition
10. Koehler, G. Die Strungen der Gnge, Fltze und Lager. Leipzig, 1886. Trans by W. B.
Phillips, as: Irregularities of Lodes, Veins and Beds. E & M Jour, June 25. 1887. t> 454 July 2, 1887, p 4
IL Ransome, F. L. Directions of Movement and the Nomenclature of Faults. Scon Geol
Vol 1, p 777; discussion in Vol 2
12. Read, H. F., W. M. Davis, A. C. Lawson and F. L. Ransome, Committee on Proposed
Nomenclature of Faults. Bull Geol Soc Amer, Vol 24, pp 163-181
13. Schmidt, J. C. L. Theorie der Verschiebung lterer Gnge. Frankfurt, 1910
14. Tolxnan, C. F., Jr. Graphical Solution of Fault Problems. Min & Sei Pr, 1911. A pamphlet
15. Zimmermann, C. Die Wiederausriehtung verworfener Gnge, Lager und Flotze.
16. Stoces and White. Structural Geology. Von Nostrand, 1935
Stratigraphie Geology
17. Chamberlin and Salisbury. Geology. 3 vol. Henry Holt & Co, N Y, 1906
18. Chamberlin and Salisbury. College Geology. 1 vol, 1909
19. Dana, J. D. Manual of Geology, American Book Co, N Y, 1895
20. Geikie, A. Textbook of Geology. 2 voL Macmillan, London and N Y, 1913
21. Le Conte, J. Elements of Geology, revised by H. L. FairchiicL D. Appleton Co, N Y
22. Scott, W. B. Introduction to Geology. Macmillan, N Y
23. Moore, R. C. Historical Geology. Wiley, 1932
24. Schucnert and Dunbar. Historical Geology. McGraw-Hill, 1932
Mineral Deposits'. Ores
25. Kemp, J. F. What is an Ore? Min.& Sei Pr, Mar 20, 1909, pp 419-423
26. Lindgren, Waldemar. Mineral Deposits. McGraw-Hill, 1933
. 27. LiEey, E. Economic Geology of Mineral Deposits. Holt & Co, 1936
28. Ore Deposits of the Western United States. Trans A I M E, 1933
29. Kemp, J. F. The Ground Waters. Trans A I M E, Vol 45, p 3. Van Hise, C R. Some

Principles Governing the Deposition of Ores. Idem, Vol 30, p 27


30. Kemp, J. F. Role of the Igneous Rocks in Formation of Veins. Trans A I M E, Vol 31,
.p 183; Vol 33, p 699
31. Lindgren, W. Relation of Ore Deposition to Physical Conditions. Internat Geol Cone.
Vol X, Mexico, 1906; Econ Geol, Vol 2, p 195 (1907)
32. Spurr, J. E. A Theory of Ore Deposition. Econ Geol, Vol 2, p 781; Vol 7, p 485; The Ore
Magmas. 2 vols, N Y (1923)
33. Billingsley, P. and Grimes, J. W. Ore Deposits of the Boulder Batholith of Montana.
Trans A I M E, Vol 51, p 31
34. Textbook of Mining Geology. James Park. 4th ed
35 Outlines of Occurrence and Geology of Petroleum. I. A. Stigand
36. Tolman, C. F. Ground Water. McGraw-Hill, 1937

[-34

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS

37. Beck, R. Lehre von den Erzlagersttten. Berlin, 1909, 3rd ed. Trans of 2nd ed, The
Nature of Ore Deposits, by W. H. Weed, 1905. -Beyschlag, Krrnoh. imdVogt. Die
Lagersttten der nutzbaren Mineralien und Gesteine. 2 vol, 1909. Trans by S. J.
Truaeott, Macmillan, 1914, 3 vol. von Cotta, B. 'D ie Lehre von den Erdagerattten,
Freiberg, 1859-61. Trans by F. Prime, Jr, as Cotta a TYeatae on Ore Depoaita, N Y, 1870.
De Launay, L. Traite de Mtallogeme, Pana, 1912, 3 vol. Fucha et De Launay.
Traite des Gitea Minraux et Mtallifres, Pans, 1893, 2 vol. von Groddeck A. Die
Lehre von Lagersttten der Erze. Leipzig, 1879. Kemp, J. F. Ore Deposits of United
States and Canada. N Y, 1901. Krusch, P. Die Untersuchung und Bewertung von
Erzlagersttten.
Berlin, 1911. . Lindgren, W. Mineral Deposits, N Y, 1913. H.
Ries. Economie Geology of United States. N Y t 1911. Stdzner, B. Die Erzlager
sttten Leipzig. 1906, 3 vol. Thomas and MacAlister. The Geology of Ore Deposits.
London, 1909. Whitney, J.D . Metallic Wealth of United States, 1854. For occurrence,
technology, and statistics of ores and minerals, see Mineral Industry (ann), McGraw-Hill,
N Y ; also Mineral Resources (ann) U S Geol Sura Washington
38. G eolog y of Lake Superior Region. Monograph 52, U S Geol Surv, 1912
39. Iron Ore Resources of the World. Tenth Internat Geol Cong, Stockholm, 1910. 2 vol and
atlas (Greatest single work on iron ores)
40. Weed, W. H. Copper Mines of the World. McGraw-Hill Book Co. N Y, 1907
41. Copper Resources of the World. XVI Internat Geol Congress, 1935
42 Dav D T and Richards, R. H. Investigations of Black Sands from Placer Mines. Bull
'
285. U S Geol Surv, pp 150-164,1906. Emmons, W. H. .Agency of Manganese in Super
ficial Alteration and Secondary Enrichment of Gold Deposits ut the U S. Trans A I M E ,

SECTION 3
EARTH EXCAVATION
F IR S T E D IT IO N B Y

HALBERT P. GILLETTE, C.E.

43. Penrose? R.^A. F., Jr. Manganese, its Uses, Ores, and Deposits. Arkansas Geol Surv,
1390 1892
44. Argali,P. Nickel, Occurrence, Geology, Distribution and Genesis of its Ore Deposits. Prcc

SECOND E D IT IO N B T

RICHARD T. DANA, C.E.

45 Kemp* J*F0Geolagica3 9Relations and Distribution of Platinum and Associated Metals.


Bull 193, U S Geol Surv
Mineral Deposits: Non-metallic Minerais
46 Merrill G. P. The Non-Metallic Minerals. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Ries, H. Economic
Geology of the United States, Macmillan & Co. Stutzer, 0 . Die Nichterze. Berlin,
IQ1114
47. Ries, H. Economic Geology. 7th ed. Wey, 1937
48. Industrial Minerals & Rocks. Trans A I M E , 1937
,
_ _
49. Ladoo, R. B. Non-metallic minerals, Occurrence, Preparation, Utilization. McGraw-Hill,
50. Griswold, L. R. On Whetstones, etc. Ann Rep Ark Geol Surv, 1890, Vol III. King, F. P.
Corundum in Georgia. Ga Geol Surv, Bull 2 ,1894. Pratt, J. H. and Lewis, J. V. Corun
dum and the Peridotites of Western N C. Geol Surv of N C, 1905
51. Cirkel, F. Asbestos. Dept of Mines, Canada. Bull No 69, 1910
52. Merrill, G. P. Stones for Building and Decoration. John Wdey & Sons, Inc, N Y. Memll,
G. P. and Hawes, G. S. Rept on Budding Stones. Tenth Census U S, Vol 10. Local
Reports of State Geol Surra
53 Ries, H. Clays, their Occurrence, Properties and. Uses. . John WUey & Sons, Inc, 1906.
Ries, H. and Leighton, H. History of the Clay-Worlang Industry in the U S. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1909. _ See Stete Geol Survs, notably of New Jersey; 1880, by J. C.
54. Eckei? R" a d Cemnte, iime^and Plaste.

John Wfley & Sons, Inc, 1605.

TH IR D E D IT IO N L A R G E L Y R E W R IT T E N B Y

CLINTON L. BOGERT, CONSULTING ENGINEER


iB T

PAGE

AST

1. Economics...............................................

2.
3.
4
5.

02
Soil Physics and Mechanics................... 03
Earth-moving Equipment..................... 05
Methods of Excavation.......................... 11
Trenching and Ditching......................... 15
Note.Numbers in parentheses in text refer to

PA G E

6 . Strapping...............................................

7. Hydraulic Excavation..........................
8. Dredging...................................... .
9. Embankments and Dams.....................
Bibliography.........................................

16
16
17
18
19

Bibliography at end of this section.

Tins section deals only with open-cut excavation, embankment and dredging. For earthwork in
tunnels, shafts or caissons, see Sec 6, 7, 8 . Mechanical details, methods of work and equipment
are given only to t h e extent that their usefulness to the project may be judged. Horse-drawn
vehicles for moving earth have been largely replaced by mechanical equipment; for data on t h iB
subject, see Art 5 of the Second Edition; also, Sec 27.

Literature on

55. C oT l^ ow cS^ T tle World. Eleventh Internat Geol Cong, Toronto, Can, 1913, 3 vol and
atlas (important work). Campbell, M. R. and others. Methods of Teatmg, Sampling
and Classifying Coals. P ro}Pop; 48, U S Geol Surv, 1906. Dowling, D. B. Classifica
tion of Coals on Split-volatile Ratio. Jour Can Min Inst, Vol 11, p 220. Grout, F. F.
On Classification of Coals. Econ Geol Vol 2, p 225. Porter, J. B. Investigation of the
Coals of Canada. Ottawa, Govt Printing Office, 1912. Stevenson, J. J. Proc Amer Phil
Soc, Vol 50, pp 1 and 519; Vol 51, p 423; Vol 52, p 376 (Best review of geology of coal
56. E n td e c k and Hoefer, H. Das Erdl, seine Physik, Chemie, Geologie. Leipg, 1909.
Hnpfpr H. Das Erdl und seine Verwandten. Braunschweig, 3rd ed, 1912. Orton, li.
Geol Surv of Ohio, Econ Geol, Vol 6; Geol Surv Ky, 1892; Bull 30, N Y State Museum,
1899- Bull Geol Soc Amer, Vol 9, p 85, 1898. Thompson, A. B. Petroleum Mining.
D. Van Nostrand, 1910. Peekham, S. F. Tenth Census, U S, Vol 10, Rept on Petroleum
57. Eldredge G. H. Asphalt and Bituminous Rock Deposits of the U S. 22nd Ann Kept,
U S Geol Surv, Part I, p 209
_ .
-, -r. ,
0
58 Cirkel F Graphite, its Properties, Occurrence Refining and Uses. Can Dept Mines, Bull
No 18, 1907. Stutzer, O. Niehterze. Part I, p 1, 1911
so TTjinz G F Gems and Precious Stones of North America. McGraw-Hill Book Go _
60 I S G. H ?S k etch of Phosphates of Florida. Trans A I M E , Vol 21, p 196. Hayes,
C W Tennessee Phosphates: 17th Ann Rept, U S Geol Surv, Part II, 1896. Trans
A*I M E Vol 25, p 19. Stutzer, O. On Phosphates. Nichterze, Part L p 265, 1911
61. Clarke, F. W. Data of Geochemistry. Bull 770, U S Geol Surv, 1924. Hahn, F. F. Th&
Form of Salt Deposits. Econ Geol, Vol 7. p 120, 1912
62. Stutaer, O. On sulphur. Niehterze, Part I, p 185, 1911

3-01

3-03

SOIL PHYSICS AND MECHANICS

EARTH EXCAVATION
1. ECONOMICS
Factors in economical handling o f earth: (1) organization and management;^ (2)
effic of workmen; (3) type, condition and interchangeability of equipment; (4) lost time;
(5) weather conditions. W et or freezing weather adds to costs of handling and transport;
freezing m ay convert loose earth into a solid mass, and thawing, into sloppy mud. Lib
eral allowances should always be made for l o s t t i m e .
Management. L a b o s - u n i o n b b s t b i c t x o n s . Examples: a truck driver can do no
other work, an oiler is paid for double time if he must wait until a power shovel is idle
after 5 P M ; these and similar regulations add greatly to costs and must be provided for
in
(For extent o f unionization, see Eng News Record, Jan 24,1937, p 943). Coor
dination between loading, .transport and dumping is essential to effic._ Much small-scale
work must still be done b y hand or minor equipment, at relatively high unit cost. I t is
important that sizes o f shovels are economically correct, that picks axe sharp, a id that
rest periods are coordinated with work of equipment units.
Costkeeping. M uch equipment used in earth moving is utilized also for moving rock,
V'Q.-nriling concrete, etc. The cost o f equipment should be apportioned to its several uses.
Comparative cost data of other jobs should be used cautiously; allowances should be
made for date, locality, length of haul, horse or m otor equipment, labor conditions and
unionization, delays due to rock, structures or traffic, and the character o f material.
Soils differ greatly in wt, cohesiveness, capacity for holding water, natural slope under
quiescent loads, and final slope under moving loads.
Lost time. Construction m ay be discontinued in winter, only because it costs more.
p.ain
mud, next to winter idleness, are the chief causes of lost time, due to storms
and waiting for ground to dry. Water-soaked soil hampers work b y increasing weights to
be handled, and hindering movement o f men and machinery.
Saturation affeets soils differently; sand and gravel give a firmer footing when wet; clayey soils,
gumbo and alluvial aiit become mud. Drainage should be provided to divert surface water from
workmgB, or dispose quickly of that which enters. Employ machines capable of traveling over soft
ground; provide equipment that can operate say a third of the time in rainfall, or in water-soaked
material.
Machinery maintenance. Failure of any one machine m ay mean stoppage o f others.
One man should be in sole charge of maintenance. W ith a dozen or more machines, he
should- have a special repair and blacksmith shop, welding equipment and all necessary
tools and spare parts; for small tools, duplicates should be kept on hand. In the Culebra
cut of Panama Canal, machine shops mounted on cars were highly profitable in keeping a
large fleet of steam shovels in repair. Inspection o f machinery, oiling and other routine
servicing may weE be done at lunch time, between shifts, or at night; if not done in
working hours, unions demand payment for overtime. M otor trucks may be required
to report regularly to gasolene stations having water, compressed air, oil and tires. For
less mobile machines, as power shovels and cableways, supplies should be delivered b y
trucks on regular trips. R oad maintenance is especially important now that' rubber tires
are widely used. Roads should be kept well surfaced (19).
Economics of power shovels (1). In earthwork handled b y machinery the following
principles are fundamental: (a) the shorter the time required to fill dipper a id the longer
the arc of swing to dumping point, the more important is size of dipper or bucket, width
o f cutting edge, and ability to fill it properly; (b) effort should be made to increase both
number and size o f bucket loads; (c) o p e r a t i n g c y c l e comprises: loading time, swinging
and dumping time, time to return bucket to loading point. Tim e losses can be reduced
b y moving trucks or ears forward during cycle of dipper or bucket operation; (d) height
of lift should be minimized. In bucket-crane work, the shortest feasible length o f boom
should be used, with minimum arc o f swing; (e) if digging is hard, blasting is done when
ever its cost is less than that which would b e due to delays to shovel and hauling equip
ment, plus extra repairs to shovel; ( / ) every organization should determine its output
multiplier, which depends upon management o f work, placing, handling and upkeep of
equipment,, balance maintained between the types o f equipment used, effic and coordina
tion of personnel.
, .
, , ,
.
Choice of equipment. N o definite rule applies. Equipment for dom g work at lowest
coat depends upon: investment for capac sought; labor and operating cost; facility of
instructing operating men; adaptability to future work (ignored if equipment will not
survive the job ). T o minimize loading cost, use self-loading machines where soil condi
tions permit. Self-loaders cannot be operated in rocky or sticky soil, in soils with stumps
and roots, or below water line. Scarifying certain hard soils (Art 4) prior to loading may

3-02

be required, especially for large self-loading scrapers (2). For data on d e p r e c i a t i o n o t


e q u i p m e n t , see Contractors & Engineers M onthly, July, 1931.
Time losses of power-shovels. Studies b y Keystone Driller C o list as u n a v o i d a b l e
l o s s e s : checking grade, moving, blasting, broken cable, mechanical trouble, stumps and
roots, frozen material; as a v o i d a b l e l o s s e s : insufficient supply and inefficient operation
o f hauling units, inefficient operator, refueling.

2. SOIL PHYSICS AND MECHANICS


Recent studies (3 -6 ) are o f value respecting: (a) slopes for unsheeted excavations;
(b) closeness to which excavation can be carried to a building; (c) distance or width
of berm between working face and spoil bank; (d) water required for backfilling;
(e) degree of compacting and settlement to be expected in rolled earth embankments;
(/) suitability of material for hydraulic fill dams; (g) design of sheeted trenches.
Soil mechanics in present stage of development can be more a liability than an asset to
an engineer, unless he has initiative and opportunity to keep abreast o f latest develop
ments b y personal contact ( 6).
Classification of soils b y U S Bur Public Roads is based on plasticity, moisture equiva
lent, grain size, shrinkage and swell.
Aver increase o f vol of earth when first loosened: clean sand and gravel, 14% ; loam,
loam y sand or gravel, 2 0 % ; dense clay and dense mixtures of gravel and clay, 3 5 % ;
unusually dense gravel and clay, as from river beds, 50% .
Voids. I f hard spherical grains
Table 1. Voids in Different Soils
are thoroughly compacted, the voids
(D. C. Henny)
amount to 2 6 % ; if massed as loosely
as possible, the voids are 4 8 % . When
Percentage of voids
measured loose, pit sand or gravel has
Soil *
35 to 4 0 % voids. Sand of uniform
WetLoose
Compact rammed
size has 4 5 % voids, measured loose,
I
but only 36% when watered and
59
49
44
rammed. Uniform pebbles have 44%
Surface (organic)..
54
43
45
voids measured loose; 39% when
Gravel...................
42
37 .
34
watered and rammed. Clay allowed
55
49
46
Coarse
subsoil.......
to settle in water has. 50 to 79%
voids; measured loose in the ordinary state, the voids are about 50% (1).
Quicksand is a hydraulic condition o f granular material, where there is sufficient
movement o f ground water through it to lift the particles, so that they tend to flow upon
one another. Fine-grained sand becomes quicksand" much more readily than a coarse
sand.
Table 2. Average Weights of Soils
Soil

Condition

Sand...
Sand...
Sand...
Gravel.
Gravel

122

Wet

100

D ry

Packed
Wet
D ry

Lb per Lb per
cu ft
cu yd

110

125

112

3 294
2 700
2 970
3 375
3 024

Soil
CJay.............
Clay.............
Clay.............
Clayey earth.
Mud............

Lb per Lb per
cu ft
cu yd

Condition
Loose, dry
In place
Compressed
Roiled dry

70
116
130
110
112

1 890
3 132
3 510
2 970
3 024

Angle o f repose. T he face o f a mass o f earth when exposed for a time to the elements
assumes a n a t u r a l s l o p e , the angle o f which with the horizontal is called the a n g l e o f
beposb.
Values in Table 3 are average; in cohesive materials, they may change markedly
when the water level against a saturated slope is rapidly lowered (7). Slopes m ay slough
due to seepage toward an open cut, and m ay change when height and wt of bank become
great enough to displace underlying materials.
Table 3.
Kind of earth

Slopes and Angles of Repose

Slope of Angle of
repose repose

Sand, clean, loose.................... 1.5


Sand and clay, loose............... .33
Sand, wet................................ 2.5
Gravel, clean, loose................. 1.33
Gravel and clay, loose............ 1.33
Clay, dry, loose...................... 1.33
Clay, dry, natural..................
1

34
37
22
1
1
1
1

37
37
37
45

Kind of earth
Clay, wet...............................
Rock, hard (riprap)..............
Sand, clay, gravel (suctiondredged) .........................
River mud (suction-dredged).
Gravel and sand on shores,

Slope of Angle of
repose repose
3 .5 : 1
1: 1

16
45

2: 1
3: 1

26
18

7 .5 :

7.5

EAKTH EXCAVATION
There is a rather wide range oi uncertain
behavior between the loose unstable
and the compact stable state. S h e a r
i n g b e s i s t a n c e o f s o i l s , important
in all problems of stability, is influ
enced largely b y water content (Fig
1 , 2). In general, it depends upon
combined effect of cohesion and in
ternal friction, the cohesive resistance
being independent o f any applied
(b ) D ense sand e xpan din g pressure. Tests to measure shear re
(a ) D e n se sand b e fo re
d u rin g shear
sistance m ay be made b y the Krey
shearing
shearing box, obtaining values for
cohesion and angle o f internal fric
tion (8 ).
Landslides and slips are often due
to geological causes, such as unfavor
able strata with moist surfaces. Con
ditions leading to landslides: ( 1) cuts
in tilted strata on downdipping side
o f sandstone, limestone and solid
(c) Loose aanri or floe
(d ) Loose sand or fine
grained soil before
grained soil compressing shnlft beds; nearly vert face left in
shearing
daring shear
cut in shale or sandstone, from which
Fig 1. Effect of Shear on Volume of Sand,
material is precipitated b y frost action,
Shown by Grain Rearrangement
or slippage on interbedded seams of
water-softened d a y ; (2) accumulations on hillsides of clay silt from decomposed rocks
which become fluid when wet; (3)
beds of plastic clay n ot far below
surface; (4) plastic clay coatings
formed on slopes beneath detritus
b y wetting and softening of shales.
Water lubricates surfaces and in
creases w t o f materials. A homo
geneous soil m ay slide when geo
metric tape of the mass becomes
unstable, a sw h en a trench reaches
T o ld ra t io at w h ich contin uons
d eform a tion possibie
a certain depth. For each angle
o f slope there is a max height where
part of the mass slides along a
surface, which is always curved,
never plane (5).
Slips in embankments resemble
landslides. T he principal soil pro
Dense sand
perties governing safety of embank
ments are: shearing resistance;
coef of permeability; difference in
Shearing stress
consistency between undisturbed
and remolded states; and extent
of stratification and fissures,
which influence creation o f hy
drostatic pressure (6 ).
Compac
t -S u d d e n failure
tion is aimed to control shearing
o f dense sand
resistance, stratification and per
meability (Art 9).
Corrective measures against
landslides.
Ordinarily, removal
of the shifting material is too
^ -P lo w o f lo o s e sa n d and
costly. G ood drainage is first
o f a il fin e grained soils
preventive. Landslides have been
halted b y draining away the water;
more effective than piiing, blast
ing or rock-iacing slopes (9, 11). Fig 2. Displacement and Volume Change, as Functions
of Shearing Stress of Sands
From 1931 to 1934, slides and
slips of embankments caused 3 000
deaths in 13 major disasters, and cost millions of dollars (13).
Stability o f cohesioniess materials (6 ).

EARTH-MOVING EQUIPMENT

3-05

.Shrinkage o f embankments has long been a subject o f discussion, due to lack of experi
mental data and of an accepted meaning of the term. Shrinkage may be expressed as the
relation o f: vol of'fresh fill to that o f the same fill after settlement; or, as the vol of an
excavation to that of the settled fill made from it. A cu yd of earth measured in place
will occupy less space ultimately in compacted embankment. The usual allowance for
shrinkage, 8 - 12 % , does not apply to gumbo, cemented gravel, or materials from beds of
streams, ail of which are dense, and their shrinkage can be determined only by actual
measurement. Investigations by Bur of Valuation, o f Interstate Commerce Comm,
indicate that 9.1% is a minimum, and 14.4% is a closer final aver. These figures were
modified b y a Comm of the Railroad Presidents Conference which, on basis o f 12 million
cu yd of earth embankment, found an aver o f 10.4% initial shrinkage (Table 4), and, after
complete settlement, 14.4% (see Eng Newa-Rec, M ch 10, 1921, p 434).
Table 4.

Shrinkage of Earth in R R Fills, as Determined by Measurement and b y the


Rule of Bur of Valuation, Interstate Commerce Comm (18)

Railway

State

Material

HI Cent.......
Nor & West..

111

Dune sand, fine and dry.......


Light clay, considerable sand,

Nor & West..


So Pac.........

RI
Ore

Nor & West..


So Pac.........

Cent Vt.......

Silt and coarse gravel, bot-

Ore

60% dry sand......................


Clayey silt, gravelly in spots.
Cemented material, clayey,
mostly cuts; 2.5%rockin
fill.......................................
Boirow-pit earth, vary clayey

RI

Stiff blue clay........................

Ore
Ore

Shrinkage Shrinkage Method of


Vol. of
by measure by the
construc excavation,
ment, %
rule, %
tion
cu yd
8.81

9. !

256 408

8 .8-9.7

9. 1

C, D

124 059

10.3

9. 1

C, D

77 120

10.3
6 i!
10.il
\

9.1
9.1
9.1

B, C, D
C, D
B

64 360
44 360
3! 660

15.

8.6

1.8

9.1

E
B

26 781
11 016

12.27

9. 1

3 047

A. Unloaded from trestle. B. Teams and scrapers. C. Steam shovels.


E. Carts and horse-drawn cars, dumped from sides and ends of fills.

D. Dump wagons.

3. EARTH-MOVING EQUIPMENT (17)


Operations: (1) loosening surface; (2) loading; (3) transport and dumping;
sometimes (4) compacting. F o b l o o s e n i n g hard ground: scarifiers, rippers, rooters,
dipper shovels, backhoes and skimmers, pneumatic spades, dredges, steam jets, ex
plosives, and hydraulic sluicing. F o b l o a d i n g : mechanical shovels with clamshell or
dragline dippers, push shovels, backhoes, elevating graders, cableways, belt conveyers.
F o b t b a n s p o r t : wheelbarrows, carte, trucks, cars, graders and scrapers, cableways,
conveyers, hydraulic sluicing. F o b c o m p a c t i n g : rollers, vibrators and drainage operations.
Hand labor and horse-drawn vehicles have been generally superseded b y mechanical
equipment, except for minor operations. For large-scale work, the trend is toward com
plete mechanization. Cars and trucks are usually mounted on low-press pneumatic tires,
involving more attention to haulage roads. Power scrapers are more used on short-haul
work, and their radius may be extended. Diesel is supplanting gasolene power for all
except very small units (17).
Hand work. Few soils can be shoveled without picking or plowing. Light hlaatj^g
is often advantageous.
Picking is costly. Table o shows fair aver
duty per man-hr (19).
Table 5. Rates of Picking,
Cu Yd per Hour
A man shoveling 1.4 cu yd per hr of the loosened
material mentioned in Table 7 can handle only about
Stiff clay or cemented gravel.......
half that amount if he does his own picking.
1.4
2.5
Advantage of cheaper means of loosening is obvious.
Plowing is satisfactory for preceding shovel
Light sandy soils..........................
6
or smaller scraper work. Table 6 shows fair
aver, duty o f horse-drawn plows.

3 -0 6

EARTH EXCAVATION
Table 6 .

EARTH-MOVING EQUIPMENT

Rates of Plowing
Labor

Soil

C u

yd per hr
50
35

<

.....................................

<*

.....................................

25

"

4 -6

.....................................

15-20

men on plow beam of rooter plow }

1 driver, 6 horses, on gang plow. ..

40

Wheelbarrows, of wood, steel or aluminum alloy, generally have steel wheels, some
times pneumatic tires; the latter, with large-diam wheels, reduce traction on soft ground.
Loads are 2-2 .5 cu ft. The lightest barrows weigh 35 lb, em pty; the larger, over 90 lb.
T he man holds Vs to i /z of the load (17).
_
'
,.
,
Carts. One-horse, 2-wheeled, dump carts hold 0.3-0.5 cu yd. On ordinary road loads
seldom exceed 0.4 cu y d (place measure). W ith hauls of 300 ft or less, 1 driver can attend
2 carts b y taking one to the dump while the other is being loaded. C o s t o f c a s t w o r k
per cu y d - 1/20 hr wages o f team, driver and helper on plow ; + 2/s hr wages o f labor
shoveling; + 1/4 hr wages of cart horse and driver for lost time ; + 1k o hr wages o f cart
horse and driver for each 100 ft of haul.
<
Wagons. Horse-drawn, bottom-dump wagons have nominal capac of l *-s cu yd.
Speed of travel per min (not including delays and rests): poor roads, 130 ft; fair dir*
roads. 175 ft; best roads, 220 ft.
Table 7.

Loading by Shoveling
Cu yd
per man-hr

Method

0.8
1 . 7- 2 . 7
1. 6- 4 . 8
2.2
2.8
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.3
1. 5- 2 . 0

Authority
M. Aruseiia

Gillespie
Cole (a)
D. K. dark
Gillette (b)

(e)
J. M. Brown

2.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
2.0

Aver earth -

...................

1.25
1.5
1.75

(a) 10 miles, Erie Canal. (b) 10 000 cu yd bank meaeifemeat.


ment. (d) A' rush. job. (e) Spaded out and handled with form

E. Morris

(<*>

G. A. Parker
Gillette

(e)

(c) 20 000 cu yd in embank

cars. Air-dump cars must discharge their loads quickly, with as small air
press and consumption as possible, and leave dumped material so that the cars can be
righted and backed promptly, with minimum labor for track shifting and incidental work
at dump. Car should be simple in design, rugged in construction, with few operating parts,
all easily accessible (19).
,
Industrial railways are for extensive hauling over a long fixed route, as for it K con
struction, highways, dams, tunnels, aqueducts, large ditches and canals. Greater flexi
bility is obtained b y use of locomotives, though grades of over a few per cent seriously
limit w t of cars hauled. Track gage is usually 18, 24 or 36 m ; some 42 in. Rails weigh
8-20 lb per yd, and are in 20, 30 or 33-ft lengths. Second-hand rails and taes often
serve for short job. Portability of track is important where there is much sk ftin g j
relaying. Light track is economical, in which ties and rails are assembled m lengths 01
15-20 or even 30 ft, that can be carried b y 2 or 3 men; with curved sections, switches and
turntables, and joints readily fastened and unfastened. Units can be laid on firm ground
with little if any grading. Ties m ay be of wood, but steel saves shifting time (19).
Track grades. If a locom otive alone can operate on 8 % grade, it will haul a tram oi
its own wt on only a 4 % grade. Hence, practicable grades are determined b y the relation*

3 -0 7

(grade % X wt loco)
(wt loco + w t of loaded train). Under favorable track conditions,
the operation of locomotives m ay approach theoret frie coef, but a little water or grease
on rails seriously reduce its tractive power (see Sec 11).
Tractors (see Sec 27) are mounted on caterpillars or rubber tires; draw-bar pull, up to
22 000 lb in first gear. Rubber tracks, claimed to be good for 5 000 miles, are offered in
place o f metal. Principal tractors (1939): International, Caterpillar, Cletrac and Allis
Chalmers. Horsepower, 2296; the smaller sizes have gas or Diesel drives; the larger,
Diesei only. W t, 5 000 to over 30 000 lb, but unit ground loads for crawler-traction are
limited to 6 lb per sq in. Draw-bar pull varies with speed, grade and ground conditions.
Load should not exceed 75% of max draw-bar pull of tractor in second gear (2). Ailis
Chalmers, Model I-U , is a fast, powerful wheel tractor for hauling and road building at
low cost. Speeds, 2*/g-25 miles per hr. O p e r a t i n g c o s t s . Studies of D ept o f Agri
culture, Cornell Univ (1935), on about 70 machines, of 1630 brake h p, showed costs from
25^ to $1.12 per hr; aver 50~70 (19).
Motor trucks for earthwork are power-dumping. Nominal capac, 1.5-18 cu yd. The
rear end may have wheels or caterpillar traction.
Dump trucks. Speeds were formerly kept down b y governors to about 15 miles per
hr, but are now generally unrestricted. W t, 11 000-14 500 lb ; h p, 75-100. Recent
special types ( dumptors and iron mules ) have a short wheel-base, making possible
quick turns within 15 ft; driver sits behind body and has unobstructed view to rear for
reverse running; speed, 10-13 miles per hr in high gear and 3.5-4 in low, in both forward
and reverse gear (19). P o w e e . Steam has been mostly replaced b y gasolene and Diesel
engines. Diesels have higher first cost and more complicated mechanism, but use cheaper
fuel and 1lr -1lz the quantity required b y gasolene machines. Eiec operation is sometimes
employed for large-scale work.
Crawler wagons, developed since 1920, are desirable in soft, wet ground, where soil is
sticky. They roll and smooth the road surface, instead of cutting it into ruts, as is done
by motor trucks. As many variable factors affect wagon operation, cost estimates must
be conservative. Skill o f operators of the loading machines, and. the wide variations in
character of the material excavated, directly affect yardage output. For crawlers hauled
by tractors, costs are: 5-cu y d wagon, 45^ per hr; 10 to 13-cu yd wagon, 69^ per hr, exclud
ing deprec (2 ).
Pneumatic-tired, bottom-dump wagons, of 20, 25 or 30-cu y d capac, will haul greater
distances, at lower cost, than crawlers or other equipment, providing scale of work justifies
the investment, and road'surfaces are good, with grades leas than 5 % . A Cletrac.No 80
tractor, with 25-yd wagon, will haul an aver of about 72 cu y d per hr to a distance of
2 000 ft, the rate of work being affected b y size of shovel, skill of operator, extent of swing,
vert lift, and soil conditions. A 25-yd wagon costs about $8 750 f o b ; cost of operation,
about 84f per hr, including deprec (2). T w o wagons are sometimes hauled in tandem.
Scrapers drawn b y tractors can dig economically to depth of 24 in and transport
several hundred ft, provided ground has been cleared and grubbed (Art 4) and is free of
boulders. There are many forms: as wheeled and carryall scrapers, bulldozers, trail*
builders, self-loading wheelers. Limit o f haul, 200 to about 1 400 ft (2) (see also Sec 27).
Graders have a cutting blade between front and rear wheels. Capac, 112 cu yd.
They may be pulled b y tractors of 15-80 h p , or propelled b y their own power (usually
about 50 h p). Mounted on 4 steel wheels, or 4, 6 or 8 rubber-tired wheels. Blade or
moldboard, 7-16 ft long, 12 ft being usual, with a height of about 18 in, is adjustable in
height and tip. W t, from 1 400 lb for towed graders, to 17 000 lb for power machines.
Speeds o f power graders, usually 2 miles per hr in low gear, 19 miles in high gear, with two
intermediate gears and reverse (2 ).
Bulldozers are tractor scrapers with a very strong blade, arranged to be lifted 3-3.5 ft,
and lowered 5 -6 ft below ground level. W t, 3 500-6 000 lb. Capae when loaded for
shoving, 2 -4 cu yd; h p, 30-70. Speeds, 120-240 ft per min. After depositing load, return
is made with blade raised, at about 240 ft per min. Cost, $ 750-$l 825, f o b . The blade
is movable only up and down. T r a i l b o t l d e b blade can be angled horiz, vert or moved
up and down (2). Cost, $9G0-$2 750.
Carryall scrapers, on pneumatic tires, pick up loads singly or in tandem, and travel at
high-gear speeds. They are operated b y a power-control unit, which obtains power from
tractor drive shaft and transmits it b y cable to the working parts. Single carryall scrapers
require 2 drums; cable from one drum raises or lowers bowl in loading and unloading, the
other operates front apron and tailgate in unloading and spreading. For tandem opera
tion, a 4-drum unit is needed (2). Lb T o g r n e a u c a h r y a l l is mounted on large pneu
matic tires, and has Timken bearings. A lloy steels of great strength and resiliency are
used, minimizing the wt. Capac is large because: (a) the expanding bowl carries the soil
back into the bucket during loading, so that the tractor can put more effort into cutting;

EARTH EXCAVATION

1-08
W

of b o a , cf

be a p p u e d ^

: K s

It

and *

$2 400 for 5-yd sue to $5 225 i

y d when heaped.

Cost,

b ^

ordmary scrapers; up to

by ior" 8' I0W

c u ^ * sP

n ed

Dredge buf

b e -d

e of j g j j .

- ^

% xi

shovel is limited (Fig 3).


Hovels with dippers smaller than 2.5 y d have
Excavators m th * 00 8- a^ ^ Pdelay of a few hours they can be converted in the field
interchangeable booms, so 1shat with deilay
heU p luttgera ^ lighter than dippers
to plunger shovel, a backhoe, dragh e.
Dipper shovels fill buckets b y a
of same capac and hence have greater
p S c o o p s , ditchers), b y pulling
"crowding (pushing)m otion, bftkho
(
,.
an R1TTHs,aT.y handle. Skimmers,
toward the ^actdae, tfe
fc b w j :
^
under tt e boom b y a cabie,
S

l "

r a i i g and

restricted than those o f a dipper shovel.


Table 8 .

Maximum. .
Average----Minimum . -

the b o o -

O p e r a t e are o r e

See bee 27.

Operating Speeds, in Seconds, of Digger Shovel


Loading

Swinging

Dumping

Returning

16
9.6
7

7.5

5.75
2.4

7.25

6.0

5.25

6.2

5.5

Total
36.5
24.2
19.75

M in im u m m a y b e
T a b le 9
T a b le 9.

D ig g in g K a d t a s o f e v o l v i n g S h o v e l, 2 4 - f t B o o m ! U - f l D ip p e r H a n d le ;
u ig g m g
C aterp|ar T r e a d . * y d D ip p e r (F ig 3)

Height o
dump,
Boom angle
dipper
door
with horiz,
open
deg
A
45
55
60

14' 2"
17' 2"
18' 6"

Radius of
dump

Digging
radius

Radius
floor level
out

23' 6"
21' 3"
\V 11"

26' 11"
25' 3"
24' 5"

W 9"
16' 7"
S' 0"

Center
rotation to
point
to boom
G
21' II"

18' 9"
17' 0"

C t o s h e U . a n d o ra n g ep eels, s u sp e n d e d fro m . cran e, m l t h e b u c k e t , s o le ly b y d e r f ^

Fig 3.

Belt conveyers (see Sec 27 for d


rv. excavators and elevating graders,
work they are important as accessories ^ dredgw, tr
^ e a d of R R trucks in 191L
Power shovels (Fig 3) were first m
. .
crawler mountings, which exert
In 1939 practically all
no fu k ia r y mats,
bearing press on ground of only 0.
.
oecasionauy up to 15 yd. Manganese steel
D i p p e r s usually have ca p a co f 2 3.8
y ,
ddin _ to ^ teeth hard wearing surfaces
is largely used for bps and
fife is increased more than ten
of stelhte, or an alloy o f cobalt, f ?
h md fiUed (turnover or
times. B uckets are self-filling (
digging force and is heavier than the
bottom-dump). The orangepeel may exr* or g g f f 00Q ^
7 000 lb. Clamshells
clamshell. Capac,
t S J T l S d 0 5-1.5 cu y d ; shape, cylindrical
o f 16.5 cu yd have been built. Tur
.
0jsibIe ^ t h ttem , Bottom-dump buckets

Power-shovel with Dipper

usually b y tractors. Capac, O-J5 - ' Z ed n s 6- m toack b y locomotive. Designed


Spreaders. Western spreader car *> t a d e d
^
are o woodi stlongly

EABTH EXCAVATION

METHODS OF EXCAVATION

and impact; dragline fills b y the wiling motion of cables toward the machine. M odem
equipment is designed for quick change from clamshell to dragune.
Push shovels can dig compact soil, where draglines, clamshells and orangepeels would
be uneconomical. Their crowding motion is o f first importance. H i l l - B i l l y
(Insley M f g Co, Indianapolis) will work on steep hillsides. B a c k - h o e (pullscoop, or
trench hoe) is an inward-arc digging bucket, carried b y a handle pivoted on a boom, and
dumps b y raising handle until contents discharge b y gravity. It is used for excavation
below grade; especially adapted to trenching. Capac, 0.75-2 cu yd. Will dig to depth
of 25 ft, but can be swung horiz like a shovel for excavating level areas. It can cut through
hard slate, shale, blasted rock, or a foot of frozen soil.

machine controlled b y one operator; (c) small lifting force needed while bucket is filling,
power for loading being applied in a nearly straight line from winding drum; (d) nearly
all the engine power is available for cutting through obstructions while filling the bucket
Range of digging with 0.75-yd bucket is about 14 ft h orn and 17 ft vert; dumping height*
about 18 ft. Boom s up to 160 ft have been used. Draglines are especially useful for
moving soils say 500 ft, with a tower excavator, or belt or other conveyer, close behind.
Under aver conditions, a 150-ft boom dragline can excavate and place for 10^ per cu yd
on 300-ft max movements; for 500 ft, 14& With belt conveyer, cost is a little more to
excavate and place, but less to haul. Cable replacement is a large item o f expense; may
be 50-80% o f total; careful handling is essential. Plow-steel cable, 6 X 19 Lang lay
(see Sec 12) is recommended. Drum diam is 400-500 times that of individual wires.

3-10

3-11

Table 10. Dimensions o f Dragline Scrapers


(Averages from catalogs of well-known mfrs) Trautwine, 1937 Ed

Dumping reach of boom at 25, ft..........


Added throw beyond dumping reach, ft..
Dumping reach of boom at 40, ft..........
Max height, boom lowered, ft.................
Pull on bucket, ton................................
Dragline speed, ft per min......................
Rotating speed, rev per min...................

0.5

0.75

1.25

2.5

30
32
13
15
11.5
16
6
110
5.25

38
39
13
20
12
18
8
too
3.5

40
42
13
21
12
19
10.5
116
3.5

40
42
13
22
15
21
12.5
110
2.25

85

155

92

.......
58

10
160

164
40*
75
0.85

Trenching machines are of wheel or ladder type, t&e buckets in both revolving towards
the machine. Buckets deliver to belt conveyer, discharging on one side of trench. Depth
of trench for bucket-wheel machines is 8-12 ft mas; width, 12 in up. Speed in ordinary
soil is claimed b y makers as 1.25-4 ft o f trench per min; in exceptional eases, 5 ft; partly
frozen ground m ay slow it to 0.5 ft. D epth of trench for ladder trenches is 12-20 ft;
width, same as for bucket-wheel machines. Trenching machines are especially suitable
for widths to 4 ft (see Art 5).
Cableways for trenching, are strung over line of trench, handling a number of buckets loaded by
men m trench. Formerly much used, and are still useful for deep digging, and where excavated
material cannot be stored alongside.
A
B
C
D
E
F

(angle of boom)........................
(clearange lift of 3/4 yd bucket)
(radius of boom)......................
(height boom)..........................
(approx. depth below grade)...
(approx digging radius)...........

20
11' 10"
46' 7 "
iy 8"
20' 0 "
54' 7 "

30 \<y 5 "
43' 4 "
I T 2"
20' 0 "
51' 4"

40
26' 2 "
38' 9"
34' 0 "
2O' 0 "
48' 9"

50
32' 0"
33' y,
39' 10"
20* "
43' r

Dragline scraper (17) is widely used, but cannot dig accurately to grade. T he bucket
is operated irom a crane boom, and its digging radius is considerably greater than boom
length (Fig 4, 5). There are several types of scoop, and, as they are lighter than clamshells.

Elevating grader (17) is a combination o f plow and belt or bucket conveyer, on frame
carried by wheels or caterpillars. Plow cuts a furrow about 1 ft wide, and 6 -7 in deep.
Moldboard delivers material onto lower end o f a small conveyer or elevator of changeable
inclination, 14-25 ft long, belt being usually 42 or 48 in wide. Conveyer is at right Q.nglaa
to direction o f motion, extending to right or left, and upward for loading wagons moving
alongside and keeping pace with it. The machine m ay be hauled b y tractor, and con
veyer operated either b y separate power unit, making belt speed control easier, or b y a
power-take-off from wheels or tractor, which is simpler and lighter (for details, see
Sec 27).

4. METHODS OF EXCAVATION
(For dredging, embankments, trenching, ditching and hydraulic handling, see Art 7-9)

Good operator can throw backet


10 to 40 ft beyond end of boom
depending on size of machine
and working conditions
Fig 5. Possible Reach of a Large Dragline
less power is required. Advantages: (a) the wide reach of a long boom ; (&) reduces
amount of labor and equipment b y combining digging, elevating and conveying in a single

Clearing, grubbing and stripping. C l e a s i n g is the cutting o f trees (generally leaving


2.5-ft stumpB) and their disposal, together with brush. Pulling stumps and roots is termed
g r u b b in g .
S t r i p p i n g is the shallow excavation and removal of top-soil containing
organic matter; where backfilling follows laying of pipes, etc, top-soil may be stored nearby
for use as dressing on barren backfill. Clearing and grubbing are especially necessary
where graders and scrapers are to be used. R oot 3 and small brush interfere with all
machines except power shovels and dragline excavators, which do their own grubbing.
Cost of grubbing is difficult to estimate, as local conditions are extremely variable.
Methods of grubhing: (a) b y tractors and bulldozers; (6) burning, blasting and
pulling stumps; (c) b y scarifiers. Grubbing b y hand is uneconomical, but still practiced.
In cold regions, if large roots are cut in fall, winter frosts may- heave stumps and lessen
work of removal. I f standing trees are pulled over after partial grubbing, their w t in
falling will break roots difficult to reach, and lift stump out of hole.
Blasting stumps (16): (a) expose tap root to depth o f say 18 in and bore a hole in it
with wood auger, more than half through; split a dynamite cartridge, pack w ell into the

3-13

BARTH EXCAVATION

METHODS OF EXCAVATION

hole, and tamp with moist clay; (b) place 2 or more cartridges at least 2 ft below surface
o f ground, and close against the tap root. T o place a heavy charge for a large stump. the
bottom of the hole alongside the stump may be enlarged by springing it with a^ bght
charge of one-quarter cartridge. For more than one hole, a blasting machine should be
used to. explode ail simultaneously. A charge under middle o f a stump having large,
lateral roots may merely split the stump. For large stumps, charges are often placed
under each heavy root. Single charges under small stumps should -be placed considerably
below the butt, so that the cushion of earth will distribute the force, and prevent splitting
the stump. Fresh, fibrous-rooted stumps are harder to blast than those that are decayed
or have tap roots. For sound stumps, charges of 4 0 % dynamite are E sen in Table I I ;
for green stumps, multiply these b y 1.5-2; for decayed stumps, use less than shown.

40 lb press through a 1 - i n nozzle; 6 000 gai of water were used over and over. The water was kept
vt a temp of 150 Fab by discharging the pump exhaust into the suction sump. In 10 hr this
thawed and broke down 1 7 5 c u yd gravel (see also Sec 10). C o l d w a t e e has a l s o been used.

3 -1 2

Table 11.
Diam of stump, in.......
40% dynamite, lb ........

0.56

Dynamite Required to Blast Stumps


IS
.0.75

24
1.12

30
1.50

36
2.25

48
3.75

____________
60
5.25

72
8.25

For western fir, pine and cedar stumps, m firm deep sod, use 1^5 lb of Judson (con
tractors powder) per ft diam of stump, up to 4 f t ; for larger diam, 2-2.5 lb per ft; m gravel
or loose ground, 2.5-S.5 lb per ft. For stumps 8 ft or more in diam, the charge o f Judson
nowder in lb diam o f stump, ft.
_
.
, ,
Burning stumps. S o i l i s d u g away, partly exposing largest roots. Brush and logs
are piled about stump, and kept burning until it and larger roots are consumed. Ih is
method is good for rotten stumps, difficult to blast or pull. c ? a e - p it me* 0^
in placing brush or kindling around stump and covering ail with clay and sod, leaving
nail openings for admission o f air; stumps should first be split, b y exploding dynamite
in ship-auger hole in center of stump. A portable gasolene engine and blower are useful
in burning large stumps, and m ay be more economical than grubbing or blasting.
Pulling stumps is done b y hand, or horse-drawn machines, but chiefly b y tractors.
Though slower, pulling m ay be cheaper for a single stump than grubbing or blasting.
Pulling is facilitated if stump is first shattered with small blast. Small trees, ^ y o r m
groups, can be torn out b y tractors; such trees should not be cut, aa it is more difficult to
make fast to small stumps.
T . ,
Disposal of stumps in cut-over forest land costs as much as grubbing. I t is best to
blast first, using only enough powder to shatter stumps and loosen their hold, and then
pull and collect them with a winding engine; 1 200-1 500 ft o f rope wl reach all stu*
on 5 acres at one set-up. R ope is carried over a gin pole, about which stumps are piled
and then burned. Brush land m ay be cleared b y heavy, tractor-hauled plows, but con
siderable hand labor is necessary to gather and remove debris.
.
Loosening. Efficiency is gained b y blasting frozen crust, particularly in dragline work,
and it is generally best to dig in, and have a good working face'before frosfc comes. For
winter
non-freezing explosives are essential. It is economical to loosen heavy
soils b y scarifiers (see below) ; their use ahead o f scraper shortens loading time. On aver
hauls, one tractor and scarifier can keep ahead o f 2 or 3 tractor and scraper units (2).
Scarifiers have a series of vert teeth, side b y side on a bar; m ay be used instead of. blade
o f grader or attached to rear o f a road roller. Types: b i p p b b is useful for breaking hardsurfaced roads and general surface work, in conjunction with large scrapers. R o o t e r
resembles a harrow with 3 to 9 teeth, and digs to depth o f 2 ft. It is mounted on 2 wheels,
2 -3 ft diam, and pulled b y tractor. W t, 2 500-8 000 lb.
for graders, dislodging stumps, or breaking up concrete; they frequently obviate blasting
frOZLoosening by explosives. Hardpan is economically loosened b y charges o f low-p-ade
dynamite, or Judson (contractors) powder. Holes, except in high
^
J ^
45 to the vert. Horiz holes in face of a bank are effective. For details of chamber and
^ T M ir in g ^ r ^ e ^ g r o im d m ay be done b y burning gasolene or coal oil, or b y use o f lime,
steam iets or wood fires. Ground frozen too hard to be excavated b y a trench machine,
can be softened b y spreading small pieces o f lime along the line o f proposed trench, covering
them with manure or straw, and pouring on h ot water to slack the lime and k a r a te the
heat. Clay, frozen so hard to depth o f 34 in that stones embedded m it could be beared
off without loosening them, has been thawed b y jetting holes vnth a.
b y hose to a boiler. In each hole was inserted a 1/2-in capped pipe, with 4 /8-m holes
bored in it, and steam forced in to thaw out the surrounding ground (10).
Hot water thawing is more economical than steam for working frozen gold-bearing gravels. In
the Y ^ o n S s S S a ^ k a , a 30-hp pump, with 4-in intake and 3-in discharge, delivered water at

Bank blasting. In hard, cemented material, dynamite is better than black powder;
ia soft ground, the latter is more economical. W ith very high banks the bottom should
be blown out and the top allowed to drop. Charges should be placed so that the line of
least resistance is horiz. W ith banks 50 to 150 ft high in cemented gravel, the length of
main drift should generally equal 2/3 the height of bank. Cross drifts are driven parallel
to the bank face, their length depending on length of face to be blasted. Powder charge
for aver conditions is about 0.4 lb per cu y d o f ground. (For further details, see Sec 5.)
Blasting at the property of the Milton Mining and Water Co, Sweetland, Cal, during 3 years,
required an aver of 0.382 lb Judson powder per cu yd. The top gravel had been washed off, leaving
banks (usually hard and cemented for 50 ft, but soft above) from 50 to 150 ft high. In some
parts, 8.3 to 8.5 cu yd were shattered per lb of powder.
In soils difficult to pick, blasting may be economical. Excavate by picks until a face is formed,
and make vert 1.5 to 2.25-in holes in a line back of the face with pointed bar, churn drill, or auger.
Depth of holes should be a little less than the height of bank, distance between them being 1.5 times
line of least resistance (Sec 5, Art 5). Irtthe formula B CJ23, B = charge in oz, and R ~ line of
least resistance in ft; the rock coeff C should be determined by trial. For loam, conglomerates,
and ordinary soil, using 30% dynamite, C is usually nearly 0.6. Holes in frozen ground should be
chambered (Sec 4 , Art 8).
Loading. Elevating graders and power shovels, with dipper or backhoe equipment,
are favored for large-scale work. For earth cuts the tractor-wheeled scrapers are used.
Elevating grader will load for about 5 i and power shovel for 7f* per cu yd, not including
waiting time of hanling equipment. Cost of spreading, watering and roiling is about 7&
of hauling, 0.75^ per cu y d in place, not including roadpiaintenance. The dragline scraper
is always economical for excavating large, shallow arefas.
Influence of depth of cut on power-shovel costs (J23). Unit cost of excavating with
d x p p e b s h o v e l in shallow cuts m ay be 2 or 3 times more than fo r medium depths.
Output
is greatest in cuts between 4 and 12 ft deep, where full dipper loads can be taken b y each
crowding and hoisting movement. Latest type of p l u n g e s s h o v e l also works best at
depths of 4-12 ft, but has an advantage in working speed, because the boom and scoop
assembly, size for size, weighs nearly 6 000 lb less than standard boom and dipper. Time
studies indicate 10-14% faster work than dipper shovel. For depths exceeding 12 ft,
it is generally best to resort to benching. P o w e r - s h o v e l d e l a y s on 51 highway opera
tions: ha.nling equipment, 9 .9 % ; moving shovel and repairs, 18.6% ; weather, 14.9% ;
misc, 20.2% . Effect o f material on time for loading dipper: good earth, 5.6 sec; earth
and some rock, cemented material, 8.4 sec; poorly-blasted rock, 10.3-16.7 sec.
Following figures are for work o f Bueyrus steam shovels under favorable conditions.
No. 20-B, loading blue clay and sand into trucks, 93.5 cu y d per hr; road grading,
overcasting, digging clay, roots, stumps and rocks, 50 yd per hr; road work in solid
limestone, poorly blasted, 34 y d per hr. No. 30-B on road work, loading earth, rock and
some shale, 130 cu y d per hr; partly loading in cars, partly overcasting, d a y and laminated
limestone, 70 yd per hr. Loading in wagons, very stiff day, 60 yd per hr.
On R R grading in W est V a (22), 4 Lorain gasolene crawler shovels with 1.25-cu yd
dipper, loaded trains of four 4~cu y d dump cars in 3 min, dumping at height o f 17-18 ft.
Output per 10-hr shift, 1 000-3 000 cu y d ; distance hauled on each side of cut, about
1000 ft. Much o f excavation was in rock or hard shale, requiring blasting.
Power-shovel costs for general grading: 5/g-cu y d dipper, 23.3^ per y d ; 7/g-cu yd
dipper, 17.7-19.2^ per cu yd.
Selection of hauling equipment. For short hauls and large-scale work, the combined
excavating, hauling and placing unit, like the elevating grader and dragline scraper, are
desirable. For long hauls, bottom or side-dump crawler wagons, and especially tractordrawn pneumatic-tired wagons holding 3-25 cu yd, are economical. New developments
are the 24-cu y d wagon, mounted on 16, large low-press tires, and the pneumatic-tire
tractor unit, with trailer wagon. Th ey are speedy, but require solid roads; can not run
on very wet earth surfaces (17). Apply to makers for tables o f economic hauls for the
different machines.
Elevating grader. If soil is free from rocks and stumps, a motor-driven,.48-in grader,
pulled b y a Cletrac tractor, will load on aver a 7-cu y d wagon per min, where the plow can
work to its full depth and loading is done without turning; or a 10-13 y d wagon in 1.5-2
min (2).
Fresno scraper (sliding), in absence of ledge rock or boulders larger than scraper open
ing, will haul more dirt per dollar invested and at lower cost than any other excavator,

E A R TH E X C AV ATIO N

TRENCH IN G A N D DITCHING

within a distance of 200-300 ft, and is widely used for removing overburden stripping and
cutting down grades. The 0.75-yd size can handle 15 cu yd per hr on 200-ft haul, at about
39 per yd ; a 3.5-yd Fresno will handle 70 cu y d 200 ft at about 13.5s* per 0X1 yd> all

5. TRENCHING A M ) DITCHING

3-14

^ B u lld o z e r , in leveling dumps or moving dirt on short hauls, is a closer competitor of,
the Fresno, within the same distances, and is useful for similar work. Hard material
must first be loosened. Experiment determines best speed to avoid spilling. Th ey are
effective for scraping down slopes as steep as 3 5 % ; and, if gear is right, they can back up
the grade for next load. On 200-ft haul, capac is 13-40 cu y d firm dirt per hr, at cost of
20-47 per yd for bulldozer and Cletrac- motor, including depree. These figures are
conservative for good soil and level grades; capac increases on down grades, and decreases
O bSrrations in 1934 indicate that aver load transported from cut to fill under ordinary
conditions varies with length and shape of blade, and grade a id character of soil. Loads
on the 4 bulldozers in Table 12 often fluctuated as much as 100% ; smallest loads, about
2 cu v d largest 4 cu y d (16). Recent improvements, permitting independent vert move
ments of either end of bulldozer and also lateral movement, make it easier to keep exca
vation in proper condition, and to shape dopes at proper angle.

Table 12.

Table 13.

Operation of Tractor-powered Bulldozers (16)


I

3 731
n 741
68.4
3.15
30
2.4
168
3.7
200
2.3
26

511
1 655
57
3.24
40
2.4
216
3.2
260
2.5
17

800
1 822
35.2
2.3
28
1.4
309
3.2
340
4.7
11

560
1 352
44.1
2.41
39
2.7
232
3.1
275
2.5
20

Operation of Laxge, Self-loading W heeled Scrapers


4

4
Very
good
145
80
2.1
210
3.0
280
3.7

4
Fair

4
Good

" 22

5
Very
good
54
86
2.
372
3.2
450
3.8
46
27

95

75

61

75

57

45

37

45

1
3
212
75
2.3
180
2.9
254
3.2
10.4
Dumping tme, sec:....................
Load carried to dump, in per
centage of full load.................
Aver pay yardage, in percentage
of rated load capac.................

8
6
Very
Very
good
good
132
269
144
116
2.0
1.8
290
327
2.8
3.5
449
405
3.8
3.8

35

54

8
5
Fair

963
56 3 200
92
2.3
I .fi
237
300
1 400
3.3
2.5
3
275
1 450
2.7
5.5
4 . 71
10.4
34
11
20
22

53

44

For such soils, crawler wagons are preferable.


Cost of excavation b y self-loading wheeled scrapers, hauled b y tractor, is 13-18* per
cu yd , including depree, but exclusive of hand labor. Tandem scrapers have been
re ja c e d b y single nits of greater capac (2). They are especially adapted to cut-and-fiU,
""c a b le
large-scale w k . Except w h e movable towers
used irregular topography, swamps and bodies of water are no obstacles. They require
bo earthw ork.no bridges, and their operation is unaffected ^ w e a th e r .
O d S t a

govt projects, single loads o f 15 tons or more have been handled. For design and details
o f construction, see Sec 26.

3-15

Hand labor is still used for small-scale jobs. Cost depends on character of soil, number
of boulders or other obstructions, presence o f water, and depth and (somewhat) on the
width of trencn. In trenches over 4 ft deep, some soil must be shoveled twice: first, to
surface; then, as spoil pile grows, back from edge of trench. In trenches 6-12 f t deep,
Boil must first be thrown to a staging about halfway up, thence to surface and finally
back from edge. For depths of 12-18 ft, the soil must be handled 4 times. Timbering
of deep trenches slows up rate of work.
Trenching machine, resembling a very small chain-bucket dredge, can operate satis
factorily in narrow trenches, where soil is free from large stones; always leaving vert wails
and therefore applicable only to stable, dry soils (24).
Power shovels for trenching (with dipper, plunger, backhoe, or clamshell) are sup
ported on timbers spanning the trench (Fig 6) . As their w t comes directly on the banks
they can n ot be used in
soft ground xinleas the
walls are sheeted and
braced. The shovel must
usually be stopped while
the trench isbeing sheeted,
and the consequent delays
materially decrease the
output. Trenching ma
chines, though not subject
to this delay, cannot dig
in such difficult soil as
power shovels.
Dr a g l i ne can dig
trenches and ditches to
depth of about 2 0 ft, and
to any width greater than
about 30 in; best adapted
to wider work. Sloping
Fig 6 . Trenching with Power Shovel
banks are readily made,
thus eliminating need o f shoring and bracing. In soft, wet soils, as when the ground-water
level is very near the surface, draglines can operate at about the same cost as in dryer
ground. In wide ditching, it is far cheaper to use dragline and slope the banks, than to use
trenching machine or clamshell, and shore the sides; added cost o f moving a larger vol of
earth to obviate need for shoring or bracing is negligible. Under bad soil conditions the
dragline can deposit the spoil far enough from edge of trench to insure stability which
cannot be done b y trenching machine (24).
Trench sheeting. A ll deep trenches left open more than say a day should be sheeted.
In fluid sands, cross bracing follows theory. In other soils, many practical shorers place
heaviest braces near top rather than at bottom ; for, if a wedge starts to slide from surface
its center of thrust is i/s depth below surface.
Cableways (Sec 26) can be used to advantage for trenches 6 ft and wider. A cable
way on 30-ft towers, 300 to 400 ft apart, handling 1-cu yd tub at a time, is good in either
soft digging or rock, as no part of the machine is carried on the side banks. Tubs can be
loaded at any point and swung as much as 10 ft to the side. Engine
1 tower stand on
a ear or rails; the other tower stands on the ground, and must be lowered for removal to a
new position but can be readily shifted as work advances. Outfit, weighing about 19
tons, can be loaded on 1 R R car.
Backfilling is generally done b y bulldozers o r backhoes. C ost depends on: condition of
sou (whether frozen, wet, packed, or dry); means employed; amount of tamping
required. When back-filling and tamping are done b y hand, work per man-hr is 1-3 cu yd,
aver 1.5 cu yd ; m ost com pact tamping (clay excepted) is obtained b y casting soil into
b orou gh d r y tamping on large-scale work, use power tampers.
Ditching by explosives, if properly done, will excavate and spread the material over a
distance, and is economical in dry or w et ground, or soil under water. The flow o f water
is depended upon to clean out the bottom. In stiff clay or hardpan, holes should be
26 in apart, in loose m ucky soil, 30 in apart, and are punched or bored to within 6 in of
desired depth of ditch. Strongly sodded soil is cut with a spade along side lines. For
methods o f charging and firing dynamite, see Sec 4, 5. Holes are best blasted simulta
neously with a magneto; or plaeed 1$ to 24 in apart %nd exploded b y concussion from a

-16

E AR TH EXCAVATIO N

middle hole, detonated' b y fuse and cap; 20% dynamite ia ordinarily used, or 40% in
stiff,-tenacious soil. For soils soft at top, hard at bottom, use 40% dynamite in bottom
of charge and 2 0 % above.

6. STRIPPING (37-40)
For stripping
other opencut work economic methods are of utmost importance.
M ore effective excavating machinery is now making opencut mining possible where
underground methods only were formerly feasible.
Elevating grader for coal stripping in K ansas (33). Overburden, 16.5 ft aver depth,
was removed in strips 60-75 ft wide, alternate strips 40 ft wide being temporarily left
untouched. One side of cut was kept vert; the other sloped 1 : 2. Intervening strips
were excavated after the coal first stripped was mined, and as much as possible of the
TPfttprinl from them filled into adjoining excavations. Equipment: elevating grader and
tractor, and 8 3-horse, 1.5-cu y d dump wagons. Crew: engineer, steersman for tractor,
m ^hinp man, 8 drivers, dumpman, man and team for water wagon, and stableman.
D u ty: 750-800 cu yd per 9-hr day.
Stripping by draglines. In Florida phosphate mines (49), the booms were at first
136 ft long, with 8-y d buckets, using Diesel engines. Since 1920, boom length has been
increased to 168 ft, with 10-yd buckets, electrically operated. In excavations about
210 ft wide, each machine handles 600 cu y d per hr; three 8-hr shifts, 3 men per shift.
Hydraulic mining (Art 7) of the phosphate pebbles follows close behind draglines, so that,
b y hauling back to starting point, the draglines place material from second cut in mined
out area of first cut. In Mich, 1914-15, 1 200 000 cu yd o f overburden 60-100 ft deep,
were stripped from an iron deposit. Tw o draglines loaded 206 000 cu y d into ears in
1 month (38). F or data on large strippings in Penn anthracite district, see Bib (42) and
See 10.

DBEDGING
scarce waste may be led to sump or clarifying basin, and used again. Soil, after being
oosened b y monitor, is carried b y sluices to pipes or flumes and thence to darn. Bank
from which earth is washed must be at higher elevation than crest of dam, grade to dam
M n g at least 2 % for fine materials, and 6 to 8 % for coarse, heavy stuff. Design and
oastruction of hydraulic-fill dams should be under expert supervision (52). -.There have
been conspicuous failures.

Earc

&

7. HYDRAULIC EXCAVATION
This method originated in California for excavating gold-bearing gravels. For
m i n i n q , piping, giants (monitors), and ground sluices, see See 10.
Hy
draulic methods are here considered only for moving material in ordinary excavation, as
for hydraulic-fill dams, embankments, and grading (33)..
Hydraulicking is essentially a loosening operation, attacking the material on a nearly
vert face, with high-press hydraulic nozzles, and is obviously suitable only where earth
is moved downgrade. Ample water supply, either gravity or pumped, is essential. Cen
trifugal pumps (Sec 40) are generally used. For gravity supply the head m ay be several
hundred ft. A head of 80-100 ft m ay remove the material, but 200-600 ft heads are often
needed for effic cutting. Quantity of water is determined b y head, size o f nozzle and rate
o f work. Water delivered b y hydraulic giants is approx:
h y d r a u l ic

Diam of nozzle, in ..................................


Flow under 200-ft head, cu ft per min

1
33

3
250

Fig 7.

Layout for Hydraulic Stripping'(35)

Northern Pacific R R embankment. A number of trestles were filled by the hydraulic method,
la 8 cases, where there was a gravity supply of water, the cost was 4.79 per cu yd. In one case,
pumping was necessary, making a cost of 13.5i, which included clearing of dense forest growth.

8. DBEDGING
1 500

2 700

One 8 -in nozzle, using 3 600 cu ft per min, has excavated 800 cu y d per hr; but, a num
ber of small nozzles are sometimes more effective than a single large one. Sluices for
transporting mixture o f water and earth usually require a grade, of 4 % . Proportion of
solids that water will carry is from 6 to 2 0 % ; aver, 11-12% (Sec 10).
Stripping by sluicing and hydraulicking (35). Fig 7 shows layout for an ore deposit in
Mesabi district, Minn. Overburden was sluiced into a nearby river so long as the differ
ence in elevation permitted. Afterward, a hydraulic giant undercut, the overburden,
washing it through a rough sluiceway to sump, whence a centrifugal sand pump delivered
it 1 000 ft through 12-in pipe to river (Fig 7). Giant was supplied b y pumps o f 3 500 gal
per min rated'capac, pumping through 1 500 ft of 12-in pipe. The centrifugal pump
(eapac 5 000 gal) required care to keep it at proper speed to deal with sump inflow^ Oveiv
burden, of unconsolidated glacial drift, washed easily and work was done cheaply. In
pr<nt.w case (35), from 3 to 6 ft of loam* sand and gravel were washed off a shale deposit
b y 2 Mite, with norms.! water press of 115 lb. Crew: engineer, fireman, and 2 men on
the giants. Aver duty, 2 000 cu y d per 10 hr. Co 3t, 2 per cu yd.
Hydraulic-fill dams. W ith enough water, a sufficiently high working face and grade
to convey mixed earth and water, d a m 3 can be built more cheaply (and as well) by
hydraulicking than b y ordinary methods of embankment with rolling and tamping,.
Water is delivered b y pump or gravity to a h y d r a -o l i d g i a n t or m o n i t o s -; press at nozzle,
75-300 lb per sq in; veloc, 100 to 200 ft per sec; vol 8 -2 0 cu f t per sec. When water ia

Dredging is required to deepen waterways for navigation or flood control, and1'to


procure sub-aqueous material for land filling and levees. It is done b y a floating' equip
ment, except on narrow channels, where draglines or walking dredges are used. Mud,
silt and sand are easiest materials t o excavate, but, if mingled with much water, repetition
of work is sometimes needed; or, with disproportionately large quantities of water, subse
quent separation may be troublesome. Sand, silt and gravels are easy to dredge; sticky
clays will adhere to buckets, and m ay clog suction orifice or pipe line; indurated clays or
hardpans may have to be blasted before dredging (17).
Depth and width o f cut determine type of dredge. Distance of transport of dredged
material is important, often requiring longpipe-lines, or use of scows and tugs. Sometimes
material must be rehandled at an intermediate point. Permanence o f work is a con
trolling factor. Isolated jobs m ay justify use of any available dredge that can do the work,
even if poorly suited to it. But, in general, the plant should be closely adapted to work
in hand, and have high operating' effic (19).
,
Types of dredges: dipper; grapple or grab-bueket; ladder or bucket-elevator;
hydraulic or suction. Those having bunkers or hoppers for carrying dredged material
are hopper dredges (35).
Dipper dredge is essentially a power shovel mounted on a scow. There are 3 classes:
for drainage and irrigation ditches; for deep water and harbor improvements; and for
canal work. Ditching dredges are small, with narrow hulls and telescopic hanfr spuds;
sanal dredges have narrow hulls and side floats; deep-water dredges, for depths to 50 ft, are

3-18

E AR TH E XC AV ATIO N

generally of large size, with spuds operated b y independent engines. W ooden hulls are
common, but steel hulls are now favored (Sec 10).
Grapple dredge is a floating derrick, with clamshell, orangepeel, or other type of
grab bucket. It serves for very deep water or in confined places. The largest have 6-yd
buckets, 225-ft booms and can dump 400 ft from digging point. Under suitable conditions
they are very economical, requiring only a lever man, oiler and fireman per shift. Digging
depth is limited only b y length of wire rope on hoisting drums; but, in depth, the bucket
may not settle and take its load at the exact place desired; the bottom is therefore usually
very uneven. Grapple dredge is not good for hard material, unless previously broken.
Clamshell bucket is m ost useful in soft ground, stiff mud, sand and gravel. Orangepeel
buckets are adapted to dredging boulders and blasted rock (19).
Ladder dredge (widely used for gold placer mining, See 10), is good in sand and gravel,
if not too fine; will liandle indurated clays, shales, and even soft or broken rock and hard
pan, when depth is too great for dipper dredge. It cuts its own flotation (19).
Hydraulic or suction dredge is a scow, carrying a centrifugal pump with a suction pipe
reaching to the bottom to be excavated, Mid a discharge pipe to place of deposit. Usually
powered b y Diesel-elec engines, or straight Diesels. In all except the easiest materials, a
revolving cutter at mouth o f the suction pipe is required for loosening the foil. Special
advantage of this dredge is its ability to convey excavated material long distances. It
is largely used for sand, silt, m ud and clay, in open water. Gravel and smalt stones may
be dredged with aid o f the revolving cutter, and a large dredge will handle stumps, loose
rock and other debris. The discharge pipe is often supported on pontoons; flexible joints,
with a small amount o f movement at each, allow the dredge to move freely. Pipe lines
1 0 0 0 0 ft long have been used for embankment work.
B o t t o m - d i s c h a r g e g a t e s are
important for the land section of pipelines. The heavy material (coarse sand and stones)
rolling along bottom o f pipe, can be discharged through small gates w ithout disturbing
the main flow. This coarse stuff will stand at relatively steep slopes, forming dikes,
behind which liquid filling is deposited (47).
Hydraulic dredging for a million-yd fill (42). 100 000 cu yd of sand per month pumped by
15-in centrifugal pump, to fill a 65-acre site to depth of 6-10 ft. Aver proportion of solids to water,
12.5%; max, 27%. Max length of discharge pipe, about 5 000 ft; no boo3ter pump; total lift was
dose to dredge through a steeply-inclined section of pipe on trestle to point of discharge. This
arrangement minimized formation of plugs in pipe line, and facilitated their removal; nearly
all stoppages cleared in less than 40 rain. Dredging for Chesapeake and Delaware Canal involved
excavation of over 18 000 000 cu yd of earth (48). Deepest cut, about 95 ft, nearly all by suction
dredges, with revolving cutter heads. Most of the spoil was lifted 80-95 ft.

9. EMBANKMENTS AND DAMS


(See A rt 7 for hydraulic-fili dams)
Railroad embankments are generally made b y filling from old trestles. A ditching
with 16-yd dump cars m ay be used for jobs to 5 000 cu yd ; steam shovel for
larger work. Shrinkage is usually 12% when fill is placed b y wagons; to 15_% when,
dumped from cars. Embankments are often compacted b y wetting, harrowing, and
roiling in thin layers. Unstable material beneath embankments'may be removed by
blasting, to hasten settlement (see du Pont C os circular on this subject).
y.TnhqnirmAnf placed hydraulicaliy <41). la 160 days, 821 000 cu yd of fine sand were placed
by a suction dredge with cutting head, pumping through 24-in pipe. Pump, operated by two
500-hp elec motors, gave discharge veloc of 12-15 ft per sec; volume at times reached 1 000 cu yd
per hr. Total runoff of sand from embankment was about 250 000 cu yd, adding 30% to vol
handled. Length of discharge pipe was 4 000 ft, working from dredge alone; booster pump used for
an additional 9 000 ft; an exceptionally long distance. Pipe carried on pontoons was No 7 gage,
riveted, with slip joints; No 10 gage elsewhere.
Compacting earth-fill
(14). For sand and silt, rolling is usually better than
famping. Best moisture content is just below saturation; layer thickness; 12 in; best
rolling equipment, a heavy crawler tractor, followed b y a sheepsfoot tamper (2), or a
roller; 6 -8 passes o f the tractor over a layer produce desired density.
Vibrating machines, sometimes used, are expensive (Eng News-Record, July 23, 1936).. For a
recent (1937) Western Ham, a centra! impervious core was built in 6-in layers, sprinkled to maintain
moisture content at about 16%. Core compacted by 12 or more passes of sheepsfoot' roller,
giving a press of 250 lb per sq in.
Change in volume b y compacting. On an earth dam, where a mixture o f earth and
gravel was hauled in wagons and sprinkled and rolled in 6 -in layers, it was found that

B IBLIO G R APH Y

3-19

* tr i
per CU
oi. 12% exception to the general propo
sition that earth can be compacted to less than its original volume is dry day, particularly
when taken from deep pits; it absorbs moisture from the air, and occupies more space
ja embankment than in its original bed (33 ).
e space

BIBLIOGRAPHY
(4) Trans Amer Soc Civ Engra. (B) Eng
News-Record. (C) Eng & Min Jour
1. Holcomb. Civil Engg, Oct, 1930, p 26
2. Milligan, D. A. Modern Methods of Mov1938
Pub Ckvdand Tractor Co,
3. Teraghi. (A ) Vol 93, 1929, p 270
4. Gilboy. (A ) Vol 98, 193S, p 218. (B)
Feb 10, 1938,j> 241
5. Hogentogler. Engineering Properties of
Sous. McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1937
6. Casagrande. Proc Internat Conf on Soil
Mechanics and Foundations, 1936, p 37
7. Taylor, Jour Boston Civ Engrs, July. 1937
8. Cooling & Smith, Proc Internat Conf on
Soil Mechanics and Foundations, 1936
9. Public Works, Mch, 1936, p 14
10. (B), 1917, p 519
1L (B) Feb 11, 1937, p 213
12. (B) July 1, 1937, p 32
13. Ladd. (B) Mch 8,1934, d 324
14. (B) June 11, 1938, p 850
15. (B) July 7, 1938, p 9
16. Powera. Road and Street Data Book.
Gillette Pub Co, 1936. p 223
17. Knappe, T. T. Development of Earth
Moving Equipment. Civil Engg, Mch,
1936, p 143
18. (S) Aug 28, 1919, p 417
lfi. Trautwme. Civ Engrs Pocket Book, 1937
edn
20. (B) Aug 26, 1920, p 419
21. Keystone Driller Co, Research. Bull No 2
22. Engg and Contract's. July, 1929. d 269
23. (B) June 5, 1924, p 977
24. Pacific Builder and Engr, Sep 5, 1936

25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

(B) Aug 2, 1923, p 185 Water Works, Jan, 1929, p 113


(B) Jan 23, 1919, p 183
() May 19, 1927, p 812
(B) May 30, 1935, p 775
(B) Dec 22,1927, p 996
(B) Dec 22, 1927, p 1013
(B) Aug 11, 1921, p 227
(B) Sep 4, 1924, p 384
(B) May 14, 1931, p 813
Earthwork Mid Its Cost. Gillette, H. P.
McGraw-Hill Book Co
36. (B) Nov 8, 1926, d 697
37. Stripping with Hydraulic Giant. L. O
Kellogg. (CO Vol 97, p 166
gjf * 94^ DraUne. L- E. Ives. (C)
39. Stripping an Anthracite Bed with Draehne. Coal Age, Vol 18, p 63
40. Coal Mine Stripping with Power Shovels
Shurick and Toenniges. (B) May 5.
1932, p 642

41- CiviljEng'g, July, 1938, p 465


42. (B) ot 21, 1920, p 791
43. (B) July 17, 1930, p 84
44. Eng News, Jan 27, 1916, p 145
45. Intermt ^Cong of Navigation. Saunders,
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.

Robinson, A. W . (A) Vol 54, part C


(B) Apl 3, 1930, p 55
(B) Oct 29, 1925, p 705
Civil Engg, July, 1938, p 465
(.B) Dec 2, 1926, p 899
(B) Apr 23, 1931, p 687
Hydraulic-fili Dams. Allen Hazen. (4)
Vol 83, pp 1701-1800

SECTION

BY

.G.HASKELL, E .M ., FLETCHER B. HOLMES, A.B., ARTHUR La MOTTE,


AN D F. J. L e MAISTRE, Ph ,G., B.Sc.
B E V ISED F O B T H E SECOND A N D T H I n E D IT IO N S B Y

ARTHUR L a MOTTE, FLETCHER B. HOLMES AND F. J. L eMAISTRE


Art
1. Chemistry of Explosives.......................
2. High Explosives............... .....................
3. Biaok Blasting Powder.........................
4. Transport of Explosives and Blasting
Supplies..............................................
5. Shipping Containers.............................
6- Storage of Explosives and Blasting
Supplies.................................... .
Zfete.

02
04
07
10
H
12

Art
i
r
7. Handling of Explosives and Blasting
Supplies.............................................
8 . Charging aad Firing Explosives..........
9. Special Uses for Explosives..................
10. Blasting Supplies..................................
Bibliography.........................................

Numbers in parentheses ia text refer to Bibliography at end of this section.

4-01

17

19
22
26
31

4-03

CHEMISTRY OF E XPLOSIVES
Table 1.
Ingredient
Nitroglycerin.............
Tetranitro-di-glycerin.

CHEMISTRY OF EXPLOSIVES

Underlying principles. The power of an explosive to do work depends upon the facts: (a) that
a small volume of explosive is capable, under certain conditions, of changing into a large volume
of gas at high temperature, and (6) that this change takes place almost instantaneously, resulting
in the development of great expansive force at th moment of detonation. In the case of black
^spring powder, a mixture of sulphur, charcoal and sodium or potassium nitrate, the nitrate supplies
oxygen for combustion of the sulphur and charcoaL The decomposition of black powder, once
started, therefore proceeds without need of oxygen from the air. The ease is somewhat different
with nitroglycerin, a .compound of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, which is explosive in itself
without requiring admixture with other substances. When detonated, it is decomposed into CO2,
nitrogen, and water, which at the high temperature of explosion occupies at atmospheric pressure
about 1000 times the volume of the original nitroglycerin.
Ingredients and their properties. T he com mon ingrediente of high explosives are
given in Table 1. T he term .explosive base in column 3 covers, besides compounds
explosive in themselves, certain compounds which are n ot explosive alone, but become so
when sensitized b y some such substance as nitroglycerin.
jiote. Throughout this section, nitroglycerin will generally be designated by N G, and other
ingredients of explosives by their chemical symbols.
Reactions. When carbon bum s in presence of an excess o f oxygen CO* is formed;
if there be insufficient oxygen for complete combustion, CO also is formed. When car
bon in lumps bum s in air, combustion is slow; but if in form o f dust the reaction is very
rapid, and m ay result in explosion. The ingredients of black blasting powder (S, char
coal and niter) are finely ground, and thoroughly incorporated, to bring all parts of the
combustibles into close contact with the oxidizing ingredient, thus favoring rapid and
complete combustion.
When black powder explodes, the reaction is:
20 KNO 3 + 30 C + 10 3 = 6 EjCOs+ K 2SO4 + 3 K 2S3 +
14 COs + 10 CO +
Potass
CharSulPotass
Potass
Potass
Carbon Carbon
nitrate
coal
phur
carbon-sultrisuldioxide
monate
phate
phide
oxide
Solid
Solid
Solid
Solid
Solid
Solid
Gas
Gas

10 Nj
Nitrogen
Gas

The explosion is accompanied b y evolution o f heat, which expands the gases to a very
large volume, resulting in high pressure.
When nitroglycerin explodes, the reaction is:
4C8H6(NOa)s NG
Liquid

12C02 + 10H20
Carbon
Water
dioxide
Gas
Vapor

Chem symbol
CgHsiNO^s.
CefiioN^Ois.

Ethylene glycol dinitrate..

EXPLOSIVES
1.

Ingrediente o f High Explosives

+ 6N 2 + 02
NitroOxygen
gen
Gas
Gas

The intense rapidity o f this change is illustrated b y the fact that, if a pipe 5 miles long
were filled with N G, and a blasting cap were detonated at one end, the entire column
would be converted into gas within about one second.
Dynamite consists essentially o f a mixture o f NaNOs, wood meal, and N G . The
NaN O j m ay be replaced b y K N 0 3, the wood meal b y Sour or sawdust, and even a por
tion of the N G b y other organic compounds or b y NH 4N 0 8. The solid ingredients are
n ot so finely divided as those of black powder, nor so thoroughly incorporated; hence,
the mixture would not bum so rapidly except for the N G, the extremely rapid explosion
o f which so accelerates combustion o f the other ingredients that the whole mixture explodes
much faster than black powder. Taking a dynamite o f the composition: N G , 40% ;
NaNOs, 46% ; w ood meal, 14% ; and assuming that wood meal has same ultimate compo
sition as pure cellulose (CbHioO)*, the reaction of explosion is:
2 CsHsCNOg)* + 6 NaNOs + C#HmO = 9 C 0 2 + 6 N s + 10 HsO + 2 0 2 + 3 Na*C0|.
4r-02

Nitrocellulose (guncotton).

(CsHyCNOaJsOa)*

Nitrostarch......................

(CbHtNOjsOs)*

Organic nitrocompounds.

Ammonium nitrate.

NHNOs.

Potassium chlorate.

KCIO ...

Potassium perchlorate.

KC104.

Liquid oxygen.

Function

Remarks

Explosive base
Explosive base

Liquid, highly explosive


Viscous liquid, highly explosive,
practically non-freezing
Explosive base, Liquid, highly explosive, somewhat
and to reduce
volatile, non-freezing
freezingpoint
Explosive base Solid, highly inflammable, and
and gelatiniz
explosive when dry
ing agent
Explosive base White powder, highly inflammable
and explosive when dry
Explosive base, Some solid, others liquid; the
but used pri
higher nitro-compounds explo
marily to re
sive, the lower non-explosive in
duce freezing
themselves
point
Solid, difficultly explosive alone,
very soluble in water
Explosive
bases and
oxygen
carriers

Soluble in water, highly explosive


when mixed with combustible
matter
Difficultly soluble in water, highly
explosive when mixed with com
bustible matter

Highly volarle

Carbonaceous matter in contact


becomes highly inflammable.
Most sensitive when absorbed
by lampblack

Sodium nitrate.

NaNOs.

Oxygen carrier

Soluble in water, not explosive


alone, deliquescent

Potassium nitrate.

KNOj..

Oxygen carrier

Soluble in water, not explosive


alone, not deliquescent

Wood pulp...........

Absorbent and Best combustible absorbent; in


combustible
highest grad equal to kteselguhr in absorbent capacity

Wood meal.

Absorbent and Fairly high absorbent capacity


combustible

Ground coal.

Combustible

Charcoal.

Combustible

floor...........

Combustible
Combustible

Sulphur.........
Chalk.............

CaCOg.

Antacid

Zinc oxide...

ZnO....

Antacid

Kieaelguhr...

SiOj....

Absorbent

Has no value except as absorbent

Gaseous products o f explosion. When explosives detonate, they usually form a


mixture o f solid, liquid, and gaseous products. The solid products may include sodium or
potassium carbonate, sodium o r potassium sulphate or sulphite, where sulphur is present
in the explosive, and calcium carbonate, etc. Nearly all explosives, except black powder,
form large quantities o f water, becoming vapor at moment o f detonation. Smoke con
sists o f the solid products in a finely divided state. Gaseous products are o f most impor
tance to the miner, siace they determine character o f fumes after a blast, and provide the
ruptive force. (For products o f different explosives, see Sec 23, Mine Air.)

4-04

4-05

EXPLOSIVES

H IGH EXPLO SIV ES

With the Bichel pressure gage (1) it is possible to detonate an explosive ina closed dumber, to
withdraw a sample of the gases formed by the explosion, and to determine their composition. The
gases produced by a 40% straight gelatin under these conditions have approximately the following
composition, as determined experimentally: CO2, 57%;_ N2, 42%; O2, 1%. Fumes given oS by
any explosive fired in a vacuum do not correspond with those fired under strong confinement.
The material blasted may greatly change the character of fumes, either by entering into the reac
tion, or by exercising a cooling effect on the explosion. Presence of water or high humidity also
may alter the fumes produced. The composition of the gases varies with different explosives.
In some cases there is a small amount of free O21 as in example cited above; in others, no free Oj
but varying amounts of CO and H2. CO is poisonous, and serious or even fatal consequences may
result from the use of explosives which produce large amounts of this gas in places where ventilation
is poor. See Table 2.

means. Becauiie o f this difference in composition, high explosive detonates with much
greater rapidity than black powder; hence, the great rending and shattering effect o f high
explosive, even when unconfined. It is a common idea that high explosives shoot
own, while black powder shoots up. This fallacy arises from the fact that the slow
black powder, when exploded unconfined on top of a rock or other object, does no damage
to the rock, but dissipates into the air; while the quicker high explosive, under same con
ditions m ay break the rock beneath it, even without confinement other than that of l i e
atmosphere. AH explosives exert equal pressure in all directions.

Table 2.

47.1%
h 2................

3.6

Cuft
per ib

Cu ft per
1 1/ 4 " X

By %

8"

cartridge

0 08

1.23
0.04

0. 9

0.10

CH4 .............
h 2s ..............
n o 2 .............
n

2 ................

0.7%

Cu ft
per lb

Cu ft per
1 1/ 4" X 8"
cartridge

0.04

0 .2

nil
2.46
5.35

.20

1.2
n il

45.9

Classification o f High Explosives

Principal types

Fumes, Special Gelatin 60%

Tested in Bichel Bomb; no confinement other than bomb itaeif. Total gas .= 5.35 cu ft per lb.

By %

Table 3.

2.62

Some states have passed regulations requiring makers of explosives to mark their
containers according to the fume class, which refers to amount o f poisonous gas
(GO and H 2S) in cu ft per V-U" X 8 " cartridge, when tested according to standard pro
cedure of U S Bur o f Mines. Fume Class 1, less than 0.16 cu f t ; Fume Class 2, 0.16 to
0.33 cu ft; Fume Class 3, 0.33 to 0.67 cu ft.
Fume Class 1 includes: Straight Gelatins, 20% to 60%; Ammonia Gelatins, 30% to 75%;
Ammonia Semi-gelatins (less than 128 cartridges).
Fume Class 2 indudes: Permissible gelatins and Semi-gelatins; Ammonia Dynamites, 15% to
80%; Low-density Ammnma Dynamites (not dipped); Class A Ammonia Permisdbles; Straight
Dynamites, 10% to 30%.
Fume Class 3 includes: Low-density Ammonia Dynamites (dipped); Class B Ammonia Per
missibles.
Explosives complying with the requirements of Fume Class 1 may be used in underground
workings free from combustible gases and/or combustible dust without specific application by the
operator to the Industrial Acddent Commission. The Commission also provides that the explosive:
( 1) has not deteriorated by prolonged or improper storage; (2) is properly charged and stemmed
with non-combustible stemming; (3) does not have a burden so heavy that it will be liable to blow
out; (4) is not overloaded; and (5) that the mine is properly ventilated.
Before blasting, men must be removed to a safe distance from the face, and shall not return
until the poisonous gases have been cleared. Explosives complying with the requirements of Fume
Classes 2 and 3 shall not be used underground unless the operator has made specific application to,
and shown to the satisfaction of, Industrial Acddent Commisdon that ventilation is adequate.
Character of fumes from an explosive is affected b y conditions under which explosive
is used. When dynamite b u r n s instead o f detonating the fumes are entirely different
from those formed b y detonation, and contain large amounts o f oxides of nitrogen and
CO, both poisonous. Burning o f dynamite in a drill-hole m ay result from improper
mode of charging; for example, if the fuse be passed through a cartridge, the dynamite
may be ignited b y side-spit o f fire from fuse. Blown-out shots are apt to produce noxious
fumes; weil-tamped shots are least apt to yield them. When dynamite is so charged that
ma-vimum amount of useful work is done, the fumes are least harmful.
Ammonia gelatins, straight gelatins and semi-gelatins give the least vol o f noxious
fumes per lb of explosive. The ammonia dynamites are next in order and the straight
dynamites are the worst. Ail of these give off much worse fumes when fired unconfined
than when tamped with adequate stemming.

2. HIGH EXPLOSIVES
General classification of explosives. There are tw o general classes: {a) the different
types of black blasting powder, and (b) high explosives. Black powder is a mixture of
combustible and oxidizing ingredients, no one o f which is explosive alone; high explosives
always contain an ingredient which is explosive in itself, at least when sensitized b y proper

Essential ingredients

I. Straight dynamite.

Nitroglycerin, sodium nitrate, and wood pulp


or other combustible material

2. Ammonia dynam ite.

Like 1, with addition of ammonium nitrate

3. Straight gelatin.......

Nitroglycerin, nitrocotton, sodium nitrate, and


wood pulp or other combustible material

4. Ammonia gelatin. . . .

Like 3, with addition of ammonium nitrate

5. Blasting gelatin.......

Nitroglycerin and nitrocotton

(, Granulated dynamite.

Sodium nitrate, sulphur, and coal, sensitized by


nitroglycerin

Gelatin permissibles. Used in


very wet work, especially
for "lifters where coal is
cut at roof

Similar to 3 and A, containing ammonium chlo


ride and sodium chloride to reduce the temp
of detonation

Ammonium nitrate class.

High percentage of ammonium nitrate, with low


percentages of nitroglycerin and wood pulp

Ammonium nitrate class.

Ammonium nitrate, with small amount of


organic nitro-compounds

8. Explosivesnot con Nitrostarch class.............

Nitrostarch, sodium nitrate, aminmiiim nitrate


and combustible material

Chlorate class.................

Potassium chlorate or perchlorate, with organic


substances

7. Special explosives
for coal m in ea ..

taining nitrogly
cerin.................

9. Liquid-ozygen explosives........................................ Liquid oxygen and findy divided carbon


Note. Low-freezing modifications of nearly all dynamites and gdatins are also on the market.
They have same essential composition as the above, with additional ingredients which cause them
to remain unfrozen for a long time at temp far bdow freezing point of other N G explosives..
Properties. The different types of high explosives (Table 3) vary widely in their
properties. Some are exceedingly quick, others relatively slow, still others intermediate
in quickness. They also vary in density, from the heavy gelatins to some of the coal
mine powder, which are very light. High explosives are graded according to their
strength compared with straight dynamite, the only type in which the grade strength
corresponds to^actual percentage o f nitroglycerin contained in the explosive. The other
types make up' their strength b y use o f nitro-substitution compounds, explosive salts and
guncotton.
Straight dynamite containing only N G, NaNOi, wood meal, and an antacid (Table 1),
is taken as the standard for determining strengths of all types o f dynamite. I t is more
or less pulpy, easily crumbled when wrapper is removed, obtainable in different strengths
up to 60% , very quick, fairly waterproof, and the most sensitive of the dynamites. A
60-lb case contains 100 U /4 b y 8 -in sticks. Straight dynamites are suitable for work
requiring strength and quickness, where water conditions are not too severe; not recom
mended where ventilation is poor. High explosives made from tetranitro-diglycerol have
a freezing point- of 35 F.
Ammonia dynamites have explosive base consisting o f N G and N H 4N O 3. They are
of same strengths as straight dynamites, but slightly slower and less sensitive; are not
easily ignited b y flame, and, hence, not liable to be lighted b y side-spit o f fuse. Because

4-06

EXPLO SIV ES

o f the solubility o f N H 4N O s in water, they require more care in w et work than straight
dynamites.
,
Straight gelatins are distinguished b y plasticity, high density, imperviousness to
water, and comparative freedom of their explosion products from noxious fumes; good
for wet work, or where ventilation is poor and where a permissible explosive is unnec
essary. They contain guncotton dissolved in N G, making a jelly which coats the soluble
ingredients, and imparts to latter its own characteristics.
Ammonia gelatins are somewhat similar to the straight gelatins in plasticity, density
and fumes, but they do n ot stand water quite so well.
Plpptfog gelatin is a tough, elastic, jelly-like mass which, except for 1 % o f antacid,
consists entirely of N G and nitro-cotton. It is the strongest and most water-resisting
of all explosives.
When loaded to fill drill-hole completely it ia excellent for hard rock, especially where large
holes can not be drilled. Owing to its elasticity it is difficult to make it fill the holes completely;
whence, a loss of efficiency. Best results are obtained if explosive is charged with wrappers on;
it can then be pressed in to fill the hole,, without so much tendency to spring back and leave unfilled
spaces When soft and plastic, blasting gelatin is no more dangerous than other explosives, but
when frozen it should be handled very carefully. It is dangerous to break frozen sticks of blasting
gelatin. Use of a proportion of ethylene glycol with the glycerin, nitrated, makes a satisfactory
low-freezing Blasting Gelatin.
,
Granular dynamites are mixtures of NaNOs and combustible dope in form of hard grains, with a
small percentage of N G. They are free running, especially the lowest grade, known as R E P ,
containing 5% N G, which is in grains nearly corresponding in size to FF blasting powder. R R P
dynamite is usually packed in parai&ned bags, containing 121/2 lb. Granular dynamites are
slowest of all dynamites, approaching black powder more nearly than other high explosives; not
well adapted for wet work, but resist water better than biack powder; especially useful for stripping
w o r k in sprung holes and for loosening sand and earth.
to n o
Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a brownish, yellow powder, the higher grades melting at about 80 C.
It is chiefly used as a military explosive, occasionally as a freezing-point depressant in commercial
explosives. TN T is about as strong as 50% Straight Dynamite, but, owing to very great oxygen
deficiency, its explosion produces so much CO that it can not be used underground where ventilation
^Picric add has been used as an explosive. It acts somewhat like TNT, but is uncertain in its
behavior and has the added disadvantage of staining everything with which it comes in contact a
bright yellow. Neither TNT nor picric acid stands water very well.
Coal
explosives. Permissible explosives, formerly called short-flame or safety
explosives, should be used in mines containing dangerous amounts of inflammable gas or
dust. They have been used in the XJ S since 1902, when 11 300 lb were sold. In 1913,
27 685 771 lb of permissibles were sold; in 1936,. 47 859 019 lb; in 1943, 90 845 344 lb.
Permissibles. A t the Pittsburgh testing station of U S Bureau of Mines, coal
mining explosives are tested to determine whether they meet definite requirements for
safety in fiery tufa. Those which pass the prescribed physical and chemical teste
are classed as permissible explosives (27), lists of which are published at intervals.
The tests include firing " blown-out shots into explosive mixtures of gas and air, coal dust and
air or gas and dust with air, in a steel gallery. Explosives which do not cause ignition of such
mixtures, and are also satisfactory as to chemical composition, stability, sensitiveness, and voluma
of poisonous gases evolved, are considered permissible, when used under prescribed conditions.
These explosives are recommended by U S Bureau of Mines for use in collieries, and in some states
are required by law for dangerous mines. Bureau of Mines bulletins describe methods of testing,
results, and fees for testing explosives (21, 27, 30, 43).
.
r
of permissible explosives in the TJ S: (a) ammomum-mtrate_explcsi.ves, containing
NH/NOs as chief ingredient, are insensitive to shock, free from liability to ignition from side^sjafc
of fuse, and produce small amount of noxious fumes; (6) hydrated explosives (now obsolete), m.
which the desired reduction of temperature results chiefly from water of ^crystallization of salta.
itirhidAd ia their composition; (e) explosives of the organic-aitrate (other than N G class)
nitrostarch explosives; () nitroglycerin class comprises those containing N G which are not included
in the other classes, and are now obsolete, the gelatin permissibles being far superior as to water,
resistance and freedom from fumes. In each class are explosives of widely varying properties, anathe selection of a suitable permissible depends largely upon local conditions (24, 27, 44).
H igh explosives not containing If G usually contain no liquid ingredient which can
freeze, a decided advantage in cold climates. They are usually lacking in plasticity, axe
often somewhat dusty, and have the disadvantages o f low density, low strength, ana low
sensitiveness. They can n ot be used indiscriminately instead of N G explosives, but.a.
useful for special purposes.
.
,
.
,
, A;n:
Low-freezing explosives, made from tetra-mtro-di-glycenn and ethylene glycol cum.
rate, are
in Droperties to other nitroglycerin explosives, but will resist freezing

B LA C K BLASTIN G POW DER

where in the United States.

4-07

necessity of thawing explosives any-

a lffcou ^ S T S IS r L i ? r i ^ aJ1CCThiUl un? eT&orf d work the U S,

stripping in the Middle West, where largebilta


T ^
extensively in eoal
fired with electric blasting oa^
? r,burdei1- They are
the oxygen causes the grass or other combustiMA^^lff mUSj
taken ^eir use, as
extremely inflammable. Their m-inrirm! j ,, + ^ ^ around the operation to become
they must be fired in a relatively short
che,a??ess; ^advantages are that
lamp black or gas black are dinnoH in tv,*. r *?
cartridges of finely divided carbon,
extremely variable Thv => m
oxygen, and strength of the cartridges is
y are mre * * * to * * * * *
any Other commercial

i i ^ X ^ o t t t i ^ d o ^ i t r ^ es t t s ^ S ' ?ut T

be teken that ^

have been used with some sueSS in v ^ r g V c a S S w 2 X


f
^
and in Lorraine, France in th* iron
)
? m weU arm-holes for quarrying,

Si S

has t o b e p r e p a r e d im m e d ia te ly b e fo r e u s i n ^ d i

i
t

s
o

p r a c t i M ^ e W ^ t ^ ^ T e t e V n Z ^ r ^ ^ ^ a i l T S d i f T ^ 'T
,caa n o t entJrely replace
they can aid in selection, i f carried o u t with a u i f u h L ^
ejcpl 1Ys for
particular work,
single apparatus or test is sufficient since the
, ppf
1^ and
com petent persons. N o
factors. Som e o f t h T i i r l S S t o t S c t o r / r f *iCal.v ^
? f a a p l o s i v e depends upon m any
S tb b k o th : determ ined X b S c m
X
*g* S T S t V
^ o r a t o r y , are;
velocity o f detonation: determ ined b y the
^
Druokmesser. Q uickn ess , or
Bichel (1) or the D autriche m eth od (10)
St b e n g t e a n d Q u ic k n e ss com bin ed : deter
\
mined b y the T rauzi lead b lo ck test (2).
V
(Note. F o r a discussion o f the D rucks
messer, Trauzi, an d ballistic m ortar tests,
\

with com parison o f results, see R e p Eighth s J L S O O

International C ong A p plied Chem, N Y ,


\
Yol 2 5 , p 2 1 7 ) . S a f e t y in gaseous and
Ifee
\
dusty m ines: determ ined b y means o f a
S ^ e r y , as a t the testing plant of
s
the U S Bureau o f M ines, Pittsburgh (63).
g
Otheb F a c toss are: propagating power,
density, resistance to water, resistance t o
freezing, stability, and sensitiveness to
impact. D en sity o f high explosives is gen
0.500
erally expressed in num ber o f 1 1/4 b y 8-in

fo.900

0.700

n s i a i S i S i - Ks 1 d Tabi*

Fig 1.

" dees per" ' '

Stick Count of Cartridges s Density

Table 4. Approximate Number Cartridges per 50-lb Case


Size of ctge,
in

Straight
dynamite

Ammonia
dynamite

35%
gelatin

7/8 X 8
1
X 8
11/8X 8
11/4X 8
11/2X 8
2
X 8

205
155
127
102
75
42

220
167
137

167
32

no

89
59

79
45

II!
34

60%
gelatin

.Semi-gelatin Semi-gelatin
(high density) (low density)

178
142
118

96
63
37

3. BLACK BLASTING POWDER

204
156
130

105
75
42

234
178
48
120
86
48

E XPLOSIVES

more commonly used than A powder, and is sufficiently strong for most o f the purposes
for which black powders are used. Owing to deliquescent property of soda niter, B
nowder is less desirable for use in damp climates, and for long transportation or storage.
Important properties.
Black
powder is not made in different
strengths like dynamite, but varies
in quickness, depending upon size
o f grain. Classes A and B
are o f different granulations. For
A powder the common sizes
are C, F, FF, and F F F ; for B
powder, CCC, CC, C, F, FF, FFF,.
FFFF. The CCC grains, repre
senting largest size and rarely
used, are about 1/2 in diameter;.
FF F F grains, the smallest, are
about
i11 diameter.
Fig 2
Fig 2. Standard Sizes of Black Powder Grains
shows the sizes to scale. The finer granulations are quicker than the coarser, and are used for blasting rock, coking coal,
etc; the coarser granulations are slow and are used for other coals, shale and earthwork, or wherever
it is desirable to heave out the material in large pieces, instead of shattering it (see Art 9). Blasting
powder is either glazed (polished) or unglazed. Glazed powder'is brighter, and more free-running
than unglazed, and is more generally used. Glazing does not increase effic and produces more
smoke. The sp gr of black powder varies from 1.5 to 1.9, usually about 1.8. High sp gr results
from compressing the powder to smaller bulk, with consequent reduction' of air-spaces in the grain.
Black powder is unaffected by cold, but has little resistance to water, since niter is readily soluble.
Cardox depends for its action on rupture of the disk at one end of a steel cylinder, filled with
liquid CO2 and containing a heating agent somewhat similar to Thermite. This gasifies the liquid
CO2, breaks the disk and emits gas at end of the cylinder at bottom <3f the borehole. Cardox is
used in gaseous and dusty mines for producing lump coaL
Airdox. Air from a portable compressor is pumped into a steel cylinder having a double-acting
valve, which remains closed at the end of the cylinder as long as press is applied inside cylinder.
When press is released the valve opens at head of cylinder, releasing the air. Airdox has the advan
tage over Cardox in that, with one unit, different pressures c&n be applied to the coal without change
in the apparatus. It is rather expensive, and so far has had limited application.
Pellet powder was introduced into the U S in 1928, and in 1943, 26 607 900 lb were
used, exceeding the amount of grain blasting powder b y about one-third.
The advantages of pellet powder are numerous. Being made in cylinders of 1 1/4 to 2 1/2 in
diam and 2 in long, and packed four pellets in a paper wrapper, each pellet having an axial perfora
tion about 3/g jn diam, it is easier to gage the amount of explosive needed for a certain shot than
when grain powder is poured into a previously made paper tube. As the cartridges are protected
by paper, there is leas danger from sparks falling into the explosive, and the cartridges being packed
in a wooden box, like dynamite, there is much less danger from handling, and the hazard of driving
a pick into the steel keg of black powder is eliminated. Pellet powder can be U3ed in somewhat
wet holes, provided the charge is fired immediately after tamping. It is best fired by an electric
squib, safety fuse or a miners squib.
Composition of Explosives Listed in Table 5
Hi~Velodty Blasting gelatin is a modification o f Blasting gelatin, b y which the
explosive reaches its maximum velocity at once, regardless of the water pressure under
which it is used. N ot suitable for close work underground.
Du Pont Extra has high ammonia content and low nitroglycerin, excellent fumes,
but a very slow, heaving action; 135 to 170 cartridges, 1 V 4 in b y 8 in, per 50-lb case.
Gelex " N o 2 is a low density, high ammonia, semi-gelatin, having a cartridge count
of about 120; is fairly plastic, sticks well in uppers, and is one of the best explosives for
close work; also one o f the most economical.
Red Cross blasting is a free running, granular high explosive, especially designed for
sprung-holes, although successful in certain kinds o f work where there is little moisture.
Gelobel C a permissible of the semi-gelatin type; resists water well and has good
fumes. M uch used for rock work in gaseous and dusty mines and for producing lump coal
where hard-rock bands are encountered.
Monobel is a permissible made in. 5 grades, designated b y letters A, B, C, D and E,
running from 135 to 205, 1 V4 in b y 8 in, cartridges per 50-lb case. They have much
lower velocities than the Duobeis, and with the latter comprise a series of permissiblfifl
adapted to every type o f coal mkung where the work is dry.

4-09

B LACK B LASTIN G POW DER


Table 5.

Brands of Explosives and Uses to Which They Are Adapted

Class of work

Explosive recommended

Class of Work

Hi-velocity 80% blast


ing gelatin

Explosive recommended
Gelex I and 2

Coyote tunnels . . . Nitramon


Block-holes.. Du Pont Extra D-H
Boulders

Mud-caps__ Hi-velocity gelatin 40%


Snake-holes.. Gelatin 40-60%
Wet

Gelex 2

Dry

Pellet powder
Red Cross blasting

Wet

Gelex 2

.Dry

Pellet powder

Du Pont Extra D-H

6
*
3
O'

Air- f Sprung.. Red Cross Blasting


hammer^
^
holes
Not
>-sprung.. Du Pont Extra

OpenClay
mining
Under
ground

Non-gaseous... Pellet powder


rWet
Coal
mining Gaseous
Dry

Gelobel C
Monobel or Duobel
Lump Coal C

Concrete and masonry.. Red Cross 40%


Foundation excavations. Special gelatin 30-40%

Well-drill holes___ Nitramon


Salamanders................. Blasting gelatin
LY Du Pont Extra
Scrapping old machy.. Straight 40-60%
Shaft sinking................ Du Pont gelatin 40-60%
[Weil drills............. Nitramon
Stripping

4-08

Hammer [ ^ et ' * Gelatin 40%


drills
-r,
1
[D ry.... Red Cross Extra
W *i K1

Red Cross blasting 2-4

lied Cross blasting 2


Red Cross blasting 2-3-5

Du Pont Extra E!, G!

Ice blasting.................... Gelatin 40%


Straight 40-60%

m in in g

Straight 40-60%

Spr

Gelex 2

Gypsum
mining

lime
stone

Spr

Submarine blasting___ Hi-velocity gelatin


Straight 60%
Tunneling and drifting. Gelatin, Du Pont
or Special 40-60%

Du Pont Extra D-E


Machine-

Sprung
holes...

Du Pont Extra C-i to


P-I
Wet. Gelatin 30%

Dry. Red Cross blasting


Openpit
Airhammer
Gelex 2
mining
WeU-drill holes. Gelatin and Du Pont
Extras
Duobel is the name of high-velocity permissibles, lettered from A to G and running
from 135 cartridges, 1 lU in by 8 in, per 50-lb case for Duobel A, to 250 for Duobel G.
"L u m p Coal C is a new permissible having medium density and extremely low
velocity. A t present made only in cartridges 1 V 2 and 2 in diam. It runs 118, 1 V 2 in by
8 in, cartridges per 50-lb ease.
Red Cross Extra dynamite is an ammonia dynamite o f high density, averaging 102
to 106 cartridges, 1 1U in b y 8 in, per 50-lb case. Strengths are from 15 to 60% and
suited to a wide variety of work.
Special gelatin is an ammonia gelatin similar in most respects to du Pont gelatin,
but not quite so water resisting and n ot adapted for very wet work, like submarine
blasting. Its fumes are considered slightly better than straight du Pont gelatin; no*
quite so dense as the latter.

4 -1 0

E XPLOSIVES

SHIPPING CONTAINERS

Seismograph Hi-Velociiy and Seismogel are specially designed and packaged to


meet the demands of seismic prospecting, for which see See 10-A, Art 4 and Table*
X V -X I X .
Straight dynamite consists o f N G, nitrate of soda, wood pulp and a small amount of
chalk. I t is the only explosive at present in which the grade corresponds to actual per
centage of N G. Has very poor fumes and should not be used underground. Very quick
in its action and especially adapted for propagation shooting of ditches.
D u Pont Extras D -l, E -l, F -l and G-t are o f considerably lower velocity than the
regular du Pont Extras, but in other respects are similar.
Niiramon is a new blasting agent, not o f itself explosive; that is, it is so insensitive
that it can n ot be detonated b y a blasting cap or impact o f a rifle bullet. Requires a special
primer to explode it. It is put up in tin cans from 4 in to 8 in diam, and 21 in to 24 in long,
the 21-in being the length of the 8-in diam can. Has been used very successfully in quarry
work, well-drill holes and tunnels, and, when used w ith Frimacord, is the safest blasting
agent now known.
Blasting gelatin consists o f N G and nitrocotton only, and is the strongest explosive
known. Used where greatest strength is required, regardless of expense.

with the explosives. Never overload vehicles. Put no metal or metal tools in the bed or body of
vehicle carrying explosives. See that explosives transported in open-body vehicles are well covered,
to protect them from sun and weather.

5. SHIPPING CONTAINERS
Black blasting powder for general use is shipped in kegs of two sizes, known as kegs
and half-kegs, containing 25 and 12 1/2 lb of powder, o r in 5-lb cans usually packed 20 in a
{jox. Much o f the black powder for anthracite coal fields is packed in paper cartridges
or skins, of 1 2 1/2 lb of powder. Tw o skins (25 lb of powder) are packed together
in a long can. Approx gross weights o f packages of black powder are:
25-lb keg with contents, 271/4 lb; 12 1/2-lb keg with contents, 13 8/4 lb; 20 5-lb cans, with con
tents and shipping box, 135 lb; 25-lb can, with contents in two cartridges, 29 lb.
High explosives are contained in cylindrical cartridges, about 8 in long b y 7/s to 2 in
diameter. Cartridges are usually packed in wooden boxes or cases, 25 or 50 lb to the case.
Table 6.

4, TRANSPORT OF EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING SUPPLIES


Transport by rail. A shipper o f explosives should be familiar with local ordinances,
state and federal laws, and the regulations of the Interstate Commerce Commission. By
A ct o f Congress, March 4, 1909, effective Jan 1,1910, and as amended M arch 4, 1921, the
Interstate Commerce Commission has power to regulate interstate transport of explosives.
These regulations specify that explosives to be shipped b y rail must pass certain testa for
stability and sensitiveness, that containers shall stand specified tests for strength, and that
cases and contents be packed in a prescribed way. Nearly all makers of explosives Hning
R R business pack their products to comply with the regulations. Copies o f regulations
are obtainable from Bureau o f Explosives (17, 33).
Explosives which can not be shipped by rail include: 1. Liquid nitroglycerin.
2. Dynamite containing over 60% N G (except gelatins); see Table 2, N o 3, 4, and 5,
3. Dynam ite having an unsatisfactory absorbent, or showing signs o f leakage o f N G.
4. Nitro-cellulose in a dry condition, in quantities over 10 lb, in one outside package.
5. D ry fulminates in bulk.
The matter of forbidden explosives is of interest to the user mainly in connection 'with condition
of his stock, in case of reshipment; then item 3 above becomes important. Dynamite stored for a
great length of time, or under adverse temperature conditions, may exude N G, and become unfit
for rail transport. With proper storage, reasonably rapid movement of stock, and care to use old
stocks first, this condition should not arise. If necessary to ship by rail explosives not acceptable
under Interstate Commerce Commission regulations, these explosives may be repacked only when
authorized by Bureau of Explosives. No explosives in broken or damaged packages should be
offered for rail shipment. The aforementioned Act of Congress makes it a criminal offense to ship'
explosives on common carriers carrying passengers for hire, or to offer for shipment any explosive
under deceptive markings.
Explosives which must not b e shipped together. T he Bureau o f Explosives publishes
a chart showing the explosives and other inflammable articles which must n ot be shippedtogether. A specially important regulation is that blasting caps must n ot be shipped or
stored with high explosives.
Condition o f cars.
R R cars in which explosives are shipped must be carefully
inspected, and must com ply with certain specifications. Th ey must also be certified and
placarded in uniform manner, as well as loaded and braced in a specified way.
Carload shipments. The Interstate Commerce Commission regulations permit
shipment in one car of n ot more than 70 000 lb gross weight of explosives. The minimum
quantity taken at carload prices varies with different railroads and in different parts of
the country, ranging from 17 500 to 40 000 lb. Consignee must remove shipment of
explosives from carriers property within 48 hr after notice o f arrival at destination; many
railroads allow only 24 hr.
Shipment by boat. Navigation laws must be complied with, also all local regulations as to
authorized docks and quantities which may be unloaded. Regulations prohibiting transport of
caps with dynamite apply whether the vessel is under Interstate Commerce Commission jurisdiction
or not; but it is permissible on large vessels, in certain cases, to carry caps in special compartments,
entirely separate from the cargo of high explosives and at safe distance therefrom.
Shipment by wagons or trucks. Special care should be taken that vehicles used for transport of.
explosives are in good condition and preferably provided with springs, free from excess grease and
oil, and that any exposed metal on the inside of vehicle is protected, to prevent its coming in contact

4 -1 1

Distances for Magazines, American Practice (16)

Blasting and electric


blasting caps
Number
over

Number
not over

1 000

5 000

5 000

10 000
20 000

10 000
20 000

25 000
50 000

50
100
200

150 000

200 000

250 000
300 000
350 000
400 000
450 000
500 000
750 000

Pounds
not over

50

100 000

150 000

250 000
300 000
350 000
400 000
450 000
500 000
750 000

Pounds
over

25 000
50 000

100 000
200 000

Other explosives

300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1 000

100
200

300
400
500
600
700
800
900
I 000
500

1 000 000

I 500

2 000

1 000 000

t 500 000

2 000

i 500 000

2 000 000

3 000
4 000
5 000

2 000 000

2 500 000
3 000 000
3 500 000
4 000 000

4 500 000
5 000 000
7 500 000
16 000 000
12 500 000
15000 000
17 500 000

2 500 000
3 000 000
3 500 000
4 000 000
4 500 000
5 000 000
7 500 000
10 000 000
12 500 000
15 000 000
17 500 000
20 000 000

Note: Distances for 125 000


to 225 000 lb: :rom inhabited
bldgs, I 900-2 095 it; from
RBs, 1 140-1 260 ft; from
highways, 570-630 ft. The
full schedule prescribes dis
tances for quantities up to
500 000 lb.

3 000
4 000
5 000

6 000

6 000

7 000

7 000
8 000
9 000
10 000
15 000
20 000
25 000
30 000
35 000
40 000
45 000
50 000
55 000
60 000
65 000
70 000
75 000
80 000
85 000
90 000
95 000
100 000

8 000

9 000
10 000
15 000
20 000
25 000
30 000
35 000
40 000
45 000
50 000
55 000
60 000
65 000
70 000
75 000
80 000
85 000
90 000
95 000
100 000
125 000

Public
Public
Inhabited
highway,
railway,
buildings,
barricaded * barricaded * barricaded *
(Feet)
(Feet)
(Feet)

\
*.

15
30
60
73

10
20

120

35
45
70

180
260
320
360
400
430
460
490
510
530
600
650
710
750
780
805
830
850
870
890
975
1 055
1 130
1 205
1 275
1 340
1 400
1 460
! 515
1 565
1 610
I 655
1 695
1 730
1 760
1 790
1 815
I 835

155
190
215
240
260
275
295
305
320
360
390
425
450
470
485
500
510
520
535
585
635
680
725
765
805
840
875
910
940
970
995
1 020
1 040
1 060
1 075
1 090
1 100

110

5
10

18
23
35
55
75
95
110
120

130
140
150
155
160
180
195
210

225
235
245
250
255
260
265
290
315
340
360
380
400
420
440
455
470
485
500
510
520
530
540
545
550

* Barricaded, as here used, signifies that the building containing explosives is screened from
other buildings, railways, or from highways by either natural or artificial barriers. Where such
barriers do not exist, the distances should be doubled.

4 -1 2

STORAGE OF E XPLO SIV E S AND BLASTING SUPPLIES 4 -1 3

E XPLO SIV ES

Character of cases, as to strength, thickness o f wood and construction, is regulated by


Interstate Commerce Commission. The number o f cartridges o f each size in a 50*Ib
ease is fairly regular for any given kind of dynamite. (See Table 4.)
Approx wt per cu in : Gelatin (straight and am m onia), 0.97 o z; D ynam ite (straight, ammonia,
an d granulated), 0.85 oz; C olliery powders, 0.63 o z. (Note, There are som e exceptions; also a
few explosives, such as the low granulated dynamites, which are packed in 12 1/ 2 -Ib paper -bags,
i bags to a case.)
Blasting supplies. C aps are packed in tin boxes, containing 100 caps, and the boxes in wooden
cases o f 500, 1 000, 2 000, 3 000, or 5 000 caps. E lectric caps an d electric squibs are packed in
cardboard boxes containing 25 or 50 each, an d these are packed in w ooden cases o f from 250 to 500
caps or squibs. Safety fuse is in coils o f tw o 50-ft lengths; shipped in w ooden boxes containing
from 1 000 to 6 000 ft.

region wheis magazine is situated. Tests show that it requires 10 in of sand, between
walls o f 1-in boards, to stop the bullet from a U S G ovt Springfield rifie. Where ordinary
sporting rifles, such as 30-30 Winchester, are used, 8 in of sand is sufficient. A 9-in brick
wall is bullet-proof against the strongest small arms in use in U S. In the case o f doors
it is found that z/$-in boilerplate, backed with 3 thickness of 7/s-in hardwood, will stop the
,^ > C GIoba Ventilator
Iron Ridge Roll

# 24 Gal*. Corr. _
Iron on I'Sheatiilng

4 Sand

6. STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING SUPPLIES

J T .& G . CeSHng
T 2 l 8*CeiUog Joit
" spaced abt. li f e , to c.
fo r Spruce or Hemlock.
24*c. to c. fo r Southern
o r Oregon P is s .

Explosives should be stored in well-ventilated buildings, erected for the purpose.


Buildings for storage o f black powder or blasting supplies should be fireproof; those for
dynamite, both bullet-proof and fireproof.
Location o f m agazine. In selecting a m agazine site the local topography should b e considered,
and advantage taken o f such natural protection as is afforded b y hills and areas o f tim ber. The
magazine should be fa r enough from adjacent buildings to minimize danger to life o r property
through an accidental explosion.
Table 6 gives distances depending upon quantity o f explosives required, 1919, to b e maintained
betw een magazines and inhabited buildings, publie railways, and public highways.
It is the result o f an investigation o f a com m ittee appointed b y the explosives m anufacturers o f
the U S, and represents conclusions reached after prolonged stu dy o f available data. T he Bureau
o f Explosives o f A m erican R ailw ay Association has approved and applies the distances specified
to b e maintained betw een magazines and public railways-. W h en there are specific state laws and
local regulations, th ey must be com plied with, but if therfe b e none, the table o f distances gives the
accepted practice. W here explosives are distributed am on g several magazines th e distances between
magazines should com p ly with the follow ing form ula^distances given are fo r magazines fully pro
tected from each other b y natural or artificial barriers; lacking such p rotection, distance should be
doubled). F or magazines coittakung 25 QQO^ tT or under, n o t less than 100 f t ; for magazines con
taining over 25 000 lb, add 11/3 ft fo r each 1 000 lb o f explosives added. W hen applying T a b le 6
fo r location , if magazines are nearer than the above distances, th ey should b e passed as one magazine
containing total q uantity o f explosives stored in all. M agazines containing blasting caps should
never b e nearer than 50 f t to any other m agazine, and if quantity is over 20 000 caps, distance
should b e at least 100 ft.

Construction of magazines.

Dimensions of magazine without aisles:

Capacity

Dimensions

Capacity

Dimensions

5 000 lb
10 000
15 000
20 000

8 ft X 8 ft
8
X 10
8
X 12
10
X 12

25
30
40
50

12 f t
12
14
14

000 lb
000
000
000

X
X
X
X

12 ft
14
16
18

' These capacities are


based on sues o f dyna
m ite eases (A rt 5). If
permisaibles or the more
b u l k y p o w d e r s a re
stored, capacities will
b e com ewhat reduced.

Magazines of these sizeB are for temporary use, and should therefore be as small as
possible for quantity o f explosives stored. They are for- consumers using explosives in
2 or 3 sizes or grades; dimensions are therefore minimum for given quantities, leaving
floor space sufficient only for a man to enter magazine when filled to capacity.
Dimensions of magazine with aisle from front to back and cross aisle through center:
In constructing a
magazine considera
Dimensions
Capacity
Dimensions
Capacity
tion should be given
25 000 lb
12 it X 18 ft
5 000 lb
8 ft X 9 ft
to perm an en cy of
30 000
12
X 20
10 000
10
X 2
storage, v a r ie t y o f
40
000
14
X
22
12
X
12
15 000
explosives, quantities
50 000
14
X 24
12
X !6
20 000
in which shipments
to magazine will be made, and ease o f replenishing stock from distributing magazines.
Construction specifications. Stone and concrete magazines are undesirable, because
o f danger from missiles in case o f accident. Brick or sand-filled magazines m ay be used
for dynamite, black powder, or blasting caps. W ood and iron magazines without sand
fiHing are suitable for black powder; other types m ay be used, but this is the m ost inex
pensive construction; it is not recommended for dynamite, because it is not bullet-proof.
The nature and thickness of walls varies with the kind o f small arms in general use in

T. G . Flooring
# T . & G. oa j fB o '
B oards.

fcft
1 ij

HALF CROS8 SECTION

2 X12"joist

pD

l8

rm i

Tf
If
si
i*
s &

Ground l i n e .

ieeq.

DETAIL OF VENTILATORS IN
BRICK FOUNDATIONS

*24-Sr

DETAIL OF VENTILATORS IN
CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS

CROSS SECTION O F STONE


FOUNDATIONS

"v|_

Note*
:aesb wire screes or
holes poached la%6Gata>
S la t in a

Loci; i
4U j

.out
' j*-2aa.H

DETAIL O F VENTILATORS IN
STONE FOUNDATIONS

CROSS SECTION O F CONCRETE


FOUNDATIONS

Fig 3.

B rick D ynam ite M agazine

bullet from a U S Springfield rifle. This combination of iron and wood seems to be the
most practicable, as any increase in thickness of either the w ood or iron, -with correspond
ing reduction of the other, adds materially to weight of the door.
Magazines o f various widths m ay be designed along lines indicated below, size and
spacing o f material being revised accordingly.

4 -1 4

EXPLOSIVES

STORAGE OF E XPLO SIV ES AN D B LASTIN G SUPPLIES 4 -1 5

(a) Dynamite magazine of brick. Fig 3 shows a brick dynamite magazine 14 ft wide and a
any desired length consistent with this width.
Foundations may be of brick, stone, or concrete. They should reach below frost line, or to a
good bearing material.
a
Waits are 9 in thick, laid in cement mortar. Use as soft a brick as possible, consistent with sond
quality and durability.
Bullet-proof roof consists of ceiiing-joiats, floored as shown. A box is formed above this flooria*
by a 8-in strip around walls, the box being filled with 4 to 8 in of sand. Bullet-proof roof construetion also helpa to maintain a uniform temperature.
^ .

Roof, cornice and floors (see specifications for brick magazine)


Foundation and ventilation (see specifications for sand-filled magazine)
Door. Standard door for this type magazine consists of two thicknesses of 7/a-in boards

" No-2

idmdaelis for^

js ,s t js s

To fit as close as poisHiia


to door plate

ELEVATION O F OUTSIDE
OF DOOR

SECTION A .A .

WOOD UNINQ

e j &om door f e m e to e . b ol H * * *Sfaap fo t Look B oli

2 A l l Space

{ x 11H Bolts

2 A ir Spasa

. .
n ie

K g 4.

DETAIL O F STEEL P U T E

...

.. _

' 2-ii Bo3ta


Door Strip

1 ^ K o u n d Head B te

Bullet-proof Dor for Magazine shown in Fig 3

Roof. Baiters .covered with rough boards or ship-lap, and then with No 24 corrugated galvanized
iron. The iron should have side lap of not less than two corrugations, and end lap of not less than
8 in. Tin roof may be used, but is more expensive.
Lining, Brick walls are lined with 2 by 2-in nailing strips, covered with 1 by 6-in boards,
forming a lattice work. Nails should be countersunk. The purpose of lining is to keep stock away
from walls and assist ventilation.
Cornice. Merely a strip of No 24 flat galvanized iron, bent and fastened over ends of rafters.
All iron should be put on with galvanized nails and lead washers.
Floors. 13/g-in matched flooring, or a sub-floor of 7/8 in, covered with 7/g-rn matched flooring.
Note that floor stops 2 in from brick wall, to provide ventilation from under floor.
Ventilation. Foundation is ventilated as shown in Fig 3.- Roof vents should be Star or Globe
ventilators, or equivalent, size and number depending on elimate, and size of building.
Doors. Fig 4 shows details of door for magazine shown in Fig 3.
(b) Wooden dynamite magazine, covered with iron and sand-filled (Fig 5).
Foundation may be of posts, brick, stone, or concrete, as beat suited to local conditions.
Walls are of two rows of 2 by 4-instuds, spaced as shown, desired quantity of sand determining
spacing of studs across wall. Studs are held parallel by nailers at top, bottom, and intermediate,
in number sufficient to prevent spreading under weight of sand. Studs are covered outside and
inside by 7/s-in matched boards, to prevent sand from leaking away. Space between is filled with
coarse sand (never use coarse gravel or broken stone because of possibility of their becoming missiles).
Lower foot of filling to consist of a weak mixture of sand and cement, to prevent remainder of sand
from leaking away. Outer sheaiang is covered with No 24 flat galvanized iron. For other details,
the specifications for brick magazine apply. When post foundations are used the board apron
should be ventilated by holes, 8 by 4 in, covered with punched sheet steeL
(c) Black blasting powder magazine. Fig 6 shows a wood and iron magazine for black powdei
or blasting supplies.
Walls. Of 2 by 4-in r 2- by 6-in studding, covered on outside with 7/g-in boards and No 24 flai
galvanized iron; on inside, by 1 by 6-ia lattice work.

I d or wita
wifhrstuds
S 8ini!f
*tTT ' 5tsand-filled,
Bh0? L b*. made
buli^
P roof by lining with 3 or 4 in of hard
wooa,
and sheatiuag,
or with
brick.
or
forA8*ra*e of 3 aU quantities of explosives within mine or quarry,
Xth
w a

u* ? ? ? be made of *** oak'


other hard wood and covered
iS if h f V
dynamite, iron should be at least Vie m thick. Top of box, of like material,
S iS c a t e c i S
InBldB metal ehouId be countersunk. Box should be kept locked and marked

>

4-16

E XPLO SIV E S

Care of stock in magazines. Magazines should be so constructed and located tha%


they will n ot be brought to high temperatures b y rays of sun. N G becomes less viscous

HANDLING OF E XPLO SIV E S AND BLASTING SUPPLIES

417

that temperature in magazine will not rise above outside temperature. Dynamites
containing-Jarge proportions of nitrate of ammonia, such as the ammonia permissibles
are liable to become set, so that, when subjected to high temp, they are difficult or impost
sible uO prune. Painting roofs and sides of iron magazines with aluminum paint reduces
the temp when magazine is exposed to suns rays. Take care to keep dynamite dry
especially the ammonia dynamites, as they contain hygroscopic salts, and in humid
climates may eventually attract enoughmoisture to impair their sensitiveness and strength
TVhen dynamite is shipped in winter at veiy low temperatures, it should not be sent down
immediately into the mine, as cold dynamite m ay condense enough moisture in the warm
humid mine to impair its efficiency. Magazines should always be in charge of one person
responsible for condition of magazine and stocks, and their proper and safe handling.
bo

Roles for dynamite and powder magazines.


Explosives must be handled carefully.
Do not throw down boxes of explosives violently, nor drag them along the fioor.
JJo not open boxes of dynamite or powder kegs in or near magazine.
Do not have in or about the magazine loose cartridges, open boxes of dynamite, or loose powder.
Do aofc inake up pntBera in the magazine.
Do not smoke, have matches, oil-burning lamps or lanterns, fire-arms or cartridges in, or near,
magazine. If artificial light be needed, use electric flashlight or electric lantern
Do not store blasting caps nor electric blasting caps in this magazine
Store dynamite and black powder separately. Store dynamite boxes flat, top side up, grades
end brands showing: store powder kegs on sides with seams down, or on ends, bungs down
Powder kegs should be rolled over and contents shaken every 2 or 3 months
Always use old stocks first.
Keep magazine fioor clean.
to p fe Z t

0l r *

* " tee '

Do not allow any shooting in neighborhood of lnaga;.


Keep the door locked. No unauthorized person should fee admitted to mag
Do not keep any steel, or metallic tools or other implements, in the
See that good ventilation is maintained during all seasons of year.
When repairs have to be made to interior of magazine, all stocks of explosives should be removed
carefully protected from weather during progress of repairs. Before starting
repairs m a black-powder magazine scrub floor with water. If dynamite has been stored in a maeasme, any stains on floor should be carefully scrubbed with solution consisting of: l/ 2 gal water
1 gal denatured alcohol, 1/4 gal acetone, 1 lb sodium sulphide (fused) or potassium sulphide.
Rules for blasting-supply magazines.
bl s
d * '
T eiectri?, blasting caps, nor coils of fuse lying around magazine,
ongl_?al pa?,kages until required for use. Keep packages closed.
Open boxes with a wooden mallet, except when lids are screwed on; then use a screw driver Do
not keep any other metallic tools in magazine.
unver. u o

7. HANDLING OF EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING SUPPLIES


. J 1*6 Interstate Commerce Commission in matters of transportation, and the majority
laws, recognize that explosives are a commercial necessity, and
furthermore that they can be handled with reasonable safety. Nevertheless, one must
always recognize their nature; their function is to explode. All owners of explosives
require employes to observe ngidly the rules and regulations which experience has
shown will best conserve safety of the men themselves, as well as of the public.
maf^ zine- 'Dse only wooden or non-sparking metal tools in breaking the
t wedges and mallets answer all practical purposes. Damaged or broken
S . K
,
J* Set aside- and not teken
magazine with undamaged
CM6S ? kegs 8h ul<1 be takea to a safe distance from magaainefor
ttfu ^ fiid ^ X
Xf I dt magei f ^ 0
for repair'
explosives to point of consumption
SoLm
11
.
cartndges or loose grains of powder are scattered in the car, they
d S o v ? T f S - fiWeP-,UP/ n^ re? Ved faefore Proceeding with unloading, and afterwarcfa
be no
T i
railroad hag to magazine, and runways and trucks are used, there should
mke
T W^
d ^ UCks 8hould fae rubber-tired. If an inclined chute is used,
D -s h a ^ lt r & or riinnA
^
** g,f ?
throughout its length, fastened with brass screws.
S S S d bt
+'
i
f apsrt 8ad running lengthwise of chute, should be
tadfaL
PK t0 Tv15 T face of ho} tom boat<L
S a m it e packages are being
E S T?n ? !
t
V
moistened with machine oil. A mattress, 4 by 6 ft, and not
*Brze end
S i
A T *7 ^
f v P ^
of flkft ^ ensions, should be placed under dis lute\ Chute must not be so steep that packages slide too rapidly. With a long
siatloa men at Sequent intervals along it, to check speed of packages and prevent bumping
T

Fig 6.

Black Powder Magazine

at high temperatures, which m ay cause the dynamite to leak. In h ot climates metai


magazines should be protected by double roof and sides, -with good ventilation between,.

4 -1 8

E XPLO SIV ES

together. Do not rehandle or switch the car to other points after the bradng baa been removed;
in case part of shipment is to go to another point, the part remaining in car should be rebraced
(according to Interstate Commerce Commission regulations) before car is offered for shipmeat.
The load on any vehicle should be braced. Always protect explosives from weather.
'Within mine or quarry. Same rules and regulations should be adopted as apply
around magazines and elsewhere above ground. Never bring exposed lights close to
explosives. Only the smallest possible quantity for economic handling or operation
should be taken underground at one time. In transporting into the mine b y cage or
tram-car, only the man in charge should be permitted to ride in same cage or car 'with
explosives. Primers shouid be made up at a point entirely separated from regular stock of
dynamite. If made up above ground, they should be taken into mine at a separate time
and in separate car from other explosives. In opening dynamite cases, use no metal tools
other than those made o f non-sparking materials; wooden wedges and mallets are best.
Blasting-powder kegs should be opened b y turning back the four clips at the bung and
lifting the cap and paper washer with the fingers. Never drive a hole in a powder keg
even with a wooden pin. T he rather common practice of driving a pick or other tool
through the keg is dangerous. If possible, avoid leaving dynamite or powder in mine
over night. If this can not be avoided, the explosive should be left in a place set aside
for that purpose, protected from dampness, and posted so that all persons will know nature
of material stored.
Thawing frozen dynamite. Practically all high explosives now made in the TJ S
are formulated on t i e low-freezing or non-freezing basis, so that thawing dynamite, with
its attendant hazards and expense, has ceased to be a factor.
Disposition of damaged explosives. Dynam ite t o be destroyed should be removed
from magazine in quantities n ot exceeding 100 lb, to a safe place 400 to 500 ft distant from
any magazine, and 1 000 ft or more from any dwelling, building, public road, or railroad;
where, in event o f its exploding while burning, no damage will be done. Lids of boxes
should be carefully removed with wooden wedge and mallet, each cartridge slit, and the
opened cartridges spread upon the ground over as large a space as practicable. T o insure
proper burning of the dynamite, spread a quantity o f straw, papa- shavings, or excelsior
on ground first, on which dynamite is placed. A chain of straw paper, or other material,
is then led away from the dynamite to such a distance that it may be lighted without
danger of flame reaching the dynamite before operator reaches a position of safety, which
should be 400 or 500 ft distant. Explosions sometimes occur, even with care, and operator
should never remain near the burning explosive. Black powder m ay be destroyed by
pouring it into a stream or large body o f water; the greater part quickly dissolves and
remainder becomes harmless. Cases which have contained dynamite are dangerous;
they shouid not be used again for any purpose, but should be burned, using same precau
tions as described above for destroying damaged dynamite.
T o destroy damaged blasting caps, place them, not more than 100 at a time, in a paper
bag containing a small dynamite cartridge, with a good electric blasting cap in the middle,
or in contact with the damaged caps; put the bag in a hole in the ground, cover it with
sand, and fire with a blasting machine from a distance n ot less than 200 ft. Fuse and cap
can be used with care when the bag and damaged caps are completely covered. If it is
impossible to dig a hole, the caps m ay be drowned in deep water, but not in rivers, ponds or
creeks. Before being destroyed, electric blasting caps should have their wires cut off an
inch or two from capsule, as the wires are liable to cushion the shock and prevent complete
explosion of all the caps. Observe utmost caution in handling blasting caps, as they are
extremely sensitive to shock, friction, heat, and sparks.
Precautionary Rales:
D on t forget the nature of explosives; but remember that with proper care they can
be handled with comparative safety.
D on t smoke while handling explosives, and don t handle them near an open flame.
D on t leave explosives in a field where cattle can get at them. Cattle like taste.of
soda and saltpeter in explosives, but the other ingredients m ay make them sick or kill them.
D on t carry loose caps in the clothing. K eep them in their boxes.
D on t tap or attempt to open a blasting cap or electric blasting cap.
D on t try to withdraw wires from an electric blasting cap.
D on t attempt to take caps from the box b y inserting a wire, nail, or other sharp
metallic instrument.
D on t store or transport blasting caps or electric blasting caps with high explosives..
D on t store fuse in a h ot place, as this m ay dry it out so that uncoiling will break it
D on t allow priming (the placing of the detonator in dynamite) to be done in thawingbouse or magazine.

CHARGING AN D F IR IN G EXPLOSIVES

4 -1 9

_ Dont leave explosives, caps, or blasting machines in a wet or damp place. Keep in a
suitable, dry place, under lock and key, and where children or irresponsible persons
can not get at them.
Don t use frozen or chilled explosives; it is dangerous and wasteful.
Don t thaw dynamite on heated stoves, rocks, sand, bricks, or metal, nor in an oven;
dont thaw dynamite in front of, near, or over, a steam boiler, forge, or fire o f any kind.
Don t heat thawing-house with pipes containing steam under pressure; high tempera
ture is dangerous and escaping steam m ay spoil the explosive.
D ont place a hot-water thawer over a fire; never put dynamite into h ot water, nor
lo w it to come in contact with steam.

8.

CHARGING AND FIRING EXPLOSIVES (See also See 5, 6)

Priming is the placing o f a detonator, electric blasting cap or blasting cap attached to
fuse, m a dynamite cartridge, o r placing an electric squib in a cartridge of blasting powder
or pellet powder. For high explosives, place detonator so that its closed end points
toward b u ii o f the explosive. For rotation shots it is advisable to put primer at or near
bottom o f hole, with the detonator pointing toward the collar, to prevent the primer from
bemg thrown out in case the collar of the hole is cut off b y a previously fired shot. I f primer
is inserted last, place the detonator so that its closed end points toward bottom o f hole.

sgls

N
f Fig 7.

Methods for Pruning. Dynamite. A and C are recommended; E, often used

Fig 7 shows methods for priming dynamite, (A) with cap and fuse, (B) with electric blasting
cap, m cartridges o f 1 tyg m diam or less, (C) with electric cap, in cartridges o f 1 i /a in-diam
or more.
The detonator should be so secured that it will not change its position, nor jam against
aides of hole, nor come in contact with tamping stick. In priming dynamite with cap and
Rise, the fuse should never be laced or run through the cartridge, because side-spit of
fuse will often ignite dynamite, a part o f which will burn, decreasing efficiency of charge
and producing noxious fumes. T op o f cap should be imbedded 1/2 in deep in the dynamite
to cushion it from tamping stick. This small length o f fuse will n ot side-spit before cap
explodes.
Charging. Eliminate all air spaces b y slitting cartridges lengthwise with a sharp
Imife and pressing them firmly home, so that they expand and entirely fill the hole. Excep
tions to this are: (a) Blasting gelatin should not be slit, as it is so elastic that it can n ot be
rammed solidly like other dynamites; (6) in certain veins o f coal an air space is purposely
left to cushion action o f explosive and so prevent undue shattering.
There are 4 methods of cushion blasting (Fig 8): (a) leaving an air space of 4 to 6 in or more at
bottom of hole; (6) using cartridges of much smaller diam than the hole and not expanding them;
(e) leaving a spacer at the end of the cartridge and tamping up solid to the spacer; (d) putting in
the first and second dummy of tamping very lightly, or using rock dust for the first dummy

4-20

EXPLO SIV ES

CHARGING AND F IRIN G EXPLOSIVES

Tamping is required in practically all work except springing a hole (see below). The
word tamping is now used to designate the act of compacting the explosive or the
stemming in the drill holes, while
stemming designates the material
used for confining the explosive. Stem
E xplosive
ming is necessary for all explosives
to develop their full power, to minimize
A ir sp aceStem m ing
amount of poisonous gases evolved, and
to do the work at least cost. The oniy
possible excuse for n ot using stemming
is if misfires are expected, and these
can generally be avoided b y careful
priming. It is easy to insert another
primer and explode the missed charge if
no stemming is used. Clay, sand, and
loam make best stemming.
Broken
rock, screenings, and ore dust serve
fairly well, but are liable to break or
cut the fuse or wires.

but alternating current k equally efficient when of a frequency of 60 cycles or more, and can be used
dowii to 25 cycles. Alternating currents of lower frequency may cause trouble from misfires of
the less sensitive caps in the circuit.
uuanres or

Tamping is sometimes slighted in charg


ing high explosives. But it should not be
neglected; it produces better confinement
of the charge, and the stronger the confiement, the completer the reaction, the
more effective the explosion, and the more
nearly do the gases approach the chemist's
ideal of consisting only of COs, N and
steam. Whenever bad fames appear, look
to the tamping and make sure that it is
adequate.
Sprung holes. A drill-hole may be
straight or sprung.
A straight
hole is one which is loaded and fired
Fig 8. Modes of Charging for Cushion Blasting without enlarging. A sprung hole ia
enlarged at the bottom b y exploding in
it one, two, or more, successive charges. These charges are usually n ot tamped
(stemmed). The first charge usually consists of 1 or 2 cartridges, increased in sub
sequent charges until the chamber is large enough to hold the required quantity of
explosive. This operation is known as springing, chambering, or squibbing.
Springing is done to concentrate a large amount of explosive ia the bottom of the hole, thereby
saving cost of drilling a number of holes. Sufficient time should elapse between successive springing
to allow hole to cool completely; there is great danger in charging a freshly sprung hole. Except in
soft rocks, quick-acting dynamites are better for springing than the slow-acting, as more of the rook
is thrown out of the hole and there is less liability to cave and choke up. If aides of hole are very
rouch, final charge may be loaded through a tube of brass, tin, or galvanized iron, about 2 ft long
than the hole and as large as will fit into it. This prevents cartridges from being caught on' or
smeared along sides of hole. Where a loading tube is not available, the cartridges are usually
attached to a sharpened stick, lowered to bottom of hole and shaken off. Never spring a hole
adjacent to a loaded one.
Wiring for electric blasting.
parallel series connection.

4-21

lD>iP! f ? 1w lr T ill ! (Fli 1<|>


fr0 -ea0fa cap conDeeie(i to one leading line, and the
second cap wire to the other leading lme. This method can be used only where a power or lighting
current is available, having 1.5 amperes for each cap so connected. Thus, with 20 caps firing drcuif
mast have at least 30 amperes. The voltage required is very low. The greater the number of
caps m circuit, the lower the resistance. Assummg resistance of leading wire at 3 ohms and resist-

1
S

r S

e i

resif ta= f

^ 2 0 c&Ps ia Parallel is (1 ^ 20) + 3 oh m s o r 3.05 ohm s.


e le ctric c a p s are n o t o fte n u s e d o n a c c o u n t o f la rge v o lu m e o f

In parallel-senes wiring (Fig 11) the caps are first connected ia series of say from 4 to 10 and
each sen thus connected is in turn attached at its two free ends to the leading wires. The rent
required is found, by multiplying the number of
series by 1.5, which gives the current in amperes.
To determine required voltage, multiply resistance
Souree o f power
of each cap by number of caps in each series, and
divide that by total number of series. This system
ia used frequently for firing a large number of
charges, where power or lighting current is avail
able.
Electric firing may be done with a blast
ing machine, or a power or lighting circuit.
It is generally best and simplest to use a
blasting machine, with the caps connected in
senes; but with m odem , shunt-wound ma
Fig 11. Parallel-seriea Wiring
chines; having a capacity o f 50 caps, parallel
series connections have been used successfully, provided n ot more than four series with
50 caps in each are connected to the machine. Ends o f wires should be scraped bright
and dean and t e s t e d tightly together, and, if much water be present, covered with
msulatmg tape. The two remaining free wires from the two caps at ends of series are
then connected to the leading wires, which should be bent or hooked at end, to prevent
the smaller wire from slipping if leading wires are subjected to strain. Test circuit with a
.WiiBbroken

,Leading

There are three general methods: series, parallel, and

In series connection (Pig 9) one of the wires from first drill-hole is connected to the leading or
firing line. The other wire is then connected to one of the wires from second hole and the other
wire of that to one of the wires of third hole, and so on to the last hole; the remaining free wire
from that is connected to the leading or firing line. Series connection is necessary when firing with
ordinary blasting machine. The current required for series connection is at least 1.5 amperes, and
the voltage sufficient to overcome resistance of electric caps. Resistance varies with length of
wires. About one volt is required for each cap connected ia series, although an excess, up to
about 440 volts, is not harmful. Too high voltage may cause misfires from short circuits across the
cap wires, especially when more than one cap is used in a hole. Direct current is generally used

Fig 12.

Testing Circuit with


Galvanometer

Wasting^galvanometer at ends of leading wires which are to be attached to battery (Fig.


U). This is to be sure there are no broken connections or short circuits. Poor con
tacts and connections give abnormally high resistance readings. Looped connections of
wires may show no circu one moment and normal resistance the next. When spliced wires
touch each other and make a short circuit, no resistance is shown (Fig. 13). The ends of
leading wires are inserted into the binding posts o f blasting machine and firmly secured by

4 -2 2

EXPLOSIVES

SPECIAL USES FO R E XPLOSIVES

thumb nuts. Place blasting machine on a level spot (a dry board or plank is best), to
prevent its tipping over, and operate handle with both hands and full force.

because of their comparative freedom from liability to ignite gas and dust mixtures

If firing is by means of a power or lighting circuit, use a special switch of such design as to show
at a glance whether circuit is open or closed. Avoid complicated switches, especially those having
springs. .The switch should be so constructed that it can be locked in the open position. The
cut-out on switches should be of ample capacity and, when delay electric caps are used, the switch
should be closed and opened again as quickly as possible to prevent the wires in the holes from
becoming heated, sometimes sufficiently to ignite the dynamite.

lifter W e . The e l e e t i r f V e W e i f i k e e
u
S
S

^
? b' d
mg amount o f explosive beyond a certain point, because a definite S S h i +y
required to prevent charge from blowing out
depth o f tamPme 13

blasted more satisfactorily b y electrieitv than


(Art 10) are

I T lS r *
Fig 15.

I t i*

It is often feasible to substitute with satisfactory results a iesa


cl^ss.of If bormore costly one, in mines where the
S2de
*
charging and firing other than those to which they are accustomtd T h S ,1* S L ?
tite, a slow-acting ammonia powder properly p r im S 3 2
^
T ? ^
i n
break m oreore per pound than a more expensive dynamite handled u S S n S ? S S
use of short fuse, lacing fuse through cartridee and
7 ~ T emgeni Iy- Tfae
and extravagant practices, often difficult to eradicate (24 28)
P g ar

M ode of lighting for cap and fuse firing. Often done b y taking an extra piece o f fuse
2 or 3 ft long, and cutting notches in it with a knife at intervals of about 2 in. The end
of this fuse is then lighted, and, when powder train bum s up to
a notched place, the flame spits out vigorously. B y directing
each of these flames against end o f the fuse to be lighted a round
o f shots m ay be lighted with certainty, in a few seconds.
This method m ay inflict disagreeable bums on blasters hands
unless care is taken. Lighting fuse with h ot lamp tir candle
is unsafe, as the spit of the ignited fuse may extinguish flame
and leave blaster in the dark. One o f the surest and safest
methods is to slit the fuse at the end to expose powder train,
and light it b y means of a l e a d s p i t t e h , which consists of a
piece of lead tube Vs in diam, filled with meal powder (Fig
14). It burns at about same speed as fuse, but emits a strong
shower o f sparks, even in wet dripping mines and tunnels.

Fig 14. Lead Spitter

4 -2 3

* *

stratjfacation, cut-holes are often


W

Iatto

S2

Hot-wire Fuse Lighter

The Hot-wire fuse lighter (Fig 15), which consists of an iron wire covered with a powder compo
sition,is even more convenient than the lead spitter. They are in lengths from 7 to 12 in, and quite
uniform in burning speed, so that they serve as a safety signal, showing the blaster when it is time
to retire.
should be used, to avoid possibility o f fire

Precautions in Charging and Firing


D on t tamp with iron or steel bars. Use a wooden tamping stick, with no metal parts..
D on t force a primed cartridge into a drill-hole. Drill hole o f ample size for cartridge..
D on t prime dynamite cartridges, nor charge nor connect drill-holes for electric firing
during immediate approach or progress of a thunderstorm.
D ont fasten cap to fuse with the teeth, nor b y flattening it with a knife; use a crimper.
D on t attempt to use electric blasting caps with ordinary insulation in very wet work;.
For this purpose secure waterproof caps.
D on t handle fuse carelessly in cold weather; when cold it is stiff and cracks easily.
D on t lace fuse through dynamite cartridges. This practice is frequently responsi
ble for burning the charge.
D on t cut fuse short to save blasting time. I t is dangerous economy.
D on t use fuse that has been injured b y falling rock or in other manner.
D ont explode a charge before every one is well beyond danger zone and protected
from flying dbris. Protect supply of explosives also from this source o f danger.
D on 't explode a charge to chamber a drill-hole and then immediately reload it, as the
hole will be hot and second charge m ay explode prematurely.
D on t use a permissible powder in same drill-hole with another explosive.
D on t hurry in seeking explanation for a misfire.
D on t drill, bore, nor pick out a charge which has failed to explode. Where safe, drill
and charge another hole at least 2 ft from the missed one.
D on t expect high explosives to do good work if you try to explode them with a
detonator weaker than N o 6.

9.

SPECIAL USES FOR EXPLOSIVES

to T S

Permss

explosive

S ie L iijX J d n e ^ t J T t S S T

bench, and in d iy holes or u n n t T S


? - H ? f USUaUy wet esPeciaIly in the
v
. or uPPers, gelatin is desirable because it can be relied unon

^ ce
less of the S

3 5 S

<^^nan^^e *s usuaUy best for shaft sinking, due to its water resist
T h k m Z T f 0ZI- ! & ***& depends on hardness and tough-

H igh explosives in coal mining. Use o f the permissible explosives, as defined by


testing station of the Bureau of Mines (21), is increasing in both anthracite and bituminous,
fields. They were used at first in gaseous and dusty mines solely as a safety precaution,

EXPLOSIVES

SPECIAL USES FOR E XPLOSIVES

using semi-gelatins, which are also suitable in the same conditions where rock is compara
tively soft. These explosives give off a minimum o f obnoxious fumes.

(usually 9 0 % ), a 2 b y 8-in cartridge o f 6 0 % straight dynam ite is often used as a booster fo r the
electric cap.
Quite recen tly a high-velocity gelatin has been developed which is well suited t o submarine
blasting. It picks up its full v elocity a t once, thus differing fro m other gelatins which take from
i to 8 inches to reach full velocity. H igh -velocity gelatin aiao detonates with full strength and
velocity under water pressure where any other high explosive would fail. I t is much less likely to
propagate fro m hole to hole than the straight nitroglycerin dynamites.
M iscellaneous u se s: clearing land o f stumps and boulders; ditching and draining swamps;
breaking lo g an d ice jam s; destroying w recks; cutting o ff pilings; breaking soil for tree plantingbardpan and subsoil blasting; digging holes fo r posts an d poles; excavating for foundations and
cellars; trenching for tiling and pipe lines; breaking frozen ore and other materials; loosening
frozen material in railroad cars; tearing d ow n old buildings; splitting logs for railroad ties, fence
rails, etc; cutting o ff large fires; starting sn ow slides; breaking old building foundations; blasting
old mine tim bers; controlling forest fires.

4-24

Quarrying dim ension ston e; also ston e fo r fills, rip-rapping, and cribbing, as well as fo r build
ing
Use slow -acting explosives; the m ore powerful, quick-acting explosives shatter the stone.
Granular, and other slow -acting powders, such as the low-freezing am m onia grades, m a y b e used
in holes where an air space is left fo r starting a line o f fracture. F o r subsequent blasting, black
pow der is best, fired b y electric squib or ordinary fuse. F o r large charges, blasting pow der is
fired with advantage b y a dynam ite primer.
^ , ...
^
Quarrying small ston e (for crushers, cem ent works, kilns, etc) (29, 32). H igh explosive may
be used, the one best adapted t o b e determ ined b y experience. Q uick-acting p lo s iv e s are best for
rock which readily transmits shock o f explosion t o a considerable distance. H a rd lim estone, trap,
granite, etc, usually require dynam ites o f 5 0 % strength and upwards. I n v ery w et h o i , where
explosive is im m ersed several hours, gelatin dynam ites m ust b e use<L I n d ry w ork, and m rock
which absorbs m uch of sh ock of explosion, slow -acting explosives, lik e granular pow der and low freezing am m onia powders, are usually best. Quick-acting explosives should n o t b e used m rocks
like sandstone and marl, nor slow -acting explosives in flint, grsjute, or the like. Low-freezing
explosives o f all grades, especially low-freeaing gelatins, are preferable in cold weather, because they
d o not suffer loss in efficiency as n oted with the straight grades.
_
, ..
,
Straight nitroglycerin dynam ites are n o t recom m ended fo r quarrying, as th e gelatins h ave every
advantage possessed b y the straight powders an d are m uch safer to handle. T h e o n ly exception to
this is that fo r m udcapping, straight powders are m u ch m ore effective than gelatins. In well drill
holes good results are obtained b y using 5 0 % or 6 0 % gelatin in the b o tto m an d 5 0 % or 4 0 % ammonia
dynam ite as a top charge, an d firing with Prim acord. A special gelatin has been recently developed,
S T S Q ^ r r y Gelatin, -made on an unbalanced form ula an d suitable fo r open w ork only. It
gives excellent results in hard rock quarries. It must never b e used underground.
Stripping. T h e slow est-acting high explosives are b est; granulated dynam ites s a d lo w grades
o f low-freezing amm onia dynam ites (20 t o 3 0% ) being generally used. In h ea vy stripping, holes
should be sprung and fired with slow est-acting explosive. F o r d ry w ork, free-running dynam ite or
a mixed granulation o f blasting pow der iB m ost econom ical. F o r m oist ground use ^ n u l a r dyna
m ite; if very wet, a low -grade straight dynam ite. H igh-grade dynam ite, such as 4 0 % straight,
is good for springing charges, b u t not fo r final charge except when holes are full o f water.
_
W ell sinking; quickest m ethod. Small V -cut, o f 4 o r 6 holes, drilled b y hand an d loaded with
6 0 % gelatin dynam ite; subsequently trim m ed up w ith vertical holes o f sam e depth and blasted with
well-tam ped charges o f sam e explosive. E ven if holes are under water, always tam p with sand to
^ ^ c r a r a L T o ^ m a c l i i n e r y . W h en w ork warrants the expense, best explosive fo r breaking iron is
blasting gelatin. It can b e m olded in to shape as required, strung out t o p roduce a break at point
desired, and will stick where n o other explosive will d o so.
I f blasting gelatin is n o t obtainable,
or is to o expensive, use high-grade straight dynam ite (5 0 % or 6 0 % ). Charges should b e well
covered with w et mud, or w et clay free fro m particles o f ston e or ro ck ; w ith clean, fine m ud, shots
are m ade with slight danger to surrounding objects. Scrapping o ld m achinery in buildings may
frequently b e done w ithout breaking any glass, if windows are open a t top and b ottom when shot is
fired. H igh explosive m ay b e used fo r driving out keys fro m shafting, driving a wheel from an axle,
or loosening spindle from a crushing roll, b y using p lenty o f m u d w ith small charges, placed where
blow is t o b e struck.
R oad building. E xplosives are used in road building principally fo r rock excavation, or loosening
sand, loam , or d a y . I n d r y work, 4 0 % am m onia dynam ite, and in w et work, 4 0 % gelafan are bfc
for hard rock, an d 4 0 % low -freezing am m onia fo r soft rock. F o r loosening soil, the weakest and
slowest explosives are best, since their effect extends farther than.that o f quicker-acting explosives.
Low-freezing 2 0 % am m onia'dynam ite, granular dynam ite, an d railroad blaok blasting pow dw are
econom ical fo r this work. I n loosening earth, ^ a k e h o le s n o t deep,
30^
T h il
to center loadin g each w ith n ot m ore than tw o cartridges o f 1 V4 b y 8-in dynam ite, liu s charge
^
n ot m ake deep p o t holes and material can b e handled with horse scraper m th o u t im ringthe
animals
F or blasting boulders, block-holing is m ost econom ical, and 4 0 % low-freezing dynanute
is- suitable
I f tim e is m ore im portant than econ om y o f explosive, boulders can b e broken quicker
b y m ud-capping or a d obe shots, with 40 t o 6 0 % straight dynam ite. F ree-runninghigh explosives
have been developed to a point recently where th ey are used extensively in roa d building, and in
eeneral blasting where boles are sprung, or where it is undesirable t o use blasting pow der o n account
f f S i i S S * o X m
S h o v e d dinkeys, as th ey are n o t s o :inflammable as
T h ey are m ad e in 4 or 5 strengths, are usually packed in bags, and can b e poured in to the.holffl,
^ J ^ b ^ g ^ T
S g S
dynam ites w ithstand-action o f water better than a t e
H g h e 5 ^ e s ! S f n g g e l a t i f stands water alm f t indefinitely), * * * Q J j S S
usually preferred for submarine excavation because o f their ^ e a te r sensitiveneM.
best
of the water is usually so lo w that gelatins, less sensitive than straight dynam ite under the best

t o explode b y concussion from an adjacent hole, if holes are n o t m ore than 4 o r 5 f t apart, c o m
quently, in case o f failure o f one of the electric caps or connections, all the holes wiU b e expioae
y
concussion
In submarine work, holes are generally untam ped, except b y water, an d t h e q m c ^
S T s t r a i g h ? dynam ite therefore does better work. T h e cartridges should ^ ust f i t J e h d j
S d a t t y necessary fo r shallow holes. W here range firing is n o t practiced and gelaUn is used

4 -2 5

Black blasting powder in coal mining has so long been used that, as regards execution
only, it is considered best for this work. M ost coal miners are so famiiiar with its use,
and good miners can judge it so accurately, that excellent results are usually obtained with
it (10). The slow heaving action o f black powder produces a large percentage of lump
coal. Because of its bulk, it can be charged advantageously and estimated so closely that
it can generally be used more economically than other powders. But, as black powder is
loose, care and judgment are required to get best results.
Black pow der is m ade up b y the miner in paper cartridges or shells, observing follow ing pointsM ake cartridge o f proper diam to slip in to the h ole without t o o m uch waste space, and o f proper
length t o h o ld ju st the q uantity o f pow der necessary. Shake the powder down in to the shell, to
compact it, t o m inimize air-space and get the full force. A fter cartridge is placed in hole it m ust be
well pushed back, unless an air-space is desired t o cushion force o f explosion (F ig 19).

Fig 16.

B lasting in C oal with B la ck Pow der


and Fuse

F ig 17. Blasting in C oal with B la ck Powderr


M iddle Cartridge Prim ed with Electric Squib

Fuse or electric squib (Fig 16 and 17) is fastened in cartridge to ignite powder, or a
needle (Fig 18) or a blasting barrel (if hole is wet) is inserted into the powder,
aad the stemming compacted firmly around it. T he m ore securely charge is confined,
the greater the force developed. "When
unconfined it will simply bum (23, 39).
If a miner's squib (A rt 10) is used, puli
out needle and insert squib, large end first,
into hole made b y needle, o r in the blast
Miners needle
ing barrel, and ignite small end o f squib.
Powder
The squib bum s for a few seconds, and
then shoots back into the powder, ignit
F ig 18. M iners N eedle, fo r Squib
ing it. Use right kind of stemming, so
that needle-hole will be smooth, or, if barrel is used ( i / 4-in iron pipe), see that the hole ih
it is clear and clean.
When black powder is ignited with squib
or fuse, the force seems to spread through
seams of the coal, displacing it forcibly. It
does not exert a sharp shock and therefore
does not produce much fines, if proper granu
lation of powder and correct quantity be used.
When very slow action is desired an air-space
is left, either between powder and stemming
or around cartridge (Fig 19). The proper
granulation o f black powder is determined
Fig 19. Blasting in Coal. A ir Space
only b y knowledge o f the powder and the coal,
between Charge and Stem m ing
,
. . . .
and b y trial. A test is necessary to determine
eonwusiveiy which size of gram is best fo r any particular coal.
riri)u?t!l'W0rk.f^ d-S0fi0re
1x1 Wasting soft iron ore in open-pit work, holes are
wuea by a well anil, operated by steam, electricity or gasolene or by piston or hammer

4-26

EXPLOSIVES

BLASTING SUPPLIES

drills. Where there is unusual danger in using black powder, due to sparks from steam
shovels and locomotives, special high explosives m ay be employed. These are somewhat
similar to permissibles, and are difficult or impossible to ignite b y a apark. But they
are not, as a rule, so economical as black powder.
Railroad work. In cutting through fairly solid rock, the holes are usually 18 or 20 ft
deep, spaced 8 ft apart; they are sprung with 50% straight dynamite until each hole will
hold sufficient explosive to break material small enough to be handled b y steam shovel.
Roughly, from 25 to 75 lb explosive per-hole is used in rock of average hardness.

wires. These copper wires are held in place and insulated from each other b y three plugs:
o f mixed asphalt and sulphur, asphalt alone, and sulphur alone, the latter being retained
by corrugations in the shelL Electric caps are used fo r safety in gaseous and dusty
collieries, and for firing charges simultaneously, thus, economizing explosive. O n l y o n e
KIND OB BRAND OP ELECTBIC CAPS SHOULD BE CONNECTED IN ONE SERIES.
Different
brands vary in sensitiveness, and if the caps in a series are n ot uniform, the least, sen
sitive will probably misfire.
Delay electric blasting caps are for firing blasts in 2 or more volleys with one application of
electric current. They are used in series with ordinary electric caps. When current is
transmitted, about one second elapses before first-delay caps detonate, and same period
between these and second-delay. These detonators are usefui in
driving a id are

As it is economical to fire simultaneously as many holes as possible, a large-size blasting machine,


or a power or lighting circuit, should be used for firing. For soft rock, shale, clay, loam, or sand, it
is economical to use a power churn drill. This makes a 4 to 8-in hole, of any required depth,
usually 40 to 100 ft; holes usually spaced 15 or 20 ft apart. The holes are often sprung with dyna
mite, and after thorough cooling, usually overnight, are charged with black powder, sometimes sev
eral tons in a blast. Black powder or granulated dynamites can be used only when holes are dry,
and with great care when working near steam shovels, locomotives, etc, as many accidents have
occurred from sparks dropping into black powder. If work is wet and sparks can not be avoided,
use a fairly low-grade low-freezing ammonia dynamite. In firing simultaneously a large number of
holes (50 to 100), use waterproof electric caps, to prevent leakage of current through rock, with
attendant chance of misfires.

4-27

10. BLASTING SUPPLIES


Blasting caps. A cap is a copper cylinder, closed at one end, containing a pressed
charge of detonating composition, and is fired b y a fuse. Caps are graded according to
quantity o f detonating composition contained (Table 7).

For
Electric Firing

For
Fuso Firing

Table 7.

Fulminate of Mercury Blasting Caps.


Grade..........................

Length of shell, in................................


Calibre of shell ................................
Weight of charge, grains.............. .......

grams......................
Grade..........................
Length of shell, in................................
Calibre of shell ................................
Weight of charge, grains.....................

grams......................

No 6

No 8

1.375
0.234
15.430
1.000

1.875
0.234
30.860
2.000

No 6

No 8

1.562
0.273
15.430
1.000

2.000
0.273
30.860
2.000

Note. The table


refers only to caps
charged with fulmi
nate of mercury com
position (consisting
usually of 80% fulmi
nate of mercury and
20% chlorate of pot
ash), which is the
standard against
which other detonat
ing compounds are
graded.

Capa are often tested by placing them upright on a square lead plate, and noting size and char
acter of the hole made in the plate by exploding the cap. This is only applicable for comparison
of same type of caps, and then only to determine if caps have deteriorated. No 8 caps usually
make no better lead-plate teat than No 6, because only a small part of charge in contact with the
plate produces effect on the plate itself. Many other materials have been tried, some of them much
superior to fulminate of mercury.
For high explosives, the stronger the cap the better the execution, as a rule. No- 8
detonators should be used for tunneling, shaft-sinking and similar work; large charges'
sometimes require N o 8. Caps should never be crimped on fuse except with special
crimpers made for purpose; biting them, or nicking them with a laufe, is neither efficient
nor safe. They should be stored in
a dry place, as moisture weakens
their force. D o n o t a t t e m p t t o
EX TR AC T

COMPOSITION FROM CAB

bhbu-is; it is exceedingly sensitive


and is often detonated if scratched
Fulminate \ ' Asphalt & Sulphur
or picked out with a pin or similar'
vLoose Fulminate
instrument. Miners should not
K g 20. Electric Blasting Cap
wear oil or paraffins hat-lamps
when handling caps; many acci
dents have occurred from sparks falling into a box of caps.
Electric blasting caps (fuzes) (Fig 20). An electric cap consists o f a copper shell
1 9/i6 to 2 in long b y 0.273 in diameter, ciosed at one end. It contains a charge of deto
nating composition, in which is embedded a fine platinum wire, connecting the two copper.

especially recommended for shaft-sinking, often enabling blaster to fire entire round
without returning to the face. Fig 21 shows the recently introduced Ventless Delay
Electric Cap.
This new development, has a uniform dram shell, in which the delay dement gives off no gas
n burning. This permite making various periods of delay, regardless of the pressure under which
the cap is placed. Being completely sealed and waterprdof, delay is uniform, regardless of the
confinement or amount of press developed in water strata ffom firing previous adjacent holes.
The holes of a round are best connected in parallel and fired with power current, if available.
The best way to make a parallel connection is to drive stakes into two end holes at each end of
shaft section, stretch number 16 bare copper wire tight across the face between each pair of stakes,
and connect one wire from each cap to each of these buss wires. Then, if one leading wire is con
nected to one end of a buss wire, the other leading wire to the other end of the other buss wire, a
balanced parallel connection results, which will minimize trouble. The number of connections on
each buss wire should equal the total number of holes.
Special electric blasting caps. For very wet work, and where sludge and water possess high
conductivity, special insulation of cap wires is necessary to prevent current leaking from wires
at one end of series to wires at other end, thus forming a shunt around wires at middle of circuit.
This condition can be detected by making resistance readings of firing circuit' on a direct-reading
ohmmeter. If reading is the same, there is no leakage; if there is a drop in resistance, after loading
in wet holes, there is liability of electric leakage, indicating necessity for special waterproof cap wires.
For firing charges in deep w;ater, a special, highly waterproof electric cap is made. There are other
.modifications for various purposes, such as hazing wires of larger gage than ordinary to decrease
resistance in deep-faole blasting. Eleotrio caps are also made with iron wires; used where only
2 or 3 shots are fired simultaneously. These have much higher electrical resistance than caps with
copper wires, and are not recommended for lengths over 8 ft. Electric caps with tin-coated popper
wires are used in certain mines where it is objectionable to have particles of bare copper in material
mined, and where number of charges fired simultaneously makes use of iron wires impracticable
Electric squibs are somewhat similar to electric caps, except that the ahai] is alumi-.
num instead of copper, and cap filling is fine-grained black powder instead o f a detonating
compound. Th ey are for black powder only; can n ot be used for high explosives. They
possess advantage o f simultaneously firing several charges, and permit more perfect con
finement of charge than with miners squibs; also, the charge can be ignited in middle, giv
ing a little quicker and stronger action and insw ing explosion o f entire charge before any
portion can be cut off b y fall o f surrounding material. Fig. 22 shows an electric squib with
twisted shunt.
Electric squibs are safer than fuse or ordinary squiba, because shots are not fired until every one,
including blaster, is at a safe distance, and hang-fires are entirely prevented. They are made with
iron or copper wires; iron wire is cheaper but requires stronger current (see above).
Delay electric squiba for rotation firing with pellet or black blasting powder are similar in
construction to delay electric blasting caps, but can not be used to detonate high explosives as they
.Jnerely shoot out a small, hot flame.
Miner s squibs are for firing black powder only. The squib consists of a core of powder com
position tightly rolled in paper; one end terminates in a slow match; made by dipping twisted end
of paper is melted sulphur or other combustible. In using, the squib is laid in mouth of hole formed

4-28

EXPLOSIVES

BLASTING SUPPLIES

b y withdrawal o f needle, or in the blasting barrel (A rt 9 ). T h e other end o f hole so form


in the charge. Outer end o f squib is lighted, and burns several seconds until its pc
ignited, whereupon it shoots d ow n in to the charge and ignites that.- Tim e between iig
and firing o f charge can b e varied to a certain extent b y position o f tail o f squib: wh<

F ig 22.

E lectric Squib, C losed Shell.

4-29

S
CI? f ? k 0n Sm00ti! 'surface iuse and -will resist water well enough in
ary wet _holes. I f there is much water, any kind o f crimp should be further proi by sealing the join t between fuse and cap.
la stin g machines. The usual form is a small dynamo, the armature of which is
d b y a downward thrust o f the rack-bar transmitted b y a pinion. There are two

T w isted Shunt

it b u rm m ore slow ly; when turned dow n, m uch faster. The squib is very cheap, b u t :
ordinary fuse. Since it requires an opening through which to travel, the charge is no
effectually as with fuse or electric squib.

Safety fuse consists o f a train or core of a special kind o f powder, tightly


successive turns o f hemp, jute, or cotton yarn, and tape, made more or less ws
addition of asphalt or other varnish, or gutta-percha. When tightly tamped, s
from burning powder train can n ot escape, the pressure causes fuse to burn sli|
T h e manufacturers m ake n o warrant o r representations as to the burning speed of t
owing t o the va riety o f conditions to which fuse is su b jected after leaving the fa c to r y ,:
ferences in altitude, weather conditions, character o f tam ping, and mishandling, all <
affect the burning speed. T h e m akers state, how ever, that they use every care and ;
the m anufacture, to bring their standard products to a standard burning speed o f 90
with an allowable variation o f 1 0 % either w ay when burned in the open at sea level; e
Sequoia, A ztec and Charter Oak brands, where the makers endeavor to approach a ati
seo per yard, with an allowable variation o f 10% either w a y when burned in the opec
Length o f fuse m ust always b e sufficient fo r the blaster to reach a place o f safety.
F o r d ry w ork, hem p fuse is g o o d fo r b la ck pow d er, b u t ia t o o small in diam eter p
standard cap3. T h e cheaper grades are usually the least w aterp roof; the m ore expensi
th ey resist water. F or v ery w et w ork, o r under water, gutta-percha fuse will u su a lly;
extra precautions are necessary, the en d o f fuse an d the blasting cap m ay b e dipped
paint and dried, or jo in t betw een cap and fuse covered with tallow or s o ft soap. D o
grease, which is liable to affect pow der train b y dissolving the asphalt paint. As t
core o f fuse absorbs moisture always cu t o ff a n in ch or tw o from end, before inserting
o ff en d square across, push in to cap w ithout twisting until i t just touches the cap ch
is cut a t a n angle, pointed en d m ay b en d over, and b y covering end o f pow der train,
Nearly every kind o f fuse spits ou t o f sides m ore o r less in burning, and therefore t
buried in the dynam ite. W hen necessary to have prim ing cartridge a t b ottom o f hole,
b e selected that will spit from the sides as little as possible, and cartridge shells m u
fuse is less likely t o ignite dynam ite through the paper wrapper.
D etonating fu ses. P rim acord com prises a high explosive core o f penta-erythrit
(P E T N ), contained in a w aterproof sheath overlaid b y reinforcing coverings, and
very high velocity, a bou t 20 300 ft per sec. I t is v ery light an d flexible, hence easy
con n ect; has good tensile strength and is quite water resistant. I t is used chiefly in mu!
in deep-well drill holes and sim ilar large blasts. T h e violence w ith which it explodes
detonate high explosives ly in g beside it in a b ore hole, an d a colum n o f dynam ite along
hole detonates alm ost instantaneously throughout its entire length. I n spite o f higi
violence o f detonation, P rim acord is v ery insensitive, and can n o t b e exploded by_
ordinary shock, or even b y a 30-cal bullet fired through a sp o o l o f i t ; how ever, since it

Fig 23.

Primacord; Connecting Branch Line

Fig 24-

Primacord; Splicing

explosive, its handling and storage as an explosive is recommended. Proper method


to detonate it by blasting cap or electric blasting cap butted against its end, Fig
the proper method of connecting branch lines to trunk line, and the proper knot for
line.
Cap crimpers are of 3 types (Fig. 25): (1) sleeve-type (a) leaves a vent
iuBe and copper shell, and in wet work must be dipped in some cap seahng <
exclude water; (2) sleeve-type crimper (b) has an efficient fuse-cutter which
square across- but while this is desirable, it does not make a water-tight crur

one (Fig. 26), which is series-wound, uses th e entire current generated dnrin*
to rtf rv ki ar to eite *h field magnets. A t ekd o f stroke, this current is t r a n i
to the binding posts and firing circuit. In s h W w o u n d type, S T S J S t
i i t Z

Paf

? 'the T reQtj 3 Sfaunted throu^

the field m S n ete u n t? S ? e n d

operate t S I h ^ t - h Send^ g,the. entire eurreat


on the line. Shunt type
.r to operate than the other, and having a greater volume o f current is better
F ? f I f 1* &t a time- PIace
in a firm, level
t 4
T lf?
1
and fuU foree: an attempt to operate it with one
3r in a half-hearted way, will often result in misfires from insufficient current
.lasting machines in J y . cool place. The commutator, b S S S d

ScSt

? c S o S ly P

Pt dean b r ig H

from oii- m bea^

and

C^ ed pocket or Permissible machines) are


k S ? T lW ZH 1
w
Xt W neees9ary or desirable to fire one shot at a
Z ' f , S eapable o f
up to 3 shots simultaneously. Constructed o n
?
316 operated by a <! <& twist o f the handle, which is removable
s as a lock to prevent premature or accidental operation.
removabie
Is also are sometimes used for single-shot firing, usually
ag o f 6 carbon-zinc elements, connected in series; but as
tact points are always alive, they are n ot as safe as the
> machines, the binding posts of which are dead except at
troke.
ting galvanometers are o f tw o general types: one merely
s whether circuit is. open or closed; the other is essen-'
. small direct-reading ohmmeter, indicating by movement
ole across graduated scale the approximate resistance of
circuit in ohms. W ith the latter, it m ay be determined
a given blasting circuit is complete, or broken, or short:
J a ta e> S ? ei1 below- showing resistance of electric
<a dillerent lengths and sizes of connecting and
j xact. condition o f blasting circuit at moment o f firing
determined fairly accurately. The blasting galvanometer
able adjunct, and, where a considerable amount o f electric
is done, should form part o f blasters equipment. In
Fg. 27.
Single-shot
( P o c k e t ) B la s tin g to breaks and short circuits, it also detects leakage of
Machine
- ough ground, rails, air pipes, steam pipes, and imper ^ n tT u tn u t

^
S 3iIver eUoride ceU'
13 constant
. T be c^ frent thereby generated is less than one-tenth of that reexplode an electric blasting cap. The ordinary type of direct-reading ohmmeter

4 -3 0

E XPLO SIV ES

BIBLIO GKAPH Y

and battery tester, containing regular or flash-light dry-cell batteries, will readily send
sufficient current through a blasting circuit to explode an electric cap, and should never
under any circumstances be used for testing any sort of blastin g circuit or electric
blasting cap.

This wire should n o t be used for connecting a line o f holes to blasting machine- for that
purpose l e a d i n g w m E should be used, o f N o 14 gage or l a r g e r
N ^ u rT

in coils o f 500 ft, is satisfactory f r all t o d s of d r y S


S K X

Blasting machine testers (rheostats). These are for determining inexpensively the capacity
and condition of a blasting machine. There are several types. One provides a means of sending a
current through different resistances and a small lamp, so that, when connected to the poles corre
sponding to type of blasting machine tested, a bright flash shows that the machine is up to standard.
Another tester has 8 posts, with different resistances so arranged that 20 combinations of varying
resistance may be obtained in connection with use of an electric blasting cap in series, acting as an
indicator. It is thus possible to determine whether blasting machine is up to strength, and if not,
just how many caps in circuit it is capable of firing. By its use overloading a given blasting machine
is avoided, with consequent danger of insufficient current and misfires.

Gage No
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
21
22

Connecting and leading 'wire. Connecting wire is used for connecting the electric
cap wires of one hole to wires o f cap in an adjacent hole. As sold b y dealers in blasting
supplies, it is usually N o 20 or N o 21 B & S gage, wound on 1 and 2-Ib spools. _ 'Hie
use o f the larger gage wire is advisable, as it adds less to the resistance of firing circuit.
Table 8.

Length
of wire,
ft

4 -3 1

Ohms
0.62711
0.9972 [
1.586 J
2.521
4.009 \
6.374 /
10.14 1
12.78 )
16.12

^ S

Power and lighting circuit


Leading wire
Sometimes used for leading wire, but not
recommended for firing large circuits
Connecting wire
Size attached to electric caps

p 1 000 ft, f t o

mlaUy

Wires o f e le ctric caps


have a resistance o f 0.032
ohm per ft (doubled). The
resistance o f the bridge wire
in the cap varies from 0.859
to 1.1 ohm, depending on
the m a n u fa ctu re ; it does
not necessarily indicate the
sensitiveness o f the cap.

Resistance in Ohms o f Electrical Firing D evices *

Regular and
waterproof elec
tric caps with
plain or enam
eled copper wire
(include duplex
wrap)

Seismograph
electric
caps

Delay electric
caps, delay elec
tric igniters and
electric squibs
with plain or
enameled copper
wire

Electric caps
with
iron wire

Delay electric
caps, delay
electric igniters
and electric
, squibs with
iron wire

1.99
2.19
2.39
2.59
2.80
3.00
3.22

1.73
1.93
2.14
2.33
2.55
2.75
2.95

1.03
0.99
4
1.25
1.01
1.07
1.29
5
6
1.10
1.03
1.32
7
1.35
1.05
1.13
1.16
1.07
8
1.38
1.20
9
1.42
1.10
1.23
1.12
10
1.45
1.29
12
1.16
1.51
1.35
1.58
1.20
14
1.25
1.42
16
1.64
1.49
18
1.29
1.71
1.79
1.33
1.57
20
1.64
1.86
1.37
22
1.41
1.71
24
1.93
1.78
2.00
1.46
26
1.85
. 28
2.07
1.50
1.92
2.14
1.54
30
2.26
40
2.48
1.75
2.61
50
2.83
1.96
2.95
60
2.18
3.17 '
* These figures, from E. I. duPont de Nemours Powder Co, apply
Concern. They are approx correct for most other mairpa of caps.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
I

* E g r iS &

g f t t e Mi

3 * ^ J r l S S S S W ,^ S ^ ^ ? n,k 0 * 1 Information Bespecting E z p W v .


1924 Eltensioa Stud* Course * Coal Mining Explosives. Burton Pub Co, Chi5. Comey, A. M. Safety Blasting Explosive. International Text Book Co, Scranton, Pa,
' D 1898A' W ' Snd Z* W'

BlaatiB* *

^ M ine, Quarries and Tunnels.

Spon, London,

1
1

Churchill, London

Md?1928

to products made by that

Soas.

*ad Nitroglycerine Explosives.

<2nd
WW&m* & Wilkins, Balto,

it. o B ' I ' w


*Vw A I M E, Vol 71,_p 1248
16. American Ta&e of D b t a l c e t ? b e
Tr-ana
1926
Inst of Makers of Explosives N Y
between Storage Magazines for Explosives.
t ? f n?5ie.!leial*Expilosiivea-. Nattiial Safety Council, Safe Practices Na 28
11?2 0918) Saf6ty m the Ufie of Explosive. Proc Nationel Safety Council, p -111620

rt*
E*Plosia Risk.
National W e t y Com Jl?

Griffin, London, 1917


E x p W e s Cemeat Rook Quarrying.

Pfoe

Publications of U S Bureau of Mines


Bulletins
ah
i P8e
Permissible Explosives

27
9s
29

::
:
.< I f ' T^f?*?fakon ?f P ,et^ iat r8 and Electric Detonators
In I 68 of
Explosive
i l l
011 Explosjve for Metal Miners and Quarrvmen

i s

i a

f i t l

1 : :: I
f|; .. I f , '
* Tunnel* and Me&-irine Dflta
37. * 346 P & S T i & f Dl>i ?tai' ? a! D^ fts and Crosscuts
B ru w toi l ^
Explosive at the Br of M ine Explosive Experiment Station,

4 -3 2

E XPLO SIV E S

Technical Papers
38. No 7. Investigations of Fuse and Miners Squibs _
39.
17. Effect of Stemming on Efficiency of Explosives
40. 162. Initial Priming Substances for High Explosives
41 210. Analytical Method for Detonating Blown-out Shots in Coal Mines
42. 234. Sensitiveness of Explosives to Frictional Impact
43. 364. Permissible Explosives, Mining Equipment and Apparatus, Approved Prior to
January 1, 1924
,
44. 383. Blasting to Lessen Boulders m Hard-ore topes
45. * 429. Permissible Single-shot Blasting Units
46. 482. Tosdo Gases from 60% Gelatin Explosives
47. 567. Preventing Accidents by Proper Use of Permisaibles

SECTION 5

Miners Circulars
48. No 13. Safety in Tunneling
.
49.
19. The Prevention of Accidents from Explosives in Metal Mines
50. 21. What a Miner Can Do to Prevent Explosions of Ga3 and Coal Dust
51. 22. Dangerous and Safe Practices in Bituminous Coal Mines
52. 27. Causes and Prevention of Fires and Explosions in Bituminous Coal Mines
Reports of Investigations
53. No 2147. Dangers from Explosives Fumes in Metal Mining
54. 2156. Misfires in Metal Mining
55. 2384. Failure of Center Shots in Blasting
. .
, .
56. 2436. Effect of Cartridge Diameter on Strength and Sensitiveness of High Explosives
57. * 2528. Transport of Explosives in and about Mines
58. 2739. Gases from Blasting in Heavy Sulphides
59. 2789. Charging Explosives in Drift Rounds in Metal Mines
_
60. 2975. Dynamites: Their Strength, Sate of Detonation, and Poisonous Gases Evolved
61. 3235. Some Physical Properties and Characteristics of Fuse
62. 3269. Special Multiple-shot Blasting Units
Miscellaneous
63. Schedule 17. Procedure in Testing Explosives for Permissibility for "Use in Gaseous and
Dusty Coal Mines
_
_

,
64. Information Circular No 6871. How to Use Permissible Explosives Properly
65. Schedule 17C. Procedure for Testing Explosives for Permissibility in Coal Mines, with
Test Requirements, Tolerance Limits and Schedule of Fees (supersedes 17A and 17B)

ROCK EXCAVATION
BY

HALBERT p . GILLETTE
a ^ V IS E D

AND

LARG ELY

R E W H IT T E N

FOB

TH E

SECOND

E D ITIO N

BY

RICHARD T. DANA and ARTHUR P. ACKERMAN


^

N W ^ tm S E D F O R T H E T H IR D E D IT IO N B Y TH E LATE

SAMUEL R. RUSSELL
E X P L O S IV E S D E P T , E . I . D u POJfT

iSS
PAGE
f8?n5
Methods and Coats ^02
2. Drill Steel and Bits..
03
3. Methods of Hand Drilling................. 07
4. Methods and Cost of Open-cut Ma
chine D rilling....................

N E M O U E S & CO

ART

7. Hand- and Mechanical Loading and


W e itlin o

8 . Quarrying............... .......

9. Open-cut Rock Excavat


10. Trenching.....................
11
11. Subaqueous Excavation
14

j->iuuuarpoy...................
Bibliography.................
< -d-uv
08

5. Theory and Practice of Blasting. ........


0. Charging and Firing.......................

;
Kote.Numbers in parentheses in text

m text refer to B ibliography at end of this seetioa.

21
23
27
27
28

d r il l

steel

Table 2 .

and

b it s

5-03

W eight of Rocks

_ r weights of minerals and ores, see Sec 25, Table 3; Sec 1, Descriptive Tables
Wfc per eu ft, lb

Material

ROCK EXCAVATION

In place
Dolomite....................
Gneiss........................
Granite and porphyry.
Greenstone and trap..,
. Hematite......................
limestone.....................
Limestone ores.............

This section contains data on blasting in general, and surface excavation of rock, as in open-cut
mining, quarrying, railroad and highway through-cuta and side-hill cute, and trenching. Related
subjects are: Explosives (Sec 4), Tunneling (Sec 6), Shaft Sinking (Sec 7) and Machine Drills and
Compressors (Sec 15).
In this revision, much material of th& first edition has been retained, including many cost figures
when accompanied by sufficient information for converting them to present-day values.

160
168
170
187
267
168
154

165

Quarts.................................

Quartzose ores.............
Sandstone....................
Slate.............................
Vein quartz..................
Vein quartz, 15% PbS.
Vein quartz, \i% Fe&>.

1, FACTORS AFFECTING METHODS AND COSTS


Open-cut methods depend upon size, location and purpose of the work.
greatly with the method adopted, together with the character of rock.

Costs vary

Tough
Ft lb
ness.
per
sq ft of
Lime
stone i fracture
3 0

624.9

2.6
2 4

541.6
499.9
479 1
437 4
437.4

2 1
2.1
2.0
19
Altered basalt......................

1.9
1.7

.416.6
395 7
395 7
395.7
354.1

Hornblende-gneiss.............

1.7
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

354.1
333 2
312.4
312.4
312.4
249.9
249.9
229 I
208.3
208.3
208.3
208.3
208.3

on toughness, but more on presence or absence of joint planes. Pieces too large to load require,
blockholing, which is costly and delays loading (Art 7; also see Sec 10). M a n d e b o f b be ak ik o
is affected by position of joint planes and the dip of strata. As rook can not be excavated to neat
lines by blasting, more must be removed than required; this excess is called o v e b b b e a k a g e . Unit:
of measurement of open-out excavation is the eu yd. Table 2 gives weights of rocks.
Overbreakage for 8 months during 1909 in open-cut work on the Livingstone improvement?'
the Detroit River was 14.7%; 273 750 cu yd of limestone excavation was paid for, and 314 000
ou yd loosened (12). Overbreakage in open cuts (mostly in gTanite), on Grand Trunk Pacific R Ri
was 10 to 40% (20). Overbreakage in the approaches to a tunnel near Peekskill was 10%, the strata'!
Upping at a high angle (20).
, ,
Voids in hard rock, when broken by a crusher, amount to about 35% if all sizes are mixed andy
the stone slightly shaken, but, if screened, each size has 45 to 48% voids. Soft, friable rooks, 04:
shales, break into widely varying sizes and therefore have a lower percentage of voids Hard row
blasted in large pieces and thrown into cars has about 40 to 45% voids, 1 ou yd of soiid rook raaJpojk
1.67 to 1.82 cu yd broken.
Voids................................................... 30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
55% .V/
!

5-02

*-60

**

107
96
94
86
95

In place

Broken
1.30
1.30
1.31
1.39

7.5
11.9

20.8

12.1

21.3

2.16
2.27
2.30
2.52
3.60
2.27
2.08
2.23

23.3
21.1

2.08
2.36

10.7

13.0

14.5
13.2
11.4
13.5

20.8
20.6

18.7

1.86

2 .00
2.21

12.2

1.30
i.27
1.16
1.28

2. DRILL STEEL AND1BITS

Tough
Ft lb'
ness.
Per
Lime
sq ft of
stone = 1 fracture

Sind of rook

96
97

12.5
11.9
n .8

Tons per cu'yd

Broken

1
*
* *
itself, the percentage of vaife is larger. At B o d c t e f c i o T a o n *1
bl^8,ted and dumped by
eu yd embankment; a ratio of 1 :1 5 1 . l l v S S L S m 6 I* y,d,?f rock made a 5 340
. broken and put in embankment made 90 rtnn
^
y of kmestone and mica sohiat.
vation, Ashtabula HarborT^ 82 869 vd
^ -,mCreaae of 80%subaqueous e S
an increase of 65%.
'
69 U yd (plaoe easure) gave 103 537 ou yd measured in scow ,

Relative Toughness of Rocks, Tested with Drop H ammer (23)

Kind of rock

In place

12.5
2.16
* Refers to possible wt of ores; pure minerals, usually weigh more.

Character and formation of rock affect drilling speed, amount of explosive, size into which the
rook breaks, mode of breaking, and tonnage handled. D e i lu n g s p e e d . In hard, to u g h rocks
this is generally much lower than in soft, though, in some shales and other friable rocks, accumula
tion of sludge in the hole prevents the drill from striking an effective blow and retards drilling.
This is especially true with solid steel, and may be remedied by using a water jet, Art 4. In soft
rocks a heavy blow may seat the bit so that it sticks. Seamy, blocky rook also causes sticking or
f i t c h b b i n g ; overcome by withdrawing the bit and dropping into the hole a handful of quart* or
C-I fragments. Hard, friable minerals may make easy-drilling roek, as some pyrites and sandstone.
Grains of soft sandstone easily break loose and are blown from the hole, whereas sandstone cemented
with Si02 may drill as hard as solid quarts. A m o u n t a n d k i n d o f e x p l o s i v e (Sec 4) is determined
only by test or experience (Table 1 ). Si z e o r p ie c e s i n t o w h ic h h o c k b r e a k s depends somewhat
Table 1.

138
I5
175
148
164
160

Cu ft per ton

Broken

l working conditions is still debatable notwithaton^r,


? er
treatment for given
j tion (2 , 4 ).
aeoatame, notwithstanding much research and experimenta' catting edge are: r i ^ K S ^ c r o ^ X ^ k n d ' z
* B5 ?raI' usual shapes of
others. For haum ee dkiS I
V o o S t b?i i
^
the Carr bit and
- apparent, except for the smaller machines
tre aofc
t cross and 6-point bits in resneet o f ease, nf
*
5? ?
difference between
? difficult to temper for s t a n ^ g t P u n X u L f f f S ? * * *
T ^
**d
1 fees. Carr bit is easiest o f & mZ
f

l*. Gage-and shape of bit must permit of free rotation i n X hole


2 to ewiah wear and prevent m m n o, with w ^equm t
I abnormal strains, with danger of breaking bit

C u tZ J ^

^eU and cuts faster.


be symmetrica1 ''
f the bli: wiuoh *>

t s s . s s y i M , s s . ?

* *

by * * eIe * * the axis. This a n g l e , l a ^ i S d


a cross bit
^saee of resharpening, begins at about 14 and, near outtmc-1 ^
I raf ldo0ut jn8. long wear and
fjg.fladmg surfaces then nearly equals that of f h
ut,tmg ?**
st 5 Diam of bits outer
Mijife of the gage, and minimizing tendency to rifie *

weU supported, increasing


P&r small gages; (6) drilling speed iccreJ^f . ttmg speed vanes inversely as diamS, at least
I f S lb seems best Ldapted to
^
I* *8* f air
About
f c
Proportional to coarseness of cuttin h ^ b v ^ ^ f l
W S* * of driUin*
& l holes; (d) considering its cutting q u a i n t ^ ^ ^ h , 7 ? ? ^ 7^ and study of bottoms of
m s , the Carr bit is excellent for rock o f t v h ^ ^ L ^ w f T ' d 6886 of
snd ^mptr^3*7 surpass the Carr bit in cutting speed- buT d to
I f 5 f*8? ^ m 8oft rook- z bit
desirable; (f> 6-point bit is apparently ferior fQr ^ i ^
i, K gmg and temPens. it is
*8 and shallow drilling; (g) for hish air
b?* * y ** seful for starting
|Pon the wings,
tS u i ?
W M r0ck* the - bi - ^
* 5 outef
^

2-
1

V -a k e one bit

quality of C eren t
* * * ^ freedo

5-04

ROCK E XC AV ATIO N
b r il l

'i t '

l *

c =

Table 3 .

Nom
inal

Solid

Hole
diam
B,
jn

Wt,
lb
per
ft

Hexagon*
V/ 2.24
1
2.92
1 Va 3.71
1 i/4 4.58

W/fl4
17/m
11/32
u/32

2.05
2.73
3.39
4.26

Round
7/a 2.04
2.66
I
U/s 3.36
1 1/4' 4. 5
3/S 5.02
Octagon
3/4 1.58
2. 5
%
1
2.81
1Vs 3. 55
1 1/4 4.38
I 3/8 5.31
11/2 6.32

Square shank,hammer, drills

Types of Drill Bite and Shanks

fa
iv/w
11/32
11/s?
3/8

if. s 7 ir z " 0d"D1,Mi i. , l , i - a f r yweubeMfed bhojtmiitt *op:

W eights and Diam of Drill Steel

Hollow

Wt,
lb
per
ft

b it s

Hexagon shank,hammer drills

Fig 1.

AND

'is = i r
Leyner shank,hammer drills

Shank for piston drills

ste e l

1.85
2.47
3.04
3.83
4. 65

* All sizes have a corner radius of 1/32 ia

Quarter octagon*
Nom
inal
size

7/S

1
1 1/8
1 1/ 4.

Solid

Hollow

Diag

Wt,
lb
per
ft

Hole
Hm
B,
in

Wt,
lb
per
ft

n/16
17/32
123/64

2.49
3.25
4. 10
5.04

17/64
17/64
Wat
11/32

2.30
3.06
3.78
4.72

1 1/2

\
t
A 4.

Inner
diag
B,
is

Light section
1
3/4
t Va
25/32
IV 4
13/16
Heavy section
t
25/32
N/ a 29/32
- 1/4 29/32

Rib
c,
in

Ra
dius
R,
in

iteels are of proper le n * * f6

Solid cruciformf
Nom
inal
sue
A,
in

& = ^ I I i| S f iS = S

Wt,
lb
per
ft

7/lfi
7/16
7/18

3/32
1/8
Vs

2.31
2.76
3.19

Vi
9/16
9/l6

3/64
3/32
1/8

2.43
3.09
3.55

-4
R\J
e '
X T '
>

t All sizes have a radius at outer comers of Vl8 i-

cracks and other in? .f8 at shouWer, where bif hi

r ^

a?ar|dard

s =

5-06

ro ck : e x c a v a t io n

f|j use
S ?of rotaZTief&Zln
the independent r o t a t i o n ^
IK holes can thus be drilled at m v
' ; exploring and sampling o r e b o d l

Critical temperature ean be practically understood by watching the slow heating of a


piece of steel. It brightens in color with rising heat, until a point is reached where it
apparently becomes a trifle darker than the furnace
The darkening is due to absorption of heat, and the
1BW
temp at which this absorption takes place is the d e a t w ito p* !
lb
c a l e s c e n t or c b i t i c a l p o i n t .
If heating continues
Lus a l BCi ot
PO Di s \
the steel again assumes the same brilliance as the furl1400
nace. If the furnace is now allowed to cool slowly, a
Hi ea! s a at SO It
f
J*
point is reached where the steel remains visibly
brighter than the furnace, but in a few seconds it
1
\
assumes color of the furnace and darkens with it. The
I ,
1100
brightening, due to throwing off heat, occurs at the

1000
00
800
700

//
i

Nj

Detachable rock-drill bits

IKrne, twin
Fig 2. Critical Temperatures for
High-carbon Steel (Steel and its
Treatment, E. F. Houghton C o.)

Table 6. Cost of Deep-hole


Jammer Drilling (8)

io T

Per ft
Labor............

$0.44
0.13

Air I
~ and supplies... .
farge, bit sharpening,
and mdang up new steel.
Deprec of equipment..
Supervision.
Blasting out for set-up room

o. j ;
0.17
0.07
0.05

Total.
$0.97 i
-------------- ..............................t so.97

eased

cen t

* tS n u r c S r ir S L r s
hole; the commonest is S
or center
The bits are threaded *n f j.l j .frp mfc cross bit.
easily changed. T h eva m
^ f shank, and are
tor scattered or isokted i ? rt
y ,advaataeeua
cavation in road S w
rfc m eh 38 rock exlarge metal mines h l v ^ S S e d V h A Umbsr o{
indicate savings o f 10% to 3 W
Teports
tional type. In the T7% n
OVer the c*ven Circ 6911 the U o w in l aweaUf fM in e 3 ln f^
(1) saving in transnnrt 'K + ^ VaQ, ag6s 6X6 listed:
face (nipping); (2 ) faster < n - ^ P and working
m Joss o f steel from ail
reduction
f f l W per bit;
S
V
l T
chea
kence less investment- rm ^ ?, 8teeI required,

Cooling bath for quenching heated steel may be of water, brine, rape-seed oil, tallow
or coal tar. Brine is the fastest quenching medium, but is difficult to keep at constant
temp; tar is slowest. Oil is used when a high degree of hardness is not necessary.
Circulating cold water is best; for uniform results its temp must be fairly constant. When
the steel reaches proper temp, quenching should be rapid; its
object being to retain the characteristics of the metal as pro
duced by proper heating.

Sectional drill rods (Fig 4) have been used for holes to 270 ft depth, with hammer
drills like Waugh Models 31 and 34, of Denver Bock Drill Mfg Co, which makes and heat-

The heavy duty thrown on the

y e a r lT K y

K g 2 shows the critical temp for high-carbon steel, heated


slowly to about 1 500 F, and then allowed to cool slowly.
The critical point varies according to the carbon contents*'
for steel containing 0.6-0.9% carbon, the range is 1 4201350 F. As steel becomes non-magnetic at about the
critical temp, that point can be determined for a given steel
by bringing the heated bit close to an ordinary magnet; if
the magnet is attracted the temp is below the critical point.
Magnetic indicators for blacksmiths use display a lighted
lamp to show that the steel is still magnetic and requires
further heating.

Important points for heat treatment of drill steel (2). (a) Use only
best grade of steel. _ (6) Use oil, gas or eleo furnace, which permit close
regulation of temp, impossible with coal or coke, (c) For both forging
and tempering, heat in a non-oxidizing furnace atmosphere. Oxidising
action causes scaling and decarbonization. Indirect (reflected) heat
is desirable, (d) Porge bits at a temp above the critical point, but
never above 1 600 F. Never forge bit or shank when steel is too cold;
forging should stop at or just above the critical point; if necessary,
reheat Forge by rapid hammering, not by squeezing or bulldozing,
(e) For tempering, heat to 1 450-1 M0, quenching on a rising heat,
never after temp has fallen below 1 375. The lower the temp, while
still above the critical range, the greater the density, hardness, and Fig 3. Drill-tempering
toughness of steeL (/) Always quench the steel by holding it ver
Tank
tically. (g) Temper bite only as far back from cutting edge as will give
desired results. (A) After forging, anneal by heating to 1 550, covering with powdered lime if
possible; better tempering is thus obtained, (i) Never forge and temper on same heat, (j) Keep
quenching bath cool; if necessary, agitate the bath to prevent its heating too rapidly. (*) Heattreat cutting end of bit to insure a core of max density and hardness, and that all surfaces subjeot
to wear are supported by a toughened core. (1) Chemical composition of drill steel should be
within following limits: C, 0.85-0.90%; Mn, 0.30-0.40%; Si, 0.10-0.20%; P, not over 0.03%;
S, not over 0.03%.
Reclaiming short lengths of steel by welding (6). For 1.25-in hollow steel, time required is:
grinding ends , square and removing scale, 2 min; counterauiting, 1 min; welding by elec butt
method, 0.25-0.35 min, total, 3.3 min. Power consumption; about 0.25 kw-hr per weld of open
circuit; voltage, about 4 volts to insure ease in dashing. One man can prepare and weld 2 pieces
of steel of aver size in about 5 min. Subsequent heat treating may be done in the welder, by
increasing the opening between dies to 3 or 4 in, again clamping the welded steel in the dies,
heating to proper temp and slowly cooling in lime. Teste by Sullivan Machy Co on steels thus
welded gave satisfactory results, as compared to those of original steels.

*"**<**>

koieareqm res
^ DeeP

tt~

5^7

d r illin g

sa n d

h off deprec of equipment' ia i2i*ey^


.delude charging
k f V ^ V t 10*
it
T and *eei
?. ^ f w t n b u t e d . Wages: S ? r 85 f f ges beiae
7 Monthly costs, 28-90* per ft 3 I t
helper* $4-75.
: drilled per shift, 12.2-34 ft /e; monthly aver
f-W Per ft covered ail c ^ S of a c S ^ , - 272 ft* About
, months use of diamond drills f o r a S , S *
Durig 8
: #-94 Per ft. It was considered that t. e ? iaveraSed

BEQALESCENT POINT.

m eth od s

the steel if allowed to cool undisturbed. Hammering produces a finer grain if continued until th
critical temp is reached; if it be stopped while the steel is above the critical temp, coarse oryatailU
2ation again sets in; if continued below that temp, distortions and internal strains are caused*
resulting in brittleness and breakage. Steel should not be allowed to soak in the furnace, as it
increases coarseness of structure.
'

cV X C tS

, ^

0F

the starting bit is usually 1

34105

DR

of h am m er^ofh 8 8%

W o n e , H i T BtnkU1E 031111110 ^
t Hand chum drilling
j^ d sto n e ls d ^ h tiy h

* *. i
w

I T deep bole*

bit)' 1

ft;
10

1-S-in at

5-08
Table 6.

Kind of work

Railroad cu t..
Open cut.......
Open cut........
Side-hiU cut...
Open cut........
Railroad cu t..
Railroad cut. .
Railroad cu t..
Railroad cu t..
Block holes...
Trench...........
Trench...........
Tunnel...........
Tunnel...........
Tunnel...........
Tunnel...........
Tunnel...........
Mine........... |

m e th o d s a n d c o s t o f o p e n - c u t m a c h in e d r i l l i n g

R O C K E X C A V A T IO N
Rate of Hand-faammer Drilling (Original)

Kind of rock

Men
per
drill

Hard limestone....
Mica schist...........
Mica schist...........
Gneiss...................
Hard porphyry....
Very hard granite.
Dark hornblende..
Red granite...........
Trap, diabase.......
Red granite...........

Limestone...............................
Shale.......................................
Gneiss, tough schist.................
Very hard mica schist.............
Conglomerate, shale...............
Tough sandstone....................
Very hard syenite, quartzite...
Augite diorite, firm red 1
porphyry
J
Mine.............. Chalcopyrite, limestone..........
Mine.............. Medium rock..........................
Tunnel........... Compact phonolite dike.........
Shaft.............. Compact phonolite dike.........

Hr
per
day
10

Diam of bit, in
Start
ing

Finishing

17/g

1 Va
1 Vi
n /4

17/8

1 1/4-1 1/2

Depth
of hole,
ft

7.5
7.5
6-16
20
12
12
12
0.5-4
av 1.25

13/8

13/S
S/8
13/8
13/4

10
2-3

13/8
i 1/4

2.0

7/8

1.5

13/4
11/4
11/4
11/4

1.67
1.0

11/4

6 .0

2.5
2.5
2.5

Ft pep
hr
1.7
1.5
1.5
1.41

the drill to other holes, set it up, start it, and miscellaneous delays. For time studies of work with
piston drub see (12), where drills were mounted on tripods for holes 7 to 24 ft deep and 2.5 to 5.5 in
diam at start, in granite, limestone, and slate. From these records, cutting time averages 58.2%
0f cycle time; cycle time, 74.7% of total time; time for moving and starting a drill, 12.5% of total
time I1 ? ]ost m delays, 12.8% of total time. Cutting speed: in granite, 0.18 it per min- lime
stone, 0.13 ft per mm; slate, 0.17 ft per min.
Table 7.

Average Time Drilling Vertical H oles (Tripod-mounted Drill)


Lm
10

0 . 6- 0.

3.25
2.5
1.75
12

1.4
2.9

2.0

1.85

70

j1.04
1.25
0.95
0.35
1.00
1.19
1.25
1.48

1.0

0.5
1.0
1.2

4. METHODS AND COST OF OPEN-CUT MACHINE DRILLING

5-09

!
2.5
Drilling last 2 ft, min.
Moving machine, setting up, min.................

15

1.5

35
96

48

TV
10
70
3.25
2.5
2
6
14
1.5
1.5
1.5
14
J4
36
36

Note. Lm limestone; S = sandstone (hard); Sd sandstone (soft); Gr = granite- Tr =


trap (diabase).

Rate of drilling. Formula for estimating number of ft drilled per shift (20): N = 8 -~
(r+ 7
0 wtere N =
Per shift; S * working time per shift, min <= 600 per 10-hr
shift, if no time is lost by blasts, breakdowns, etc; r aetuil time to drill 1 ft, min- m time to
crank up, change drills, clean out hole, and crank down = 3 tolimin ordinarily f = leneth of feed=
2 ft m ordinary percussion drills; a = time to shift machine and set it up = 5 to 60min, usually
12 to 20 min; D = depth of hole, ft.
'
y

Brill mountings (Sec 15) for open-cut work are the tripod, quarry-bar, gadder, special carriage
for deep boles, and the derrick or wagon mounting, commonly called wagon drill , Q ttabby b a b
is a horiz bar supported at each end by legs. It is 3 to 8 in diam, S to 12 ft long. These bars are
primarily for drilling in quarries a number of rows of vertical holes close together, but may be used
for similar work in trenches, etc. G a e d e e is a quarry device for drilling a number of parallel holes
in a plane at any angle, from horiz to vertical, as the undercutting holes in a bench partly freed by
channeling. A heavy carriage, running on a track, has hinged to it a standard, adjustable at
different angles, on which slides a saddle carrying the drill. Wagon mounting is a steel frame
and derrick, on 3 or 4 wheels either all steel or with pneumatic tires; or on steel skids. Various
type drills can be used. The whole mounting is easily moved by hand. In some types the derrick
can be canted, for drilling at angles other than vertical. Holes to 40 ft deep can be drilled withBteM changes of 6 to 10 ft. Some drills are equipped with air motors and automatic feed. In larger
types for down hole3, say to 40 ft, the drill is fed by its own weight, plus a slab-back with adjustable
weights. Drill is raised by band or air hoist. Speeds of 25 to 70 ft per hour are possible, depending
on hardness of rock, depth and diam of hole and air press. For cost of mountings, see Seo 15.

Drilling rate is not significant without specification of diam and direction of hole, air press, type
3 f '3: J f th0d of- renioylaB cuttings, and nature of the rock. Hard, tough wcks have b Z
drilled at 12 in per min; softer rocks faster, especially in down holes. As long as a bit retains
ite cutting edge it will maintain its initial drilling rate. As depth of hole increases, the d r illin g ^
of hammer drills decreases less than that of piston drills. Theoretically, as follower S S lrc of
smaller gage, dnlhng rate should increase in inverse proportion to square of diam of hole, but the
tightness and sludge in small diam holes keep the rate approx constant (1).

Drill trucks are used to some extent for deep-hole drilling, and for trench work. They
are operated from a central compressed-air or steam plant, or m ay carry their own boiler,
T he drill m ay be stationary, or mounted on a turn-table. T he cuttings are removed froni
the hole b y a water je t or b y special steels. There are other devices for mounting one or
more ordinary machine drills on a bar. A special device for sewer work is described in
Art 10. Respecting drill carriages, see also Sec 6, 15 (11, 20).
Cost o f machine drilling comprises: (a) wages o f drill crew; (b) proportion of wages
o f power-plant crew; (c) fuel; (d) drill sharpening; (e) repairs and renewals; ( / ) oil and
water; (g) interest on plant; (k) depreciation o f plant; (i) proportion o f general expense
including taxes; (j) erecting, .dismantling, and moving plant.
Factors affecting speed o f drilling: (a) character o f rock, as hardness, stictdness,
seams, sludge, and dust-forming qualities; (6) time for changing bits; (c) time for taking
down, moving, and settingup machine; (d) depth o f hole; (e) direction o f hole; i f ) diam
o fh o le ; (g) use of air or water, or both, in the hole; (A) shape o f bit; (i) quality of blacksmithing; (j) percentage o f time lost b y blasting, breakdowns, delays; (fc) size, weight,
and type o f drill and mounting; (I) air or steam press at the drill; (to) skill o f crew.

. )JHamf le,r d34 s*. SJe,e*


* . A Sullivan, Class D-19 drill, 1.25-in cylinder,
hollow steel, and air at 100 lb, drilled in granite 1.25-in holes, 1 ft deep, in an aver of
1.75 nun, using 25 cu ft free air per min. A Class D -15 drill, in same granite, drilled
5/g-m holes at rate o f 1 4 5/8-m h olem 10 sec, and a 5.25-in hole in 15 sec. In trench work
in oolitic limestone, 12 D B -15 drills averaged 40 1.5-ft holes per drill per 10-hr shift for
12 mo work. Best record was 100 1.5-ft holes in 10 hr and 36 3.5-ft holes in 7 hr In
^ amt! a ? , B'.15 ^
in 16
made 47 ft ia 25 holes, from 19 to 36 in deepa DB-19 drill made 19 ft m 5 holes, from 32 to 60 in deep. A DC-19 drill in soft sandstone, made 20 holes 18 in deep, at rate o f 25 sec per hole.
Sets of drl steel, comprising a starter and 1 or more follower bits, generally have
length increments of 1 to 2 ffc. For hard, tough rock the increment is usually 1 ft; for
softer rocks,J ft. Tests should be made to determine max and aver distances drilled .per
bit in the different rocks encountered. The fewer the changes, the shorter the drilling
tune for a given depth of hole.
B
Starting diam of hole depends upon its depth, reduction in gage
.ollower bits, depth
drilled per bit, and diam o f cartridges.

Time occupied by the different operations in drilling may be classed under c u t t in g h m b and
the sum o f which gives total c y c l e t i m e for drilling o n e hole. Delays comprise time to
(o) raise drill, (6) loosen bit, (c) remove it, (d) get bailer and bail, () get bit, if) insert bit in chuck,,
is) tighten chuck, and (h) get started. Besides the cycle time, there is the time required to move

8Ze* - oart dge are * Vs and 11/4 in, more rarely 1 in; the size being generally
coMtaat m any one mine, Bottom diam of hole is thus 1 V g - 1 S/8 in. Gage of bits composing
a set vanea by l/g or 1/18
for hammer drills, Vie in is satisfactory. With 12 steels, a 12-ft hole

delays,

Records of work with 3 i / ?-in piston drills, a t 70 lb air or steam press, starting bit
about 2.75 in, finishing b it 1 5 m, gave following speeds for 1 ft o f hole (20): soft sandstone
and limestone, 3 min; medium sandstone and limestone, 4 min; hard granite and sand
stone, 5 m m ; very hard trap and granite, 6 -8 min; soft rocks that sludge rapidly, 8-10 min.
(For other drilling records, see Sec 15; also Compressed Air Plant, Peele, 5th Ed
vll&p
*

5-10

ROCK E XC AV ATIO N
t h e o b y

requires a starting diam of 2 in for l/ig-in change in gage. The smaller the starting diam the
higher the aver drilling rate. Depth of hole is determined by blasting conditions.
*

Fitchering or sticking of the bit is caused by: poor alineznent of steel in the hole, beat
steel, improper type or poorly sharpened bit, too much or too little feed water, worn or
broken shanks, seamy rock, pebbles or spalls falling alongside of bit and jamming, mud
collar behind the bit, hard nodules in the rock causing poor alinement of hole and bendina
of drill shank.
Ip soft rock a bull bit may penetrate so far that the drills lifting force on up stroke is insufficient
to withdraw it. Remedy is to use a cross or X bit, which is less likely to jam. Sludge is washed
out of the hole by the rising stream of water, or blown out by the air or water jet, the larger cuttirus
falling back and jamming when the drill shank is too small relatively to diam of hole. If hollow
steel is not used, a good jet can be made by a 0.5-in pipe, connected to a hose through which water
is pumped. Where water is not available in quantity, a fair substitute is a narrow barrai-hooD
shoved down the hole; in rotating slowly around the bit, it stirs up the sludge.
-

Cable, well, or chum drills (Sec 9) are extensively used for deep holes for blasting in
quarries and open-cut excavation. Advantages, as compared with mm-iiin drills: any
depth can be drilled, to the possible limit of blasting; no stripping of the overlying earth
is necessary; holes in high faces are drilled to full depth, instead of working in benches*
the large-diam holes hola larger charges, hence wider spacing of fewer holes, and saving
of time; smaller consumption of fuel for power.
Size of chum-drill holes. Bits are 4 to 9 or 10 in diam, the smaller sizes best for low
faces and soft material (but where bank is low, machine drills on wagon mounting are
more economical). Common sizes are 5 s/8 and 6 in; best adapted to limestone forma
tions where drilling cost per ft is not high and relatively closer spacing permits better dis
tribution of explosive. However, use of 8- and 9-in holes has much increased, especially
in deep faces and hard rock, where cost per ft is always high. The larger bits permit
wider spacing of holes, and greater weight of tools prevents excessive drifting and pmrm
to compensate for greater area of rock cut, so that the cost per ft is no more (often less)
than for 6 -in bits, while drilling cost per ton or yd is less, with little difference in cost of
explosive.
Following are comparative costa of 6- and 9-in drills at Tilden Pit, Cleveland rniffa
Iron Co, using Bucyrus-Armstrong 29 T, 9-in. bit (E & M Jour, Nov, 1937):

No of holes..............................
Total footage drilled................
Aver depth of hole..................
Spacing of holes......................
Burden per ft of hole, cu y d ... .
Total tons blasted...................

6-in bit

9-in bit

14
1 416
105
15X22
' 12.2
35 400

14
1 377
100
20X30
22.2
62 000

Total explosive, lb.................


Tons per lb explosive.............
Drilling cost per ton.............
Operating cost per f
t
.
Drilling rate, ft in 8 hr...........

9-in bit

9 300
3.8
10.074
$1.95
13.7

20 040
3.04
$0.0334
$1.69
15,6

p r a c t ic e

^ M s & J I peed . f Blasmle M f a g ^


Kind of material
Clay, soapstone...........
limestone...............
limestone........................
Shale............................
Overburden, porphyry ore.
Limestone...............
Hard basalt................
Soil, gravel...............
Brown sandstone...........
Brown sandstone..
Shale.....................I .........
Hard, seamy limestone
Half earth, half slate..
Limestone......................
Iron ore..................
Copper ore, porphyry.
8hale........................ .
Limestone...........
Copper ore............. .
limestone...........
limestone,sandstone. ! " ^
Hard limestone...........

S
6-in bit

a n d

Ft per
hr

6
5.7
5.5
1.6
5.2
5.0
5.0
4.8
4.7
4.4
4.0
2.33
3.5
2-8

3.2
.5-2.5
3.0
1.0
2.i

o f

Depth,
ft

5 5/g
51/2
5

18
30
34
20
55

21/2

3
51/2
55/8
5
9

61/g
41/2-6
10
6
6
5 5/g

120
23

24
50
75
22-30
12
50
95
60
20-80
110
30-35
200
20
70

Machine

Remarks

Railroad work
Cyclone
Cement quatTy
Cyclone | Lime, crushedrock quarry
Cable drill
Open-CUt roinir^

Keystone
Cyclone
Cyclone
Cyclone

Crushed stone
Crushedstone

Star
Loomis
Keystone
Keystone
Armstrong
Keystone
Star
Armstrong
Star
Loomis
Cable drill
Armstrong

Crushed stone
Aqueduct
Lime quarry
Ore mining
Mining
Crushed stone
Mining
Cement quarry
Crushed stone

THE0RY ABD PRACTICE OF BLASTING

rf

S a S / * fT

,* i 00l "> tm stk o/

^ o ,

- - -

N Y Trap Rock Corp, on Hudson River, aver of 4 years operation in 4 quarriesi


based on 5 000-35 000 ft drilled per yr:

Bind of rock

Aver
depth
of hole,
ft

Diam
of
hole,
in

70
Basalt, hard..................................................

120

Spacing,
ft
17 X
14 X
15 X
22 X

24
18
27
30

Ft per
hr
elapsed
time

3.H
1.4

Coat
per
It

2.12

Cost of operating churn drills (see Sec 9 for tabulated data). For steam power about
10 or 12 bbl of water and 500 to 650 lb of coal per day are required; for gasolene power''
(gasolene @ 12i per gal), cost is from 70^ to $1.20 per day; with electric power at 2 ffi per.
kw-hr, coat is about $1.25 per day. A compressed-air operated chum drill uses about
as much air as a 3.25-in piston drill. About 2 gal wash water are required per ft of hole.:
If necessary, it can be collected and used repeatedly. S h a r p e n i n g b i t s costs much less
than for machine drilling; one bit, drilling 10 to 50 ft of hole, requires 1 hr to dress.
Comparative cost of chum and machine drilling. A Cyclone drill, making 3-in holes, 24 ft deep,,
i* solid brown sandstone in Ohio, put down 692 ft in 14 days of 10 hr, or 50 ft per dav (20). A
3.25-in machine thill, making 1.75-in holes, 20 ft deep, put down 28 holes in 8 days, or 70 it per day*

tae

lx n b

of

least

BESISTALO * 7- hem***

f e r * ? ' T* 1* for^

D i S a J t fh o u &ntf 0-9 f0r hrd brittle

jjbreak; hence, hte

' Distance DB (more xacfiv n cn

a r -M3 1*

According to Schoen (5), . * 4


may blow out stemming and fail

* ia~

J*1

chma or c m e ^

Diam
hole, in

55/8

5 _

b l a s t in g

m S S fS S .^ S ** & heM ;tSoJSZ

5-12

Relation of factors. Length I should be proportioned to size and diam of the hole.
in open-cut work the depth of holes should approximate 1.5 I.
Table 9.

jpacing between holes, must be known. From these factors the bubden in cu ft and tons on each
jjple is computed. Location of holes to give best fragmentation at low cost must be determined
{or each case by trial. If there is no parting at the quarry floor, the holes must go below Soor line
^insure breaking to bottom (Table 10).

In general

Relations of Diam and Depth of H ole, and Line o f Least R esit tance

Diam of
hole, in

Depth of
hole, ft

1, it

1.25
1.25
1.25
1.5
i. 5

3.50
5.75
10.00
4.00
7.50

3.50
3.75
5.00
4.00
5.00

5-13

TH EORY AND PRACTICE OF BLASTING

S O C K E X C AV ATIO N

Diam of
hole, in

Depth of
hole, ft

1.5
1.75
1.75
1.75

12.00
5.00
9.00
14.00

Table 10.
i.ft
Depth of
hole, ft

6.00 5.00
6.00
7.00

Holes blasted simultaneously. Fig 9 shows the eSect. If a and i are blasted separately,.
c would"not break out; when blasted together c is broken, if sis not too great. In aver hard rook.
x 1.51 to 2 i; in weak rook, x should be about equal to I.
Rock coefficient. To obtain it, select a homogeneous bench 2 ft
wide by 3 ft high. In this drill several vertical holes, so spacedthatthe hissing of one will not crack nor start the rock around another.
Charge each with different weighed amounts of the explosive to be
used, beginning with a small quantity. Fire the holes separately.
Fig 9. Effect of Holes Fired If C = rock coeff, P wt of powder, lb, I = line of least resistance, ftthen C = P - i - l 1, and P = CP. For 3 free faces, use 0.66 P; fo r#
Simultaneously
faces, 0.5 P; for 5,0.4 P; for 6, 0.25 P.
Size of drill hole for charge. If P - wt of explosive, lb; g = sp gr of explosive, and d = diar^
of hole, ft; then, P = 0.34 gd?.
Spacing holes in open-cut work. Much depends on depth of cut, character of rock,
and diam of hole. In aver size machine-drilled holes for shallow cuts, 6 ft and less, vert;
holes in m ost rocks should be set back from face a distance equal to depth, and spaced
apart a distance 0.85 o f depth. W ith holes to 12 ft deep, spacing and burden should be.
about 0.65 of depth; to 20 or 25 ft, spacing and burden should not exceed 0.5 depth
(usually less in hard rock) unless holes are sprung, in which case spacings may be wider.
Deep holes for quarry blasting (22). In homogeneous rock having a vert face, 3 resist
ances tend to counteract the explosive force (Fig 10): (A ) resistance distributed along the
hole, caused b y the rocks tensile strength. This m ay be
resolved into a single force acting midway between top and
bottom o f face, and of a magnitude equal to total distributed
resistance; (B ) shearing resistance across the horiz line
between the hole and bottom o f face, represented b y the
rock s shearing strength; (CO frictional resistance to sliding
at the bottom.
Computations. Limestone of 165 lb per cu ft has tensile
strength of 82 000 lb and shearing strength of 184 000 lb per sq ft;
granite of 168 lb per cu ft has tensile..8trength of 101 500 lb and
shearing strength of 287 000 lb per sq ft. If d is depth of hole and
b its distance back from face; then in limestone for each ft of width
of spacing between holes: 82 200 d tensile resistance, considered
as concentrated at midpoint of depth; 187 000 6 = shearing re
sistance concentrated at bottom; and 165 X b X d = wt of the
block. Assuming coeff of fric 0.65, 107 bd fric resistance to
sliding at bottom. For granite, the computations are similar. Values
of ^paring resistance apply to homogeneous rock; not where there
is a parting line at the quarry floor.
_ .
Ideal method would be to concentrate enough explosive in bot
tom of hole to overcome shearing and frictional resistances, and
distribute enough explosive throughout the hole to overcome tensile
, i,
resistance. In practice tins is rarely feasible; if the charge be distributed throughout the hole,
its total force may be considered as concentrated at a given point, half above and half below. .Kor
max effect, this point should be so located as to balance opposing resistances. In Fig 10 it is at a-distance Y above the bottom, proportional to the rock resistances. That is,
d ______
Tensile resistance_________________
_
Y = 2 X Tensile resistance + (shearing resistance - f frictional resistance)
d
__________ 82 200 d_________
For limestone (see above), Y = g X 82 200 d - f 187 000 b + 107 bd'
Similarly for granite. Thus, for practical purposes, Y is the dividing point of the charge, half, the
total being below this point' and half above.
.
,
To find the wt of explosive required, the depth of hole, its distance from the face, ana hw

|ssg#
M m

20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
160

Aver Spacing of Deep H oles in Quarry with Vert Face (22)

Height
of face,
ft

Distance
back, ft

Spacing,
ft

18
28
37
47
56
66
75
85
94
152

13
14.5
16
17.5
19
20.5
22
23.5
25
35

10.5
12
13
14
15.5
16.5
18
39
20
20

Height of
bottom
charge, ft
3.5
6.5
10
13
16
20
23
27
30
52

Diam hole
at bottom,
in

Depth of
top
tamping, ft

4
4.25
4.5
4.75
5
5.25
5.5
5.75
6
8

9
10
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
25

Height of bottom charge given in Table 10 is an aver between limestone and granite. Assum
ing aver duty of explosive to be 4 ton of rock broken per lb of explosive, and spacing as shown, a
100 X 25 X 20 ft
100-ft hole in limestone would have a burden of
= 4 166 ton, requiring a charge
12 cu ft per ton
of 1 040 lb. Applying previous formula,
82 200 X 100
2) = 31.4 ft.
(82 200 X 100) + (187 000 X 25) + (107 X 25 X 100) X (100
Thus, half the charge (520 lb) should be in the lower 31 ft of h ie . Wt of explosive contained in a
given depth of hole depends on diam of hole and density of explosive. In Table 11, cartridges are
iosumed to be slit and well tamped to fill the hole completely, with no air spaces.
Table 11.
Diam of
hole, in
, 4
41/2
5
51/2
6
7
8
9

Approx Weight (Lb) of Explosive Cantoned in 1 Ft of Hole

Straight
NG

Gelex
type

Red Cross
Extra

6.60
8.40
10.50
12.6
15.0
20.4
26.7
33.7

6.1
7.7
9.7
11.3
13.8
19.024.5
31.2

6.33
8.06
10.08
12.1
14.41.9.6
25.6
32.4

Qtfarry
- Gelatin

B Blasting
Powder

.Du Pont
Extra D

7.35
9.35
H . 69
14.0
16.7
22.7
29.7
37.6

5.28
6.72
8.40
10.1
12.0
16.3
21.4
27.0

5.46
6.95
8.71
9.80
12.55
17.09
21.85
27.68

Depth of lift. In deep open cuts or pits, rock is usually excavated in 2 or more benches
. or lifts. Depth for economical drilling, size into which the rock breaks on blasting, and
presence or absence of seams or of horiz drill holes (called toe holes) which might assist
breaking, all determine economic height o f lift. 3 Vs and 3 1/ 2-in mnnhinp, drills are good
jo depths of 16 to 24 ft. Churn drills are efficient for almost any depth, and where they
lire -used lifts of 100 ft are common. M ax depth for hand drilling is usually about 8 ft
;:with hand hammer, and for machine drills, 18 ft. As a rule, the higher the bench, the
..farther back from the face m ay the holes be located; but, the farther back the holes, the
- coarser will the rock break. 1 deep holes, the explosive should be separated into several
? charges with stemming between; for, if the entire charge is at the bottom of the hole, the
:;bottom o f the bench m ay be blown out and the top left overhanging. I f 2 rows o f horiz
holes are drilled in the face, besides the vert holes, height o f bench m ay be increased.
Examples of open-cut blasting indicating that 4-6 ton of rock can be broken per lb explosive (25).
Limestone quarry in Tenn, stone used for R R ballast, etc. Blast was of 16 5 6/8-in holes; aver
sapth, 75 ft; spaced 18 ft apart; aver face burden, 22 ft. Charge of 3 750 lb 60% and 3 700 lb
40% low-freezing dynamite broke 5.7 ton per lb.
! las! ! n ement rock, in Penn, of 14 56/8-in holes; aver depth, 86 ft,spaced 18 ft; face burden,
30 it. Charge of 4 850 lb 60% and 3 250 lb 40% dynamite broke 55 000 ton, or 6.8 ton per lb.
; Kentucky limestone quarry, for R R ballast; 9 holes, aver depth, 50 ft, spaced 18 ft apart and
25 ft back; 3 250 lb 40% dynamite broke 16 200 ton, or 5 ton per ib.

5-14

ROCK EXCAVATIO N

Table 12. Spariag ol Holes, Charges, and Results of Machine-drill Blasts {Origjttaft

Rock

Kind of work

Limestone.. . .
limestone.. . .
Hard dolomite

Crushed stone.. . .

Aver
Aver dist of
depth
rows
of
from
hole, face,
ft
ft

12
6
20
R R thro-cut (a) . 20
15
14

Hard lime*?
stone
i
Sandstone....

13
9
Crushed stone j 26(e)
12 (J)
R R side-cut........ 20
12-18

Sandstone....

R R thro'-cut.. . .

Soft shale.......
Hard shale... .

R R thro-cut. . . .

20
20
24
24
16

Crushed,rubble..

12-18
18
12-18
12-18
5

0.40
1.00'
0.42
0.43

6
0.56
n
12-18
12-18
14

0.47
0.10
0.20

12-18

0.08

12-18

0.20
1.36
1 33

2.5

Seamy slate... RRthro-cut.......


Seamy rock... Dam filling..........

Ft of
hole
per
eu
yd

'5

(h)
12
14
12.5
14
16
12(7)
18

Aver
dist
apart
of
holes,
ft

10

6 )

10

1.70
0 32
0.35
1 00
0.27
0.13

5-15

CHARGING A N D FIRIN G

Grade
of
explo
sive,
% Ngl
40
50
60
50
f 40
t 60
(40
I 60
(60
160
40 [

Kind

of
explo
sive
A
A
A
A O)
A
A
A
A
A

iB

A
40 i B
A
B
40 | B
A (o)
40 \ S
A (fi)
60
A
(75
1 60
i }
A
40 . A
40
A
52
A
75
A
A
60
A
B

Explo
per
ou yd
of;
rook
ib
0.75
0.70
0.37
1.05
0.26 (c)
0.38
0.38 .
0.38
0.44
4.5
1.35 I 5.3
4.5.
1.00
0, i 0
2 .00
0 .2 0

Table 13.
r jSnd
f
jk

Character
of work

Crushed stone..
Crushed stone..

--

0.20

2.5:
0.60
0.50
0.67
0.44
0 .20
0.70
1.11

45
1.85
.A. Dynamite. B. Black powder, (a) 35 holes. (6) Holes sprung with 2 lb dynamite, (c) Holes
sprung, (d) 45 holes, (e) 60 hoies; top holes, vertical, 26 ft deep. (/) 75 holes; 2 to
one
at 15 and one at 60 with vertical, 10 to 14 ft deep, the former being 6 ft away from <&2.5t
in front of latter, (g) Sprung 3 times. (A) 1st row 6 to 15 ft, from face; 2nd row, 7 to 10 ft-from
first row; about 2.5 lb of 75% dynamite & 6.25 lb of 60% per hole, (t) Holes staggered, (j) 30
holes; holes at angle of 15 with vertical. Sprung with 3 lb of dynamite.

No
of
holes

4
8
12

Aver Aver
Diam
dist
dist
Aver holes
of
apart
depth
hole,
from
of
ft
in
face, holes,
ft
ft
5 6/8
5

66
50

92

.8

I R R ballast.. . .
8

6
6
6

65
20
48

20
15
19

Cement quarry.

62

32

Cement quarry.

12

-s\

0.15(g)
0.70
0.03
1.50
0. IQ

Spacing of H oles, Charges, and Rsulte o f Chum-Drl Blasts (Original)

Cement quarry.
Cement quarry.
Open-pit iron

15
18
20 {
30 j

Hard R R bal
S
last
:* {

Lime quarry....

\E
'F

Cement quarry.
9
Hard granite__
16
Coppermine__
1
R R thro-cut... 578

6
6

25-40
60
60
(56/8

(t )
40
15
20

12
16.5 {
20

95

33

28 -j

100

24

17 {

52.5
115
80

36
16

20{
32

Total
explo
sive
used,
lb
5 500
1 200
7 700
15 000
4 000
65(5)

Ex
Grade
Kind Rock plo
of
of
blast sive
explo
explo ed,
per
sive,
sive cu yd
cu
%
yd, lb
40
40

40
3 300
40
40 i
1 800
60
I
2 500
60 J
17 000
16 000
2 200
3 350
60
I 250
40
1 200
60 )
600
40 J
1 720
60 )
2 500
40 i
18 597
4 000(e)
I 200
60 1
27 275
35 I
100(g) 40
625

A
20 000 0.275
A
B
47 000 0.483
A
A
A
A
5 720 0.578
A

12 320 0.349
59 000 0.55

A [ .27 300 0.249


A J
A

5 720 0.315

13 660 0.309
34 000 0.5
12 000

B
(0 i
35 000 0.814
35
A
3 100 0.323
15
D
500 1.250
50
R R thro-cut...
8 4.5 32-37
m
22
50 300
2F-3F
D
16 j 3 0*311
E 1Open-pit iron ore 14 9
1 100 j 30 j 20
23 000
B
30 500 0.575
A. Dynamite. B. Gelatin. C. Nitramon. D. Black blasting powder. E. limestone.
Sandstone. G. Porphyry. H. Basalt. I. Copper porphyry. J. Tough carbonate. K. Gravel.
S. Ore and capping. (6) Per hole, (e) Sprung with 150 lb of 40% dynamite, if) Hoies in 5
|psiallel lines: 1 center line, 2 lines 10 ft away; 2 lines 24 ft from center line. Holes staggered,
SM ft apart, and chambered with 60% dynamite. Loading required 8 days, (g) Per hole, (h)
Soles on center line, the first being 18 ft from face. Holes sprung with 15 sticks 60% dynamite,
pen 55 sticks, then 275 sticks. Tamping, after springing, cost $12 to drill out. (t) Per hole;
cat of blasting about 5 per cu yd.

iWs

il
?K

peep-hole blasting. For this it is often advisable to place the dynamite in several
Oklahoma quarry, for R R ballast; 8 holes, 95 ft deep, spaced 28 ft; aver face burden, 33 ft.
iistinct charges separated b y stemming, each charge having its own primer, or all con
Charge of 2 200 lb gelatin, 3 350 lb 60% and 1 250 lb 40% dynamite broke 62 000 ton, or 9 ton per nected b y a line o f Cordeau fuse or Primacord. If the rock consists of hard and soft layers,
Ib. Blast badly balanced, requiring very strong explosive at bottom. Cost per ton was as higher
charges should be placed in the hard layers. Contractors powder and free-running high
higher than a well-balanced blast.
Blast in iron ore of 26 5 6/g-in holes; aver depth, 84 ft; spaced 15 by 15 ft; triple loaded; 8 500 explosive grades are charged like black powder, but are exploded b y a dynamite primer.
ROther grades and all dynamites are exploded with detonators. I f black powder and dynaib 40% dynamite broke 50 000 ton, or 5 ton per lb.
Blast in cement rock, in N J, of 11 holes; aver depth, 102ft; spaced 20 by 22ft; 20401b 60% inite are charged in the same hole, the dynamite should contain the primer.
and 4 475 lb 40% gelatin broke 40 000 ton, or 6 ton per Ib.
A 75 000-ton blast, West Va, cost 3.3^ per ton (1915). Of 15 6-in holes, 13 were 125 ft deep,
drilled about'5 ft below quarry floor; 2 holes were 72 and 85 ft. Aver spacing, 15 ft; top burdeniif
8-12 ft; bottom burden 25-35 ft. Charge per hole, 400-500 lb 60% gelatin, on top of which.were
150-600 lb du Pont quarry powder. Cordeau fuse was held taut while cartridges were dr&ppsd
down the holes. In 10 holes, charges were split near middle by 10-20 ft clay tamping; 5 holesware
loaded solid, with 30 ft tamping. On each line of Cordeau was 1 No 6 du Pont electric oap. Cape
were connected in series and tested. About 50% of the stone was broken to 1-man size; none
thrown over 100 yd from face. Aver burden per hole, 2 000 cu yd; aver charge, 900 lb. Total rSck
broken, 60 500 loose yd (75 000 ton), or 5.5 ton per lb. Cost per tons explosives, fuse and caps,
2.21; drilling and charging, 1.1

6. CHARGING AND FIRING


F or facts respecting ordinary methods o f charging black powder and dynamite, including
data on fuse, detonators, squibs, tamping, and electric firing, see Sec 4, 6 (14, 20)., Note,rr
Stemming is the tamping material; tamping, the act of inserting stemming.

Pig 11.

Arrangement of Charges for a Large Blast

Dynamite and black powder in one blast. In blue sandstone large charges of black powder and
dynamite in alternate rows o f h ols were found effective (20). In Pig 11, the 24-ft holes were

5 -1 6

ROCK E XC AV ATIO N

CHARGING AN D FIRING

mM" with churn drill, with 3-in bit. Holes marked kegs were loaded with 25-lb kegs of black
powder; and those marked "boxes were loaded to within 4 ft of the top with 40% dynamite aa '
shown. Before loading holes with black powder, each one was sprung (see below); first with is
sticks of 1.25 by 8-in size dynamite, second with 40 sticks, third with 80 sticks, and a final charge
of 130 sticks of 40% dynamite per hole. The dynamite and powder were fired together,' on the
theory that the powder would lift the rock and the dynamite would shatter it. About 2 700 eu yd
of rock were broken in one blast, with 800 lb of dynamite for springing and 6 000 lb of black powder
and 1 100 lb of dynamite for the final charges.

gsear the bottom, where the bank sloped inward, fragments of rock might have damaged build- icga and plant, which were within 300 ft of the face. By care in computing each charge, no rock
ffsz thrown more than 150 ft.
Force of explosives (23). Total energy of an explosive (Table 14) is the sum of its shatter; jjjg (percussive) and propellent forces; for practical results, the relative shattering and propellent
?values must be known (Table 15).
If for a given ease an explosive is not sufficiently shattering, use one of equal total energy but
greater percussive value. For throwing broken rock farther, use an explosive of greater propellent
force; or, if in this case, the rock was breaking to desired size, use explosive of greater total energy.

Springing deep holes (26) (Sec 4, Art 8 ,9 ). B y starting with a small charge, followed
b y gradually increased charges, the chamber at bottom o f hole can be made nearly
spherical, giving best concentration of explosive. First springing charge should not
occupy more than 0.05 o f total depth of hole.
Gelatin dynamite is best for springing; it is safe, its plasticity and density eliminate air spaces
and, though slow in action when shot in the open, it has max quickness when confined, except in
hardpan, clay and similar material; in these soft materials, ammonia dynamite is preferable.
Charge should be packed solidly, to exclude air; stemming free from broken rock and small in
amount, so the springing charge will drive it out of the hole. Water stemming has advantages due
to ease of application; it reduces amount of rock blown out and keeps the hole cool, which is neces
sary before making the main charge. Springing shots should be fired electrically. After study
of bore-hole temperatures, the du Pont Co recommends that no explosive be placed in a sprung hole
if a tamping stick left in the hole about 5 min feels warm to the hand. When holes are left to cool
naturally, it is well to regulate the intervals between charges as follows: after first spring, 1 hr;
second, 2 hr; third, 3 hr; fourth, 4 hr; fifth, 5 hr. After last springing, wait until next day before
charging. Heavy springing is not advisable in soft shales, as it may fill the chamber with debris.
In highly inclined strata, the shock of springing may cause a slip and close the hole.
Charging deep holes. If the rock is seamed and
cracked, the charge should n ot extend to upper part of
hole; there must be ample space for stemming.
Referring to Table 10, for 6-in holes of depth and spacing aa
in Fig 12, 18 ft of stemming is recommended; leaving 51 ft be
tween bottom charge and stemming for second half of charge.
520 lb of Red Cross Extra would fill 36 ft of the hole, leaving
15 ft for stemming. For max effect, it would be best to divide
the charge into 4 sections, with 5 ft of stemming between them.
For electric blasting, it is unwise to split the charge into so many
sections, due to difficulty of wiring. Where there are both
hard and soft strata above bottom charge, the explosive is
placed in the hard strata and stemming in the weaker. In
uniform rock, broken charges are placed in adjoining holes so
that explosive and stemming alternate along the line of holes.
Length of bottom charge is worked out as above for the
different depths and spacings of holes in Table 13. When the
face slopes, causing heavy toe resistance, explosive can be
concentrated at the bottom by drilling larger diam holes, or
decreasing the spacing; a row of staggered holes at the toe
assists in such cases. With a well-defined parting line at the
quarry floor, it is rarely necessary to drill below grade; and,
as the shearing resistance is then reduced, less explosive is
required near the floor.
Separate calculations for each hole (38) give best results
and at lower cost. Fig 13 shows a blast that might have dose
Fig 12. Alternate Methods of serious damage had its charge not been carefully computed.
Charging a 6-in Hole
The bank was irregular; parts having considerable overhang,
and some holes an unusually heavy toe. If charges in holes 2, 7, and 8 had not been broken
Table 14.

Total Energy o f Blasting Explosives (23)


Ft-ton per lb

Ft-ton per lb
Blasting gelatin (a, b, c).................

40% (6)......................

996-1
1 030-1
819879864-

Black powder (a, b)........................


o = U S Bur Mines,

]49
157
904
925
904
721
51']- 770
287- 288
402- 553
b

2 (a )....................
3 (a )..................

2 (a) ........................

Brunswig, c Heise. d = Bichel.

421-539
465-498
494
796
517-533
525-564
502
553

fable 15. Explosives in Order of D e : creasing Shattering and Increasing Pro


pellent Force (23)

1 33

4 5 5 7 8 9

5 -1 7

10 11 22 13

H ies Shattebing F obce


Nitroglycerin
Blasting gelatin
75% gelatin dynamite
-80% dynamite, active dope
50%
40%
30%

40% ammonia dynamite


"40% gelatin

Granular nitroglycerin powder


Black powder (fine grained)

(coarse grained)
H i g h P ropella n t Fobcb
Blasting formulas are inaccurate, be
cause of difficulty in measuring the actual
force developed, uncertainty as to the b u r
d e n on the charge, and varying rock char
acteristics. Tests are always necessary,
but empirical formulas and all available
data are useful as guides.
General remarks on explosives: shattering
effect increases with speed of explosion; effie
varies with degree of confinement of charge;
excessive noise means wasted energy. 'Useful
effect depends upon suitability of an explosive
tions of Quarry Face
for its work, as well as upon its strength, i e,
npon the force it develops. Straight dynamites are rated on percentage by weight of nitroglycerin
(NG) contained; a 40% straight dynamite contains 40% NG. and any other kind (regardless of
eontent) which develops the same force, weight for weight, is rated as 40%, the rating of straight
dynamites serving as a reference. A dynamite of 40% bulk strength develops the same force volume
for volume, aa a 40% straight
Table 16. Equivalents o f Dynamite of Different Strengths dynamite. Some high explo
sives, as the permissible, the
One
du Font Extras and certain
cartridge 60% 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% others for special work, are
% N G
not rated by percentage, but
marked by numbers or letters
60
1.00 1.06 1.09 i. 15 1.21 1.29 1.38 1.50 1.64 designating strength. Force
50
0.94 1.00 1.02 1.08 1.14 1.23 1.30 1.41 1.55 developed is not in direct ratio
45
0.92 0.98 1.00 1.05 1.12 1.19 1.27 1.38 1.51 to percentage rating; a 40%
40
0.87 0.93 0.95 1.00 3.06 .3 1.20 1.31 1.43 dynamite does not develop
0.82 0.87 0.89 0.94 1.00 1.06 1.13 1.23 1.35 twice the force of a 20%, be
35
30
0.77 0.82 0.84 0.89 0.94 1.00 1.07 1.16 1.27 cause ingredients other than
25
0.73 0.77 0.79 .0.83 0.88 0.94 1.00 1.09 1.19 NG and ammonium nitrate
20
0.67 0.71 0.73 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.92 1.00 1.10 have some explosive effect of
15
0.61 0.65 0.66 0.70 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.91 1.00 their own, altering the ratio.
True ratios are shown in Table
16; 1 cartridge of 40% is equal in force to 0.87 cartridge of 60% or 1.31 cartridges of 20%, except
that in soft material the ratios may be lowered by greater spreading and heaving effect of the lower
grades of explosive.
Chamber blasting is done b y driving a small tunnel or inking a shaft, i t the end of
which chambers are excavated for the main charges o f explosive. For black powder the
chamber may be below the floor of the drifts, for convenience in pouring loose powder into
large wooden boxes, built in the chambers. The tramping of the men packs it tightly-

5-18
h

ROCK E X C AV ATIO N
CHARGING AND FIRING

the solid sides of the excavation offer greater resistance to the explosion. Coyotb
o l e s are one-man tunnels or drifts (Fig 15).

M e 17 .

Chamber blast, St. Helena, Ore (Fig 14). The rook was basaltic, weighing 175 lb per cu ft.
Explosive was No 2, MV Trojan powder; charge, 3 500 2b. The tunnels were tamped to the
portal with muck. The rock was sufficiently broken to be handled by steam shovel, little bulldozing
(sledging) being necessary. Vol broken, 14 280 ou yd.

Fig 14.

Chamber Blast at St Helena, Ore

Fig 15. Tunnel, Crosscuts and


Powder Pockets for Coyote Blast
ing (27)

Coyote-hoie blasting (27). A tunnel about 2.5 by 3.5 ft section is driven into the face,
length being equal to 2/s height of face above tunnel. At end of tunnel and forming a T
is a crosscut, approx equal in length to main tunnel. At each end of crosscut is sunk a
powder pocket, large enough to contain the charge; their depth = 1 ft for each 10 ft of
toe in front of pocket; vertical banks required less depth (Fig 15).
An offset to hold the charge may be driven from the crosscut, or the charge is simply placed oa
floor of crosscut, but a sunken pocket confines the charge better. When length of tunnel is greater
than height of quarry face, 2 or more crosscuts are driven to distribute the charges properly; this
may also be necessary when rook is blocky. If rock is hard and high fragmentation desired, 2 or
more powder pockets, 1&-25 ft apart, are made in each crosscut.
. . .
. .,
Charges. Coarse-grain black powder, primed with 5-10% of its wt of 40 or 60% straight
dynamite, gives beat results. To find required charge, first compute the cu yd of material above
the tunnel ("yardage in the square of the shot") = (length of tunnel X length crosscut X aver height
of face, ft)
27. A well-designed blast often breaks twice the yardage in square of shot, but the
above is conservative. For road-surfacing rock, the charge is 0.3-1.5 lb per cu yd in square of shot.
To throw rock clear of right of way, as in sidehffl road making, the charge may be 1.75-3.5 lb per
cu yd; for this purpose, better err on side of over-charging; a good blast will throw 60-80% clear of
right of way.
t ..

t.
.
rtiofging (27). One 50-lb case 40% straight dynamite is placed m bottom of each powder
pocket, 3 cartridges being primed with electric caps. Electric blasting cap wires are connected in
series, if a blasting machine is used, or in parallel if fired by a power current (Fig 16). Free ends of
wires are connected to No 14 gage duplex
leading wire, running out to the face. 11
joints well taped and leading wire wrapped
in roofing paper or gunny sacking to pro
tect from injury.
Computed charge is placed in the
pockets on top of primer. .Loading ex
plosive in original packages-saves tame,
and is safer; but, in charging blasting
powder in sidehiU work, for wasting the
rock, it is best to pour it into the pockets.
The charge is covered with dry earth or
a t firio* by bl i sting m a c h i n e
F t* firing by power earteat
Fig 16. Modes of Wiring for Coyote-hole Blasting (27) rock screenings. One wire from righthand pocket is connected with a wire
from left-hand pocket, and the 2 free wires are connected through the leading wires to the blast
ing machine. For mar detonating effect, run a line of countered Cordeau fuse from unit to unit,
with a coil on bottom of each pocket. When any one charge explodes, the Cordeau detonates the
others.
Crosscuts and tunnel are finally tamped with broken stone. Logs are often used to aid in con
fining filling; a row being laid crosswise on floor at end of tunnel, their ends projecting into the
crosscuts. Spaces between the logs are filled with clay. Other layers of iogs follow, to the roof of
tunnel. Main tunnel is then tamped, and blast is ready for firing.
Beat theoretical length of tunnel (27) is equal to about 2/3 the height of face; but, with only
1 crosscut, a tunnel more than 60 ft long is impracticable, A shorter tunnel and 1 crosscut generally
give best results at least cost; for high banks and large charges several crosscuts may be driven.

Case

Bock

I ............ Granite___.'
n ........ Porphyry...
m ......... Granite.......
I V
limestone...
..............VSandstone...
vi...... Rock...........
VII........
vni... J Black tra- 1
chyte
)
I X
Limestone...
..............XGranite.......
X I
Gravel.........
xn..... Gravel.........
X III.. { Cemented )
X I V ....
X V
XV I
XVII....
XVIII...
X I X ....
X X ........
X X I ....
X X I I ...

xxni I

Gravel.
Rock..
Basalt..
Basalt.........
Basalt.........
Basalt.........
Hard basalt.
Basalt.........
Cemented )

Charges Itsed m Chamber aad Coyote Blast, (Original)


Rock
loos
ened,
cu yd
! 10 000
50 000
80 000

Dyna
mite,
lb
144

100
5 400

220 000
350 000
14 280

1 250'
II 400

250 000

3 000

700
440 000

32

26

150 000

Black
powder,
lb
35 000

114 000(6)
3 500
30 000
2
18
17
50

775
250
500
000

10 000

3 500
500

0.002
0.067

0.374(a)

0.006

0. 195

0:033

0.120

1.632
0.0001 0.042
0.333
0.072
0.018
0.050

0 000
431 000

0.024

0.326
0.245(6)

0.012

0.750
0.875
0.385
0.247
0.191
0.179

21 00 0

20 000

Judson
powder

0.015

7 500
35 000
34 625

n o ooo

ISO 000

Black
powder

36 400

40 000
90 000
40 600
56 000
400 000
54 800

Lb per cu yd
Dyna
mite

0.001 0.320

I 200
29 050(a)
12 000
43 100

500 000

200 000

Judson
powder,
lb

10 000
0.050

8 00(!

1.078
0.146(6)'

30 025

0.167

i35?t
beni
T ft T * ^
Tunae! 75 ft below apez of rock,
at ends of cross drifts, with 3 000 lb of powder along o u te r^ n Wf V fro?1 Bd
tunnel. Charges
nung: rock, earth, timber. II. Otav CaL
5 ^
of rema*nder 0f cross drift. Stem
for chambers. Charges: 4 000 Yb
p o w d e i l K ^
at j
powder and 50 lb dynamite in other. Cost- drifting soak. ^yna,Eute one chamber; 8 000 lb
Z.&i per cu yd. Further breaking by nowder in
1 powder, 8960; charging, $75; fcotaL
CaL Morenadam. Open cut perpendicular t
o
?
er cn yd- H*. San Diego
and 100 ft from out. Chambers sunk beneath floor at J j j
115 ft lon8< Parallel to
contained 500 lb 7% Champion powder and 1 500 ih &(\<v a a .J ^ from face. Face chamber
9% powder, 1900 lb 40%, and 2 000 lb BOV /i, * dy^m ite; end chamber, 28 550 lb 7 and
cut, 8 n o t drifting and c h a r J i ^
T X * <tob * <*** 2
ampton, Pa. Quarry. Face, 135 ft MpH ni#* >r ? - j
total, 5.05)5 per ton. IV. Northft from face. 4 chambers below tunnel, 45 ft apart
238 Ion? 410118 a fault SO to 100
Total cost, $3 825. V. Ferrinn w k n.
. . 3 crosscuts each way, 25 to 5 ft i
one 150 ft long, with 3 crosscuts 50 ft apart
80 to MM ffcT]W S'fwby ^ drifta 200 ffc Part;
jsrosacuta, each 70 to 100 ft long. 60% dynamite
long; ,the otheT 18<> long, with 4
^
/ f Hedra- CaL Quarry. Aver h S of i
q w f mUk timber- and e n t b r
each 80 ft long, with 2 crosscuts each side. C ^scute 4 oft
den 68
6 drifts,
60% dynamite and Judson R n p r> * t
, . 40 ^ apart, 40 ft long. Pita at ends nf
Q y . frii*,3ftSdX?8SLg,
cr 4 i SlSndw PV

way from face, a crosscut in each side, 32 ft Ions No > t w ne J other 40 ft loEK- Half,
m short cut and 5 charges of 400 to 700 lb in long oui Omt
4 ctarges of 150 to 250 lb
VIII. Corona, Cal. Quarry. Ovarhnr/i e r w / 1
. Cost- explosives, S359; loadinz 9ss
face, 15 ft long to left and 40 ft to right; diagonal drift 8 0 ft fr*0 f* l0nfA
Me drift 60 f f m

eT pI

^ t0l6ft d a

t to i to S T

15? %

d at the ead a

60% dynamite. IX. U P R R


Jf,f * -1 w of1dnfts harged with Judson
o J i p o w d e r- Coat about *1-10 per cu yd. X TA n
^
g9dJ n t h 26 Ib d^amite and
*ith 2 drifts at bottom, each 27 ft inner rv
ZT* I'Ottg Cove, Me. Shaft, 4 by 4 ft 64 ft deen
crosscuts. Estimate of 1000 000 t o i b S w
*nda of ****** 26 ft loat- Explosives S
Face 150 ft high. Drift, I W f U o n ^ t S S c u t a T S h
. ?a g o n h y d r S f S
f 5 ft IOBg- Croa3ut at left, 60 ft long, 5 t h drift at end
f*6 at,end P^aUel to
untamped for expansion of gases. Cost- d r ifW
,
locg- Much space left
hydraukc mine. Drift, 3 by 4 ft 275 ft- il
e 300, exPisives, 82 700. XII. Blue Poinf
t i l

XIII. Dardanelles mine. Face, 175 ft high 1200 ff


s
^ paraUeI to main drift
IT 2
Total
of d^fts, 1 200 ft X I V ^ H v d r ^ 8 r0SS l ach of which
*
SV . Colorado. D a . Coyo f or o ^ . a f *

5 -2 0

ROCK EXCAVATION

each 12 ft long, with pita at end. Explosive, FFB powder and 40% dynamite, charged in pits.
Stemming: earth. Cost: labor, 8384; dynamite, $155; powder, SI 140; caps and fuse, $11. Total
16.9 i per cu yd. XVI. Oregon. II R. Coyote hole, 2.5 by 3 ft in hillside, 50 ft deep. Crosscuts
at end, 75 and 45 ft. Charges in the 3 openings. XVII. Crooks Landing, H R . 4 or 5 coyote
holes, 80 ft long, with Ts 40 to 60 ft long at ends. XVIIL Oregon. R R. 165 ft breast. XIX
and X X . Oregon. R R. X X I. Snake River, Wash. R R. 75 coyote holes, 2.5 by 3 ft, each
averaging 89 ft long, run into and then parallel to sidehill face. 3 500 ft of cliff mined by 6 177 ft
of coyote holes. 20 000 lb of dynamite used in preparing for main blast of F to 5 F black powder.
XX II. Oregon. Coyote holes. No 2 Trojan powder. X XIII. Smartsvilie, Cal. Hydraulic
mine. Shaft, 74 ft deep, with main drift 185 ft long from bottom. 3 crosscuts, 70, 120, and 170 ft
from shaft, 40 ft long on either side. 10 lifter drifts from crosscuts, each 15 ft long, parallel to main
drift. Total drifts, 570 ft long by 2.5 ft wide by 3.5 ft high. Material moved, 270 by 180 by 100 ft.
Note.Above costs are pre-war.
Gophering is a mode o f blasting used in breaking the overburden in the Meaabi, Minn,
mining districts, and elsewhere, in sandy, loose ground, where vertical holes can not be
kept open (20). (See Eng & M in Jour, Voi 88, p 696.) A hole is bored with a pointed
bar, at a down angle of 15 to 20 in the side of the bank. Dynamite cartridges, placed
end to end, are pushed into the hole and exploded. The muck is removed with a longhandle shovel, the hole 'deepened furthei, and the process repeated until a hole 10 or
12 in diam and deep enough is obtained. A chamber is made at the end b y springing
with 2 or 3 cartridges. A long-handle box filled with powder is pushed in and overturned.
Boulder blasting is done by: mudcapping or bulldozing; blockholing; and under
mining or anakeholing. Other cheaper methods are: b y sledging; b y drop-hammer or
drop waights; by heating with fire and then cracking b y applying cold water; b y a combination of 2 or more of these
Blasting Cap
......
methods. Heating can not be
Mud\ \
t-^ e
used with boulders larger than 0.5
D
y n a m
i t e jMsS&Mwfik
to 0.75 cu yd. Mudcapping con
sists in exploding a charge of dy
namite on the surface of a rock,
after covering it with earth (Fig
17); it is most effective when a
depression is selected for the ex
plosive, if the cap is laid on the
dynamite and not shoved into it,
and if wet clay is used as a cover
ing. Snakeholing consists in bor
ing a hole beneath a boulder and firing a charge in it (Fig 18). It is more efficient, but
n ot so rapid as mudcapping. Blockholing consists in drilling a shallow hole in the boulder
for small charge of dynamite.
Relative costs per cu yd o f breaking boulders, from a num b- o f pre-war records (20)
was: sledging, 4.3^; drop-hammer, 6.5$S; heating, 14.9^; blnpVhnjing, 16.8^; under
mining, 17.5^; mudcapping, 31j; mudcapping and edging, 32.1^.
Table IS.

Charges for Boulder Blasting (du Pont Co)

Approx No of 1.25 by 8-in


cartridges (40-60% dynamite) .

Weight
of
boulder,
lb

Mud
capping

Snakeholing

500
1 000
2 000
3 000

1.5
2
3
3.5

I
1.5
2.5
3

5 -2 1

LOADIN G AND HAULING

Approx No of 1.25 by 8-in


cartridges (40-60% dynamite)

Block
holing

Weight
of
boulder,
lb

Mud
capping

Snakeholing

Block
holing

0.25
0.5
0.67
1

4 000
5 000
7 500
10 000

4
4.5
6
8

3.5
4
5
6

.25
.75
2.5
3.5

Details of charging, tamping and firing (see Sec 4, Art 8-10). In general, a charge should not
occupy more than 0.5-0.6 the depth of hole (24). TTie wasteful practice of nearly filling the hole
with explosive should be prohibited. In close-spaced holes, the primer is sometimes placed at bot
tom, as the fuses are then less liable to be cut off by adjacent shots; but this position of primer may
cause side-spitting of fuses; primer is best inserted last. Complete detonation being essential for
max force, use only strong caps in good condition.
Burning speed of fuse is affected by differences in atmos press. A fuse burning at 30 sec per ft
at sea level burns at 40 see per ft at 5 000 ft, and 50 sec at 10 000 ft. Fuse in a hole full of water
burns faster than in a dry hole. For firing holes in sequence, at least 2-in difference in length of
fuses is essential; thus, in a 6-hole round, shortest fuse is 12 in shorter than longest.

For electric firing, delay electric blasting caps, electric igniters, wiring of holes, and circuit
testers, see Sec 4, Art 10. Switches for taking current from power lines should be enclosed in a box
that can not be closed or locked unless switch is open.
, , , , , ,
. /00> , \
Results of tamping experiments by V S Bur of Mines, Trauzl lead-block method (28). (a) for
black powder, the best tamping is requisite for max effect; (6) for 40% dynamxte even smaU amounts
of good stemming show, by lead-block tests, at least 50% increase in effic (other teste, m wstual
Table 19. Characteristics of M odes of Firing Dynamite
Delay
elee cap

Cap and fuse Electric cap

summary:

*--------

1st
1st
1st
4th

1st
1st
1st
2d

1st
3d
3d
1st

>

Delay eleo
igniter
and cap
1st
2d
2d
3d

cost, which may be greatly increased by misiires or a single major accident.____________________


rock. 20-25%), rate of effic decreasing with more tamping; (c) good tamping diminish danger of
ignition of coal gas or dust from blow-out shots; (d) considering effic only, the length of stemming
should be at least 3 times that of explosive (but in actual practice is usually 0.5-1.0 tames). In
gaseous or dusty mines, holes should be completely filled with best stemming; (ei more
19
necessary for old or frozen dynamite; (/) the larger the diam of hole, the greater the length of stem
ming required; (g) well-stemmed holes produce most perfect detonation, with smallest evolution of
poisonous gases; (h) moist fine clay or other plastic material makes best stemming for all explosives,
dry powdery material is least effic. Wooden tamping bars should always be used.
Use of paper tamping bags (30/, containing specially mijjed stemming, increases blasting
effic- breakage is improved, with possibility of using lo^er-grade explosive or smaller
charges. Cartridge-shaped bass o f different sizes, obtainable from makers of explosives,
are now widely used.
Anaconda Copper Mining Co has developed a machine for filling tamping bags. At a Virginia
coal mine the filling apparatus consists of an inclined receiving table for the screened clay, set on a
pitch of 35, with a horiz shelf at its base. In the shelf is a row of hoies 4 m apart, each with a brass
tube 1.25 in diam by 10 in long, extending below the shelf. A hinged drop table vmderneath the
shelf supports a series of 1.5-in tamping bags, which are slipped over the tubes and failed. Wita
this device, 1 man fills 4 000 bags in 8 hr.
,. , .
.
,
,
Avoiding waste of explosives (31). Blasters should be taught to think in terms of cost of explo
sive, and to figure tonnage of rock broken per ft of hole in number of shots, hole spacing, etc; all
of which leads to economy.
Prevention of misfires (33). Use good explosive materials. K eep explosives in dry
storage (Sec 4, Art 6). Carefully prepare cap and fuse; cut off 0.25 in of all fuse exposed
to air for any length o f time; cut fuse squarely across, and push it without twisting
motion into the cap (Sec 4, Art 8).
,
Note. Table 4 of Sec 4 contains data for making preliminary determinations ol the
character, grade and strength of explosive for different kinds of rock and of excavation.
It is advisable, however, for large-scale operations, and particularly for underground coal
and metal mining, to supplement the recommendations given in the table-by actual blast
ing tests and data of work in similar ore or rock (see A it 4, 5; also Sec 6, 7 and, in
Sec 10, the data on drifting, crosscutting, stoping, etc).

7. HAND AND MECHANICAL LOADING AND. HAULING


Hand work. One man can load 2 to 20 cu y d o f rock (place measure) in 10 hr, depend
ing mainly on size of pieces and height to be lifted.
On Chicago Drainage Canal the aver per man in 10 hr was about 7 cu yd loaded into dump caw.
Sledging took about 14% of the time. Aver per man loading into low cableway skips, 10 cu yd;
L A E G B S T O N E S were roiled into the skips, very little sledging being required.
In loading wagons
with high sides, 1 man will average 10 cu yd solid measure (17 cu ydlooae) of easily-lifted stones per
10 hr Stones handled singly can be thrown off a wagon twice as fast.- Stones can be loaded on
wagons having stone racks at rate of about 13 cu yd per 10 hr, and rolled off at 50 cu yd per hr (20).
C b d s h e d s t o n e can be shoveled from smooth boards or steel sheets at the rate of 13 cu yd solid
measure (22 cu yd loose) in 10 hr; in shoveling from the ground or hopper-bottom oars, 1 man will
handle only 7 to 8 eu yd solid measure (12 to 14 cu yd loose),

5 -2 2

B O C K E XC AV ATIO N

QTJABRYING

Steam shovel work. Cost of rock excavation varies greatly. In the soft iron ore of
Mesabi range, under fair conditions, a steam shovel easily loads 250 eu yd per hr; but in
poorly drilled and blasted rock, broken in large pieces, it may do as little as 17 cu yd per hr.

put for 4 mo, 40 624 loads, averaging 2.49 cu yd, practically all handled in 2 shifts. Cost of opera
tion (not including loading), 37^ per cu yd, as follows: labor, 11.1^; power, 4*5; supplies, 1.5(5;
repairs, 4.7(5; deprec, 6.4^; preparatory expense, 9.2(5. Wages: laborers, $2.40 per 8 hr; cableway
operators, 84 to $5; riggers, $3 to $4. Power cost, 1.5(5 per kw-hr. Deprec was figured oa charging
off 75% of first cost and all the installation cost (20).
Canal work. On St Marys Channel Improvement, 4 cableways handled 1 700 000 cu yd of
limestone in 2.5 yr. Rock was loaded into skips by 4 60-ton traction-mounted steam shovels.
Skips held 6 cu yd each, but sometimes 8 cu yd (18 tons) were handled. 2 cableways had spans
of 1 100 ft and 2 of 800 ft. Aver haul, 300 ft. Best months record for all, 22 000 cu yd each; best
months record for one cableway, 30 000 cu yd (20).
Stone-boats are wooden or sheet-iron platforms, best mounted on runners, for hauling large
stones short distances. If the runners are greased, 1 ton can be pulled by a team weighing 2 400 lb.
A s k id b o a s is formed of partly imbedded round sticks of timber set like'ties of a track 3 to 6 ft
apart. A stone-boat holding 0.5 cu yd (soEd measure) of rock can be drawn over such a road.
A liiTEB or dbvii, is a wooden stretcher on which 2 men can carry as much as 0.5 cu yd. On the
Grand Trunk Pac E R (20), rock was cheaply hauled by stone-boats on pole tracks in summer for
hauls less than 600 ft, and in winter any distance. Track, was of 2 lines of 20 to 30-ft poles, 4 to 8 in
diam, 5.5 ft apart for 2-horse team and 3 ft apart for 3-horse team. Poles were joined by 2-in
hardwoodpins. Boats were of 10 or 12 logs, 7 in diam by 8 ft long, fastened together by 2 1.25-in
rods. In winter the track was iced; in summer, greased (1 gal per 100 ft per day). In winter, a
team could haul 3 yd rock; in summer, 1.5 yd; aver load, 7/8 ou yd. On a 500-ft haul a team and
6 men took 40 to 60 loads per 10 hr. Aver yardage per man loading, 7.3 ou yd; many rocks were
large and had to be blockholed. The excavation comprised: 20% shovel dirt, 30% easily lifted
stones, and 50% pieces 1 to 5 yd in volume. Coat of loading, 31f!per cuyd; cost of transport, 17(5.
Wages: muckers, 12.00 to $2.25; foremen, $3.75; maintenance of each horse, 75 per day.
Wheelbarrows hold about 0.04 cu yd solid rock; loaded by 1 man in 2 min, and wheeled at
180 to 250 ft per min, losing 0.75 min per round trip.
Carts and wagons. In aver rock, 1 ou yd solid equals 1.75 cu yd broken, and weighs about
2.2 tons. Over poor dirt roads, with occasional steep rises, 0.5 cu yd {1 ton) solid rock may be
hauled by 2 horses; on hard, level road, 1.5 cu yd; aver load on good roads, 1 cu yd (2 ton). Aver
speed of haul, 220 ft per min. A 1-horse cart, on short, downhill hauls, takes an aver load of 0.25 cu
yd solid rock; under favorable conditions, 1/3 eu yd aver. .For short hauls, 1 driver can run 2 carts.
With wagons, 2 men and a driver can load 1 cu yd on a stone*rack in 15 min and 1 man and driver
can unload it in 7 min, or total lest time of 22 min. Aver of each loader, 7.5 cu yd in 10 hr (Sec 27).

Table 20. Output of Steam Shovels, loading Blasted Rock.


Material........

Iron ore
In bank

Conditions... . Good

Fair

limestone

Stock pile
Fair

Good

One 10-hr day's work (13 )


Slate,
Por
lime phyry, Por
stone granite phyry

Sand
stone

Quarry

R R cu t

R R

RR

RR

Canal

Fair

Low face

Good

Hard

Hard

Bad
drilling

No of shovels.
3
1 a vof 5
1 avof 2
1
1 av of 2 avof 2
1
1
Size, tons........
70
95
70
90
95
65
70
70
70
65
70
Dipper, cuyd.
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.25
Coal, tons. . . . 1.75
3
2.35
4.5
3.5
2^8 2.
2.8
2.2
2.2
3
Oil, gal...........
1.4 3.25
1.45
8.5
5
Water, gal___ 3 000 5 000 3 500 7 700
4
500
Cu yd loaded'.. 892 I 350
1 251 2 728 " 9 7 358 205 " 1126 799"
447" 379,8 hr
,
sc^ t- broken large, a 65-ton, 2.25-cu yd dipper shovel averaged for several weeks
about 280 eu yd solid measure per day into cars; part loaded by the dipper, part lifted by a
hooked over the dipper teeth (20). On Chicago Drainage Canal, 2 Bueyrus 55-ton shovels, with
broad shallow 2.25 cu-yd dippers, loaded limestone on one section (Table 20). The rock was in
brge ^eees, much of which had to be lifted with chains. Combined output of the 2 shovels was
118 650 cu yd (solid.measure) during 40010-hr shifts, or an aver of 296 cu yd per shovel per shift (20)
Steam shovels for rock excavation are now largely of the revolving type, with 0.75-4 cu yd
dippers and caterpillar treads. They have greater mobility than R R type on car trucks and can
always be kept within the most effective range of work. Bueyrus 120B revolving shovel for rock
work is m 3 auses: sta o t ja b d , 4-cu yd dipper. 29.5-ft boom, 20-ft dipper handle; h ig h - l i p t , 3 .5 - cu
yd dipper, 32-ft boom, 22-ft dipper handle; e x t b a hxqh - l x pt , 3- c u yd dipper, 36-ft boom, 25-ft
dipper handle. Makers report 280 cu yd blasted rook handled per hr; under favorable conditions,
300 cu yd possible (see Sec 3, Art 8 and Sec 27).
'
Leading with derricks, and bucket or skip. A horse-operated derrick, with a crew of 1 foreman,
1 nooker, 6 shovelers, 2 t&gmen, and 1 dumpman, water boy and team and driver, unloaded 120
^2L .l0?fSe eaaure m 1_ day. In using an engine-operated derrick, with a bullwheel for slewing,
tagmen (for slewing the boom) and team are eliminated, and an engineman and coal are required.
,
of 1 engineer, 1 signal man, 1 dumpman, and 7 loaders, unloaded from a scow 21.3 eu yd
of 3/8-ia crushed stone per hr. Clamshell buckets are good for unloading ears and scows.

Cableways (Sec 26) are frequently used in quarry work, canal and trench excavation,
and in open-pit mining.
Table 21.

Output of 4 Chicago Drainage Canal Cableways (1 month)


1

49
No of skip-loads, day shift..........
No of skip-loads, night shift.............
Cu yd solid rock per skip..........
Cu yd solid rock per shift...................
No of laborers..........................
No of foremen...........................
Total labor, hr.......................
Tons coal per shift...............

5 111
1.44
27
2
12 861
9.82
1.83

49
5 327
1 20!
1.32
247

1.65

8.98
1.83

2.28

2.28

-to 1
Drainage Canal (20) employed 19 cableways with spans of 550 to 725 ft, traveling towers
73 to 93 ft high, and equipped with aerial dumps. Main cables, 2.25-in, hauling and hoisting cables,
0 . 7 ^ , button and dumping cables, 5/8-in. A 70-hp boiler and 10 by 12-in engine gave a hoisting
speed of 250 ft, ana a traveling speed of 1 000 ft per min. A complete outfit, with 2 by 7 by 7-ft
skips, weighed 225 tons. Crew: engineman, fireman, signalman, rigger and laborers for loading.
Capac of cableways, 300 to 450 cu yd solid measure per 10 hr.
Arcowrock Dam, Boise irrigation project, Idaho. Two Lidgerwood cableways handled 101 263
ou yd of blasted rock, boulders, gravel and send. Span, 1 300 ft; aver traveling distance, 500 ft;
aver hoisting distance, 300 ft. Hoisting load, 8 tons, at 300 ft per min; conveying speed, 1200 ft
per min. Skips, 8 by 8 by 2 ft. In July, 1912, 2-shift work: in Aug, Sept, and Oct, 3 shifts. Out

5 -2 3

Cars on track. For tractive power of horses and resistance of ordinary dump cars
see Sec 3. On level track, a team will haul 2 cars, each of 3 cu yd solid rock; on slight
down grade, 1 horse will haul 2 cars holding 1 to 1.5 cu yd. On good track, at slight
down grade, 1 horse can.haul 4 light rocker-dump cars holding 4 cu yd, if assisted by labor
ers in starting. If rock be broken into sizes that 1 or 2 men can lift, 6 to 7.5 cu yd can
be loaded per man in 10 hr. About 4 min are lost in changing teams from empty to loaded
cars, provided the track arrangement is good. Speed should be 200 ft per min.
Steam-shovel loading. In loading rock by steam shovel, the output of the attendant train and
locomotive is limited chiefly by the shovel output, not by the speed at which a train may be handled.
Following work was done in a quarry of hard crystalline limestone, by 2 Bueyrus 95-ton, 2.5-cu yd
dipper, shovels (13). S h o v b l A. First day: Working time, 691.5 min; lost time, 59 min, of
which 41 min were for blasting, clearing track, and tightening jacks, 13 min waiting, for cars to be
spotted, and 5
idling. Second day: 138 min were lost waiting for cars, of which 87 min were
spent in drilling, blasting, leveling, and preparing to move, and 55 min idling. On 2 days, 197 min,
or 15.5% of the time, was lost waiting for cars, while cars lost on account of shovel, for no apparent
reason, 7 min; moving forward, 107 min; drilling, 125 min; blasting, 37 min; clearing track, 9 min;
total, 315 min, or 25%. S h o v e l B in 2 days worked 1 290 min. A totai of 266 min or: 20.6% was
spent waiting for cars, of which 87 min was in idling. On same days, 327 min (25.4%) was lost to
the trains by the shovel, as follows: oiling, 10 min; getting up steam, 42; repairs, 5; waiting for
cars to be loaded, 52; blasting, 81; moving forward, 113; coaling and miscellaneous, 25 min. There
w>sre 5 35-ton dinkey locomotives, 4 working and 1 being overhauled. They hauled 10-car trains.
Oars held 5 cu yd and weighed 4 tons. While moving, the engines averaged 527 ft per min; mini
mum speed, 156 ft; maximum, 1000 ft per min (see also Seo 27).

8.

QUARRYING (see also Open-cut Excavation, Art 9)

Kinds of stone. D i m e n s io n s t o n e is quarried and split to assigned dimensions ready for


dressing. H o b b l e s t o n e is in rough slabs or blocks of irregular sizes. For dimension stone, there
must be a good w o r k i n g p a c e and usually a c h a n n e l at each end, to expose 3 faces. Then, by
wedging or careful blasting, long blocks are secured, which are split into short blocks for handling by
derricks. To get a cushioning effect in blasting dimension stone, several inches of hole above the
charge may be filled with hay; called expansion tamping. For rubble or backing stone, but little
channeling is done; the rock is shaken up by light blasts and irregular slabs barred and wedged out.
Joints and cleavage planes must be carefully considered. All sedimentary rocks and some
others, as granite, have 3 perpendicular cleavage planes called the g r a in , s i f t , and h e a d . Trap
rocks, diabase, diorite, porphyry, etc, often have no rift and are unfit for dimension stone. Cost of

5-25

R O C K E XC AV ATIO N

QU ARRYIN G

quarrying depends partly on thickness of beds and their d i p (slope) to the horizontal. With steep
dips, both thick and thin-bedded stone must usually be removed simultaneously; as the quarry
deepens, the depth soon becomes too great for profitable work. If joints are irregular a* quarry
is a b o u l d e r q t j a b r y ; if vertical and at right angles, b l o c k q u a r k y ; where there is practically n o
vertical joint, but a series of horiz joints, a s h e e t q o a e b t .

black oowder beginning with a handful and gradually increasing m size, start and * n d horw
^ i . cracks When the cleavage reaches 75 or 100 ft in all directions, air at 70 lb press is
adStted through a pipe cemented into the hole. In say 0.5 hr, the cleavage reaches the surface
050 ft from the drill hole, and the large flat slab is split into blocks by plugs and feathers.

'-24

Plug a n d feathering consists of splitting rocks b y shallow holes, in which 2 f e a t h e r s


or hims (pieces of half-round iron, the sides of which are curved to fit the hole) are forced
apart b y hammering a wedge plug between them (Fig 19).
Holes required. A granite block 6 ft thick m ay be split
with a row o f plug holes 5 in deep and 6 to 8 in apart; for a
3-ft block, holes are 2.5 to 3 in deep. Marbles and sandstones
require deep holes. For sandstone, holes are 1.25 to 2 in diam,
4 to 16 in apart, depth being 2/s the thickness of the block.
Drilling methods. Plug holes are drilled b y hand, pneu
matic hammer drill, or reciprocating drill. For shallow holes,
the ~hn.mrwAr drill is cheapest; hand hammer next. For deep
holes, a reciprocating drill on a quarry bar, or a hammer drill, is
m ost economical. H a n d p l u g - h o l e d r i l l i n g . In granite, 1 man
can drill in 8 hr 80 5/8-in holes, 2.5 in deep; total, 17 ft. With
holes 24 to 30 in apart, and wages at 30 per hr, cost of splitting a
block is 2.5 to 3ji per sq ft. P n e -c t m a t ic hammer d r i l l s . In
granite, 1 man can drill in 8 hr 250 6/8-in holes, 3 in deep, if the
Fig 19. Plug and
Feathers
driller does n ot drive the plugs. In sand stone, 4-ft holes have
been drilled in 18 min; and 20 holes, 18 in deep, were drilled at
rate ol i noie m 't> sec. B a b y d r i l l , on quarry bar, will drill a 3- or 4-in hole in 0.75
min, averaging about 100 holes per day.
Special quarry methods. B b o a c h i n g or broach channeling consists in drilling a row
of holes very close together, and then, with a b h o a c h or chisel, cutting out the rock
between them. One drill on a quarry bar (Sec 15) will broach per day: in granite,
10-20 sq ft; marble, 20-30; limestone, 15-35; sandstone, 20-40 sq ft. G a d d e r is for
drilling rows o f horiz holes near the quarry floor, or a vertical or inclined row in the face.
One drill has made 350 ft o f 2-ft holes in marble in 10 hr. T r a c k c h a n n e l e r is a selfpropeHing machine, traveling back and forth on a 10 to 30-ft section o f track, and cutting
a narrow groove with a single bit, or one or more g a n g s o f bits. See Compressed Air
Plant, Peele, 5th edh, Chap X X I I .
Some 'channelers cut vertical grooves, others can be swung at varying angles, or are arranged
for undercutting. Ingersoll Broncho channeler is mounted on 2 parallel bars, resembling a
quarry bar. Channelers may carry a boiler, or be oper
ated by steam or compressed air from an independent
plant. Ingersoll-Rand Co builds an air-eleetrio ohanneler,
similar in operation to their air-elec drill. Channelers
cost $2 500-84 500 (pre-war). In dimension-stone quar
ries (other than granite) they are economic necessi
ties, beeause fully 20 % of the stone quarried without
channeling is lost in subsequent cutting. In granite,
broaching or wedging is usually cheaper. Cost of running
a channeler is about the same as of a steam drill; 2 men
and 0.5 ton coal per day are required. C o s t o f c h a n n e l
in g
x j u b s t o n e . N Y State Barge Canal, for 16 consec
utive months follows: Sullivan Y -8 channelers, costing
$2 800 each, were used. Operating crew per ohanneler:
0.18 to 0.5 of the time of a foreman @ 14 per day, 1 runner
$3.50, 1 fireman @ $2, 1 helper @ $1.75, 1 laborer @
$1.50. Cost per sq ft for 126 544 sq ft: labor, 22 i; coal,
2.3i; water, 0.2fi; repairs, O.lfi; int and depree, 2Ai;
Standard or rigid-back channelers cut to depths of 10 to 16 ft; swing-back and bar channelere
6 to 12 ft; undercutting channelers, 7 ft. Max inclinations of Bwing-back channeler having boiler
or reheater, 24; other types, 28. The bits do not rotate. In Fig 20: A shows the gang used in
marble or rooks which chip freely; B, that used for tough rocks which do not chip freely; C, for slate;
D is used in both quarry and contract work for sharp, gritty stones; E is the
sold Z-bit, common in contract work in rough broken stone.
Knox system of blasting. A number of round holes are drilled, and then
reamed by hand to the shape shown in Fig 21. In medium sandstone, holes
should be 10 to 15 ft apart; in limestone, about 4 ft apart. Black powder
( W t ' 1,518" or contractors powder will split the rock in the direction of the angles (20 ).
o
asting
Quarrying by compressed air is practiced at M t Airy, N C, whfere the
granite, has few joints, and splits readily in almost any direction. A centrally
located hole, 2 to 3 in diam and 6 to 8 ft deep, is sprung with dynamite, Then, repeated charges of

Table 22.

Rate of Cutting with Sullivan Channelers (from Sullivan bulletins)


Kind
of
rock

Location

Sq ft
cut

Day's work
Philipsburg, Que. . . .
Tennessee.................

100

2 509
80
219

\A
A
A

Kind
of
rock

Sq ft
cut

Time

Day's work

-
63

Location

Time

I(Hhr
10 hr
Aver mo
Aver day
High day

Pennsylvania........

G
G
H
H

60
75
200

262

Aver day
Aver day
Aver day
Aver day

Contract work
210
C
382
C
75-100
D
Sault Ste Marie....
80
D
Keokuk, la...........
70-80
Sault Ste Marie___ E
60-75
I
Sault Ste Marie....
60-75
J
New York City___
120
K
Panama Canal. . . .

Aver IOfar
150 Good day
A
High 10 hr
! 485 Aver mo
B
Aver day
! 677 Aver mo
B
10 hr
10 days
6 000
C
8 hr
130 Aver day
D
8
hr
37.5 Aver day
D
8 hr
225 Day
E
8 hr
750 Aver 10 hr
F
Florida Keys. ; .........
A Marble B. Hard marble. V. .uimesione. u .

---- , ,
,
rock. G. Slate. B. Soft soapstone. I. Tough sandstone. J. Gneiss. K. Medium broken rock.
For ouarrying a granite dome at Lithonis, Ga (34), free f m joints and sheeting planes, an arti
fici I h e S p f a n e was necessary. For this, 2 3-in hole* about 8 ft deep were .tolled c!c*e
toeether each charged with a spoonful of black blasting powder, tamped with clay, and fired
muUane^islv The r iff being horiz, the light blasts started a horiz fracture from the bottom
of the holes, which were cleaned out and refixed repeatedly with gradually increasing chargesnever large enough to disturb the stemming. Care was taken to avoid making vert cracks, through
which the compressed air subsequently used would be dissipated. Solar heat ^ saidto assisttlm
process- during the hottest weather the fracture extended without explosives. The hght blasting
was continued until the boundary of the horiz fracture roughly formed a circle with a radius of
160-180 f t .' An iron pipe was then set in each hole with-sand and melted sulphur, to make a^ airtkrht ioilt Air at 100 lb was forced through the pipes into the horn fracture, which widened
with a rending noise until it reached the surface on the flank of the rock dome; the sheeting plane
of t o (which d e p o d , <m t a c t o of took) affecte
aize% shovel dipper. If the rook can not be easily broken with sledges at the crusher, secondary
b ^ t n e n e c S S t before loading on cara; use of a small shovel dipper prevents feeding ezaaively
large pieces to crusher. Height of quarry face has some effect on size of shovel, but more on type of
equipment and mode of working. To prevent injury to shovel, combined worlcng iength of
bnofflLd dipper handle should equal the height of face, which should generally be lisa than 40 ft for
any size of shovel. Though high faces are more cheaply drilled and blasted, the stone may break
D r iS ^ f d o n e on top and at such distance back from face that large shovels can clean p a b t a t
onlpM sage. With higher faces, or smaller shovels. 2 or more passages are necessary. The face
dr s , i

v ^
undesirable Small shovels on traction wheels may serve for: (a) say.less than 800 ton per day,
^ S lit t in g u p S ta l tonnage into several units; (c> where a light-weight track is used: (d) where
quarry conditions prevent adoption of spiral faces.
Transport systems for quarries (36) depend upon relative size of shovel, car and
crusher, and unit o f train movement. For R R type shovels, the quarry^rack. should be
at least 42 in gage; standard gage (4 ft 8.5 in) is preferable, for cars to 15-ton capac.
V,
__e cheaner to load than low, because, when the shovel completes its working stroke,
the S e r S SuSJXat^ ready for dumping. Large cars save time in spotting the *pper;
h^nc^, f^ter dmnping wdtti 1ms spl^
u m ^ o n i s M L O - 1 5 iSnt
2

t o

* * digging, etc; 300-ton traction shovel

Tu maty q a 2 peSa% where length of haul is moderate, motor trucks are used from shovel
to S j h
A S a ? over track and car are greater flexibility of operation, elimination of
track and usually lower cost. Truck bodies vary from 5 to 10 cu yd capac, either side or end dump,

5 -2 6

ROCK E XC AV ATIO N

TRENCHIN G

penumstic tires are common (Sec 27). Aver transport coat, on 38 trucks, baaed on 3-yr records ,v
four different quarries in N Y, Conn, and No Carolina, is 2.5 to 5* per ton mile

tha
Problems (38). At a sandstone quarry, when the boles were in straight line
tite rock broke large, the explosive force being mainly expended in shearing from the face Thf.!
was largely overcome by staggering the holes (Fig 22). In another case, in very tough 2 k f t
re ly broke to the bottom. Drilling as in K g 23jmproved the work. In hard limestone, befctS

10

Staggered Holes-^to Increase Shattering

K g 23.

Arrangement of Holes for BreaMn


Hard Bottom
8

by
88 Fig 24. The rows fastest from face were made with well
cf ce,!?trated n8" bottom. Two rows in front of these were tripod-drilled i S
charged from a point halfway up to within 5 ft of surface; this greatly reduced secondarv b W i

h
^ y n T ^Fig
V 25 shows the remedy. Holes in back
metIlod8
W60toftbdeep;
SEw
Z 35 ftS tn rl
oandhng.
row were
in ifront

S i S % ^ S ^ 2 L ! 50 ib i0%

dy " i d 40%

d n n !i^ w aiukb^ 8tiag (39i* re,iuired wfaen


blftst breaks too large for shovel or crusher ;
done by bioekhokng or mudcappmg (Art 6); blockholmg is usually the cheaper. Holes a r T l l K
p

K g 24.

Arrangement of Holes to Reduce


Secondary Blasting

9. OPEN-CUT ROCK EXCAVATION


For this work are used many of the methods and machines considered in preceding Articles.
It resembles some kinds of quarrying, and is similar in nearly all respects to stripping operations
and open-cut mining, detailed in See 10. For machine drills, see Seo 15; churn drilling, for deephole blasting, Sec 9; for steam shovels, Sec 3 and Sec 5, Art 7.

Side-hill cuts, where rock is wasted directly in front of the excavation, are usually the
least expensive type of open cut. Ratio of the propulsive effect of black powder to its
shattering effect is about 8 .6, while that of dynamite is about 1 ; hence, it is often desirable
in side-hill work to use black powder, so that the rock may be thrown as far aa possible
from its bed.

Fig 22.

5 -2 7

60'

K g 25. ^Arrangement of Holes on High Face


to Reduce Secondary Blasting

for 1-in cartridges; with small diam cartridges there & less waste in cutting them for small chars*
^ U
j -nS,lngrZeaml aS ??*y a few 111111 40 PreP e, and saves shovel time in waiting for bouldera to
b rS L ta CaD n0t beiandled by the6ilovel rolled and nosed out of the

Underground quarries (35) avoid cost of removing deep over-burden, and permit yearround operation. When topography is suitable,
they are opened by tunnels.
The methods often resemble breast and bench stoping
for mining flat deposits (see Seo 10,' under details of Open
Stopes, showing bottom headings, suitable for faces 16-24
ft high; also see bench work for 24-ft faces and over)
Due J o low value of the material, the quarry stratum
should usually be at least 16 ft thick. Fig-26 shows saw
tooth method of slabbing off in horiz strata, leaving pillara
Fig 26. Saw-tooth Method of Working to support roof; it resembles rill stoping, Seo 10. Sec
Quarry Faces
tional steel (Art 2) has been used in benches-12-24 ft
o il ( . j.
, . .
,
gkt
that entire bench can be shot at onetime Ac
8-ft heading is first cut; then, with sectional rods, holes can be drilled to bottom.

Side-hill cuts (20) on Watauga and Yadkin Valley R R, N C, were made by blasting rock clear
of right of way in one operation; about 0.5 cu yd being thrown out per lb of explosive. In a cut of
8 000 cu yd (95% hard mica schist), 23 holes were drilled in 2 rows; Upper holes approx 20 ft deep,
to 2 ft below grade; lower holes, 16 ft deep, to 6 ft below grade.. They were sprung twice, firat by
5-6 sticks of dynamite, then by 25-30 sticks. Experience showed that 1 springing, with 10-12
sticks, would have chambered the holes better. Main charge of 7 925 lb powder broke 7 000 ou yd.
A small side-hill cut in hard rock, made by hand-drilled holes, 7-11 ft deep, contained 1 300 cu
yd. Cost, including $126 for removing loose rook after blasting and dressing the face, was (in 1913)
34.3^ per cu yd. About 320 ft of holes were drilled at about 40^ per ft; 0.24 ft of hole per cu yd
blasted. Springing required 0.12 lb dynamite per cu yd; main blast, black powder, 2.3 lb per cu yd.

Through cuts occur oftenest in canal and B R work. Depth and width of cut, and
mode of removal, determine the plan of attack. Excavation in through cuts generally
costs more than in side-hill cuts.
Excavating rock in open cuts, Grand Trunk Pac R R (20). Cuts, 20 ft wide at bottom, sloped
3-in to 1 ft. Overbreakage, usually paid for, was 10 to 40% J Rook was granite, trap, and diabase.
Steam drills used in large outs, hand drills in small. H a n ' b i l l s (1-in steel, 1 3/8-ia bit) made
holes as deep as 30 ft. To depths of 6 ft, 2 men struck and 1 held the drill; below 6 ft, all used
hammers, the drill rotating automatically on the rebound; wages, $2.25 per 10 hr (days work), or
45i per ft, sharpening and nippering furnished. 3 men, drilling 10 to 14-ft holes, averaged in dark
hornblende 29 ft per day, in red granite, 20 ft, and in trap and diabase 18.5 ft. In drilling block
holes, 1 gang made 49 holes, averaging 15 in each, in 6 days. Drill sharpening for one month, for 5
gangs who drilled 2 142 ft, cost: blacksmith @ $3.50, $87.50;. helper @ $2, $48;-nipper $2,
$48; coal, $12; total, $195.50, or 9(i per ft. Average cost by 5 gangs, each drilling 18 ft per day:
drilling, 37& sharpening, 91; total, 461 per ft.
Holes to 30 or 35 ft deep were made by 3.25 and 3.5-in steam drills; holes to 25 ft deep, by 3-in
drills. Starting bits, 3.5 in; finishing bits, about 1.25 in. Cost of running 1 drill per 10-hr day*
runner, $3.75; helper, $2.25; fireman, $2.50; 0.5 blacksmith, $1.87; 0.5 helper, $1.13; 1 cord wood,
$2.25; coal, 30j!; repairs and oil, 38ji; total, $14.43. Aver, 30 ft drilled per day, costing 48fS per ft.
When 2 drills were run from 1 boiler, cost was about 38 per ft.
Cuts over 25 ft deep were made in 2 lifts. In bottom benches, 1 ft of hole and in top benches,
2 or 3 ft of hole, were chambered. A 26-ft hole, 14 ft from face, was sprung by: (a) 2 sticks 60%
dynamite, water-tamped; (b) 5 sticks, water-tamped; (c) 12 sticks, water-tamped; (d) 30 sticks,
sand-tamped; () 70 sticks, sand-tamped; total, 119 sticks. Another similar hole; (a) 2 sticks,
water-tamped; (6) 5 sticks, water-tamped; (c) 12 sticks, water-tamped; (d) 35 sticks, sand-tamped;
(e) 100 sticks, sand-tamped; total, 154 sticks. First hole was charged with 275 sticks of- 40%
dynamite; second, with 150 sticks of 60% and 175 sticks of 40% dynamite. (1 stick 0.35 lb.)
These holes broke 450 cu yd of rock. Cost: drilling, 4.8ft springing, 6.31; blasting, 9.3)5; total,
20.4(! per cu yd. Blaster, 37.56 and powder monkey, 22.5* per hr. Dynamite, 18i per lb for 40%
22{ for 60%, about 0.4 lb of 40% being used per cu yd for the main blasts, and 0.38 lb of 60% for
springing. About 75 lb black powder equaled 50 lb 40% dynamite. Cost of excavating 7 024 cu
yd red granite from a tunnel approach on same R R was $1.019 per ou yd.

10. TRENCHING
Overbreakage. Specifications should name a minimum -width of trench, beyond which
the rock removed shall not be paid for. Depth should also be named. Overbreakage in rock sometimes exceeds the specified croas-section by 25 or 30%.
Depth and spacing of holes. Holes in thin-bedded, horizontally stratified rocks are
usually drilled 6 in below specified bottom of trench; in thick-bedded, tough limestones,
about 12 in below; in tough granites and traps, 18 in below.
n e a t lu te s

For hand drilling in granite, holes are often spaced about 1.5 ft apart. In trenches 2.5 to 3 ft
wide, rows, 3 ft apart, of 2 holes each, are common. In a trench 6 ft wide in hard trap 3 holes per
row were drilled, the rows being 3 ft apart. In an 8-ft trench in granite, there were 3 holes per row,
rows 4 ft apart. In the 6-ft trench named above, about 4.5 ft of hole were drilled per ou yd, the

ROCK EXCAVATION

i2 8

BIBLIOGRAPHY

holes going to 1.5 ft below grade. Steam drills made 35 ft of hole per day @ 30(i per ft. Dynamite.
2 lb of 40% per hole, or 2.6 lb per eu yd of net excavation. Hence, drilling cost $1.35 and blasting
40i; total, $2.15 per cu yd. The above 8-ft trench was 12 ft deep; holes drilled to 1 ft below grade,
making 2.74 ft of hole per eu yd net. Drills averaged 45 ft in 10 hr; cost per ft, 23fS, Dynamite,
about 4 lb of 40% per hole, or 1.1 lb per ou yd. Drilling cost 63ji and blasting 17 total, 80(i per
ou yd (pre-war costs).
Cost of trenching in limestone, St Louis, Mo (20), about 1906. Rock was in horiz strata, tie
upper 4 or 5 ft being seamy and rotten, the rest hard and difficult to break. Rock was excavated
6 in below all pipes of 18-in diam or less, and 9 in below larger pipes. Excava
tion was paid for to widths 1 ft greater than diam of pipes of less than 18 in
and 15 in greater than the diam of larger pipes. Drillholes were 6 in from side
of trench, and staggered 4 ft apart in top rock (Fig 27) and 2.5 ft apart in hard
rock. Projections were sledged or shot off. Holes were drilled in 2 lifts, top
holes going halfway through the ledge, bottom holes 0.66 to 0.75 the thickness
of ledge. Drilling was single-hand, with 1.75-in bits, 10 ft being drilled in 8 hr.
Fig 27. Arrange Dynamite, about 4 300 lb (2.25 lb per eu yd). Aver rock broken per 8-hr day
ment of Trench
per quarry man, 0.96 cu yd. Overbreakage, about 20%. Cost of earth exca
Holes
vation, 50)! per cu yd. The cost of the rock work was as in Table 23.

S3.50
3.24
2.76
3.13
2.15
3.10

24
34
44
39
66
36

$4.30
4.43
4.04
4.39
3.70
4.20

20
20
20
20
20
20

40
40
40
40
40
40

s a

Total cost,
breaking
rock

@85, j!

Foreman

56
85
84
87
89
74

St. Louis, 1906


ft

Cost of
removal

314
???
251

600
317
380
206
180

Dyna
mite, i

15
Aver

14
12
13
n
8
11.9

erg

Black
smith,

15

170

te\

Total di
rect labor

18
18

S
>>-g
5
og
o

Cost of Trenching in Rock per Cu Yd.


Laborers
@ 82, t

?,?

Aver depth
in solid
rock, ft

M
0
*

.S A

Length of
pipe, ft

Table 23.

S jj
is a
i o

$4.90 $1.40
5.03 1.40
4.64 1.40
4.99 1.40
4.30 1.40
4.80 1.40

15
15
15
15
15
15

f i

o_
g <

to

a -

16.45
6.58
6.19
6.54
5.85
6.35

Special carnages, for carrying a boiler, and a drill mounted on a bar, were used in sewers
at Havana, Cuba. W t per outfit, 5 000 lb; drills were Sullivan, 3.25-in. Rock varied
from very soft to flint-like hardness. Time studies o f 4 machines drilling 40 holes: total
drilled, 306 ft; aver depth o f hole, 9.15 ft; aver drilling time, 26.4 min per hole = 2.9 min
p e r ft; changing steel, 1.4 min per ft; moving drill on bar, 0.6 min per f t ; moving machine
from hole to hole, 1.0 min per ft; total time, 2 231 min; average per ft, 6.1 min (20).

U . SUBAQUEOUS EXCAVATION
M ethods employed are: exploding dynamite on the rock surface, unwatering the rock
b y cofferdams or caissons, and drilling from platforms or scows. This work is a branch of
Civil Engineering, to books on which the reader is referred (12, 20).

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. A Review of Drilling. G. J. Young. E & M Jour, Sep 10,1921
2. Rock-drill Steel. R. J. Day. E & M Jour, Apr 14, 1923
.
3. BlaatingJRoek in Mines, Quarries and Tunnels. A. W. and Z. W. Daw, Spon & Chamberlain,
N Y, 1898
4. Tests of Drill Bits. C. R. Forbes and J. C. Barton. Trans Amer Soc C E, Vol 58, p 3
5. Blasting. Synoptic and critical treatment of the literature of the subject. Dr. H. Brunswig.
John WUey & Sons, Inc, N Y, 1912
6. Reclaiming Short Lengths of Drill Steel by Welding. Eng & Con, Vol 56, p 150
7. Deep Drilling with Hammer Drills and Sectional Rods. H. R. Drullard- E & M Jour,
May 1, 1924
8. Deep-hole Prospecting at Chief Consol Mine. C. A. Dibble, Trans A I M E, Vol 72, p 677
9. Commercial Explosives, Selection and Uses. D. P. Allison. E & M Jour, Feb 2, 1924, p 197
10. Report by Construction Service Co on Cost of Hauling by Horses and Traction Engines.
Eng & Con, Dec 8, 1909
11. Rock Drills. E. M. Weston. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y, 1910
12. Rock Drilling (especial reference to open-out excavation and submarine rock removal). R. T.
Dana and W. L. Saunders. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, N Y, 1911
13. Handbook of Steam-Shovel Work. Construction Service Co, Pub by Bucyrus Go, So Mil
waukee, Wis
14. Effect of Tamping on Efficiency of Explosives. W. O.' Snelling and C. Hail. Tech Paper !/
TJ S Bureau of Mines
_
15. Subways and Tunnels of New York. Gilbert, Wightman and Saunders. John Wuey & Squb,
Ino, N Y, 1912

5 -2 9

16. Excavation for the Arrowrock Dam, Idaho. C. H. Paul. Eng News, July 17, 1913
. 17. Selection of Explosives Used in Engineering and Mining Operations. C. Hall and A. P. Howell
Bull 48, U S Bureau of Mines
18. Excavating Machinery. A. B. McDaniel. McGraw-Hill Book Co, N Y
. 19. Handbook of Construction Plant; Cost and Efficiency. R. T. Dana. Clark Book Co, N Y
1914

20. Rock Excavation; Methods and Costs. H. P. Gillette. Clark Book Co, N Y, 1916
21. Handbook of Cost Data. H. P. Gillette. Clark Book Co, N Y
22. Loading Weil-driil Holes in Quarry Blasting. J. B. Stoneking. Bull du Pont Explosives
Service
23. Energy of Explosives and Toughness of ock in Selecting Explosives. W. O. Snelling. Em
& Con, Jan 8, 1913
24. Efficient Blasting in Metal Mines. E. A. Anderson. E & M Jour, Nov 29, 1924
25. Blast-hole Drilling with Keystone Cable Drill. Keystone Driller Co
28. Springing Bore Holes. C. S. Hurter. Bull du Pont Explosives Service, June, 1924
: 27. Coyote Hole or Tunnei Blasting. G. E. Willman. Bull du Pont Explosives Service. Mch.
Apr, 1925; J. C. Cushing, Eng & Con, July 18, 1923

: 28. Effect of Stemming on Effic of Explosives. Tech Pap No 7, 17, U S Bur Mines
. 29. The Do and Don t of Loading Dynamite. E & M Jour, Aug 12, 1922
. 30. Filling Tamping Bags above Ground. G. S. Brown. Bull du Pont Explosives Service, Oct,
19o
31. How to Avoid Waste of Explosives. R. N. Van Winkle. Eng & Con, Sep 5, 1923
32. Safety in Quarry Blasting. A. La Motte. Bull du Pont Explosives Service, Nov, 1925
33. Prevention of Misfires. E. F. Brooks. Min & Sei Pr, Dec 16, 1916
34. Blasting Granite with Compressed Air. Eng & Con, Sep 15, 1920
35. Underground Quarrying. R. H. Summer. Bull du Pont Explosives Service, Aug, 1925
38. Considerations in Changing a Quarry from Hand to Steam Shovel Method. L Warner. Em
& Con, Dee 21, 1921
37. Drilling ana Blasting. R. E. Tally. Jour Min Cong, Apr, 1924
38. Quarry Blasting Problems and Their Solution. J. Barab. Pub by Hercules Powder Co
39. Secondary Blasting. J. B. Stoneking. Bull du Pont Explosiv Service, Aug, 1924
40. Steam Shovel Operation. C. M. Haight. E & M Jour, Feb 14, 1924
41. Changes in Open-pit Mining. E & M Jour, May 24, 1924
42. Underground Deep-hole Prospecting at Eagle-Picher Mines. W. F. NetzebaneL Trans
A I M E, Feb, 1927
43. Recent Changes in Explosives and Their Use. W. Culled & J. E. Lambert. Trans Instn
Mining & Met, Vol 45, p 283 (1936)
1
14 Misfires in. Metal Mining. U S Bur Mines, Rep Invests Noi2150

SECTION 6
TUNNELING *
BT

CHARLES F. JACKSON
MINING ENGINEER

&r
PAGE
1. Representative Tunnels......................
02
2. Organization of Work.........................
02
3. Surface Plant......................................
08
4. Drilling Equipment............................
Ofi
5. Drilling................................................
08
6. Charging and Blasting.......................
12
7. Mucking Equipment...........................
15
. 8. Mucking Operations...........................
15
Note.

AM

FAGB

Tramming and Haulage.....................


Ventilation..........................................
Tunnel Support...................................
Driving Through Loose or Running
Ground.............................................
13. Coet|3....................................................

19
20
21

Biblibgraphy........................................

28

9.
10.'
11.
12.

25
26

Numbers in parentheses in text refer to Bibliography at end of this section.

* This section was prepared for the first and second editions by David W. Brunton and John
A. Davis. It has been almost entirely rewritten by Charles F. Jackson.

6 -0 3
OBGAKIZATION OF W O R K

TUNNELING
Introduction.

The following discussion deals with tunnels or adits of small cross-sec.


excavated in. one operation, in contrast to
the tunnels where an advance or pilot heading is driven first and enlarged later to full
tion. It includes, however, tunnels driven by the heading and bench method, wherein a top
freaking; is carried only a round or two in advance of the bench. For methods of enlarging
timbering and lining railroad tunnels, see the works of Drinker, Prelini (27), Stauffer (28),
Lauchii (29), publications of the mining and civil engineering societies and the technical'
press. Rock Tunnel Methods (30) contains summaries of data from The Explosive-'
Engineer and illustrations of methods employed in R R tunnels, also data on mine- and
other tunnels of small cross-sec. Additional data on tunnels and drifts driven in immediate
connection with mine development will be found in Sec 10, where full details of procedure
and costs are given.
feioa and larger tunnels in which the entire area is

1. r e p r e s e n t a t iv e t u n n e l s
Tables 1 to 3 contain data on 28 tunnels, from various sources as noted. Tables 1 to 7
present s u m m a r i e s of data on different phases of tunneling operations.
It may be remarked that many of the examples given are of tunnels for purposes other
than mining. Within the past decade, comparatively few important mine tunnels have
been driven.

Organization of work in tunnel driving depends chiefiy on rate of advance required, size
of cross-section, power and equipment available, and magnitude of project; in some cases,
especially in the last few years, laws governing hours of work are a factor. For each tunnel
job there is an approx rate of advance for max economy, depending on whether there are .
penalties for finding after, and bonuses for finishing before, a given date; whether prompt
completion will effect savings in total operating costs of the mine or other project to be
served; overhead costs; and other similar considerations. Rapid advance requires a high
degreeof organization; precision in performing the several operations in the work cycle;.
equipment to provide adequate ventilation for continuous work at the face ; and often other.
special equipment not essential in slower work. A break-down at -any point m the work
cycle is apt to disorganize the entire job and increase costs. Up to a certain rate, which
varies with conditions, rapid driving obviously results in sheading supervision and fixed
over a greater footage, thus reducing cost per ft; but constant pressure to attain mas
speed involves sacrifice of numerous small economies otherwise possible, and tends to in
crease the direct cost per ft.
,
, ,
.
, ..t
One shift of drilling and blasting, with mucking and tramming on the opposite shift,.
constitutes the simplest organization. With the latest billing equipment and enough
machines at the face, almost any round can easily be completed m an 8-hr shift. In a tunnel
of large section, a round of deep holes may break more muck than can be hand-shoveled in
one shift, whereas modern power loaders will clean up as large a round as can be pulled.
Thus the organization of the mucking shift will depend on whether loading is by hand or
machine. If by hand, the mucking shift may have to work overtune, or two mucking shifts
may be needed, obviously increasing the speed of driving. Some advantages and disad
vantages of one-shift operation under ordinary conditions follow. A d v a n t a g e s : 1. Drill
ing and mucking are done on separate shifts ; the heading is clear when the drill-shift cornea
on, so that the machines can be set up at once for the next round. Runners, and helpers
therefore waste no time in mucking, preparatory to mounting the drills; an important
point when columns are used, because, for setting up, the debris must be cleared down to the
fioor. 2. During drilling, runners and helpers are not hampered by the muckers, avoiding
the waste of time due to both crews working together. 3. Starting promptly, the round
can usually be completed within the allotted time. But, in any case, sufficient extra time
is available without delaying the following shift. 4. Drilling and mucking shifts can be
arranged to avoid loss of time in waiting for smoke to clear away; a serious consideration
where ventilation is poor. D i s a d v a n t a g e s : 1. Since daily progress is limited by the
advance from a single round the total speed is -slower. As most tunnels are useless until
completed, if work is not pushed the capital invested in equipment is tied up too long,
whence the charge for interest and depreciation is increased. 2. Realization of benefits

Tunnel Data

ORGANIZATION OF WORK

Table 1.

2.

6-04

TUN NELIN G
Av

O xO

fi.O

51
u*~
A*

: SS
<na

o S
o S oa
a a

Ttumel D ata Continued

:s J g ^ r s
a ^ ls
m no

;^ s
.

: S : 33

~ i "l

"S

lili*

S : :
:S S S 3 ^
, .
;n n

* **

(A

Explosive
No

Ventilation

Strength, %

Lb per ft

Method

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

40 and 60
46
60 and 40
60
60
60
40
40
60 and 80

115-120

Ex-Bl

.................

11
12
13
14
15
16
7
18
18a
19
20
21
22
23
24

60

20.5

40 and 60
60
40 and 60
40 and 60
40 and 60
40 and 60
40 .and 100
40
40
60 and 100
60
40 and 60
40

12.17
31
24
22.7
17.4
17.3

PBl
PBl-Ex
fan Ex
Bl
PBl
PBl-Ex

22.7
18.6
25.0
34
16

PBl-Ex
PBl-Ex
PBl-Ex
fan Ex
PBl-Ex
PBl-Ex
PBl

27
28

60
25 and 30

S l-S l

gSS - I s

m tri'O in

g life 8 **! I*j* 1

: S3S

II

Table S.

2
S!S ' ^ R t ?B tf 'o . >A
> a<t nnmin
e -< o o N
scs .i N N i o
'T c o t o t s -
:
J ~~ -m ~

sCQ

Numbers in left-hand column refer to tunnels so numbered In Table 1

OSO o

_ a

Table 3- Tunnel DataContinued


Numbers in left-hand column refer to tunnels so numbered in Table 1

I a ta

oo
t3o a -no
min

-u*l o

29
31
14.5

<n si ! !
ft . .

if

S'S

^AA iA bV)meiA(0(St

<s N **toN N rt f* m : gcnfO c*i f*4*"<s<i^ jmmNA

:5

*s

o 3

o'&s.u 5?

^5'atstJ

o'o'sos'odoo -a

^ t t l n J e * * riJU a

si*

cqoj^-a

m
<3 s<e
i ED9
o

eq

ttj

s" a

6 a
tq
"g Ht J*'85.So 0505050504 ja OSO 45CI335 *3 05'0 j
a s ^ a a s i ^ a ftrajajftsaj $ ^ S bj^ S S S n I 3 s
to 03

>-3 ^ ^

*3

*3 w

*5 ; *^V>ik35o^-V hQ s 3s*3h3&,'>5rr8S^>*>3%!'ft<%' V
*
^
*>
>r- ir >
1w w

m
; fs-fN ^ oi e

ttj

il

2 S* 2

cvnr^_[_cogjgj>,
NCOiX'O'

fti
j
:s
<*
o 3I O
M'u, I
(s-<s
5 m

^
9l &
o te
: o

a sco

tni

tf\ ses ^

iA w n n o.
N *>OvJ)OON<A^

v5

"?

rs

tret's
n

r^O

4.

u'Of!l O
wfl-rsrj *?
A <s<s(H
mN
es
iM

o S o 0 0 0 4
-

&

:S
;
o :^rotti :o
:*>
:

, a~
-.-=

(o'S-S >
9 S-| - u
*3 S i l
&1.2Ua

Ft advance per month

Pipe diam, in

24
22
Ex~Bl
14
fan Ex
10 and 12
Ex-Bl
20
Bl
eomp air
Ex-Bl
20 and 22
fan Ex I .........
1 comp air >
i

?S

6 -0 5

O RGANIZATION OF W O R K

E*-Bl I
fan Ex

PBl
PBl

630
100
620-952
375
342.5
540
924 (w)

16
10
12
12
18

12
28
20

15

Max

450

20

16
*5
16-17
15
16
14

Aver

L
\
i

495
300-770
351
413
30!
1 158
550
244
281
714
843
285
544
250
300
524 (?)
250
520
408*
t569f

C ose o f
e x c a v a tio n
p e r ft

$190.00ft)
25.83(u)
23.76
20.00

1 157
12.02

1 269

46.00=fc(>

555

24.01(*)
19.88
39.54
20.77

..........

..........

28.80(y)
22.44
21.36
27.27
31;08
25-30
26.70
15.00

Bl, blowing; Ex, exhauafciag; Ex-Bl, exhaust, then blow; PBl, pressure blower, (i) 21 X 21-ft
tunnel; cost includes heavy expense for road construction and other preparatory work; (u), includes
proportion of construction and equipment costs and other capital charges; (t>), dry sections, exca
vation only; (to) one month only; (s) based on 1 $4.65; (y) cost of 2 758.5 ft for year ended
Aug 31, 1900; (z) portal heading. * West portal, f East portaL

to be derived from the tunnel is delayed. 1 case of a drainage adit the extraction of ore
below water level is delayed; or, if the adit is intended to lower the cost of underground
transport, loss on the added tonnage handled in the old way should be charged against
the slower driving of the tunnel. With an irrigation tunnel, an entire seasons crops may
be lost because of the increased time required by the one-shift system. 3. Overhead
charges are operative during full period of construction; these charges per ft of tunnel are
smallest when the mas number of hours per day are employed in driving. Finally, although
one-shift work is cheaper in wages, this may be offset, by losses due to delay in completing
the tunnel.
Two shifts will obviously make faster progress than one shift, the direct cost per ft being
the same or more or less, depending upon organization and equipment. With hand mucking
it is usually necessary to work the drilling and mucking crews simultaneously, although
there is advantage in having the muckers start an. hour or so before the drillers in order to
make room for the latter to work over the muck pile. In this system, drills are usually
mounted on a horiz bar set over the muck pile, and the top and breast holes are drilled first
while the muckers are removing the rock beneath. With vert column mounting, the shift
first mucks back from the face to make room for the set-up. A disadvantage of the horiz bar
and drilling over the muck pile is the chance of drilling into a missed hole with a vert col
umn set-up; tme is lost unless the muckers come on ahead of the drillers; in either case,
working the two crews together usually results in congestion at the face and loss of effi
ciency. With mechanical loading the work is usually planned for a clean set-up of the
machines for each round, unless two complete cycles per shift are desired, when it may be
.'.ecessary to use a horiz bar set-up. The machines may be mounted on horiz bars, vert col
umns, or drill carriage, and enough machines are employed to drill a deep round and shoot
in 4 to 5 hrs or lesa. Mucking can usually be completed in 2 to 3 hrs, leaving a clean set-up

6 -0 6

TUNNELING

DRILLING EQUIPM ENT

for the next shift. The mucking time varies but little with size o f tunnel section, providing
the mucking machine capacity is sufficient. In some tunnels tw o complete cycles are conf^
pleted in a shift using mechanical loaders, horiz-bar drill mountings over the muck pile, or
a drill carriage, with adequate ventilation for removing blasting fumes, and facilities 'for
quickly changing cars at the face. Where two cycles are completed per shift, separate
muckmg-maehine and loading crews are sometimes employed, each of which works two
high-pressure periods, with an intervening rest period partly devoted to overhauling gear
and equipment, sorting steel, preparing for blasting, etc. For one complete cycle a single
crew will usually suffice, the drillers operating the mucking machine after blasting.
Three shift organization is similar to that for two shifts, except that each crew must
usually be composed of men capable o f taking up the work at any point in the cycle where
the previous crew leaves off. Unlike 2-shift organization, if delays occur there is no
between shifts to complete unfinished work.

holes. Mounted jackharomers of smaller piston diam are sometimes used in soft, easily
drilled ground, and hand-held drills for vert holes in benches, where the heading-and-bench
system is employed. Air pressures of 90 to 100 lb. are usuaL Recently, standard m a i . 0f
automatic-ieed drills have come on the market and have found favor in numerous large
tunnels. They are o f two general types, those that feed b y vibration of the machine and
those with pneumatic feed. Accessories comprise rubber air and water hose, line oilers,
manifolds for connecting hose from several drills to the mains, and drill mountings.
Drill Mountings comprise horiz bars and clamps, or vert columns with arms and clamps
or drill carnages. I f drilling and mucking are carried on simultaneously, the horiz bar is
preferable, since it can be set up over the muck-pile as soon as the back has been trimmed of
loose rock and made safe. W ith vert columns, some muck must be shoveled back from the
face before the set-up can be made, involving loss o f time and rehandling o f part o f the
muck b y hand. Vert set-up behind a muck-pile interferes with efficient drilling; water
from the dnlis dams up behind the muck and the hose must be carried over the pile and
down to the dnlis. H orn bar is sometimes preferred to carriage mounting, because muckers
and drillers can work simultaneously.

Table 4. Typical Time Cycles in Representative Tunnels


Numbers in left-hand column refer to tunnels so numbered in Tables 1-3, which show
number, type and mounting of drills, and mucking method

No

Name

No

>

Aver ft of
hole per
round
215-1290
234
493
202
234
360

H
IS

2
3
4
7
8
10
10
13
14

Ifi
17
19
>0
V
ffi
>5

15
16
18
19
21
34
24

234
312
208
172
140

S
(e)
9
11

B. C. Nickel...................

Haikyn (fc).....................

Burra Burra crosscut.. .

130

6 -0 7

Time cycle
Drill
rain (a)

Blast
roin (6)

Muck
man (c)

140
390
105
174
140
138 if)
186
286-403
540-585

47
120
38
60
40

150
210
130
288
105
(*)
80
(*)
390

69
38-45
62-95

121
360
140
110
254
120
270-300

59
(?)
47 *
40
23
60

Total
hr : min
5 :37
8 :00 id)
4 :33
8 :42
4 :45

5 :35
5 : 24-7 : 28
/ 2-f- rounds
tin 3 shifts
116
4 :56
300
ik)
150
5 :37
78
3 :48
245 (t)
4 :37
120
5 :00
90
8 :QQ
223
11 15 (r)

Side View
Fig 1.

Adjostlngjack

Sa
End View

Drill Carriage, Montreal Mine

| 230 (m) I
if)
I 190 () i
320
75
33
Montreal crosscut..........
(5)
(p)
(a) includes barring down, setting up,, drilling, tearing down; (6) includes blowing holes, load
ing, firing, blowing smoke; (e) includes moving in, mucking, moving out; id) mucking during drill
ing; (e) 3 shifts, 5 drills jumbo-mounted, eleo shovel: if) aver with 6.5-ft rounds; (gj 37 ton per
hr; (ft) aver one month when 1 086 ft were driven, pulling 9.3-ft rounds, 3 drills; (i) during drilling;
0") included with drilling; (k) 2 rounds per day; ffl 2 shifts, 2 drills, vert column mounting, eleo
scraper; (m) portal heading; (n) station heading; (p) 3 shifts, 6 drills carriage-mounted, scraper;
(g) 32 holes, 6.1-ft round; (r) track laying, lunch and delays, 57 rain.

3.

SURFACE PLANT

Aside from requirements for office, camp buildings, and power plant or transformer sta
tions, which vary widely with size and location o f job, and time required for its completion,
the usual surface plant comprises: air compressors, bit sharpeners (or detachabie-bit grind
ers), heating furnaces, blacksmithing equipment, explosives magazine, ventilating fans or
blowers, and car-dumping facilities. In some cases, a small machine and electrical shop may
also be required for making repairs to cars, track switches, loading and haulage equipment;
but where the tunnel is driven at an established mine, most or all of these facilities may be
already available.

4. DRILLING EQUIPMENT
Brills and accessories. The old piston-drill has been superseded b y faster drilling
hammer-type machines. The use of hollow drill steel and wet drilling has become almost
universal, and with growing understanding of the danger to health from dusty air, wet drill
ing is advocated under all conditions. Mounted drifters with 3, 3 */2, or 4-in pistons are
commonly employed, the size depending to some extent upon hardness of rock and depth of

in the east porta! of the Cascade tunnel, the superintendent was satisfied that he could
better t o e with a bar than with a carriage (4). 0.5 hr was allowed after blasting to clear the head
ing, and 20'nan were required to bar loose rock, during which time the bar, 4 drills and 160 steels
were brought up and some mucking was done where dirt lay against the face. Finally the set-up was
made, the entire preparations requiring about 1.5 hr. Drillers stood on the muck pile. Mucking
started with the fly rock and proceeded to the face. By the time the shovel loader is close up and
ready to dig into thi last of the pile, the drillers have finished all but 5 or 7 bottom holes
We
manage to pie* up a round in the course of 48 hr by this work cycle. We count on 3 rounds a day and
try to make or save enough time to gain an extra round every 2 days. While it is probable that
extea speed can be gained with a bar, it is questionable whether as good direct costs can be secured as
With a carnage.

6 -0 8

TU N N ELIN G

DRILLING

Drill carriage or "Jumbo has gained favor in recent years, but its use is limited to clean
set-ups where it can be run right to the face. It usually runs on the tunnel track, but mav
be mounted on a caterpillar crawler. It is variously designed and constructed, but consiste
essentially of the carriage proper upon which are mounted the columns, bare, armB
drills, with individual air aid water hosea attached. Manifolds and line oilers may be
mounted on the carriage (Fig 1) or carried on a tender (Fig 2). The manifolds are connected
to the mains by large hose. Drill steel is carried on the carriage or on a tender as the case
may be. The tender in Fig 2 was used in the Ojuela tunnel (19) and in addition to carryine
steel, air and water manifolds and a tool box, was equipped with a Coppus blower. Drill
carriages permit a quick set-up, as the mounted machines, equipped for drilling, are run to
the face with drill steel sorted and conveniently racked. When drilling is finished, the
equipment is readily and quickly removed.

Drill steeL In American tunnels, hollow, 1 1 / 4-in round, lugged-shank steel is com
moniy employed for 3 V2 or 4-i^ drifter drills; 1-in quarter-octagon or ?/g-in octagonsteel
is often used with lighter machines in easy drilling ground, or for vert down holes in benches.
Machines with anvil-bloek chucks and plain shanks without lugs are seldom used in the
U S, but are standard in many Canadian mines. Steels are commonly made up in lengths
for 24-in changes; sometimes for 18, 20, 30-in changes, with corresponding gage changes
of 1 /s, 3/ie. or 1U-ia. Here the standard U S'practice of using a starter of 2 l /2 or 2 3/ 4-in
or even 3-in gage might be improved, for it has been found in some mines that deep holes
can be drilled in hard, abrasive ground, with l.5/s or 1 3/4-in starters and 1 /ie to 3/32-in gage
changes for a 24-in run, by exercising proper care in forming, gaging and heat treatment of
the steel. Drilling speed increases rapidly with decrease in size of hole, and with corre
sponding decreases in steel loss, air consumption Mid time required to complete the round.
A cross bit with full reaming edges (that is, having all 12 points in the same circumference)
has been successful; gage loss is usually less, whence gage changes and bit size can be
smaller to finish with same diam of hole. Detachable bits have come into favor in recent
years. For tunnel work their chief advantages are: perfect forming of each bit, uniformity
of gage and uniform results of heat treatment, which are attainable in the factory to a
degree rarely possible on any but large tunnel jobs, where the best equipment and expert
steel sharpeners can be had. Capital investment for regrinding bits is considerably less
than for sharpening equipment and the amount of money tied up in steel is less.

opening, the two relief holes 13-11. In the diagram the circled numbers indicate order of
firing, and boxed figures the number of cartridges of 40% gelatin dynamite used in average
limestone rock. All holes were spaced so that after the cut had been fired no charge carried

Fig 3. V-cut Round. In trap rock, this round


proved effective with 1214 cartridges of 80%
gelatin dynamite in each, out hole. From 10
to 12 cartridges of 60% special dynamite in
other holes completes the charge. Advance by
each round averaged 1113 ft, using 13-it
holes. Figures in diagram indicate order of
firing electric blasting caps. In easier ground,
as sandstone, 2 easers and 2 side holes are not
used; the 60% special dynamite also is re
placed by 40% special dynamite.

'6 -0 9

Fig 4. Pyramid-cut Round. Drill round used in


Coiorado Rixfer and in Copper Basin No 1 tunnels
was built arpund a pyramid cut, using 11.5-ft
holes. Circled figures indicate cartridges of 1 V4
by 8-in, 40% or 60% ammonia gelatin, and un
circled figures, the firing order. This typical
round could be easily modified to conform to
changing conditions.

5. DRILLING
Tunnels of the sizes under consideration are driven by carrying forward the full crosssection; or by heading and bench. In most long tunnels, drill rounds are fairly well stand
ardized for each job, although ground conditions sometimes change so frequently and
abruptly that standardization is impossible. The principle upon which standard rounds
are based is the drilling of out-holes, which, when blasted, will break out a wedge of rock,
thus providing free faces to which relief and square-up holes will break, being
to go
slightly later. It is axiomatic that if the cut-holes fail to break to bottom, the others will
also fail to do so and a short round will result.
Principal types of rounds are: The V o b w e d g e - c u t (Fig 3); p y e a m e d - c t j t (Fig 4),
which pulls a pyramid or cone-shaped block in the center of the face; the M i c h i g a n
o b b u r n t - c 0t (Fig 5 ) which pulls a cylindrical core in the center; and the s w i n g
o b s l a b b i n g - c o t (Fig 6 ). In the d h a w - c c t , a variation of the wedge cut, holes are
drilled at a steep angle to pull wedge W, Fig 7. The cut holes may be drilled steeply
downward, as in Fig 7, to form a bottom-draw or toe-cut, or toward one side to form
a side-draw cut. The bottom draw-cut is used in narrow headings, with insufficient
room to swing the drill at the angle required for a regular V- or pyramid-cut. The
bumt-cut is used for tough, tight ground, and is especially applicable to small headings,
where there is not room to swing the machines for drilling conventional cut holes. The
two center holes (marked Hack in Fig 5) are drilled normal to the face, and are not
loaded; they merely form lines of weakness for the surrounding cut holes to break to
and some space for the rock to expand into. The slabbing-round (Fig 6), as used in an
8 by 12-ft heading, consists of 28 holes in 4 rows of 7 holes each, one above the other; 3 o*
4 holes of each row at the right can be drilled from a single column set-up by using a long
arm. The 4 shortest holes (4 1/2 ft) are blasted first, followed in succession by the 5 1/2 and
6 1 / 2-ft holes, etc, each tier breaking in turn to the free face provided by the breaking of the
preceding tier. The pyramid-cut ordinarily comprises from 3 to 6 holes, although 4 holea
will break in most ground. Fig 8 shows a double pyramid-cut in the Ojuela tunnel for
pulling a long round; 4 short holes, 1412 and 2728, are blasted first, pulling a shallow
pyramid or cone, followed by the long cuts 15-16 and 19-22, and then for nlarging the

Fig 5. Michigan or Burnt "-cut Round. (For


explanation of numerals at each hole, see note
under Fig 4)

Plan
Fig 6.

Swing or Slabbing Round

more than 2.5 ft of burden. Each top machine on the carriage drilled 8 holes from two set
tings; each bottom machine, 6 holes. Fig 9 shows a heading-and-bench round, with a
vert V-cut in the heading and flat lifter holes in the bench, while Fig 10 shows one with a

DRILLING
TUNNELING

Rotation of firing holes designated t>y


numbers shown at collar of boles
Fig 7. Draw-out Round

' C en ter o f

9a ^ S i l

j| | o s \ I
M p f 21 \ ! -

m ach in e
g
w hen
a
r e v o lv e d
fe
a ro u n d bar,

--------

f, --------------------------------------- -

r - i ____2^-I0-7
^

"

-------------*

P osition o r to p b a r o f _
ca rria g e s
St

v lff s
b' a .-

,*23424,

T r DI
ra25 +26_, I
< A >
)l

Fig 8.

P osition o f a
.bottom b a r g
taf ca rria g e

--------- ---------ft

.. 1

23-24.2S.9(3

Double Byramid-cut Round (Ojuela Tunnel)

Drilling speed varies between wide limits, depending on drillability of rock, size of
drill piston, air press, diam and depth of holes, amount and press of drillmg water (affecting
the rapidity o f removal o f cuttings), and sharpness of bits. DnUabihty of rock, whilelargely
a function of hardness or abrasiveness and toughness, m ay sometimes be influenced more
b y fracture and bedding planes, stickiness of drill cuttings and presence or absence of vugs,
that is, b y homogeneity or its lack. Table 5 gives typical data on drilling speeds m a num
ber of tunnels.

Table 5.

Typical Drilling Speeds in Tunnels

vert V -cu t in the heading and nearly vert piugger holes in the beach. The total num.
b e ? o f cut, relief and s q u a r e holes required for any type of round obviously vanes with
toughness o f rock, the position, number, and direction of fracture or bedding planes, and
withTize of heading. W ith Y - and pyramid-cuts, the cut holes should be to lle d to connect
I t bottom especiaUy if blasting with fuse and cap. It is virtually impossible to cut fuse so
i i t l ^ S c h i g e s will explode simultaneously but if the holes connect or are very
close together the first charge to go will detonate the others.

6 -1 2

6 -1 3

CHARGING AN D BLASTING

TUN NELIN G

u u g
s
0 * S so
1 .f t p . m
8

last or bl
reblast
with com
with com

i%
l
U

reblast
ast by fo

:| i|
*9

reblast

>4

reblaafe
reblast

(i>

reblast

reblaet

ts
OS

u8

"2

*
o a
o II
SI

2 2o 2
I 3.o
o**

.a 2

Fig 10. Heading-and-bench Round, using Down-holes in Beach. (Numbers indicate order of filing)
6.

C H A R G IN G A N D

Mg

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<s* ^ e* s

o o

fS

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as Q=0

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fi o

05

J I l l s ' ; -S S | S | | | |
a. q, a.

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as,

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sis

B L A S T IN G

Charging. Rules prescribed for transport, handling, and use of explosives should be
observed, and primers prepared as recommended by the explosives manufacturers. The
approved methods of inserting the detonator in the cartridge (Sec 4) insure against its
being accidentally pulled out when charging and prevent kinking the fuze and consequent
breaks in the powder train, or abrasion of the insulation on leg wires. The detonator
should lie in the axis of the cartridge and be pointed in the direction of bulk of charge.
Before charging, holes are blown clean with compressed air. The cartridges are then
pushed in, one at a time, and pressed firmly with a wooden tamping bar. To insure filling
the entire area of the hole, the cartridges are often slit, so that the explosive will be pressed
out against the walls of the hole. Care should be used to avoid breaking the fuse or
damaging leg wires. Explosive manufacturers usually advocate placing the primer last
(on top of charge), or next to last in the hole. There is no accepted rule that gives best
results under all conditions. Thus in tunnel work, if the primers are near the top, the
cut holes, which go first, may cut off the primers in one or more relief or square-up holes,
especially in seamy or schistose ground. If the primers are at or near the bottom, a cut
off hole will throw unexploded dynamite into the the muck pile. Table 6 gives data from

go
_ . 2 <2

js s s s ls

Table 6.

Blasting Data for Tunnels Listed in Tables 1 to 4

all
SS

tsocecoocoO cocoooeoco

os CO <OCfiCON<BNeeO<OCO

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

^1<1 e*.M ^ .09

x x x x x x x x x x x

*;?
:X

III"

i :* 3 * 5

> >

li

,| s

s 3 s s s ? s

lr-* i<y
Cuu

S s 1w = 15 ?
o -o

1 J s 1 1 1 W I s w 1*
O-*

522

e-a

i.

i-i

in
* s *
|-a

i!s
o '''o o o

o o
a .

..

2. <s fs <s <ss<s

6 -1 5

TUNNELING

MUCKING OPERATIONS

a number o f tunnels and indicates in each case the preference as to the primer position.
Fuse or leg-wires are brought out along one side of the hole, pulled straight but not tight,
and the rest of the hole filled with stemming (tamping). Though sometimes omitted,
stemming is advocated b y ail makers o f explosives; it increases the work done, and by
confining the explosive causes more complete detonation and less fume. Paper tamping
bags different in color from the explosive cartridges are in general use and are convenient.
They are preferably filled with dry sand, fine rock screenings, or clay (see Sec 4).
Order of firing, with fuse blasting, is controlled b y cutting fuse in different lengths, and
to some extent b y the order o f spitting ; with bunch blasting the order of firing is deter
mined b y the length of fuse only, since all fuses are spit at almost the same instant. Elec
tric detonators are especially effective for cut holes, b y insuring simultaneous detonation
o f all the charges even though the bottoms of the holes do not connect, a result virtually
impossible with fuse. Order o f firing is usually: (1) cuts, (2) relievers, (3) breast, side and
top square-ups, and (4) lifters. T he lifters go last to throw the muck away from the face
(Fig 3 to 10).
Fuse vs electric blasting. Elec detonators for tunnel rounds are now generally pre
ferred, and are advocated b y the Bur o f Mines for safety. W ith delay detonators, one clos
ing of the firing switch causes the holes to go in proper rotation, and since there are no men
at the face when firing, the danger (with fuse) of overstaying the safe time limit is avoided.
However, modern fuse is almost uniform in rate o f burning, and the use o f igniters or
spitter fuses to give warning has greatly reduced this danger. Some operators consider
fuse safer
electric blasting, contending that danger from stray currents is greater than
the hazards with fuse. Buneh blasting (32), as developed b y the Anaconda Copper
Mining Co, might be applied to tunnel work with good results as to both timing and safety.
In wet tunnels good waterproofing o f both fuse (or wires) and caps is essential. Here,
electric blasting has a decided advantage, because of the difficulty o f keeping fuse ends dry.
Burning fuse adds to the smoke, which must be cleared before recharging cut holes (if that
be necessary), or preparing the remaining holes. Also, if fuse side-spits,1 due to imperfec
tions or abrasion o f the tape while loading, the charges will explode b y ignition instead of by
detonation, reducing effectiveness and increasing the quantity of noxious fume (see Sec 4).
Firing. When blasting with fuse, there should be at least tw o men at the face and pre
cautions taken against leaving them in the dark. After all holes are charged, fuses are
cut to the lengths for proper order of jjiring, and their ends slit to expose a short train of
powder for lighting. Carbide lamps are often used for lighting, but m ay be blown out by
the spit of a fuse. Igniters, now on the market, or notched spitter fuses (Sec 4) are
better, and are advantageous in warning the miner when his safe time is up. For success
ful electric firing care must be taken in connecting leg wires together and to the leads;
wires shouid be twisted together, not merely looped or hooked. Bare connections must be
protected against short-circuiting, especially under w et or damp conditions, b y being raised
off the ground and preferably taped. W ith a. blasting machine, the holes must be con
nected in series, but either series or parallel connection m ay be used when firing from a
lighting or power circuit. For a blasting machine, leg wires should be connected first, then
connections made to the lead wires, and lastly, after everyone has retired from the face, the
lead wires are connected to the machine. W ith power-circuit firing, connections are made
in the same order, but a locked safety firing switch should be used, so that the power con
nection
n ot be made until the box is unlocked and opened. A s an additional precau
tion, a seeond switch, kept open until ready to blast, m ay be placed across the^ leads be
tween firing switch and face, well back from the latter. The chief precautions in electric
firing are to keep the detonators short-circuited until the moment of connecting them to the
blasting circuit and to keep the lead wires short-circuited until they are connected to the
source of current. In some ground it is necessary to load and blast the cut holes, then
return to the face and, if they have n ot broken to bottom, reload them and other holes, and
blast a second time. Although this involves waiting for smoke from the first blast to dear,
with loss o f time if ventilation is poor, it may save time in the long run when the ground is
such that the cuts fail to bottom up.
Misfires result in lost or short rounds, loss o f time for refiring, and hazards in drilling
and mucking. Unexploded powder in the bottom o f a hole m ay be drilled into or, if in the
muck pile, m ay be struck with a pick and exploded. After every round, missed holes and
unexploded powder must be looked for. Various methods are advocated for dealing with
missed holes. If elec firing has been used the lead wires should be disconnected from the
source o f power, short-circuited and wound back out of the way. W ith fuse, men should
not return to the face for at least one half hr, preferably longer. Having uncovered the
missed hole, many prefer to remove the stemming (a method condemned b y the Bureau of
Mines), exposing the top cartridge and then reblast with a fresh primer. If the stemming is
picked out, great care is necessary and no metal tools are permissible. I t is safer to blow

out the stemming with compressed air, or wash it out with water. A 3t^ safer, but more
time-consuming method, is to drill and blast a parallel hole close enough to detonate the
missed hole, taking care not to drill into the latter.

6 -1 4

7. MUCKING EQUIPMENT
Hand mucking requires no special comment. Some hand work is necessary even with
mechanical loading, for cleaning up, handling fly rock, and, where drilling and mucking go
on simultaneously, shoveling back from the set-up. Mechanical loading depends for its
success upon continuous operation during the mucking period. Mechanical loaders are of
2 kinds: drag scrapers and shoveling machines. See See 27 for details.
Scrapers. Scraping equipment for tunnel headings comprises a double-drum elec or
comp-air hoist, mounted on a movable slide; a scraper of the hoe, semi-hoe, or box type;
puli and tail ropes; tail sheaves, and a scraper slide, or ramp. The latter is mobile and is
usually on trucks running on the mine track, but can be mounted on a caterpillar_crawler.
Fig 11 shows a common type o f slide with hoist mounted on top. For low headings, the
slide may be built with the hoist mounted underneath the ramp. The loading boom
extends back over the car and has an opening in the bottom through which the rock falls.
K g 12 shows a loading unit used at the Montreal mine, W is (33). The slide and boom are
mounted on 2 large cars, coupled to a locom otive tender on which is mounted the slusher
hoist. When the cars are filled, the entire unit moves under its own power to the dump.
The use o f 2 large cars, together holding 380 cu ft, minimizes loading delays due to waiting
for cars. The usual types o f scrapers, m any o f which are suited to tunnel work, are illus
trated and described in Sec 27. Their advantages are: flexibility, low first cost, and small
power consumption (especially if the hoist is elec driven). Aside from labor, rope renewals
are the largest single item o f expense. Scrapers usually show no direct cost saving over
hand loading ip. tunnels of less than 7 b y 7 or 8 b y 8-ft c^oss-sec.
Shovel loaders in a number o f successful types are|on the market, ranging from low
machines suited to tunnels o f moderate height, to converted power-shovels, like those for
surface excavation. They are usually mounted on wheeled trucks and run on the tunnel
track, but may be mounted on crawlers. Am ong these, the Conway shovel (Sec 27),
which requires little headroom, is especially suited to mine tunnels of large cross-sec. A
machine o f this type requires tractive effort to force the dipper into the muck pile, and the
dipper loads onto a short conveyer extending back over the car. For smaller headings, small
shovel-type loaders are popular; that shown in Fig 13 uses traction to force the dipper
into the pile; it is close-coupled to a mine car, into which the dipper discharges. For head
ings larger than about 9 or 10 b y 12 ft, the larger loaders compete with scraper and slide.

8. MUCKING OPERATIONS
Hand shoveling. W ith modern high-speed drills, rounds can be completed in less time
than they can be mucked b y hand, hence, the depth of round that can be pulled econ
omically is often limited b y the rate at which muck can be removed. In _3-shift work,
mucking must be finished when the drillers are ready to lower the bar for drilling the lifters,
else they may be unable to complete the round b y the end of the shift. W ith 2 shifts, drill
ing and mucking on both, there is some leeway and the muckers can start an hour or two
before the drillers. But, if the rounds are too deep, more than 1 shift m ay be needed for
mucking, involving overtime and increasing cost. W ith hand-mucking, shallow rounds
are often found to give max rate o f advance. Thus, at the Kerber Creek (Rawley) T unnel
(12), max progress with two 8-hr shifts, drilling 8-ft rounds, was 414 ft in a month, or 15.5
ft per day. In good drilling ground 2 rounds of 4.5 to 5.5 ft could be made in 1 shift, giv
ing an advance o f 18 to 22 ft per day. Mucking b y this method would be much facili
tated, because fully 25% more could be landed on the muck-plates, and, if necessary, a
third shift of muckers could be used. The number of muckers that can work around a
car is limited; if too many, they interfere with one another. Analyses at a number of tun
nels show that a shoveler requires a 2* /s to 3-ft width of floor space, so that m a 10-ft tunnel
there should not be more than 4 shovelers; in a 6-ft tunnel, only 2 shovelers. For speed
work, extra muckers m ay be required to relieve one another. Their time need n ot be liost,
since, when not actually shoveling, they can switch and handle cars, pick down the muck
pile, etc, the change in working position affording physical relief.
In the Laraiaie-Poudre tunnel (IS), 6 muckers worked as follows:
When car 1 was filled, 2 shovelers (A and B) took it to the rear, while 2 others (C, D) took empty
car 2, previously thrown on its side off the track, set it on the track and pushed it into position for
jrvpriing. Meantime the remaining men (E, F) stopped picking down the rock pile, took the shovels

6-H

M UCKING OPERATIONS

TU N N ELIN G

!' wheel gage '*

Seraper-slide Mucking Machine and 120-cu ft (6-ton) Side-dump Mucking Car, Britannia Mind

left by A and B and assisted C and D in filling oar 2. Car 3 was then brought up by A and B close
to where car 2 was being filled, and was thrown on its side in the position formerly occupied by car 2.
A and B then, picked for the other 4 men, while car 2 was being loaded. When filled, car 2 was
removed by C and D, while E and F set up the third car and loaded it with help of A and B. A
fourth empty oar was meanwhile brought up by C and D, who then took their turn at picking.
The cycle was completed when E and F took the thirdloaded car to the rear, brought back an empty
and resumed their original position on the muck pile. Thus, each man spent two-thirds of the time
in tramming or picking muck, either of which is easier than loading, and relieves the monotony of
shoveling. In this methodical procedure there is no lost motion. Cars of 16-cu ft capacity were
filled in an aver of 3 or 4 min. At the Hawley tunnel (12) where a similar system was used with
4 shovelers, 25 17-cu ft cara were loaded in 2 hr; in another case, 20 oars in 1.75 hr, including al
delays in making up trains.

Fig 11.

6 -1 6

1Qn ft. panacity

200-cq.-f capacity '

.25-hp slnsher'holsC

Portable

jjnmper

Fig 12.

Fig 13.

Side Elevation
Scraper-loading Unit, Montreal Mine, Wis

Shovel-type Loader Close-coupled to Mine Car for Small Headings

Mechanical loading is n ot well adapted for drilling and' mucking simultaneously,


although with small dipper loaders this m ay be done as at the B. C. Nickel C o s tunnel (3).
The routine for driving the long Eureka crosscut at the Burra-Burra mine, Duektown,
Terta, is typical. T he crosscut is in schist and graywaeke, 8 b y 8 ft in section. A s a speed
of 500 ft per month was all that was required to reach the objective on the desired date,
only 2 shifts were worked, as follows (34):

|
j
]
]
;
i

i
j

A scraper operated by a double-drum, 25-hp elec hoist was mounted on a portable frame of minetrack gage, upon which was supported a steel incline for loading into 4~toa cara, spotted by a cablereel locomotive. Sidings for empty cars were kept within 700 ft of the face. The few minutes
needed for switching ears caused no delay, as this time was employed in preparing the muck pile
for easy loading. The drill crew began at 7 a m, and, with a clean set-up, started drilling with two
144-lb drifters mounted on columns. At 9 a m the round was about finished, and was usually shot
and smoke blown out by 10 o'clock. As the ground broke well, the entire heading was generally shot in
one operation. The mucking crew, coming on at 9; oiled and overhauled the equipment, to be ready
by 10 oclock to begin mucking. WTiile mucking out, the drillers overhauled their equipment, sent
out dull steel, brought in and sorted fresh steel, and took a short rest period. Mucking was usually
done by noon, and a second round drilled and shot by 3 p m. Two shifts each of drillers and muckera completed 4 rounds, making an aver advance of IS ft per day of about 20 hrs. Each drill crew
consisted of 2 drill runners (one acting as shift leader), 2 drill helpers, and 1 steel nipper. The
nipper helped the muckers on his shift, besides keeping the drillerB supplied with steel. The muck
ing crew comprised a hoist man, helper at the face, and motorman who spotted and changed
cars, battling and dumping the loaded cars, while the drillers were at work. A foreman had charge
of both shifts. The job was organized on basis of 2 high-pressure work periods for each erew, with
an intervening period of rest. For completing two rounds per shift, wages were: shift leaders,
$6.16; drillers, 87.16; scraper man, $7.16; drill helpers, $8.16; steel nipper, 35.16; scraper helper,
$5.16; motorman, $4.08. Except the motormans wage, these rates were 40 to 90% above the
standard. If the 2 rounds were not completed, the men received only the regular daily rate.
The 4 100-ft haulage tunnel at the Britannia mine (2) is 10 X 12 ft. Low cost was
more important than speed, the aim being to attain max effic with small crews. The head
ing orew per shift comprised 1 shift boss, 4 miners, 2 muckers, 1 motorman and 1 brakman;
also 1 trackman and helper and 1 ditehman on day shift, and 1 steel sharpener and helper.
The cycle of operations was as follows:

6-18

TUNNELING

After Having, 2 miners bar down, 2 rig equipment for drilling holes for Lewis wedges," 2
muckers clean out for the scraper slide, and the train crew bring in cars and slide. A hole is drilled
in each wall at the face, wedges are driven in, a chain is stretched across, on which the tail sheave is
hung; the mucking machine is meanwhile clamped to the rails and connected to the 440-volt 3phase a c power line, and mucking begins. While a 120-eu ft or 6-ton car is being filled the train crew
hang an empty on the car switcher, the full car is pulled back, and the empty dropped on the rails
and pushed to the mucker. Filling cars averages 3 to 4 min, and switching 1 to 3 min, according
to distance. The car switcher is moved up about every 500 ft. One side of heading is scraped out
first- when the tail sheave is switched to the other side, 2 or 3 men clean up along the wall with
shovels and hand scrapers. The permanent rail is kept 30 ft from the face, so that the scraper can dig
to bottom of the ties over the whole area.
After mucking is completed, a light rail extension is laid, over which the drill carriage is run to
the face and set up, the staging is erected, and drilling begins. Some side h oi and relievers can
be drilled as well from one machine as another; the order of drilling being such that these holes
are drilled last. If one machine gets into trouble, another can take an extra hole and save delay.
While drilling is in progress, 1 man cuts powder and prepares primers; 2 men blow out the holes
while the drill carriage is being taken out; the round is loaded, the blasting circuit tested, and the
connecting wires strung out; holes connected in series.
A drainage ditch, 3 ft wide and 3 ft below bottom of lies, is carried with the heading. For this
the necessary plugging and blasting are done while drilling is in progress m the lace, and mucking
is done by hand at all points of the cycle. The ground ranges from very hard and blacky to very soft
and highly schistose. Hard ground is often wet, and at times water pressure is so great that plugs
must be driven into the holes to keep the powder from being forced out. Drilling time ranges from
11/4 to 51/2 hr, but 2 to 21/2 hr is usually sufficient. Timbering was necessary in one place only for
about 40 ft.
,.
,
Aver advance is one 6-ft round per shift, which can be maintained in any but the hardest ground.
Total cost of this work to the present time has been $25.83 per ft, including a proper proportioa of
all constructional and equipment expenses, such as purchase and installation of compressor, erec
tion of steel shop, etc, and of capital charges necessary to equip the completed tunnel with 100-lb
track and trolley wire for haulage of ore.

With shovel loading the routine is similar to that with scrapers, as shown by the follow
ing examples.
, _7
1. Ojuela Tunnel (IS). Mucking was done by an air-operated Nordberg-Butler under
ground shovel, Model 109, which loaded into 40-cu ft ears. The cycle of operations was:
Beginning with a clean set-up, the power shovel was pulled back to the passing switch and the
drill carriage pushed to the face. Each of the 4 machines drilled a prescribed number of holes. Dur
ing drilling the shovel runner overhauled and oiled the shovel and the track crew cleaned up along
the side to prepare for laying track and pipe. When drilling was completed, the motor pulled the drill
carriage back to the portable turnout and the round was blasted. After waiting 10 min after the
last shot, about 1 000 ft back from the face, the entire crew cleaned up the track to the point at which
the muck pile was about 1 ft high. The shovel followed the crew and necessary connections were
made when the muck pile was reached. Three men pushed one 40-cu ft car from a group of 6 empties,
from the portable turnout switch to the shovel, after which another empty was placed on the passing
switch to be exchanged as soon as the first was filled. Loaded cars were returned to the loaded side.of
the portable turnout, and the train hauled out. Empties were kept on opposite side of the switch.

2. Owyhee Tunnel No 5 (19). General procedure was as follows: the blower exhausted
powder smoke from the face for 10 min aver; it was then reversed, blowing in fresh air A
train of 81-ou ft cars, with mucking machine at head end and locomotive at rear, proceeded
from nearest passing track to the face; the shovel (Conway, Type 50) started loading on
reaching the first fly-dirt and continued until the face was clean. 3 miners and helpers then
rigged up d machines on a horiz bar, and, working from a staging, put in the upper holesone miner and helper, drilling from a horiz bar, put in the lifters; the drilling completed
the miners tore down and blew out the holes. The holes were wired by the shift boss or
powder man, ami fired with delays from a switch, the compressor-house attendant reversing
hearing. the shots. Aver time for each operation during 3 good months.
3 283 ft. being driven m 212 shifts, 15 shifts of which were devoted to timbering wasventilating, 10 mm; shoveling, 1 hr 18 min; setting up,. 31 min; drilling, 1 hr 19 mintearing down, blowing holes, loading and blasting, i/2 hr; total time, complete round 3 hr
48 mm. Per round: ft advance, 7.82; no of holes, 19.2; ft drilled, 172; no of ears, 16.9lb powder, 146.6 (18.6 per ft advance). Per shift: rounds, 2.12; ft advance, 16.6. Depth
of holes, 9 ft*
Table?.

Tunnel

Bib
No

Mucking
equipment

5
7
7
8
14
15
16
18
99
21

f Marion }
\ No 20(c) j
scraper (e)
Butler (c)
| Myers- )
Whaley (e) )
scraper (e)
Conway ()
Conway (e)
scraper (e)
hand
Conway (e)
Conway (e)
Butler (c)
Conway ()
hand

Big Creek No
Britannia Ext
B. C. Nickel.
Cascade Pione
Chicago Ave.
Colorado River
Copper Basin
Eureka.........
Mammoth...
Moffat No 5.
New Haven..
Ojuela..........
Owyhee.......
Sheep Creek .

Movable Switches and Passing Track, Ojuela Tunnel

Considerable time was saved by keeping the passing switch (Fig 14) within 150 ft of the face;
when the distance between the turnout and passing switches became so great that an empty could
not be returned while the mechanical shovel was filling a car, the turnout switch was moved ahead.
While loading was in progress, one machine man and the drill-carriage boss inspected the dnila,
replaced dull with sharp steel, filled the oilers and prepared for drilling the next round. The table
shows time consumed in the various operations.
____
Hr
Aver
Taking drill carriage to face

(J : 30
I : 50
0 : 35
0 : 12

Best
U : 15
0 : 35
0 : 25
0 : 05

Cleaning up ahead of shovel


Loading (aver of 20 cars 40 eu
ft per round)...........................
laterral, end of loading to start of
setting up.......................*....
Total time...........................

Aver

Best

0 : 15

0 :07

Total drilling time....................


Tearing down, blowing, charg
ing, blasting..........................
Waiting for smoke....................

Hr : mia-.

min

1 :45

0 : 15
5 : 37

0 :07
3 :39

Mucking Sates in Various Tunnels


Aver cu ft per round Mucking,
aver time
per round
Solid
Car
measure measure Hr :min
140(a)
28
20
26
90
70+
100

ft)
:30
:00

220

110-120

18-29
58
540
22
38
32
70
23
30
27
51
12
(o) Two S-ft heading rounds and one 16-ft bench round.

Fig 14.

6-19

TRAM M ING AND HAULAGE

t k a m m in g

and

Car capac, Aver loading


time per car,
cuft
m in

108

120

25
54

3-4

*27
54 and 135
135
60
14
5-3.7(d)
54
1.9
48
40
3-4
81
.5-2
30
</)
Q>) 8-10 hr including nnntinn

haulage

Mucking by hand. Any delay in tramming or prompt replacement of loaded with empty
ears affects mucking efficiency and may upset the entire cycle of operations There are
: TOnous methods for minimizing the time required to handle the cars. Due to the extra
effort for hand shoveling into high cars, or throwing muck to the back of long ones, small
light cars are usually preferable, although they involve more shifting per yd handled Light
; oars are changed quickly, as empties can simply be tipped off the track, to allow loaded
.. ears to pass, and replaced for pushing them to the face. Another method for light ears is
to use a shck-sheet,

beside the track and close t o the face, on which an em pty is kept

always ready. When a car is loaded, it is pushed past the alick-aheet, an empty brought to
. the face, and another empty placed on the sheet. At the Sheep Creek tunnel (21) theshck: w t was never more than 50 ft from the face; another sheet, a few hundred ft farther

-d ears Were 11111 back pa8t the empties, made up


rnto a tram and hauled out. The empties were then run singly to the sheet at the face.
dtfaeflaSe* W6re
Same
* toP f the iaM cars ^ only to be lifted the height
Mechanical loading has brought about the use of larger cars, which are loaded by ma
chine as quickly as small cars by hand. To reduce switching delays, thus increasing actual
special methods and equipment have been developed. The commonest are
^oyabie switches and passing track, and the crane car-lift ( cherry picker ). Fig 1 4 shows
VR i t l f
T * mf
0j uela ^ el (18>' for ktaiis of car changing routine, see S i !
iig 15 shows a form of cherry picker1 employed in the Wachusett-Coldbrook tunnels (35).

6 -2 0

TUN NELIN G

It is an air-lift hoist, traveling on a transverse beam or bar near roof of tunnel. An enrnt
car is raised b y the hoist, transferred to one side, the loaded car switched back, and
empty then returned to the track ahead of the train and pushed alongside the loader. This
for each ear switched, the train moves its complete train length, backward and forward
plus any distance greater than normal between the cherry picker and the face; plus tfc
working clearance for car and shovel at the face. Time studies at the Moffat tunnel, where
a cherry picker and 50-cu ft cars were used, showed that actuai loading consumed 28<7
total loading time, and switching 24% . A t the Owyhee tunnels (19) with same equipmen+
except that cars were of 81 cu ft capae, the number o f cars to be switched was reduced bv
60% , thus saving 13 to 19 minutes per round. When loading b y scraper and slide, a larae
car can be used, although its height must be limited to allow room for the loading boo
above it and clearance for the scraper as it passes over the boom. Fig 12 shows the squid.
meat devised at a Wisconsin mine (33), where 2 eaa
(190 cu ft each) and a locom otive comprise a
and haulage unit. W ith this, an aver round o f & l f t
in a 9 X 14-ft crosscut was mucked out in 3 hr 9 mm
aver. The entire unit goes out to the dump, 3 or 4
^fcrips being required to clean up a round. Other de
vices for saving time in switching are the grasshop
per and the conveyer (Sec 27). The former, appli
cable only to a high tunnel, consists o f a steel frame
straddling the tunnel track and traveling on a wide
gage track. A hinged ramp at each end is lowered to
permit running a string o f em pty cars on and off the
deck of the frame which is high enough to allow ears
to pass through under it. The empties are pulled up
the rear ramp b y an air hoist, and lowered singly on
the front ramp, as required b y the loader. The con
veyer may be used where headroom is less; it consists
Fig IS. Cherry Picker !
o f a belt mounted on a framework straddling- the
tunnel track. The mucking machine loads through
a hopper onto the conveyer, which is long enough to cover a string of cars. Table 7
gives data on tramming and haulage time, which are virtually the same as mucking *ima
the operations being concurrent.
Type of car used will depend largely upon dumping'facilities. Solid-body cars may be
o f large capac, yet low. Their first cost and repair costs are comparatively small, and spill
age along the track is a minimum, due to the absence of doors around which leakagemay
occur. These cars require a rotary dump, and involve rehandling the muck in another car
or skip for final disposition; the extra cost of plant m ay not be warranted. Granby-type
cars (Sec 11) have certain advantages, especially for fast dumping, but require a fixed
dumping ramp. In most tunnel jobs the muck is spread over a considerable area near the
portal, simply b y fanning out the pile, and for this side-dump cars are ideal, although they ,
m ay be too high for easy hand loading, and even for mechanical loading if the tunnel head
room is small. Gable- or rocker-bottom cars are com monly employed in the smaller tun
nels. (For different types of care, see Sec 11.)
Haulage is usually b y locomotives, which are also, used for switching at the face and for
moving drill carriages, mucking plant, timber, and supplies. Storage-battery locomotives
are ideal for short hauls, and have the advantage o f eliminating trolley wires, especially
important at and near the tunnel face. Combination trolley-battery locos, often u seim
long tunnels, n m on the batteries for spotting and switching cars near the face, and operate
as trolley locos for the long haul out to the dump. Cable-reel trolley locos are employed
similarly. On some jobs a small battery-loco is used at the face for spotting and switching,.
and a separate trolley-loco for the long hauls.

10. VENTILATION (see Sec 14)


Adequate ventilation is a requisite for rapid and economical tunnel driving and to pro?
tect workmen against dust and gas hazards. In tunnel work it usually implies mechanical
ventilation, for prompt removal of gases after blasting and supplying fresh air at the fata.
G ood ventilation is required during drilling and mucking, for diluting and sweeping out:
harmful dusts; under high-temp conditions, for immediate physical relief of the men; and
under explosive-gas conditions, for diluting and removing gas.

During drilling, or the operation o f air-driven shovels or scrapers, exhaust air aSorqs
some ventilation and cooling effect. Just before firing around, the comp-air line is usually.;
opened to blow against the face, diluting the powder gases and gradually moving them bfi0&

T U N N EL SUPPORT

6 -2 1

% {join the face. A t velocities up to about 30 ft per rnin, the gases m ove back as a cloud;
' ! ygher velocities result in churning and dilution, without materially hastening this movejQent. Rem oval is therefore very, slow unless a blower or fan is installed at the tunnel por| tsl; ^ 1B connected to a pipeline which is suspended in an upper com er o f the tunnel and
|l extends as close to the face as possible without danger of its being injured b y blasting.
ri
Blowing -re exhaust systems. T he relative merits of continuous blowing, continuous
; exhausting, and blowing followed b y exhausting, are still debated. Local conditions may
; influence results obtained bydifferent methods. D ata in Table 3 indicate a majority prefufence for the exhaust system. Arguments for and against m ay be summarized as follows.
jftth blowing only, the gases are churned about at the face, but are eventually caught in an
% outgoing current o f air through the tunnel. Thus even if they are quickly removed from the
M is.ce, men returning to work must para through a gassy zone unless they wait long enough
Ifor the gas to discharge at the portal. T he ventilating pipe can not be carried close to the
Mface, because o f flying rock from the blast; but, when blowing, flexible tubing can be atItached to the pipe to carry adr to the face, and is quickly rolled back a safe distance before
lithe blast. While with non-coUapsible tubing the same practice is possible when exhaustJl'iagi it is seldom attempted. Blowing at the face causes a rapid cooling effect on the men;
f whereas, when exhausting, movement o f air at the face is hardly felt, although the volume
?:s:of fresh air m ay be the same. W ith straight exhaust, the movement o f fresh air from the
p portal is usually along the floor near the face, thence upward, and out through the venti[Si lating pipe. Due to the necessary distance from end of the pipe to face, the gas m ay take
j l jome time to reach the pull of the exhaust; but, when caught, it is immediately sucked out
'Mol the pipe,
the tunnel is clear to the portal, so that men can return to the face in fresh
,fi: air. During drilling and mucking, blowing dilutes concentrations o f dust (or strata gases,
Jfciike methane), and sweeps them from the face, whereas exhausting.often fails to reach the
' greatest concentrations. When drilling, the drill exhaust aids somewhat in driving the dust
fi. back to the ventilating pipe.
M
In general, it would appear that max results can be obtained under normal temperature
conditions b y the following sequence: (1) blow from compressed-air line at the face during
& and immediately after blasting, thus driving the gases back to the end o f the exhaust pipe,
ft whence they are drawn out; (2) as soon as gases are removed b y the fan or blower at the
portal, extend ffexibl* tubing to near the face and reverse d ie current, blowing fresh air in;
M (3) continue blowing during mucking and drilling. On some jobs the system is operated
M Mowing for 10 or 15 min following the blast, supplementing the effect o f the compressed
11 air jet, and is then reversed, operating exhausting during the rest o f the cycle. Under high11 fomp or explosive-gas conditions, continuously blowing systems are preferable.
H
Blowers. The high-pressure mechanical ventilation required for long tunnels may be produced
%Jjy positive-prcssure blowers, low-pressure centrifugal or propeller fans installed inaeries, or centrif& ngal compressors (see Sec 14). Tunnel contractors usually prefer positive-pressure blowers, although
H gome centrifugal compressors have been employed in recent years.

11. TUNNEL SUPPORT

Support for the tunnel roof and sides m ay be required while driving. If it must be kept
dose to the face, the rate of advance is
|| refcarded, and the cycles of operation
'^.already outlined m ay have to be changed
II to include a timbering period. Placing
f;. timbers after blasting each round may
|i require as much or more time than drilling
Mr or mucking. Some ground stands well
3| when freshly broken, though after con11, tinued exposure it m ay slack, crack or
|:fllab off. In such cases the placing of
supports m ay safely lag some distance
"behind the face, causing little if any
11?. hindrance to driving operations. Tem M porary timbering is often used during
M- driving and replaced later b y permanent
f t supports or lining. Permanent supports
ll'.are of timber, structural steel, or concrete; brick or masonry was often used in
llithe earlier R R tunnels. Concrete m ay
W ; be poured around forms, where a strong
fS'lining is needed to support heavy broken- ground; or, where there is no great weight
||

6 -2 3

TUN NELIN G

TU N N EL SUPPORT

and it is only necessary to prevent air-slacking, a thin layer of gunite suffices. For
permanent support, timber should be well seasoned and treated with preservative. It is
easily framed on the jo b and quickly erected without use of special tools or equipment.
For temporary support, in local stretches o f bad ground while advancing the heading,
timbers are readily cut and framed to suit
requirements.
Timber sets comprise several timbers
forming a framework across the tunnel sec
tion. T h e commonest form for narrow
tunnels is the 3-piece set, consisting of a cap
and tw o posts. Fig 16 shows a typical
3-piece set, with posts battered to resist
side pressure. Fig 17 is a set used in the
Park-Utah drainage tunnel, where a water
4 ditch o f large capacity was required (36).
Posts m ay be dapped into the ends of the
cap, or held apart at the top b y a scab
piece spiked to under side o f the cap. Col
lar and toe braces between adjoining sets
resist longitudinal movement of the sets.
The batter o f the posts is 1 to 1.5 in per
ft, which is usually sufficient to prevent the
bottoms o f the posts from pushing inward
unless aide pressure is excessive and the
bottom soft. The set in Fig 18 has batter
blocks to prevent displacement of the
posts b y swelling ground. T he back of the
tunnel often stands better if arched (Fig 3
and 4), especially in wide headings. Simi
Fig 17. Drainage Tunnel Set
larly, arched sets (Fig 19) are customary
with Ditch under Track
in wide tunnels. Where only the back
requires support and the walla are strong, posts m ay be omitted and the arch timbers set
. in hitches cut at the break-line of the arch (Fig 20). In swelling ground, where the bottom
tends to heave, an inverted arch set (Fig 21) m ay be used. Size o f timbers and inter
val between sets depend upon size o f tunnel, and pressures to be withstood. The back
and wails between, sets m ay or
m ay not require support b y lag
ging. Swelling ground should
not be close-lagged, but spaces
left between adjacent pieces of
lagging, through which pressure
can be relieved.
Routine and speed o f timber
ing depend largely on how close
the timbering must be kept, be
hind the face. I f each round of
advance must be supported at
once, timbering becomes a part
o f the driving cycle. The first
step after blasting is to scale the
back; and, in loose ground, to
hold the back ahead of the last
set b y forepoling, sliding booms
(Fig 22) or similar means, to
protect men while mucking.
After the round is mucked, the
new set is erected, blocked in
place and lagged if necessary,
Foot block,,
and the drills are set up for the
4"x 12"x
next round. This procedure ob
Fig 18. Set with Batter-biocks in Swelling Ground
viously slows the rate of advance,

with the crew. Where the timbering lags a considerable distance behind the face, a special
timber crew is usually employed. W ith suitable scaffolding, work can proceed without
interfering with driving operations. A
movable scaffold, with a working deck
several sets long and high enough to allow
the tunnel cars to pass under it, m ay be
advantageous.

6-22

but unless the ground is very bad,


requiring spiling or other special methods, timbers can be standardized and a regular rou
tine followed. Speed is gained b y having all materials and supplies at the face before work
begins; timber for a complete set, blocks, wedges, lagging and tools, should be brought in

In the Claremont tunnel (37), sequence of


operations was: (1) excavation and timbering,
interrupted from time to time to construct the
concrete invert; (2) placing forma and pouring
the concrete arch. Tunnel sets were 5-piece
(arch), with 6-ft posts and were 4, 5 or 6 ft
apart, depending on the ground. Timbers were
8 by 8 in, later changed to 8 by 12 in. Drilling
and blasting averaged 21/2 hr; mucking, with a
Conway machine, 3 hr. After blasting, the
top lagging boards were driven forward and
mucking was started. After clearing out the
face the timber set was erected and blocked in
place, side lagging being placed where necessary.
Advance per round, 4 to 8 ft and 24 ft total
advance was often made in a day. About 5.5
hr were required for drilling, blasting and
,
,
.
mucking, leaving some 2.5 hr for timbering; thus it was possible to complete a round and timber it
in an 8-hr shift. However, timbering close to the face usually precludes completing two rounds
per shift, though it may not do so where the ground is not bad and the work is highly systematized.

Fig 20.

Arch Set without Posts


2" lagging s"x Abridge
8"x Sbrldge
I l s
? 5 4cor
7 brace
' Wedge

Fig 22.

Sliding Boom for holding the Back ahead of Last Set]

6 -2 4

TUNNELING

la the B. C. Nickel tunnel, where little timbering was required, the timbers were
v
muckers under direction of the shift boss while the machinemen were drilling the lifters At tK
Creek tunnel (1) it is stated that bad sections of ground were timbered as broken which th

cycle out of gear and cut down progress. Much of the Rawley tunnel (12) had to'be timh/
ing Sept and Oct, 1912, when the advance was 390 and 185.5 ft, respectively; during Juae j . ,
Aug, when little timbering was required, the advance was respectively 488, 555 and 421 ft
*

Concrete lining is now used in many tunnels, especially aqueducts, designed for 1 '
life, irrespective of immediate need for support; in the course of time many rocks di*
tegrate to some extent and some slabbing occurs if they are not sealed off. In most min~
tunnels and some others which have to be timbered during driving, the concrete is Dom^j
around the timbers without disturbing them, the tunnel having been driven oversize tH
leave the desired clear section inside the timbers. Sometimes 2 or 3 in of concrete over th^'
face of the timbers is considered sufficient, the thickness of course being much greater w '-!
tween the sets.
In the Colorado River aqueduct a 6-in thickness of concrete was maintained insider
timbers (Fig 236). Fig 23a shows the lining in untimbered sections of this tunnel and Fig

D R IV IN G THROUGH LOOSE O R R U N N IN G GROUND 6 -2 5


gjjally from 6 in upward, the arch usually thicker than the walls. The forms are of wood,
gfjteel, or wood on steel. Concrete is placed by hand, gravity, pump, or pneumatic cylinder.
f-Qravity is common for sides and invert; pneumatic cylinder for the arch, even on same job.
Gunite. Where no great weight is expected, slabbing is often prevented by a 1/4 to 3/4I f is coating of gunite (mixture of about 2.5 to 3 parts sand to 1 cement), applied to the rock
Iffalls with a cement gun. The fresh rock should be coated as soon as broken, all loose rock
[ f being first removed and the walls cleaned thoroughly. In the United Verde Ext tunnel[ftguaite was used successfully in a 4 090 ft section, and in 1930 had held for over 10 years
[{3g). The tunnel is 10 by 10 ft; a 3:1 sand-eement mix was applied in 2 coats. Totalcost
i&f labor, materials, machinery repairs and supplies, was $5,772.23, or $1.40 per lin ft of
Ifoinnel treated, or 46c per sq ft.

[I

12. DRIVING THROUGH LOOSE OR RUNNING GROUND

Ns. Conditions range from ground which is merely loose and heavy tothose where water
jifunder pressure may force soft-material into the heading. For the first condition, forepoling

a-T3ntimbered section

Fig 23.

c*Steel-Jlnea section
Typical Sections of Concrete Tunnel Lining, Colorado River Aqueduct

23c, a steel-lined section. Concrete is placed in separate sections after excavation has been
completed. The curbs A (Fig 24) are poured first, then the arch B and last the invert C (7).
The forms used in placing the arch lining are made in 30-ft lengths and constructed so
they may easily be collapsed on a carriage to such dimensions that they may p under
other forms in place in the tunnel. . . - The carriage is equipped with hydraulic jacks, used
to expand the forms into position, where they
are braced and held between the curbs by screw
jacks placed between the forms and the haulage
track. . . . About 8 30-ft sections are required
at each concrete pouring operation. The batches
are proportioned by weight in quantities of 1 cu
yd each, at batching plants outside the tunnel,
placed in specially designed batch cars and
pushed into the tunnel and up to the mirar by
a locomotive: . . . The mix is dumped from the
cylinder into an ingenious pump, which forces
the concrete through an 8-in pipe-line up over
the tops of the forms to the advancing arch of
fresh concrete. . . . Another method is to wetmix the concrete outside the tunnel and trans
port it to the placing machine inside in batch
buckets carried on special cars. These buckets
are elevated by an air hoist and dumped into
the cylinder of the placing gun. The cylinder is
then closed and compressed air introduced at a
pressure of 80-125 lb per sq in .. . . As much
Fig 24. Order of Goncreting, Colorado
River Aqueduct
as 735 cu yd have been placed in one tunnel
in one day. In a month of 27 working days,
14 400 cu yd of concrete were placed; an aver of 535 cu yd per day. Where ground con
ditions permit, concreting follows some distance behind the heading, else it must be done
intermittently and at greater cost, since (unless more than one heading is in progress) the
concreting crew will be busy only part of the time. Minimum think-nog? of concrete is gen-

Fig 25.

Forepoling with Regular and Bridging Sets

with or without breast boards usually suffices. Methods differ in detail, but in general in
volve the driving of spiling over the last-set of timbers, so that room is left below or (with
side spiling) inside, for erecting the next regular set (Fig 25).
Fig 26 shows the swinging false set with a 3-piece arch cap for very heavy ground. It
can be applied with even greater facility to the ordinary horiz cap. There are no tail

Fig 26.

Swinging False Set

blocks, nor does the spiling have to be driven across 3 sets of timbers, aa in Fig 25. The
| weight on front ends of spiles is carried by the-swinging false set, and the spiling can be
| driven with less hammering than is required with the tail blocks. The posts of the

g_26

set rest and rotate on the sill of permanent set, and when first erected occupy the position
shown b y dotted lines. They carry a cap of heavy steel pipe b, which supports front end of
spiles a While driving, the only pressure to be sustained is that of the rock above and in
front of a ; whereas, with tail blocks, a few pounds weight on front end of a spile brings 4 or
5 times as much weight on ita supports. As the spiling is driven, tumbuckle c is slowiy
unscrewed, allowing the false set to fall forward, until the spiles.are nearly honz. When all
spiles have been driven home, and the supporting block d placed under them, the turnbuekle is slacked still farther, until the swinging set loosens. Then the hanging rods are
unhooked from the eye-bolts and the false set is advanced to ita next forward position.
This system requires that the timbers for at least 5 or 6 sets from the face shall be con
nected b y tie rods, as shown. This is an advantage, because, b y screwing the timbers up
tightly against the braces, they can be more easily blocked in position. Also, the timbers are
held in place so rigidly that, if hard ground occurs in any part o f face, heavier charges of
explosive can safely be used than if timbers were held in place only b y blocks and wedges.
Where there is water pressure, special methods sometimes have to be adopted, such as
drilling holes ahead of the face and pumping in cement grout to seal off the water (see Sec 8).
T he liquid cement is drawn from mixing tanks into a pump chamber and discharged
through pipes into the drill holes. Pumps have been used capable o f devdoping pressures
up to 3 000 lb per sq in. Freezing methods (see Sec 8) and working with a shield behind
compressed air locks are special methods seldom if ever employed in mines.

Table 9.

Halkyn Tunnel, Cost per Ft.

13. COSTS

Prilling and mucking...............

Prill repairs and sharpening__


Tunnel support.........................

$0.50
.03
.04
1.16
.06
.12
.01

$12.66

$1.96

505 ffc

505 ft
Tramming:

$ 8.02
.97
.84
.03

Air shovel operation:


$ 8.89

Explosives:
Powder @ $7.50 per case... $ 2.93
2.39
@$8.75
...
.44
Fuse
@ $44

.14
Caps
@ $21.50 per M ...
.04
Handling esp and capseai...
$ 5.94
Timbering:
$ 0.18
.09
$ 0.27
Track laying . (surface and
underground):
$ 0.62
.07
$ 0:73
Halkyn Tunnel, N o Wales (10).
1933; scraper loader.

Pipe laying (air and water)

5.58

Ventilation pipe line:


Wages, shop and supplies...
Lighting: wages and supplies..
Compressor operation.............
Steel sharpener operation.......
Engineering.............................

.19
W. C. B. assessments.............
Portal expense........................
\ 79

$ 1.38
.16
.08
$ 1.62

$0.08
.08
.02
.04

$1.34

.1!
.01

.20

Power

Genera]
Total
exp

$0.02
'".24

.04
$5.83

$0.34

" J5
$1.69

!o6
$0.24

$0.26

$16.80
1.28
.99
1.90
.48
.56
.62
.04
. 10
.21
$22.98
1.03
$24.01

Labor

Drilling and blasting


$2.82
2.14
1.02
.44
87
1.17

Suppi and
Total
repairs
$0.42]
2.01
.02
.11
31
.27.

$5.25
2.16
1.13
.44
1 18
1.44

Surface

Suppl and
Total
repairs

Labor

Power plant ,
Fuel......... \...........

$0.181
1.3! i
.13
. 16

$1.07
.60
.67

$ 2.56
.73
.83

Salaries, office, trave!2.13


.04
$19.87

Boarding hnnsfi, , , ,
Grand total.........

* $3.24 lees $1.11 credit.

Cost per ft

4 563 ft

$5.77
.06

Comp
air

K erber Creek Tunnel, Cost per Ft (1912)

British Columbia Nickel Tunnel (1934)


Cost per ft

Drilling and mucking:

$ 9. I
1.11
.76
.70
.40
.13
.35
.04
.06

Shops

Kerber Creek (Rawley) Tunnel (12). Section 7 to 8 b y 7 ft; length, 6 235 ft; 1 618 ffe
timbered; hand mucking; mule haulage; best month s advance, 555 ft; aver, 351 ft.

Underground

Table 3 (Art 1) gives typical costs of tunnel excavation, but except for tunnel N o 1,
these do n ot cover cost o f concrete linings. Concreting m ay cost as much as excavation or
more. T he following cost data are typical.
.
B.
C. Nickel tunnel (3). Section 8 V 2 b y 10 ft; length, 4 629 ft; little timbering;
Nordberg-Butler shuveloader; progress best month, 630 ft.

British currency converted at l $4.65

Generai Explo
Labor supplies sives

Table 10.

Table 8.

6-27

co sts

TUN NELIN G

4 563 ft

Mammoth Tunnel (14): Section, 9.5 b y 9 ft; length 3 008 ft; mostly untimbered; hand
mucking; aver advance, 301 ft per mo.
Table 11.

$ 1.55

$ 1.04
.29
.27
$ 1.60

2.02

0.26

.44

0.16
0.80
0.56
1.49
0. 9
0.48
0.6!
0.05
0.46
$26.62

.26
.64
.58
1.36
.25
.29
.43
.06
.43
$23.76
.41
1 $24.17

Section, 10 b y 8 ft; data for 495 ft driven July 1-15,

Operation

Mammoth Tunnel, Cost per Ft (1912)


Labor (a)

Material

Air

$4.772
3.474
.069
.271
4.000
.017
.044
.271
. 172
.026
.05!
.814
1. 165
.530
.044
$15.720

$0.131
.390
.100
.834

$.206

Power

' Total
$6.I9
169

4.000
.357
.374
.333
377
.271
1.266
1.438
.038
.064
.209
.260
.133
.052
999
165
.530
.044
$3.791
$1.206
$0.052
$20.769
.118
224
.523
.599
$22.233
.............
(a) Wage rates: foreman, 36; machinemen, $3.50; chuck tenders and pipemen, $3.25; muckers,
trammers and motormen, 33.

B IB L IO G R A P H Y

Newhouse Tunnel (17). Section, 8 b y 8 ft; length, 22 000 ft; 1 000 ft timbered; hand
mucking; aver progress, 244 ft per m o; driven in 1902-09.
Table 12.

~2 9

May

June

July

264
$7 65
1.42
2.15

323
$5.59
1.34
1.79

305
$6.06
1.34
1.86

Fuse and caps.......


Drill repairs............
Use of machines and
drill steel.............
Rail, ties, air, etc...

May

June

$ 0.46
1.24

$ 0.22
1.02

.38
1.59
1.69
$22.57

S i o n , 10 X 8 ft; length, 8 707 ft; untimbered; hand


mucking; aver advance, 596 ft per m o; best month, 661 f t ; driven between D e c l l 9 1 2
d A pl 1,1914. Wage rates per hr: machinemen, muckers and carmen, 50^; shift bosses,
m - b L k W t h , 60*; tool sharpeners, 50^; tool sharpener helpers, 40& b l a c W t h helpers,
35i compressor men, 40fc electricians, 50^; timekeepers, 45^; carpenters, 60*. Cost per
ft- wazes $14.72; bonus, $4.14; lighting, $0.28; explosives, $4.47; tool replacement, $1.35;
lumber a id misc supplies, $0.75; store expense and transport, $0.38; power .^id comp air,
$2.53; loss on boarding house, $1.17; depreciation, mining tools, $1.29, totaU $1.08.
fiwatrft Creek Tunnel, Utah (22). Oval section, about 13 ft high, 11 ft wide at widest
part; W
with 15 in of reinforced concrete. Table 13 shows cost of dnvm g and concreting
305 ft of tunnel through heavy, water-bearing ground in 1910-12.

Table 13.

Snake Creek Tunnel, Cost per Ft


Reinforced concrete lining

Driving tunnel
Materials and supplies:
Timber.................................... *5
Powder....................................

Supplies...................................
Tramming (feed)............................
Power...................................... l - '
Cement bulkheads...................
Labor *:
Supervision..............................
Timbering..................................^ .65
Mucking..................................
-Tramming................................
Compressormen......................
Outside general.............................. j
Aspen filling............................
*/
Blacksmith..............................
Insurance........................................
Totai driving.....................

$10.71

39.95
$50.66

Materials and supplies:


Cement..........- - .............. .*
W, 53
Steel..........................................
5-78
Gravel and sand....................... 10 $14.41
Labor:
Piaping concrete and reinforce
ment......................................
Gravel, sand and water............ 5.40
TTifi.ing reinforcement.......................70
12.56
Plastering ditch........................
-57
$26.97
Total concreting...........................
,50.66
Driving.........................................
$77.63
Grand total cost....................
* Wage rates: drill runners, $3.25; helpers, $3;
miners, 3; muckers, $2.75; trammers, $2.75;
timbermen, $3.________ __________________

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Big Creek Tunnel, Cai.

E & M J , Dec 6 ,19r24

1:

i f f i S

Feb 1, l O Z . V ^ : *

July
$ 0.49
0.93

SI 4 4 - r o ck disposal, $0.32; ventilation, $0.36; general, $2.b7; air arms, steel, etc, SB.48;
power, $0.84; explosives, $3.77; other supplies, $2.94; construction equipment, not in-

?: l S ; 2 t S r

H = h % lo | V J ? e i . C^ f i r i t i h &

Newhouse Tunnel, Cost per Ft (1909)

.62
.66
1.58
1.66
Blacksmithing and
0.54
1.22
0.48
1.18
2 35
eteel sharpening...
4.02
3.83
$17.71 $18.72
3.64
Total.................
Explosives.................
.75; misers, $3; muckers, $2.75;
*Wage rates: drill runners, $3.25; helper, $3; trammers,
timbermen, $3; blacksmith, H.

8. J

TUN NELIN G

6 -2 8

Oolo; ido Eiv.r W

I s :

**

* -

iW

1837
A I M * M E,

S iri, t o ^

**, P 32

M
I t Moffat Tunnel, Colo, S &
14.

, P 1237; b in & Met, Nov 1925, p 554

*
17. Bain,

i23

&f p

~ Tnnne^, ^
K * Apl 19, 1902.
oiuela Unit of the Compafiia Minera de

^ec 4,1909, p743

iiEI

- *

23- ^ b e i y ^ t J S l B I M J, June 10,1911, P 1158


It
j T t Mu l A S Company Tunnel, * A U J. Nov 16,1918, P 857
28* Rock funnel Methods, p.69

ass&fsar

*** * *

29.

-4 M o N ? S i V H ? P Mining M.thcd, of

t s s l-i s

COPP^CO, Bur ot M i - , "

'

Mta '

I
I

SECTION 7
SHAFT S D fflN G IN ROCK
BY

HOMER L. CARR,

m in in g

e n g in e e r

H E V IS E D F O R T H E SE CO N D A N D T H IR D E D IT IO N S B T

JOHN A. CHURCH,
*jjyp

1.
2.
3.
i.
. 5.
,6.
.7.
8.
.9.
10.
11:
12.
13.
14.

PAGE

Cross-section of Shafts...........................
Size of Shafta..........................................
Sinking Plant.........................................
Sinking Organization..............................
Drilling...................................................
Location anH Depth of Drill Holes. . . .
Explosives and Blasting.........................
Mucking.................................................
Ventilation..............................................
Sinking in a Working Shaft...................
Shaft Raising..........................................
Design of Ground Support.....................
Timbering...............................................
Steel Shaft-sets.......................................

02
02
03
04
06
07
09
10
11
11
12
12
13
17

m in in g

e n g in e e r

AST

PAGE

15.
16.
17.
18.

Concrete Framing and Lining .............


Masonry Lining.....................................
Tubbing.:................................................
Kind-Chaudron Process.........................
I

19.
20.
21:
22.
23.
24.

SPEED AITD COST DATA


Small Shafts...........................................
Shaft Raising.........................................
Working Shafts, Metal-Mines...............
Working Shafts, Coal Mines..................
Witwatersrand Shaft............................
Shafts with Concrete Linings................
Bibliography..........................................

N o te . N u m b ers in paren th eses in t e x t r e fe r t o B ib lio g ra p h y a t en d o f th is section .

18
21
21
22

23
24
25
28
29
30
33

SIN K IN G PLANT

SHAFT SINKING IN ROCK


1.

CROSS-SECTION OF SHAFTS

excavation
most widely used in metal mining for sinking in rock. Inclined shafts are almost always
rectangular, though if concrete-lined they m ay have arched roof. R o u n d e d s e c t i o n
(circular, elliptical, oval) better resists lateral pressure, involves less air friction per unit
of area, requires some form o f lining other than
framed support, and is adapted to rectangular
hoisting compartments b y using the surplus seg
mental areas for ventilating, pipe and ladder
spaces. Circular section has m as strength and
. for air shafts requires least excavation for a given
air volume. Oval or elliptical section is stronger
than rectangular and shares its space economy,
Fig 1. Rectangular Shaft
but is difficult to keep plumb during sinking. In
U S colliery shafts, straight sides and rounded, ends (K g 3) combine convenience o f divid
ing into compartments with efficient air passages.
Compartments o f a vert shaft m ay be side b y side (rectangular or oval form), or in
pairs across the shaft (all forms). Cage compts are best in line (Fig 1), to simplify track
age at stations, but large m odem shafts often combine cage compts o f full shaft width with
paired .skip compts (Fig 2; also applied to rectangular
form, K g 25). Inclined shafts usually have compts
side b y side, though double-deck slopes have been
sunk; they are said to be cheaper than ehafta o f like
ca p a cb u t o f 2-com pt width;

Fig 3.

Modified Elliptical Shaft

In heavy ground the oblong section (Fig 1) can be more effectively supported than the
square; the long axes o f compts should lie across the shaft, to reduce distance between
dividers and give better' support to wall plates. Oblong section favors a wide collar
between cut holes, with econom y of powder (Art 6). In steep strata the short axis of
vert shaft should follow the strike, to minimize the unsupported rock span and so guard
against movement along the dip during sinking. Forman shaft (Comstock lode) was
L-shaped, with 3 compts in line and a service com pt offset at one end; it invited unequal
ground pressures, was costly to maintain and proved unsatisfactory.

2. SIZE OF SHAFTS
Sectional dimensions depend on: purpose, required capac (in terms o f product, mine
supplies and men transported, or vol o f air passed); amount o f water to be raised; hoisting
method (cage or skip); character o f ground; and unit costs of in k in g and operating.
Sinking cost per ft of depth is minimum for a section o f approx 4 or 5 b y 6 ft; smaller
sections impose cramped positions on miners and preclude the m ost effective placing of
drill holes; hence cost more.

7-02

7 -0 3

Prospect shafts are often o f minimum size, and m ay have but 1 compt, for both hoisting
and ladderway.
Air shafts m ay have 1 or 2 compts, the second being a small ladderway with fireproof
curtain wall. Single-compt shafts in solid rock are often circular and unlined, though
smooth lining reduces air friction. D avis-D aly shaft (Butte) has an octagonal section,
circumscribed about a circle o f 6.5 ft diam inside a smooth timber lining; its coeff o f d r
friction for 1 800 ft depth was 1.29 X 10-9 at 90 000 cu ft per min, compared to 8.8 X
10~9 for a rectangular unlined shaft o f like depth and capac. Boring a shaft full-size b y
shot drill (Sec 9, Art 23) implies circular section and smooth walls, ideal for passing air;
an air shaft o f 5 ft Hiam was bored at Grass Valley, Calif, to 1 125-ft depth. Th at section
is most economical, for which interest on first cost, plus cost of forcing air against the shaft
resistance, is minimum.
Working shafts. For general service, design becomes more elaborate with depth mid
capacity. Shafts used solely for hoisting water often have no ladderway and operate
automatically. T w o - c o m p a b t m e n t shaft (one compartment for unbalanced hoisting,
with pipe and ladderway) is suited only to shallow mines o f small production, where low
p m lrin g cost triAB.Tis more than power economy at the hoist.
T h b e e - c o m p t shaft, includ
ing pipe and ladderway, permits balanced hoisting, but in 24-hr duty 30-50% o f the time
is spent in handling men and supplies, hence is best suited to moderate production. Time
is saved for hoisting ore b y adding a service compt, which m ay be merely part o f the man
way reserved for a small cage (to transport mine officials and minor supplies), or a distinct
compt with cage, often counterweighted, for entire handling of men, timber and supplies
(Fig 4), In wet shafts it is convenient in han
dling pumps; and in firm ground m ay be long
* ............. " p ...12* 12 X
?
i map ftodf)
enough to handle timber laid sidewise on trucks
Ladder T
(Fig 25); it m ay serve also for further sinking.
a
J
F o t j b - c o m p t shaft usually comprises 1 service
r- <5+45 N
K
H
and 2 (balanced) hoisting compts, with pipe and
*
>

ladderway. In a f t v e - c o m p a h t m e n t shaft, the


bar au<if 2 Hooting In Hoiiting N
Sinking*
service com pt develops into 2 balanced cageCorap
C oip
i/
ways, with 4 0 -6 0 % spare time available for
X 12 x 12 X
hoisting ore; there are also 2 regular hoisting

X
compts (often skipways), and a pipe and lad
Fig 4. Shaft with Service or Sinking
Compartment
derway. Sometimes ladderway and pipeway are
separate compts. In this way, or b y multiply
ing hoisting compts, s ix - and s e v e n - c o m p t shafts are developed; on the R and a 6-compt
shaft with 2 main hoists and 1 auxiliary for miscellaneous service has ample capac for
the working area conveniently reached from one shaft, but time lost in frequent inspec
tion of a deep single-lift shaft may make a 7th com pt advisable. The 6-com pt Vlakfontein N o 1 shaft is 43 X 14.5 ft, the 7-com pt Wolhuter shaft 46 X 9 ft sock section.
Size of compartment for hoisting depends upon the horiz area o f cage or skip, with
clearances (Sec.12). In U S metal mines, for cage carrying 0.75 to 1-ton cars, cageways
may be 4 b y 5 to 5 b y 7 ft inside timbers; in coal mines, with larger cars, 6 b y 10 or 7.5 by
12 ft. In a service compt, the cage m ay be proportioned to size of loaded timber truck,
not of ore car.
Rock section for framed steel or timber support is cut to allow 3 o r 4 in outside o f shaft
sets, for
and wedging; a greater clearance involves needless expense. For
monolithic concrete linings, shaft walls are dressed to allow a minimum thickness o f con
crete.

3.

SINKING PLANT

Temporary sinking plant at a new site comprises: hoisting apparatus (windlass, whim
or engine, with rope and buckets, skips or cages); tripod, derrick or headframe; provision
for waste disposal; equipment for removing water (bailing tanks or sinking pumps);
boiler plant or elec power substation; air compressor; and housing and accessories. A t a
working mina the existing power supply is available, and (for deepening a shaft in use)
hoisting service also. Tem porary plant should be designed not to interfere with installa
tion o f permanent plant; t i e sinking hoist is placed away (often on opposite side) from
site of permanent engine, unless opposite a service com pt for later use as a service hokrt;
the sinking headframe is designed t o permit erection of permanent frame and placing of
shaft /ydW while inking. Use o f permanent hoist when ready promotes sinking effic.
Wimllass and whim (Sec 12) are often used in starting a shaft and in sinking through surface
aoil before the power hoist is installed. Amount .of water influences depth to which their use is

7 -0 4

SH AFT SINKING IN* ROCK

practicable; for depths over 20 to 30 ft their application is mainly to new work in remote reai
or where mechanical power is not available.
^
Sinking engines should be strongly built, o f duplex type; many Eves depend on their
reliability. For depths to say 500 ft, and hoisting with ordinary bucket (Sec 12) a
friction-gear engine of 12 to 30 rated hp is ample, depending on size of shaft. A nin'u
deep-flanged drum of 14-in diam, gear-driven b y air or steam cyls 6.5 by 8 or 7 by 9-in or
b y 25-hp elec motor, will handle 0.5-ton bucket at 300 ft per min. Greater depth requires
a larger hoist, preferably o f reversing type. A 5-ft drum geared to a 200-hp a c or 150-hr>
d e m otor will hoist a 2-ton bucket or a cage with 1.5-ton car at 600 ft per min; suitable
for a 12 b y 16-ft rectangular or 17-ft circular shaft to 1 000 ft depth. In deep Rand shafts,
two drums 8-ft diam, 2 -ft face, geared at 3 : 1 to 2 steam engines, cyls 16.5 b y 33 in, hoist
2-ton skip or 3-ton bucket at 1 500 ft per min; deep circular shafts have been sunk with
two 3-ton buckets in balance (6). For a 2 500-ft shaft at Kirkland Lake, Ont, a 72 by
36-in double-drum hoist was used, with a 150-hp a c motor, overall capae (single line)
7.5 ton at 1 000 ft per min; for cost, see below.

Tripod of timbers bolted together at top, where sheave is suspended, forms a simple sinking head
frame. A second sheave may be fastened to bottom of tripod leg nearest the hoist, to lead rope off
horizontally.
Stiff-leg derrick is often used for sinking through surface soil; it does not exert pressure on
ground immediately surrounding shaft, nor interfere with placing timbering or masonry of perma
nent shaft collar. Donaldson (I) recommends for colliery shafts a derrick with 40-ft boom and
30-ft mast of 12 by 12-in timber. Where derrick is used for sinking to depths of 100 ft or more
provision should be made to prevent it from swinging when bucket is in the shaft.

Sinking headframe design is the same in principle as for permanent frame (Sec 12).
I t is smaller; usually has one sheave; and distance between sheave and crosshead in
the dumping position is small. Sinking frame should embody features for dumping
buckets or skips; for protecting workmen on surface and in the shaft from falling pieces of
rock while dumping; and minimizing work of topmen, in dumping buckets and removing
broken rock. A contractors sinking frame is portable, easily erected and dismantled.
Water to approx 1 000 -gal per hr may be hoisted, much o f it filling voids in bueket-loada
of rock; larger volumes require sinking pumps. With increase o f water, cost of sinking
rises, speed decreases. Ampie capac of boiler plant is more important than steam economy,
especially if there is danger o f sudden inflows of water that m ay drown the pumps.
Cost o f plant. For 500-ft depth, handling 30-40 gal per min, cost in 1910 was given
as follows (1); present costs are roughly 50-75% higher:
: engine...................................... $1 000
2 buckets....................................................
$!50
Rope.............................................................
150
Two 80-hp boilers and setting............... 1 800
Pipe and accessories.............................. 500
Buildings.........................................................
500
150-hp feed-water heater....................... 300
Dump cars and rails............... .......................
300
14-in compressor.................................... 1 750
Electric lighting plant, FOkw.......................
750
3 drills and steel.................................... 1 000
2 sinking pumps...........................................
500
Shaft bar and clamps............................. 100
Small tools and sundries..................................
500
Derrick...................................................
400
............
Headframe........................... ................. 500
Total........................................................ $10 200
Cost of erecting and dismantling plant, $1 000 to
$2 000.
For 2 500-ft depth at Kirkland Lake, Ont, a shaft 17 by 9 ft rock sec required the following
in 1931 (30); costsinclude installation:
Road to site, 0.5 mile............................ $ 2 297
Blacksmith shop....................................... $ 3 360
Hoist (see above)................................... 26 823
Office and equipment.................................
1420
Compressor, I 000 cu ft per min........... 8 494
Mise surface plant.......................................
3 265
Hoist and compressor house.................. I 960
Drills and accessories...................................
2 282
Headframe, A-type, wood, 60 ft high... 2 938
Drill steel, 4.5 ton.......................................
1 095
Cars, 2 of 1.5 ton, and trackage............ 510
Buckets, 3 of 1.5 ton......................................
300
Eleo power substation........................... 7 086
Sinking pumps, motors.............................. ..
3 137
Surface pumps, motors, pipe lines........ 1 269
Total.................................................... $66 236

4. SINKING ORGANIZATION
Two general systems o f organizing underground work in sinking : (a) Machine men
drill and blast the round, and lower-priced men handle the muck. The two crews may
work together or on separate shifts; if together, good management is needed to prevent
interference, and if on separate shifts, to maintain a rigid schedule. When well organised,
this is usually the cheaper system, (b) Labor is used indiscriminately to drill and muck.

SINKING ORGANIZATION

7 -0 5

jio interference is possible, and no rigid schedule necessary; each shift takes up the work
as left b y preceding shift. W ith 3 shifts, this system makes for speed, but at slightly
greater cost per ft of shaft, because skilled labor is used for mucking. It is usual with hand
piling and hammer drills, both of which can be adapted to local variations in the rock and
therefore tend toward a flexible drilling schedule. Shaft raising, and breaking ground by
moiling present special problems.
Examples of system 1: No 5 Tamarack shaft, Mich (18); 2 drilling and 2 mucking shifts per
24 hr with minimum interference; the former drilled and blasted a center cut and one side; muckers
gist cleared the remaining bench, and then the side already blasted; second drilling shift, beginning
in middle of the mucking shift, then drilled and blasted the remaining bench, ready for second
mucking shift. C e n t r a l 3-compt shaft. North Star mine, Calif; day shift, 8 drillers, 1 mechanic,
1 tool nipper, 1 hoistman, drilled round of 40 holes for 5-ft advance, removed extension skip guides,
and blasted; afternoon shift, 5 muckers, 2 timbermen, 1 hoistman, lowered extension guides to
bottom, lowered the sinking bulkhead and placed next set of timbers, wedged guides in place and
mucked about 25 skiploads of 2.5 ton per load; night shift, 5 muckers, 1 hoistman, mucked same
amount; rock was mucked into loading pans and handled to skip by air hoists; any delay on day
shift meant loss of 24 hr. M c P h e k s o n shaft, Ducktown, Tena, 8.5 by 19 ft; deepened while
in regular daytime service, hence the sinking routine: day shift underground, 4 timbermen, 1 hoist
man, on surface 1 hoistman, 1 laborer, kept timbering within 20 ft of bottom, took down loose
ground and left bottom safe for mucking; afternoon shift underground, 4 muckers, 1 lander, 1 hoistman, loaded 393 cu ft rock with 8-cu ft bucket, hoisted by 25-hp elec hoist; night shift underground,
4 drillers, 1 hoistman, drilled and blasted half-round of 20-24 holes, total 140 ft; other half-round
was drilled and blasted next night.
Examples of system 2: P a b s t H shaft, Ironwood, Mich; sunk with 12 hammer drills in slate
and granite; a round of 50-53 holes was firedin 2 relays, as follows: drilling entire round, 6 hr; blast
ing first relay, 2 hr; blowing out smoke, 1.5 hr; mucking first relay, 8 hr; blasting second relay,
0.5 hr; blowing smoke, 1.5 hr; mucking second relay 6 hr. This cycle, with timbering and bailing,
overlapped the shifts, and the shaft crews performed all functions as required. Advance per round
9ft. Coppbbm o u n t a i n , B C; 3-eomptshaft; shift comprised4 boss, 7 miners, 1 hoistman, 1 dump
ing bucket, 1 trammer; 18 holes per 6-ft round. Cycle as follows: cleaning and barring down, 1.2
hr; mucking, 11.8 hr; picking and cleaning bottom, 1.1 hr; setting up and drilling, 4.9 hr; charging
and blasting, 0.5 hr; blowing smoke, 1 hr; placing shaft set, 4 hr; backfill behind sets, lagging and
extending pipe lines, 2.5 hr; lost time, 2 hr; total, 28.8 hr. See also Table 1.
Special cases: D a v is - D a l y air shaft, Butte (11) (Art 2), was raised simultaneously from 9
levels; each raise required 2 miners and one man at a small hoist in the level. M i a m i No 5 shaft,
Ariz, was chiefly in fissured conglomerate, which retained powder fumes and was therefore moiled
without blasting; 3 men using hammer drills with bull-bits broke enough rock for 4 muckers;
monthly advance, 100 ft. V a n D y k b No 1 shaft (same district) traversed 760 ft of conglomerate,
m o il e d as above with hammer drills and bull-bits; a V-cut 12 in deep was made across the shaft,
then enlarged to a depth of 18 in and width sufficient to receive bucket; 1 driller on each bench
then loosened rock in bites 8 in wide, fling the drill to pry toward the cut; 1 mucker followed
each drill.
Delays are due to : removing drills, etc from shaft bottom preparatory to blasting;
clearing bottom o f smoke; clearing shaft walls and timbers o f loose pieces of rock and
securing bad ground after blasting; lowering timbers, which m ay be put in place during
drilling.
Where pumps are used, the suction is removed from bottom and pump stopped before
blasting; in very w et shafts, this may result in several feet o f water accumulating at' the
time of blast, winch acts as a cushion to protect timber and pumps, and absorbs much of
the powder smoke. This water must be pumped or bailed before miners can go down.
With 2 shifts per day, much o f the above work m ay be done between shifts; there is
also time to make up for unusual delays. W ith 3 shifts, no such opportunity exists;
speed is increased, but at slightly greater cost per ft titan with 2 shifts.
Bonus system lends itself readily to shaft sinking, and in many cases has increased
speed and reduced cost per ft. Bonus is paid (as a percentage o f wages or fixed sum) per
ft o f advance in excess o f a given, standard; thus, at McPherson shaft (see above), men on
drilling and mucking crews received $2 per ft o f excess over a monthly aver advance of 2 ffc
per day.
Safety precautions (3). N o other operations should be carried on, nor tools nor
material raised or lowered to or from other points in shaft, while men are at work in bottom,
unless they are protected from falling material b y a well constructed t i m b e r p e n t i c e
extending over nearly the entire area of shaft, with closable openings for passage of buckets.
In deepening a working shaft, an ample b o c k p e n t i c e should be left, or timber bulkhead
built before sinking begins.
Trap doors, normally in closed position, should be provided at collar to cover shaft
opening, with added set of trap doors when dump point is above collar, to prevent pos
sibility oi falling rock breaking through the collar doors. A t W oodbury shaft every man

7 -0 6

Table

in the_ shaft was provided with a felt hat stiffened with resin and shellac; these are hard
and will resist severe blows from fragments of falling rock.
Buckets or skips should stop at least 15 ft above bottom, until rung down by shaft crew. Ladderways should be provided to within such distance from bottom as will prevent injury to them from
biosting; from end of these, chain, wire rope or wooden extension ladders, should go to bottom of shaft
to assure safety of men against failure-of hoisting engine, fire or irimah of water.
When elec hoists are used.^elec lights in shaft bottom advise sinkers of interruptions in current
Xa some districts the law provides that all blasting in shaft sinking shall be done by electricity.
Table 1.

Month s Labor R ecord and Time Cycle, Creighton No 3 Shaft

Advance, ft................
par drill shift...........
per round................
Ft drilled....................
per ft advance........
Tons rock hoisted...
per ft advance........
per shoveler shift...

Max

Min

Aver

164
0.54
8.3
7 671
25.3
12 300
114.3
6 200
37.8
5.7

1)2
0.39
7.0
6 630
21.7
6 150
37.4
3 565
28.5
3.4

136
0.46
7.5
6 993
23.7
9 719
71.4
4 358
31.9
4.1

Drill shifts............

Blowing smoke.. . .
Shoveling.
Timbering.............
Setting up drills...
Miscel delays........

Man-ehifts
helpers....................
Shovelera....................
Surface trammers.. . .
Shift boses..................
Timbermen.................

513.6
519.0
1080.8
467.0
111.0
93.0
93.0
112.7

417.1
416.3
983.5
338.0
95.0
82.0
79.0
76.9

Mas

Min

Aver

308.3
21

267.8
16

294.7
18

Percent of time
Drilling.................

34.6
13.1
5.8
57.. 5
3.9
6.4
5.1

26.8
5.2
2.2
45.4
2.2
4.1
0.7

29.0
7.1
3.1
50.7
3.0
4.8
2.3

Manshifts per ft
475.5
481.2
1053.6
373.0
103.7
86.1
88.5
98.1

7-07

LOCATION AND DEPTH OF DRILL HOLES

SH AFT SIN K IN G IN ROCK

4.2
4.1
9.3
3.2
1.0
0.7
0.8
1.0

2.9
3.0
6.6
2.4
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5

Mine

2.

Examples o f Drills and Bits Used in Sinking


Bit length (ft) and gage (in)

Type of drill
in

Ho 261, Caretta,
W Va...........
Pim shaft, S E Mo.
Maeassa, Ont
..
t~
Matahambre, Cuba
Ylakfontein No. !,
Band.................

Rotating hand'
hammer
. ...
13/s
Jackhammer.. 2
17/8
Water-Leyner 21/2 17/s
2

S-49 IngersollRand..........

17/8

ft

in

ft

. . . . i/la
6
16/8
4 1 / 2 13/4
61/2 15/8
5
13/4
31/2 1 13/16

ft

ft

in

.... 11/4

/Zi

1 S/4

Hand drifters. 3

17/8

61/2

* Down to 2 000-ft depth.

in

15/s
13/4

8
H/2
81/2 11/2 :
61/2 1 11/18
8

81/2

15/8

81/2

1 1/2

11/2

7V2 15/8

t Beyond 2 000 ft, harder rock.

for circular or elliptical shafts they are preferable to bars, which are then harder to set up.
In Europe sinking frames have been devised for circular shafts, on which drills are mounted
so as to command entire shaft section. The frame with drills attached is raised to the
surface before blasting (22).
Machine drill repairs. The practice of overhauling machine drills at the shop after each round
has resulted in very low repair costs: at Pyne shaft (Birmingham, Ala, 1918-19), $1.14 per ft of shaft;
at PabstH shaft (Ironwood, Mich, 1917-19), $2.51 permachine-month, or0.5j! per ft of hole.

6. LOCATION AND DEPTH OF DRILL HOLES


3.5
3.5
7.7
2.7
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.7

Creighton No 3 shaft, Canadian Copper Co, 5-compt, roek section 35 by 9 ft, inclined 55; sunk
with 12 31/s-in piston drills on 8 columns, 2 men per drill; powder, 40% Forcite, with eleo delayaotion fuses; little timbering required; crew drilled, mucked and timber! as required.

For max effic o f explosive (Sec 4, 5) drill holes are located so that most o f them break
to 2 free faces. One or more key or cut holes, drilled ^t an angle to the face, are blasted
before the others, which are placed to utilize the additional face thus formed. In general,
hand-drilled holes take advantage of rock cleavages, cracks and shape of face, rather than
foEow a rigid plan; the shaft bottom is then sometimes carried in benches stepped upward
on either side o f the cut holes. Machine-drilled boles are usually located b y a definite
plan, which makes for systematic work, though it m ay sacrifice some economy in powder.
I f a shaft-bar is used, symmetrical location enables several holes to be drilled from one
set-up (Sec 6, A rt 4).
V, center or wedge cat is commonest. In amplest form it consists o f pairs o f holes
inclined so as to bottom close together, and forming 2 rows parallel to shorter a o f shaft.

5. DRILLING
Drills used in shaft sinking are: hand-chum, angle or double hammer, and piston or
hammer machine drills. H a n d - c h t j b n d r i l l in the hands o f energetic workmen may be
advantageous in soft roek. Hole is usually started with k m m a r and drill. M ore care
must be taken in shaping the bit than for hammer drilling, and a low temper is desirable.
H a n d - h a m m e b d b j x u n g is best applicable with low-priced unskilled labor. A large
number o f shallow holes, approx 3 -4 ft, are drilled per round.
Advantages o f hand work: (a) Saving in plant, especially in beginning small operations.
(&) Flexibility in placing holes to take full advantage o f peculiarities in the face, thus
saving powder, (c) Use o f lighter charges per hole than customary with machine-drilled
holes, with less shattering o f shaft walls, leas injury to timbering and less over-breakage
(beyoad desired rock section); therefore greater ease in setting timber. (<f) Effectiveness
when blasting the bottom in benches, for which machine drilling is less advantageous.
This system lightens the burden on each hole, thus saving powder, but interferes somewhat
with mucking, especially when only one hoist is used, (e) Avoidance of delays inrfrW t to
setting up drills and removing them before blasting.
Hammer drills (Sec 15), which work best in down holes, are almost always used for
shaft sinking. Advantages: (a) flexibility in placing holes, almost equal to that o f hand
work; (6) effic with high-priced labor; (c) rapidity o f set-up and transfer from one set-up
to another, as compared with piston drills.
Piston drills (Sec 15) were long used in heavy' shaft work, and are best suited to a
fixed plan o f locating holes, though here as elsewhere' they have been largely superseded by
the hammer drill.
_ Mounting. In rectangular shafts drills m aybe on s h a f t b a b s , placed across the longer
axis of shaft. Tripods are sometimes used in U S colliery practice, but are less rigid and
more cumbersome than bars, and for rectangular shafts have little to recommend them'

Fig 5. V, Center or Wedge


Cut for Shaft Sinking
In Fig 5, rows 1 are cut holes and are blasted first; rows 2, 3 and 4 are then fired in order.
Fig 6 shows a double V-eut for greater depth; in hard ground this may be supplemented
by a few shallow vert holes along the center-line of the V ; in soft ground one hole o f each
pair may be drilled only to half depth. The cut is usually midway between shaft ends,
though in large shafts some engineers place it near one end and fire the remaining holes in
order, retreating toward the other end.
This tends to throw the muck toward the cut and
facilitates clearing the other end for the drills, which can resume work while the cut end is
being mucked. Local conditions, as rock cleavages, reentrant angles, and position o f

7-08

7-09

SHAFT SINKING IN KOCK

E XPLO SIV ES AND BLASTING

hoisting compartment, sometimes influence position o f cut. Dynamite is most effective


when pairs-of cut holes meet at the bottom and are fired simultaneously. The angle ox
the V should be as great as good results permit.
Pyramid cut comprises a ring of holes inclined so as to bottom dose together and blast
ou t a sump in center o f shaft. I t is typical o f cireular shafts (Fig 7), though applied also
to rectangular shafts o f approx equal axes (Fig 8; numbers show order o f firing). Davis.

damage to timber and pumps. The bottom is always lower at one end or the other, facilitating
mucking and drainage. A modification, in McPherson shaft, Tenn, is shown m Fig 10; the holes
ia solid lines were drilled and blasted first, then those shown dotted.
Bottom cut, like that for tunnel work (Sec 6, A rt 5), is sometimes useful for flat, inclined
hafts (Fig 11).
,
,
, ,
, .
. ,
Depth of hole depends on type of drill, character of rock and shape and size o i shait.
s holes are deepened, the width of V cu t ( collar ) is increased, reducing the number of
de holes ariH total footage per round; but to secure sufficient
diam at bottom, holes 10 or 12 ft or more in depth require very
heavy drill steel, in lengths inconvenient to handle in the
bucket. Usual depth of hand-d b ille d holes is 2 -5 ft. With
piston d s ills , depth should be the max consistent with pow
der economy, to reduce percentage o f time lost in setting up,
and in hoisting and lowering drills between rounds. For
each case this max should be determined b y test; roughly,
depth o f hole m ay be assumed at one-half, in soft rock threefourths the width o f shaft. Practice o f drilling deep holes
and blasting them 2 or even 3 times is wasteful o f powder
unless, before charging, they are partly filled with sand or
Fig 11. Bottom Cut for
other easily removable material. W ith s a m m s k d r ill s , ease
Inclined Shaft
of set-up makes the factor of lost time less important, but
the steel is smaller than that o f reciprocating drills, and holes
more quickly taper to a diam too small to hold enough powder for good results; max
depth of hole then depends on ability of steel to keep its gage.
At Woodbury shaft, Mich, 10-ft holes were possible in soft slates, but in granites and quartzites,
with 21/4-in starting bit, 8 ft was maximum. In very hard rock at Gordon shaft, Tenn, piston
machines drilled 5 to 7-ft holes and made approx 5 ft advance per round; the hammer type drilled
2 to 4-ft holes with approx 2 ft advance per round, but greater sinking speed.

7. EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING

H g 8. Pyramid Cut for


Rectangular Shaft
D a ly octagonal shaft (Art 2) was raised with a 4-hole pyramid cut at center and 8 comer
holes per round. In small shafts and favorable rock one center hole m ay suffice to blast
the sump. In any case the cut is blasted first, then side and corner holes in order.
Wedge and pyramid cuts are sometimes combined by pointing the middle pairs of V holes toward
a common center, the outlying V holes taking their usual position. At Newport mine, Mich, a 4-in
hole was drilled at shaft center with a heavy drill, 4.75-in starting bit, the hole (about 1 ft deeper than

Explosives (Sec 4 ). In American practice, 4 0 % gelatin dynamite is generally used for


pnVing where holes are drilled b y hand or reciprocating drills. For shallow rounds in
easy ground, 30% may serve; for aver rounds in difficult ground, 50 or 6 0 % ; for deep
rounds 60 or 80% in cut holes (used at Morenci to break an 8-ft round in easy ground),
in some districts, 2 sticks o f 60% are placed on bottom o f hole, remainder 4 0 % ; sometimes
2 or more sticks of 100% gelatin are placed at the bottom. On the Rand, 60-74%
gelignite has been used in recent sinkings. Proper amount and strength of charge should
be found b y trial. Where timbering must be carried close to the bottom, the higher
strengths may damage timber; a factor in proportioning charge and depth of round.
Table 3,

Consumption of Explosive in Shaft Sinking.


Gelatin

Hock sec,
ft

9 X 17
131/2 X 14

'/
Fig 10.

/ i \

Bench Cut at McPherson Shaft

the regular round) being left uncharged, to provide a free break for 8 surrounding pyramid-cut holes;
4 on 9-in radius (instantaneous firing) and 4 alternately spaced on 18-in radius (first delay).
Bench or stope cut is sometimes used in tight ground (Fig 9). The cut alternates from side to
side of shaft, always leaving 2 more or less free faces and thus saving powder. Broken rock is
thrown, not upward as with wedge and pyramid cuts, but toward opposite end of shaft, with less risk

7 2/3 x 191/3

8 X 17
7X17
8 X 161/2

Dip

Ground
%

60
73
7ft
25
vert

40
40
40
40
tough
medium
sheared
firm

50
40
40
40

Lb per
cu yd*
10.0
6.2
5.3
4.0
6.75.5
5.5
5.3

(Examples from practice)


Gelatin

Bock sec,
ft
8 X 21
9X17
8 X 212/3
71/6 X 16
7 X 17
7 3/4 X 161/2
81/2 X 19
17 X 24
81/2 X 28

Dip

Ground
%

vert

t
11

40
medium
40-60
varied
50
medium
40, 60
hard
60
firm, hard
40,60
hard
35
swelling
slabby

40

Lb per
cuyd*
5.3
5.2
5.0
4.9
4.5
3.8
3.5
2.6

* Solid measure.
Table 3 indicates that consumption o f explosive per cu y d tends to decrease with
increasing size of shaft section, but depends chiefly on breaking characteristics o f the rock..
Blasting may be done with ordinary cap and fuse, elec fuse igniters or elec caps, pref
erably o f the delay-action type (Sec 4, Art 10). In some districts the law requires elec
firing in sinking. Firing a round of holes in proper order lightens the burden on all except

7 -1 0

SHAFT SIN K IN G IN ROCK

SINKING IN A W O R K IN G SHAFT

the cut holes and lessens danger o f injury to timbering. For o b d i n a b y f u s e soma
engineers advise 2 equal lengths o f fuse and 2 detonators in each hole. Fuse wound around
2 properly placed nails or hooks and cut at one nail
with caps crimped on the severed ends, will show by
the mark o f the other nail where it should be cut and
spit at blasting time.

pended from a carriage running on a cableway, and skips running on regular track,
are in general use. Temporary track, capable o f being raised on blasting, reaches from
end of timbering to shaft bottom.

If shot-firers begin spitting (lighting fuse) at ends of


the shaft, and work toward the middle, they finish near
the backet and avoid danger of stepping on lighted fuse
and putting it out. This method involves cutting fuse to
different lengths, because the cut holesare then the last to
be spit and should be the first to explode. When spitting
begins at the cut, fuses of uniform length insure proper
order of firing; and if for any reason the entire round is not
spit, at least the out and neighboring hoies will
&.
time-keeper fuse, out to burn out about 2 mia before"the
first explosion is due, serves as a warning. In wet shafts
on the Rand, fuse is spit by torch, or cheesa stick, made
by splitting blasting gelatin, wrapping it around a pine stick
18 in long and covering with day. The resulting fumea are
absorbed by the waler without bad effect.

8. MUCKING
Mucking, or -loading broken rock into hoisting
conveyance, occupies 4 0 -6 0 % o f sinking tiiae
M ethods: (1) hand shoveling direct into bucket or
skip, or (2) into loading pans, dumped into bucket or
skip b y mechanical means; (3) mechanical loadiag
in large shafts with scraper or (rarely) caterpillar
shovel.
Hand shoveling loads 9-13 cu ft per man-hr
(measured in place), depending on character o f muck,
conditions at shaft bottom and promptness o f hoist
ing service. R ock in 20 to 200-lb pieces can be
loaded b y hand faster than an equal w t o f
can be
shoveled. Shoveling in a shaft bottom is difficult,
though when the 2 ends are blasted alternately, it is
facilitated b y laying steel plates to receive the muck
in the end n ot blasted. E m pty bucket should alwa yB
be ready at bottom , to avoid delays. In large shafts,
where more shovelers are employed than can crowd"
around the bucket or skip, 2 compartments may be
used for hoisting.
For V E a n c A L s h a f t s , a bucket or skip may be
suspended from bottom o f sinking cage, which has
long guide shoes to permit lowering below the last set
o f timber. In other cases, sinking crossheads (Sec 12)
are used to prevent the bucket from swinging. Double
cross-head (Marquette Range) comprises (a) upper
head clamped to hoisting rope, (6) lower head loose
on rope and resting on bucket; the latter is kept
from rotating b y 2 additional ropes extending from
upper head through the lower head to the bail. Blocks
at lower end o f guides stop the lower head and
release the catches that attach it to the bucket,
which, with the upper head, then continues down
until bucket is on bottom (6). Skips loaded b y hand
are made low at the back, to reduce lift o f shovel.
Guide shoes are either long enough to engage lower
ends o f guides when skip is on bottom , or extension
guides are provided, which m ay reach 45-ft length'
Fig 12. Use of Loading Pan for
Mucking (AIME, Tech Pub No 324)
and are removed when blasting (Fig 12 shows
special form at North Star mine, Calif, for offsetting:
skip to one side o f bottom ).
For i n c l i n e d s h a f t s , buckets sliding on skids or s u s '

7 -1 1

Loading pans (Fig 12) are shallow and


open at one end or aide to facilitate filling
by shovel. For dumping into skip, they are
lifted by 7 to 10-hp air hoist mounted on
timbering above or on sinking stage. They
are loaded while skip is being hoisted and
lowered, and save time; at the Colorada
shaft, Cananea, they increased sinking speed
20%.
Scraper (Fig 13) is suited to long,
narrow shaft section. A t Champion mine,
Mich, it first scraped the muck to the end
opposite loading end; a slide was then
clamped to a horiz bar across the shaft,
th6 binged apron o f slide resting on the
bucket; scraper was then reversed for
loading, after which the hinged apron
Fig 13. Scraper in Shaft Bottom,
Champion Mine, Mich
was turned back, scraper rope pulled
aside and bucket hoisted.
Tw o full
scraper loads filled a 0.5-ton bucket in 20 sec; round trip of bucket, 2.5 min. In one
case a small Butler shovel was used to muck the shaft bottom.

9. VENTILATION (See also Sec 14)

i
While sinking, enough air must be delivered at shaft bottom to remove powder smoke
and rock dust, and enable sinkers to work in reasonably pure atmosphere.
Hatural ventilation, set up automatically, m ay serve to great depths; in some cases,
mechanical ventilation must be adopted at the outset. Some o f the factors governing
natural ventilation are: character and temp o f surface atmos, temp of strata penetrated,
and amount o f water falling in shaft. Natural ventilation may be aided in several ways.
If a small portion of shaft area is partitioned off b y a brattice, and this compartment
carried up into the headframe b y a chimney, difference of air head will cause circulation.
Where steam sinking pumps are used, the warmth usually suffices to establish a rising
current; a steam jet directed upward from shaft bottom will accomplish same result.
It often happens that, even with no brattice, the space
around the steam pipes is upcast, while the opposite side
is downcast.
Fan or blower on surface, connected to a wooden or sheet-iron
pipe 12-18 in diam, reaching close to shaft bottom, may be used
to force down fresh or exhaust foul air. A fan may be used to
exhaust blasting fumes promptly; it is then reversed to supply
fresh air. If the pipe or chimney be of wood, the boards should
be matched and painted to reduce leakage.
Where compressed-air drills are used, the exhaust generally
removes dust and prevents vitiation of air. Powder smoke is
readily blown out by opening the air valve at the bottom after
blasting. Spraying water down the shaft facilitates clearing
powder smoke.

io .

SINKING Hi A WORKING SHAFT

W orking shafts are frequently deepened while regular


mining operations are being carried on above. Sinkers
should be protected from falling objects b y a rock p en tice
(K g 14); or b y a heavy timber bulkhead, sometimes loaded
with 10 or 15 ft o f waste rock.
Fig 14. Sinking Under Rock
There' are two general, methods; (a) rock is hoisted
Pentice
direct to surface through special sinking compartment; ({>)
rock is hoisted to the lowermost working level, b y a small
elec or compressed-air hoist, whence it is raised to surface b y regular hoisting plant. The
pentice m ay be left across entire shaft area, in which case a. short incline must be sunk

7-12

TIM BERIN G

SHAFT SINKING IN ROCK

- from the level above before the shaft is widened to full section. If the pentice is left
across bottom of hoisting compartments only, a small opening m ay be out in line with the
ladderway, through which sinking is carried on (Fig 14). In large shafts, special means of
transferring muck from the small underground sinking hoist to main, hoisting system are
com mon: in extending N o 5 United Verde shaft, the shaft was first bulkheaded above the
lowest existing level, then sunk full size for 20 ft, and 2 skip pockets of 70-ton capac exca
vated for muck; then a pentice was formed b y sinking only the manway for the next 30 ft,
after which the shaft was widened to full size, the bulkhead removed and regular sinking
resumed.

11. SH&FT RAISING


When an additional opening is needed for existing workings, a shaft may be raised
instead o f sunk. This presupposes a final plan of underground connections between shaft
and workings, because some or all o f these connections must be driven before raising begins.
Raising in moderate lifts is faster and cheaper than sinking, because it avoids mucking
and pumping; but 200-300 ft lifts m ay be difficult and costly, involve ventilation troubles,
and in some formations (as at Magma) lead to serious overbreak when raises are enlarged
to full section. It is chargeable with cost o f tramming muck to the hoist (unless the muck
is used for filling), but profits b y lower cost o f hoisting with permanent plant instead of a
small, uneconomical sinking hoist.
M ethods. For speed, raising m ay proceed from several levels simultaneously. The
raise m ay be made o f the smallest section consistent with effic, and enlarged to full shaft
section after holing through. I f raising is done in sections, errors of alinement can be
corrected while enlarging. Temporary timbering in the pilot raise m ay be partly salvaged.
Shafts are also raised at full section, especially if made in only one lift.
Shaft No 2, Harold Mine, Mian, was raised 90 ft at full rock section of 18.5 by 8.5 ft, using
the shrinkage system (as in atoping) for support, except in 2 cribbed manways at shaft corners. Nor
mal cycle: (a) wedge-cut in center and pyramid-cut over each manway; (6) manways cnbbed to
within 3 or 4 ft of back and wedge-cut blasted; (c) remainder of 1 end drilled, its manway cribbed
elose to back and covered with rails and lagging, and the entire end blasted; (e) manway cleared
for access and other end drilled and blasted. Only enough muck was removed to provide working
space until,, when excavation was complete, it was slowly drawn down to keep pace with permanent
^ F o r it s PUares shaft, Moctezuma Copper Oo drifted to line of shaft at the 1 600,1700 and 1 800
levels and drove 4 by 7-ft pilot raises on shaft center-line from the 1 600 and 1 800, the former
holing through to the sump on the 1 400, 167 ft above. In each rtuse, shrinkage stoping to fuU
section was started 20 ft above thebottom and carried up the full lift; the shaft was then timbered
downward as in preceding example.

12. DESIGH OF GROUND SUPPORT


Types o f support: (a) timber, steei or pre-cast concrete frames ( sets ), or concrete
rings poured in place, spaced at intervals with or without lagging; (b) continuous linings
o f brick, stone, C -I tubbing or concrete poured in place designed to exclude water, as well
as to resist ground pressure. In the U S, brick, stone and C -I linings are rare; formerly,
t-.imhg.ring was almost universal but concreting and steel framing are increasing in use.
Choice of support depends on ground a id water conditions, shape o f shaft and cost of
materials. Timbering is increasingly costly and (unless proofed) involves fire hazard; m
swelling ground it fails slowly and with ample warning. Steel seta are often lagged with
wood, thus incurring some fire hazard. Both timber and steel framin g are typically suited
to rectangular sections. Concrete avoids fire hazard and when poured in place will fit
any section; used chiefly in shafts o f long, life, except where loose ground, orsurfacesoil,
requires close lining in any case. In the U S, it is the usual material for watertight linings.
Design for strength. There are no exact rules for computing pressures. In very
wet ground some engineers assume M l hydrostatic head, but this assumption has_ been
criticized as too severe. Lining must withstand impact o f a falling cage or skip, if hoisting
rope breaks;' otherwise it is proportioned b y experience, allowing for bad ground or exces
sive water, which m ay increase the pressure.
Anchorage to shaft walls. Continuous concrete linings are usually poured to the j o c k
at many or all points, keying into the shaft walls. Tubbing, masonry linings, and all.
framed support require special anchorage, b y means of wedging criba or bearer sets, resting
on hitches in the shaft walls at intervals of say 30-100 ft.
.
Shaft collar is raised far enough above surrounding surface to exclude surface drainage
and facilitate disposal of waste rock; on level ground it m ay be 15-20 ft high, molosed by

7-13

waste fill. Incidentally, it often provides foundations for the headframe. When the
collar is in solid rock, framed support begins with a c o l l a b s e t , of heavy members extended
on firm ground beyond the excavation; this is virtually the first bearer set, from which
regular sets are hung b y h a n g i n g b o l t s , until the next bearer is placed below. When the
collar is raised above the surface, the collar set may rest at ground level on timbers or
concrete piers, and carry the superstructure; or it m ay be supported on posts and bracing
until waste has been dumped beneath it.
'
In traversing soft overburden the shaft may be cribbed (Art 13), or preferably conerete-lined. Concrete lining should be sealed in bedrock to exclude water, and timbering
may be built up inside the lining or connected to guide bolts embedded in the concrete.
In shallow overburden, a conical pit, dug to bedrock,
facilitates building the collar; it is refilled when collar
is in place.
Water rings are placed at intervals in vert shafts to
intercept
falling water, which is then led to a sump and
2 " x "S trip s
pumped to surface. A groove is cut around the shaft to
a depth of 1.5 or 2 ft, on the edge o f which a dam is made
of timber embedded in clay or concrete, or o f clay or
concrete alone, to form a channel behind which water is
collected and led thence to a sump. In timbered shafts,
T ile Drains ioT& rga

Fig 15. Water Ring for


Timbered Shaft

K g 16.

Water Ring for Concrete-lined Shaft


(Mines & Min)

water is guided into the ring b y short planks placed in an inclined position to intercept
its fall (Fig 15). In concrete-lined shafts (Fig 16), the rings are placed behind the lining,
U te r being led to them b y lines of tile pipe, placed vertically in or behind the concrete;
a small projection on inside o f lining serves to catch the water falling in shaft. The ring
should have sufficient grade to the outlet pipe.
Grouting behind a continuous lining is often effective in cheeking inflow of water. For grouting
in advance of sinking, see Bib 8.

13. TIMBERING
Cribbing consists o f timber, round, hewn oh 2 sides or squared, built crib-fashion
against the shaft walls. In large shafts it is used chiefly m traversing soft overburden,
though in heavy ground it is sometimes
carried to depth. Small shafts are often
cribbed throughout.
In simplest form cribbing is of undressed
timber, cut to length but not framed, held m
place skin to skin by vert_ strips nailed inside
the crib corners; or plank is set edge to edge,
with ends halved into each other, or cut square
and held by nailed strips. In c l o s e c b ib b in g ,
timbers, skin to skin, are framed as in Fig 17,
18, 19, 20, where A = half the thickness of
piece; that is, A = 2B . In o p e n c r i b b i n g , A
exceeds half the thickness, and some space is
left between crib timbers (Fig 19); that is, A is
Fig 19,
greater than 2B.
Fig 17, 18, 19, 20. Cribbing Joints
If ground permits, several feet of cribbing
are placed at a time, each section being built
_
up from a set wedged in place at bottom; otherwise, sets are placed singly as sinking proceeds.
Vertical-shaft sets. Each set (Fig 21) comprises 2 w a l l p l a t e s and 2 e n d p l a t e s ,
respectively on the longer and shorter sides o f shaft section, and 4 com er posts or

7 -1 4

SHAFT SIN K IN G IN ROCK


TIM BE R IN G

STUDDLES, to preserve spacing and support the sets. All members are usually o f same
timber size. Compartments are separated by d i v i d e r s (burttons), usually o f same depth
aa plates, but narrower. Posts are also generally placed opposite the ends o f each divider
o f same size as the divider, or smaller.

Guides are bolted to end plates and dividers, into which guide backing posts are some
times framed (16) just behind the guides, to stiffen and support them; or guide girts (16)
m ay be framed into studdles between sets, like extra end plates or dividers. Sometimes
space is provided for a 2 or 3-in filler between guide and end plate or divider; then, if the
set is distorted b y ground pressure, alinement o f guides can be preserved b y varying the
thickness o f filler.
For shaft sets, sawed timber is preferable to round, in permitting more accurate framing
o f joints. Tim ber sizes: 6 b y 6-in for small shafts in firm ground; to 14 b y 14-in for large

ends are hooked to each other.


For adjustment, the bolts
are 34 in longer than re
quired by the exact spacing
o f sets when in final position.
Diam o f bolts varies from
0.75 to 1.25 or 1 3/g in. Large
C - I washers prevent nuts
from cutting into timber; 2
or 3 bolts per wall plate are
required, depending on length
o f plate.
Assembly. Shaft bottom
is carried as far as possible in
f
m lb d o w

Fig 23.

7-15

Bearing Timbers (16)

* k k o fe e injury to timbers b y blasting and permit timber


p a m te ) to work simultaneously, under precautions for safety o f the

ol^ 6t^ t i/ emP0raT W 8 atJ?roi>er hei^bt 58Pl&ced across shaft section, hung from timbering
L n i X i *!SPe<aJ T ^ a8tui* 1sefc
below), if decked; in large work a sinking stage
Ita T i - hi
w?v j
0ti may
8 constantly above the bottom, and serves for placing
seta. The nght- or left-hand wall plate is lowered into horjz position on the staging usuallv bv
k k cIevia or rope shng. Hanging bolts having been put tin both the new plate and the corr<
spending plate m set above, the hooks are.engaged. When both wall plates are in position the end
te? ons rftia8 on tenons of wall plates (temporary wooden pins
used). Dividers and posts are then placed, and hanging bolts screwed up until the new set is in
Pw !il0I>
f 8et m blocked
wedged against the rock walls until proper alinement is
seeded. Wedging is done at corners and opposite ends of dividers
n . r ( l gr d timbering is carried close to bottom, timbermen sometimes standing on the muck
pile. If there is no room for swinging a long wall plate into horiz position under seS J rS d y p l S
1 C
OT
are
omitted from the last few sets; but s i S l L t a S
fK
' f td1*r th? Pft abo e dlvider be placed subsequently only by cutting a
recess in the post just above its base. This recess is later filled by a block spiked in place.

shafts in heavy ground; under aver conditions, 10 b y 10-in plates are common. Vert
spacing of sets varies with character o f ground, often in the same shaft; 6 -7 ft clear is max
for solid rock; 4 -6 ft is usual; in bad ground, intervals are smaller.
Details. Por plates, t e n o n s (horns) are 0 . 5 the thickness of piece. Wall plates are always
mortised in the upper half, end plates in the lower; whence the former carry the latter when assem
bled. A 1-in hoie may be bored in center of tenon, with a
wooden pin to hold plates together during assembly. To bring
wall and end plates in contact for their full depth, they are
sometimes given a 45 bevel at baae of each tenon (Fig 21); at
Butte, tenons are shortened by 0.25-0.5 in, to assure full con
tact between beveled surfaces when sets are wedged in place.
Dividers are usually framed with a V-tenon at each end (Fig
21), so that the wt of the piece tends to hold it in place. Some
times only one side of tenon is eloped, the other aide being vert.
Shoulders on either side of tenon provide bearing against the
wall plate for its full depth. If a long wall plate must be
spliced, the splice is best made at the divider separating lad
derway from hoisting compartment (Fig 22). Posts are squared
at the ends and brought to a true bearing on the plates. Plates
and dividers are usually gained to receive ends of posts, which,
thus resist side press. If gains are omitted, posts are blocked
and wedged.
Framing must be accurate, to avoid cutting and trimming underground. Accuracy
is secured b y using a timber-framing machine or carefully made template; or failing these,
b y first drawing a center line lengthwise on the best o f the 4 faces o f a timber a id referring-

Bearing sets, or bearers (Fig 23), placed at intervals o f 50-100 ft o f depth, furnish
anchorage for the entire shaft structure and carry its wt if the blocking and wedging of
regular sets become loose. Normally, wedging should hold the-regular sets as solid as
borers, but a ltem atew et and d r y periods m ay loosen them. Bearers m ay be regular
eete, with end plates extended and wedged into hitches in the shaft walls; or (preferably)
extra timbers, o f same breadth as plates but deeper as desired, hitched into the walls
directly beneath certain timbers (usually end plates) o f regular sets, which rest on them,
in tlM latter case, plates are framed as usual, but the gain or dap on lower face of-wall
plate, instead o f receiving top o f post, now fits a similar gain in the bearer, which is also
wer *ace
receive top o f post. W ith heavy timbering, or in ground where
it is difficult to cut a reliable hitch, extra bearers m ay be placed under the dividers. Sometimesbearer and end plate or divider are bolted together. Bearers m ay possibly carry the
full wt o f timber to the next bearing set above, and if necessary are built 2 and even 3
timbers deep.- Instead o f individual hitches, a continuous hitch m ay be cut all along the
shaft wall to carry a sill (Fig 23), on which the bearers are seated aM wedged
Lagging is necessary except in solid rock free from tendency to spall off. Materialsround poles placed skin to skin, eaw-mill slabs, or ordinary 2-in plank; galvanized cor
rugated steel and buckled plates have been tried.
Where ground permits, lagging is cut to lengths spanning 2 or more sets, and put behind wall and
end plates after several sets have been placed. If each set must be lagged as soon as placed, 2 by 2-in
tAQQiNQ steifs (Fig 21) are nailed to outer faces of plates, and lagging in single lengths is placed
with ends abutting on these strips. Space between lagging and shaft walls is packed with filling to
prevents walk from starting. C l e a t s may be spiked to upper and lower faces of plates, and
lagging placed behind these cleats, standing between instead of behind the sets. Cleats facilitate
renewal of lagging, but are structurally weak and unfit for heavy ground.
Vertical-shaft alinement of timbering. Shaft sets are first alined roughly with a
straight-edge placed on inside faces of 2 sets above; final alinement is by at least 2 plumb

7 -1 7

SHAFT SIN K IN G IN ROCK

STEEL SHAFT-SETS

lines, aefc b y permanent reference points in timbering above. Vert marks are made in
selected places on timbers by saw or scratch awl, and, b y carpenters square and wedging,
the marks are brought into same vert plane as the plumb line. Blocks are sometimes used
as gages where lines are hung near shaft corners.

Swelling ground is difficult to hold unless provision is made for cutting away pro
truding rock and easing the timbering. This is best done, without interrupting hoisting,
by making the shaft opening large enough to allow a 2.5 to 3-ft space outside of the shaft
seta. Auxiliary or jacket sets (16) are then placed and wedged around the regular sets.
Floors m ay be laid on jacket sets and lagging placed outside of them in the usual way;
occasionally, regular sets are also boxed in with plank. In the space thus provided, work
of easing timbers proceeds as required.
Cylindrical shafts m ay be lined during sinking b y lagging driven behind wooden or
steel rings placed at vert intervals of 4 -6 ft (23), which in turn are kept in place b y wood or
steel distance pieces. Steel plates are also used. Such linings afford temporary support
before placing permanent metal or masonry lining.

7 -1 6

Ia timbering a large Mich shaft, one pair of plumb lines was hung 3 in from wall plates on the
shorter center line of shaft, and another pair 3 in from end plates on a line parallel to long center
line but 6 in to one side of it, to prevent interference with guides. After the 4 corners had been
blocked, a horiz line touching second pair of plumb lines was stretched lengthwise of shaft and just
above the dividers, measurements were taken to midpoint of dividers, and wedges driven opposite
divider ends to aline them.
Inclined-shafi timbering. Where hanging wall requires no special support, single
posts or Btulls are used as needed, with toe set in footwall hitch and the head wedged against
a head board on hanging wall. Stringers or cross ties are always added to support skip
track, pipes and ladders. Where hanging wail tends to spall, but sides are firm, horiz
timbers are set close to roof and hitched into sidewalls; for long spans, they may be sup
ported at midpoints b y posts between eompts. Where both hanging wail and sides are
weak, or both require lagging, 3-piece tunnel sets are used (Sec 6). Compartments are
formed b y placing additional posts as required. Where footwall is bad, the 4-piece tunnel
set is sometimes used.
' In heavy ground, inclined shafts are timbered like vert shafts, with sera placed approx
normal to dip o f shaft. If end plates are inclined more steeply than the true normal, move- ment o f hanging wall along the dip wedges them
more tightly in place; in general (9), head of
plats m ay be raised above normal position
1/ 8- I /4 in (30-45 dips), or 1/4~3/s in (50-75
dips), per ft o f plate length. For dips greater
than 70-75, framing differs from that ofvertshaft seta. Cap and sill (corresponding to wall
plates) usually extend beyond end plates, which
m ay be framed with V-tenons (Fig 24) or, if
studdles are used, with square tenons; end plates
are thus held in position during blocking and
wedging. For strength, cap is often o f deeper
section than a ll. Cap, sill and end plates may
be gained or mortised to receive square ends or
tenons of studdles, which in a flat shaft are lightly
loaded and small. A collar set and bearers are
used, the latter generally spaced at longer inter
vals than in vert shafts. Hanging bolts are used
only for steep dips.
Inclined-shaft alinement of timbering. Azi
muth and dip o f an existing shaft are found by
setting a transit at shaft collar and sighting a
Fig 24. Inclined-shaft Tiinbring
target at the bottom (or some intermediate) set,
(after Truscott)
with target and telescope offset at fixed distances
from sill and end plate. New timbering is often alined with spirit level, carpenters
square, plumb line and straight edge, checked every few days b y transit.
Ia each cap and sill, before assembly, a tack is driven at the same relative point; then, tacks
on the new sill, the sill last preceding, and a third several seta above, are alined with a stretched
string, the new sill being wedged to alinement and leveled with spirit level. For the cap a second
string is stretched as before, with plumb line attached at the last preceding set; the cap is wedged
until plumb line touches the sill string. Dip is maintained with straight edge, which should span 3
sets and is often triangular, with its top horiz when the bearing edge is at required dip. To aline
new timbering with transit, the instrument is set over or under a tack some distance above, backsighted for azimuth and sighted on new timber, which is shifted by wedging until its tack is cut by
the vert cross-hair. Telescope is then set at established dip, its height measured and slant height to
plane of silts calculated; target of leveling rod is set at this slant height, the rod grounded on the
new sill and rested against new cap (thus lying normal to line of sight), and the set wedged up or
down until the horiz cross-hair bisects target. Corners of set are then tested with square, and siU
with spirit level, corrected if necessary, and again checked by transit. In deep shafts this method
permits slight errors in the compt farthest from transit; heace, a set-up is made and tacks driven
in the end hoisting compt, usually 1-2 ft from shoulder of cap or sill, errors being thrown to ladder
way. Steep dips require an auxiliary telescope; the tripod is often replaced by a bracket screwed to
timbers, or by a stretcher bar (Sec 18, Art 3).

Timber preservatives are sometimes used to combat decay and fire hazard. Timber for an
Alaskan shaft was pressure-treated with zinc chloride against decay; specified retention, 1 lb dry
chloride per cu ft of wood. Timber for the Capote shaft, Cananea, was treated against decay and
fire hazard w ifi a hot solution of 27% triolith (90% NaF, 6-7% potassium or sodium bichromate,
and phenol) and 73% sea salt; max temp in treating tank, 190-200 F; wood preheated for 12 hr, and
soaked in solution 24 hr. Timber may be fireproofed by coating with gimite; for details (Tramway
shaft), see Art 15.
Protection during blasting is required when timbering must be carried within 20-30 ft
of shaft bottom. Logs swung b y loops o f chain close under timbers o f lowest set are often
enough. For better protection, a b l a s t i n g s e t is hung below the lowest shaft set and
lowered as needed, e g b y chain blocks; it m ay be of green timber, sometimes half-round,
or (at Macassa mine, Ont) 8-in channels, framed to match the shaft sets in plan. A t
Copper Mountain, B C, a blasting set of H-beams was used, open in center compt, covered
over end compts with 2 thicknesses o f 3/g-in punched plate. For blasting set at North
Star mine, Calif, see Fig 12; end compts solidly cover!, center com pt with iron door.
i

14.

STEEL SHAFT-SETS

Steel sets are o f structural shapes, arranged and named like the members o f timber
sets. Shapes are selected that furnish convenient riveted or bolted connections (Fig 25).
Wall and end plates act as beams
under lateral press, and as columns
under axial press o f ground. Normally,
dividers in vert shafts act as columns,
but in moving ground, or inclines
subject to creep o f hanging wall, they
may also resist bending, due to rigid
connection.
Posts act as columns,
unless distortion o f shaft support pro
duces bending stress.
Plates and
dividers must therefore have rela
tively large least radii of gyration
(Sec 43, Art 28), and for heavy duty
are often H-beams, placed with flanges
vert for max resistance to lateral
ground press. Angie posts permit
easy connection (Fig 25) and eliminate
permanent hanging bolts. I-beams
are common for bearers. Steel cross
ties, and T-rails alone or reinforced
by angles, have been used as plates,
I-beams, paired channels and Z-bars
as buntons, and rails as posts where
wt of shaft framing is carried b y lower
bearers. Composite sections involve
a shop cost that single shapes avoid.
Guides are often of wood, though
steel has been used; cast-steel racks, sometimes bolted on steel guides to engage safety
dogs, seem of doubtful value, as they must function under heavy impact. I f size of
compartments and space under the previous set permit, a steel set is framed at surface
and lowered intact; otherwise it is shop-riveted in parts and assembled underground,
with bolted connections. Chain blocks are used to swing the framing into place.

7 -1 8

Preservation. Shaft steel may be painted with a mixture of 8 parts coal tar, 1 kerosene
and 1 Portland cement, applied hot to cleaned surface. Steel has been coated -with gunite
(Art 15); first cleaned and covered with chicken wire for reinforcement. Troughed shapes
as H- and I-beams, placed with flanges vert, should be concrete-filled between upper
flanges, to prevent collection of water.

15.

CONCRETE FRAMING A M ) LINING

Concrete may be pre-cast above ground in reinforced members like those of a timber
set and similarly put in place; or poured underground in a succession of rings around the
shaft (with bare rock between) virtually as monolithic sets; or poured in a continuous
lining; or used in- the form of pre-cast blocks for walling. Linings poured underground
or walled are equipped with wood, steel, or pre-cast or monolithic concrete dividers.
Gunite, or sand concrete applied by air jet, is used as protective coating on timber and
steel (Art 14), and even as shaft lining in firm ground.
Pre-cast shaft sets, with members corresponding to those of timber sets, have been
successfully used in both vert and inclined shafts.

7 -1 9

CONCRETE FRAM IN G AND LIN IN G

SHAFT SINKING IN ROCK

- Ecuador, with cement at $2.85 per 94-lb sack and reinforcing (0.5-in deformed bars) at 4.5i per lb,
i coat of casting 2-compt set (reported 1925) was $15; 3-compt, $22. Cost per ft of shaft, including
; jeinoval of old timber: labor, $23.57, supplies, $34.09; members were placed crib-fashion, 6 in apart.

I.
T?itig method provides monolithic concrete lining in horiz bands, separated by intervals
I : of bare rock. In the cylindrical City Deep shaft, Rand, rings 18 in high at 10-ft intervals
1 , furnish entire support in firm rock
Table 4. Cost of Ring Method of Lining
! and serve as anchorage for con> tinuous brick or concrete lining in
Per ft of depth
; heavier ground;, each ring is bonded
j Fwith 20 steel pins sunk in the
Exca
Con
Total
1 5rock.
creting
vation
For rings:
:
A square shaft at Jerome, Aria, 13
>y 13 ft in clear section, was continu i ously lined for 1 550 ft and ringed for
\ - 450 ft below. Rings 30 in high on 6-ft
/centers were each rein forced with
j ,-. 5 3/4-in horiz and 10 3/g-in yert bars,
spot-welded at shop. Bottom form wa9
: s wooden sill with projecting pieces of
gbip-lap shaped to rock profile; forms
i for inner face were of steel, well braced.
I : Concrete was poured to rock, not less
< : than 8 in thick. I-beam and channel
j j dividers (flanges up) and angle attach meats for wooden guides completed
i ; the "set. Costs (1925), Table 4.

Explosives...........
Comp air.............
Shop work..........

$52.07
7.68
8.47
2.08
0.26
6.55

$ 16.60
26.51
"M O

1.05
0.05
$ 50.11
$77.11
Total...............
146.84
68.17
Continuous lining...
Saving by ring method, per f t .............
Per cu yd of concrete:
Ring method (mix 1 : 2 ; 4 )..
Continuous lining (mix 1 : 3 : sjy .y .y .y .

.. .

$ 68.67
34.19
8.47
2.08
6.16
6.55
1.05
0.05
$127.22
215.01
$ 87.79
$61.30
58. 80

Continuous lining is combined with dividers of various ypes (5). Partition walls may
; be cast with the lining; they have openings at intervals td relieve suction of passing cage
or skip, are equipped for attachment of guides, and designed for impact due to possible
; breakage of rope. Walls may be thinner if carried at intervals on steel beams. Dividera
of steel, timber or pre-cast concrete are common. If seated with ends embedded in the
t
they are difficult to replace; whence, hitches are often cored for them, or they are
I supported on short lengths of steel beam embedded in the concrete; in either case they are
bolted in place. If used to support guides, pre-cast concrete dividers are reinforced against
r. impact and vibration.
L Reinforcement of lining may be of standard structural design (Sec 43), or of old drill
. i. steel, rails or hoisting rope. Inward pressure causes compression in a circular lining, but
; may induce tension at inner face of a rectangular or flat oval lining; where lining of any
form is exposed to local thrust, the principal factor is apt to be shear. Steel rope, resist
ance of which is purely tensile, thus finds its max value as horiz reinforcement near the
inner face of a fiat wall, but due to stretch, may not take full tension until adjacent con! crete has begun to fail. Reinforcing bars are preferable.

Fig 26.

Reinforced-concrete Shaft Sets (34)

Oliver Iron Mining Co, Mich, used a 1 : 2': 3 mixture, poured wet, in molding sets for vert
shafts; Ahmeek Mining Co, Mich, a 1 : 3 : 5 mixture for plates and dividers, and 1 : 2 : 4 mixture
for studdles of an 80 inclined shaft. After removing forms, members were allowed to harden
for several weeks before placing. Reinforced concrete slabs, o f a l : 2 : 3 o r l : 2 : 4 mixture, wenmolded for lining between successive sets and as partitions between compartments. Where used
lagging between sets, the slabs generally rest on offsets on the plates, space between slabs and rook
walls being filled with, broken rock or other material. Slabs used as compt partitions may be bolted
to dividers.
After blocking a set into alinement, it is sometimes bonded to the rock by placing a wooden,
bottom and filling around the set with fresh concrete, thus approaching the b i n g method.^ Members.
mny be molded with reinforcement protruding from ends or outer faces, to be embedded in the fresh
concrete bond; Fig 2 6 shows stirrups of web reinforcement (Seo 43, Art 14), protruding thus from
wall plates. Holes are cored for assembling and hanging bolts. Due to their wt, concrete set?,
require more labor for assembly than timber sets, and long wall plates may be cast in 2 or more,
sections.
, . ,
In a 3-compt shaft of Ahmeek mine ( 2 0 ) , concrete sets (Fig 2 6 ) replaced 1 2 by 1 2 - i n timbers.
Costs (prewar) per set delivered at shaft mouth: timber, $ 3 7 . 6 0 ; concrete, $ 2 2 . 5 0 . unit costs:,
timber, $ 2 8 per M ; crushed stone, 3 5 f S p e r c u yd; sand, 6 0 * per c u yd; cement, * 1 . 1 5 per bbl; r mm-.
forcement, $ 1 2 per shaft set. 7 men placed 1 set per 9-hr shift. At American shaft, Zaruma*

In main portion of auxiliary shaft, Gallup American Coal Co, N M, 25 by 10 ft dear, horiz
: reinforcement comprised 0.75-in round bars, 10.5 and 18.5 ft long (2 ft lap) on sides, spaced on 9-in
, centers; and 12.5 ft long on ends, spaced 12 in apart. Vert reinforcement, 0.5-in round bars 14 ft
' long, spaced 24 in apart and lapped 2 ft. Horiz end and all vert bars placed alternately near inner
and outer faces of wall. In concreted portion of a hoisting shaft of Lake Superior Coal Co, W Va,
> reinforcement comprised 0.76-ia square corrugated baxs, spaced 6 in apart when laid horiz and 24 in
. f. apart when placed vert.

Anchorage of fag poured to rock depends on skin friction, aided by leaving points of
rock projecting into the concrete. This is usual practice, but linings have also been formed
ria the clear and anchored only at intervals.
f

In traversing a shear zone, 200 ft of the Barron shaft, Pachuca, Mex, were concrete-lined to

7-20

SHAFT SINKING IN ROCK

Mixing and placing. Concreting is best carried upward from below, althoncA
deep shaft, it may proceed in several horizons at once, to allow time for setting
a
delaying the crew.
6 Wituout
On small jobs, the mixer may be located in nearest underground level; on large work it ;= ,
at or near the surface, and if located a few feet below level of supply, can receive raw
chute, with convenient use of measunng-hoppers. Batches are delivered to the forma bv
by
bucket, or by piping. In one case a hopper car was used, discharging through the oa> f l l 8e "
short telescoping pipe erected at the forma; buckets may deliver to forms direct In .
!? to a
shafts concrete has been piped from mixer directly to place. In the 380-ft Songo shaft BirW k
Ala, a 4-in pipe without gaskets delivered into a 5-in Y, with bottom plugged and a branch*?k
mg to .forms through sectional spouts of 18-gage iron; concrete was thus placed for 83
than in the nearby Pyne shaft, where a bucket was used. The 5-compt SacramentHhaftra^
Bisbee, Am , was lined 1645 ft dunag time spared from hoisting; a mixer in the end servW ! . ( )>
discharged into a 4-m column, composed of 10-ft lengths with flanges carefully faced-
^
farthest skip eorapt, an expanding elbow was inserted at pouring level and connected to a - v h
pipe, which discharged through a 45 malleable elbow into 1 length of 8-in galv-iron pipe
the forms. Comprised a was admitted at back of expanding elbow to blow con creteth rS S ft!
honz pipe. 67 lengths of 4-in column and 6 C-I elbows required renewal during the work
'
Cyprus Mines concreted a circular shaft, 14.75-ft inside diam, working downward A
bulkhead, of diam 6 in greater, floored with wood and provided with door for bucket, was hur T *
lining by four 5-ton chain blocks; a 1.75-in angle, rolled to 13.75-ft diam, was bolted H,, ?
washers to the deck, with 1.5-in clearance between, through which 1-in boards were e x t e n d ^ * ,
and wedged in place, as a base for concrete, the bulkhead being centered by 3 radial arna3
^ t / ^ 0t ! aQg rrJu2ateci steel- W high, in 36-in sections, were bolted in p U e T X
which the bulkhead was pulled up anug; usually 3 tiers of forms were placed and poured **'
with steel shaft dividers placed in the middle tier of every alternate pour; concrete was oinS t
surface; mucking proceeded during concreting.
y
om
Forms are of wood or steel, 2.5-12 ft high; aver about 5 ft. I f greased, they are ea,
to strip, and leave better surface. On large jobs, and where curtain walls are east
the lining, standardized steel forms save time; they are made in sections, each sometim,
comprising several hinged parts, and designed for rapid assembly.
At the Sacramento shaft (36), steel forms 5 ft 9 in high were used for a 5-ft course- bolts
embedded near upper edge of each course to engage holes along lower edges of forms when latter
placed for next course above, thus securing alinement and holding forma against pressuiTof
concrete. Steel forms are much used for circular and elliptical linings. If the ?haft is t i m w i
for safety while sinking, the lagging may serve as the inside forma.
rea
Gunite (21) is sand concrete applied b y a gun, which pipes the d ry materials under
air press to a movable nozzle, where water is added and the resulting paste spraved in
place as a thin coating. Uses: to preserve timber and' steel (A rt 12, 13) to firenrodf
timber, to prevent air slacking of rock, and as shaft lining in firm ground. Surface to be
coated is thoroughly cleaned; to secure bond, timber and steel are covered with wire mesh
and timber may be wet before coating. Mixtures vary from 1 : 2.5 to 1 : 5 at the cun
but are ennehed during placing, due to rebound o f the sand; 1 : 3 mixture at the min
becomes 1 : 2.5 in place. _ One bag of cement yields 32 sq ft o f 1 :4 .5 , or 22 sq ft of 1 : 3
nominai mixture, 1 in thick in place; 0.6 cu yd of coating requires about 1 cu yd o f mate
rials. The 1 :2.5 nominal mixture is used to waterproof; its ultimate compressive strength
is 4 500, that o f 1 : 3 mixture is 4 000 lb per sq in. Cement should be s c r e e n e d ;!^
S Ul iL be ci e ' not over ? 25-in 8ize>
a o t quite dry. Usual sizes o f gun require
110-225 cu ft free air per min at 40-75 lb press; the air should be dry.
. Tramway shaft, Butte, was fireproofed b y coating t o 2 000-ft depth; lagging was removed
just above and below each level and coating carried to rock, thus sealing the timber in a
series o f air-tight sections; timber was covered with 27-gage diamond-mesh metal lath
and wet just before coating. Mixture 1 : 3, applied in tw o 0.25-in layers; testa showed
that keeping the coat damp for several days prevented shelling off under heat. 4 men
with gun coated 100-150 sq ft per hr; 100 sq ft required 3.5 sacks cement, 0.85 ton sand,
94 sq ft lath, 1.5 lb staples and nails, and 23 man-hr in all (3.6 for lathing, 2.7-4 for coating.
1nnIn 1.18 9?0ftofcm ery slope, including timbers, were coated with 0 .5 in gunite, at $3.09 per ft;
ft required L 6 7 sacks cement, 5 sacks sand and 2 .4 man-hr (shaft and compressor orew only),
in Cary A shaft, Wis, steel sets and wood lagging were covered for 2 6 3 ft of depth with meshed
reinforcement and coated 1.5 in thick, m 1 to 3 layers; total cost, $ 1 3 .6 0 per 100 sq ft, requiring 3.S
sacks cement, 0.6 cu yd sand and 1.24 man-days labor; 1 foreman and 6 men coated 14 2 6 0 sq ft of
wall and 3 7 5 0 sq ft of steel m 32 working days. A hoisting shaft of Lake Superior Coal Co, W Va,
was lined for 185 ft with reinforced gunite. Gunite r in g s 1 0 in thick, were made every 10 ft
and reinforced with bars 12 m apart grouted into holes in the rook; in shattered ground heavy
concrete brackets were substituted for gunite rings. Between rings (or brackets) gunite walls were
3 m thick, mixture, 1 : 3. Gunite also used as facing for 55 ft of ordinary concrete lining.
100 sq

TU BBIN G

7-21

Concrete-block walling, used chiefly in Europe, is adapted to circular shafts. Except


for shallow depths, it is divided into lifts, each built on its own curb ring, best made of
(jonerete poured to rock as in the ring method. Blocks are segmental, from 6 in thick 9 in
iiigh, 12 in long on outer face, o f 1 : 2 : 4 mixture (6 ), to 3.2 in thick, 30 in high and about
36 m long, as in a circular shaft at Charleroi, Belgium. The blocks were dowelled for alinejnent and reinforced; after placement, rods were passed through ring bolts protruding
from *h outer face, and bonded in the concrete backing; mixture, 1 - 1 - 2
A n inter
locking reinforced block in Z-form has been used in Belgium. Walling is built clear o f the
.jock, and space behind filled with concrete.

16. MASONRY LINING


In Europe, circular shafts in dry or moderately wet ground are often lined with hardbumed brick or cut stone, laid in lime mortar or, in wet ground, cement mortar. B rick
and stone are preferably shaped to the required curve, though for
over 12 or 14 ft
ordinary brick m ay be used. Lining is backfilled with clay, sand, cinder or other fill
rammed in place. Large volumes o f water, not too great for pumping, are excluded by
rcoFPEBiNG, which in simplest form consists o f brick laid in cement and carefully back.filled, or more elaborately of concentric walls, up to 8 in number, filled between with clay
jor concrete; both h o m and vert joints are broken. For concrete block lining, see A rt 15
Anchorage is provided at intervals b y a C-I
CALLING cexb (Fig 27), which ia cast in segments,
usually 8 to the circle, wedged or bolted together
on a continuous hitch cut in the rock and dressed
level. Ring is made watertight b y fir
driven into the joints.
Placement.
Shaft is sunk with temporary
wood lining (A rt 13) to firm rock, and a walling
Fig 27. Walling Crib and Water Ring
crib placed, on which the wall is built to surface
Combined
from a stage hung in the shaft. Correct curva
ture is maintained b y wooden templates, and alinement b y plumb lines. On resuming
sinking, a shelf o f rock is left under the crib until wall has been brought up from next
crib below. The shelf is then cut away a little a t a time and replaced b y walling,
using temporary props for crib above. For coffering, wedging cribs
like those used in tubbing (Art 17) may be employed. Walling cribs
are sometimes of wood, and in firm ground m ay be omitted, masonry
resting directly on rock.
Walls (single) are usually 9 -1 8 in thick; coffering m ay be designed
(23) for hydrostatic head, and is thicker. Water rings ( gaslands ) are
o f wood or C-I, often cast integrally with walling cribs (Fig 27). A t
each ring, lining m ay be gradually offset as in Fig 28, to leave shaft
area clear. Weep holes are left in the masonry; in coffering these
m ay be lined with w ood or C -I plttg boxes , sealed when masonry is
completed.
C o st For diam o f 18-21 ft, Redmayne (22) in 1925 estimated
cost o f sinking and lining, excluding wall material, at $3.25 per ft of
Fis 28 Wallin*
er ft o f dept3i; for d k m less thaa 18 ft- a ^ t l y less; for labor
Crib and Water onIy T 1,65 Per
diam P8r & o* depth. In England before 1915,
Ring in Place
& walling crib cost $25-$50; ordinary brick lining per ft o f depth
75jM>1 per ft o f diam, with brick approx $5 per M ; coffering in one
ahaft 18 ft diam cost $33 per ft; another, 16 ft in diam, $17 per ft.

17. TUBBING
Tubbing is a watertight lining o f C -I rings for circular shafts, used in very w et rock
formation underlaid b y an impervious stratum, to which lining can be sealed above
mineral deposit. Vol of water must n ot be too great to be pumped during sinking
Rings are cast to shaft radius in flanged segments approx 4.5 ft long. I f D = shaft
diam (ft), P ~ hydrostatic head (ft), measured to outcrop o f water-bearing strata (which
may-be above shaft collar), then thickness (in) o f w eb or flange = V p (0 .0 5 D - f 0.125) -?
14.14, minimum 0.5 in; width o f flange (in) - & P (D - f 15) * 35.09, increased to nearest
m or half-in above; minimum u p to 10-ft diam = 0.684-&P; after Lupton (25). Acid
Water calls for extra thickness.

7-22

Flanges m ay project inward or outward; if inward, they are faced b y machine and
bolted together with lead gaskets (segments 18-36 in high); outside-flange segments
(30-60 in high) are rough castings wedged against the rock, with pine or lead gaskets in
the joints. Inside-flange tubbing is the stronger and avoids stress due to wedging, but
being bolted, m ay incur abnormal stress in shifting ground due to its rigidity. Space
between tubbing and rock is best conereted. A cored hole in each segment aids handling
vents water during placement.
Placement. Anchorage and sealing against water are provided b y w e d g i n g c h i b s
(usually ring castings, Fig 29) projecting outside the lining and seated in a continuous
groove around the shaft. The seat is dressed level and covered with pine sheathing
(0.5-0.75 in thick) and tarred flannel, or with fresh concrete; on this the crib segments are
with pine or tarred flannel gaskets. Between crib and rock, small pieces of
oak are placed and packed with dry moss, into which wooden wedges are
driven; finally chisels are used to open the w ay for more wedges until
no more can be driven, the crib having been propped down against the
wedging until secured by w t of lining. Placing then proceeds upward;
except with s u s p e n d e d t u b b i n g , hung from crib above, and used where
ground requires support close to bottom. Air or gas trapped behind the
lining m ay exert abnormal pressure and is carried past the sealed crib
through by-pass pipes; or better, vented through a check valve in the
crib itself, finally escaping at top o f tubbing. Wedging cribs are usually
30-75 ft apart, or wherever rock affords an effective seal. In sinking
by freezing (Sec 8), with no room outside shaft circle for hitches, tubbing
has been anchored b y a few rings with deeply corrugated outer faces,
Fig 29. Wedging conereted in place.
Crib and OutsideCosts in England before 1915 were $40-$100 per ft of depth, in
flange Tubbing
stalled; castings, $25-$35 per tort; placing, $6-$10 per ton. Costs per
ft for a 14-ft shaft: 0.75-in tubbing, $44; placing, $5; gaskets, wedges, etc, $2. Prepar
in g seat and placing wedging crib, $200.. Costs are now approx twice the above (22).

18. KIND-CHAUDRON PROCESS (2, 25, 27)


Conditions for use are as for tubbing (Art 17), but with inflow of water too p e a t to be
pumped during sinking. Such conditions are rare in the IT S, but common in Europe.
Method. The shaft is excavated under water, b y massive drop tools, cailed t r e p a n s ,
the method being an extension o f the rod system of boring (Sec 9). The water stands at
its natural level until the work is finished. A small shaft m ay be bored first and enlarged
to full diam, or the full section bored in one; operation. On completing boring, the bottom
is cleaned with a special tool, and the lining (inside-flange tubbing, A rt 17) is put together
at the shaft mouth and lowered as rings are added. The lowest ring is the m o s s - b o x
(see below), specially designed to seal the lining to the underlying impervious stratum.
When lining is in place, the space between it and the shaft wall is filled with cement
grouting, lowered in trip-bottom boxes, and the shaft is pumped out. An effective seal
is essential.
Plant required consists of a suitable headframe (with facilities for handling the heavy
boring tools), power plant, boring rods, small and large trepans, sludgers and special tools.
Trepans are massive steel frames, to the lower edge o f which are attached chilled-steel
bits weighing about 100 lb each. Bits are placed unsymmetrically to cover entire area of
shaft bottom as trepan rotates; they are also set to slope the shaft bottom towards center,
thus facilitating removal o f cuttings. Trepans are inspected frequently and dull bits
removed. W t for a small bore, 2-15 ton; for large, 15-30 ton. A n enlarging trepan
(Fig 31) has a projection extending into advance bore, and a crosshead fitting the shaft,
to preserve alinement; the crosshead m ay carry bite to dress the shaft wall. Strokes per
min 8-25; length of stroke, 6 in to 2 ft. Tools are suspended from the walking beam by
rods and temper screw (Sec 9), which feeds down as boring progresses.
Boring. Usually the shaft is started, b y ordinary methods, and a shallow hole, of
jiaTr. of small trepan (Fig 30), is made at shaft center. In this the trepan is started, and
cute an advance bore of 4 to 10-ft diam, usually kept at least 30 ft ahead o f the enlargement,
sometimes cut to full depth before enlarging begins. Cuttings from the small trepan are
removed b y sludger (See 9 ); those from large trepan are caught in a bucket suspended in
the advance bore. Where shaft walls cave badly, they m ay be lined temporarily with
sheet-steel casing, hung from the surface or rested onaahoulder o f rock left for the purpose.
Diam of shaft below must then bereduced.

7-23

SMALL SHAFTS

SHAFT SIN K IN G IN ROCK

Permanent lining. M oss- b o x is a double telescoping ring with outside flanges,


between which dry moss is placed and secured while lowering b y means of wire netting.
When seated, the w t of tubbing telescopes the rings and compresses the moss against the
shaft wall, forming a watertight joint. Sometimes concreting alone (without moss-box)
is depended on for sealing; special bits on the enlarging trepan then cut a level seat for
bottom flange of regular tubbing.
W ith deep shafts and excessive wt of tubbing, the lining as a whole is made buoyant b y
placing ^above the moss-box a false bottom or diaphragm, in which a vert e q u i l i b r i u m
p i p e is inserted, equipped with valves for admitting water as desired and thus controlling

buoyancy. When lining is finished and sealed, and shaft pumped out, wedging cribs
(Art 17) are placed below the moss-box. and sinking proceeds b y ordinary methods.
Speed and c o s t A ver rate o f sinking to 600 ft depth in northern France (24), 12-33 ft
per month; cost (before 1915) $66~$200 per ft.
Costs o f sinking 14.5 ft diam shafts in the Ruhr district, Germany, to mean depth
between 164 and 1 148 ft prior to 1915, were (27): plant and equipment, 50% of first coat,
$25 000 to $35 000; miscellaneous, $12 500 to $25 000; tubbing per ft, $90 to $195;
concrete per ft, $12; power and supplies per ft, $60 to $105; labor per ft, $135 to $210.
Kerr (23) gives eo3t of sinking only, exclusive of tubbing, at $83 to $250 per ft; ordinary rate of
advance, 9-12 in per day. In general, pre-war cost of 12-ft shafts ranged from $100 to $300 per ft;
14 to 16 ft shafts, $250 to $500 per ft.

SPEED AND COST DATA


Of the following cost examples, all but three are dated 1920 or later, and fall within
the period of higher wages and prices that followed the W orld War. Costs prior to 1916
should be increased 50-60% for use as guides to current practice. For cost examples
o f steel shaft support, see Ross shaft, Art 20, and Matahambre N o 2 shaft, A rt 21.

19. SMALL SHAFTS


201-ft prospect shaft, southwest U S, 5 by 7.5 ft, no water. Hoist and 6 by 8-in verfc compressor
powered by tractor engines; 25-ft headframe cost $165. Drilling and blasting 3 hr, mucking 6-7 hr,
timbering 6 hr. Round, 8-13 holes, aver of 40 sticks, 1 Vs by 8 in, 40% dynamite. Sets 5.5-ft
centera, 4 by 6-in plates, 4 by 4-in posts and dividers. Sunk in 98 days. Cost (reported 1935):
Total
Labor....................................52 267.50
Insurance.............................
135.00
Explosive..............................
175.00
Lumber................................
381.35
* For blacksmithing.

Per ft
$11.28
0.67
0.87
1.90

Total
Lights..................
Gasolene..............
Oil, grease, coal *,
Pipes, bolts, nails.

6 .6 0
3 5 .0 0
9 .6 5
3 3 .3 5

Per ft
$ 0.03
0. 7
0.05
0.17

Total................................ 3 043.45 SI5.14

7-25

SHAFT SIN K IN G IN ROCK

W O R K IN G SHAFTS, M ETAL MINES

Alaska-Juneau No S3 prospect shaft (7), 7 by 9-ft rock section, 60 incline, sunk by contract for
300 ft through hard rock. Shaftmen earned aver of 89.28, hoistmen $4.50 per shift. Round, V-cut,
24 holes, 5-6 ft deep. Powder, 40% special gelatin, 23.5 lb per ft. Timber, 8 by 8-in plates, 6 by
8-in dividers, sets 6 ft apart, 37.5 bd ft per ft. Costs per ft (1931):
Power:
Supplies:
Labor:
Drilling....................
Explosive............... .. $4.97
$20.19
Hoisting...................
Timber................... .. 0.98
4.27
Pumpmen.
Ventilation, lights...
..
O.tl
Pipe
lines...............
0.69
Drill repair............. .. 0.25
0.42
Total power.........
Steel sharpening. . . .
Miscel.................... .. 1.20
0.12
Supervision.................. $ 1.00
Miscel......................
Total direct cost.. $35.45
Total supplies. . . .. $7.51
Total labor........... $25.69

Ross shaft, Homestake Mining Co, So Dak (28) ; 6-compt, 14 ft b y 19 ft 3 in outside


steel sets; designed for 5 200-ft depth; sets installed at end of 1934 for 3 242 ft. Sunk
from surface, 137 it; raised full size for 250 ft from 800 level, but w t o f broken rock crushed
the timbering; shaft was raised elsewhere with 6 b y 6-ft pilot raises in center of shaft area,
then enlarged to size. Steel sets (6-ft centers) : plates and dividers, 6-in 25-lb H-beams;
posts, 3.5 b y 3 by 3/$-in angles; the 2 skipways laced with 14-gage galvanized corrugated
steel; ladders and sollars o f steel; all steel specified to contain 0.20-0.25% copper. Upper
308 ft of shaft concreted solidly outside of sets, at cost of 46.27 per ft; total of 150 ft con
creted below in sections of 1 to 3 sets; elsewhere the shaft walls were gunited. Costa per
ft of 3 241.5 ft of steel-supported shaft (1933-34) :

7 -2 4

Davis-Daly air-shaft, Butte, Mont (11): depth 1805 ft, comprising 1 607 ft of raising, 90 ft oi
stations and 108 ft of sinking; timbered solid with octagonal frames circumscribing a 6.5 ft circle
(1920-21). Miners wage, |5.75; aver days earning on contract, 16.28; explosives per lb, 20;
timber franier, S6; timber per M, $37. Cost per ft for raising only:
Timber for shaft frames.......................... $7. 48
Framing............................................... .
0.76
Timber for chutes, etc.............................
1.47
Cutting chute timber...............................
0.37
Blocks, wedges, etc..................................
0-99
Total cost of timbering........................ II. 07
Explosives.............................................. =
2.33

Compressed air........................................
Drill repairs.............................................
Steel consumption...................................
Steel sharpening......................................
All other supplies....................................
Labor.......................................................
Total per ft..........................................

$ 0.86
0.69
0.39
0.28
0.33
14.76
$30.71

Pilot Enlarg
raises
ing

Excavation

$ 9.19
2.73
3.20
4.24
0.34
Pipe..............................
0.49
Hoist and hoisting.......
1.82
0.85

20. SHAFT RAISING


Bunker Hill and Sullivan No 2 shaft, Idaho (7); 3-compt, inclined about 50, rock
section 8 fay 16 ft; raised 295 ft from 19th level in medium hard ground. V -cut round,
24 holes. Powder, 35% gelatin, 12.2 lb per ft of shaft. Timber, 10 b y 12-in caps and
sills; 10 b y 10 -in posts, 6 b y 10-in dividers; sets at 5-ft centers; total bd ft per ft of shaft,
153.3 Man-hr and costa per ft (1927):
Labor:
Bosses $7.50...............
Timbenwtn lai $5.50........
Shaftmen @ $5.00...........
Helpers @ $4.50..............
Timber framing...............
Sharpening steel..............
Total labor...................

Man-hr Cost
....... 0.06
....... 0.61
........ 1.08
....... o .n
....... 0.10
....... 2.17

$ 0.47
3.30
5.41
0.41
0.64
0.35
$10.58

Cost
Supplies;
Explosive............ ................................ S 2.05
Timber.................................................
3.68
Miscel..................................................
0-17
Total................................................. $ 5.90
Power:
Drilling................................................ $ 1.11
Hoisting...............................................
0-33
Total................................................ $ 1.44
Total direct, per ft................................. $17.92

Pi]ares shaft, Sonora, Mex (7). 345 ft of pilot raises, 4 by 7 ft; enlarged to full rock section of
12 by 20 ft; see Art 11. Total completed depth, 379.5 ft. Powder: in pilot raises, 5 lb per ft of
raise; total, 10 lb per ft of shaft. Costs (1924-25):
Per ft
of raise
Labor:
Breaking...........
Mucking...........
Total shaft. . .
Shop labor.........
Framing timber.
Placing timber..
Sundry labor.'...
Total labor...
.Explosive..............
Timber..................
Incline charges----Supplies................
Drills and tools---Total..............

$2.45
0.67
$3.12

Raises
$2.23
0.61
$2.84

$3.12
1.92
0.33

$2.84
1.74
0.30

0.08
2.32
$7.77

0.08
2.11
$7.07

0.67
0.56
0.25
1.26
2.87

$4.82
0.08

$........
0.66
3.76
8.33

$4.90
1.14

$12.75
29.30
0.11

1.46
$7.50

$42.16

Miscel

Total

? .......
0.34

$ 7.66
1.08
3.76
8.33
3.18
$24.01
3.18
33.84
0.11
2.79
3.86
$67.79

3.18
$ 3.52
0.30
4.24
'" jY
0.29
$11.06

$26.51

4.91
0.90
0.74
3.08
3.72
0.05
2.56
0.12
$50.62

Installing:

Air and drills............

Corrug
Shapes lacing

Total

$21.13
2.08

$6.35

$27.48
2.08

6.92
2.15
0.33
0.12
3.21

1.06
0.11

7.98
2.26

Clips for fastening...


$35.94
Sollars, ladders, railings

Total cost:

J3
0.39
$8.04

0.12
3.34
$43.98
2.52
3.50
0.32
$50.32
$ 5.49

Steel supports (above)

50.32
11.40

$132.31

21. WORKING SHAFTS, METAL MINES


Typical estimate o f total cost per ft, including supervision and general maintenance, of
sinking a vert 3-compt shaft 8 by 17-ft section to 1 000-ft depth is given by Elsing (29) :
Labor:
Shaft..................................................... $30.00
Blacksmithing......................................
2.00
Timber framing....................................
2.75
Hoisting...............................................
2.75
Total labor....................................... $37.50

Explosive................................................. $ 5.50
Timber....................................................
7.50
Power......................................................
2.25
Insurance................................................
2.00
Miscel supplies........................................
7.00
General expense......................................
3,25
Total.................................................... $65,00
Moderate flow of water will increase cost 10-15%.

United Verde No 5 shaft, Jerome, Ariz. Rectangular section 7 b y 14 ft; sunk in 1925
from 2 400 to 3 150-ft level through medium quartz porphyry:

Per ft of full section shaft


Enlarging Timbering

Steel support

$13.77 $22.96
3.11
5.84

1.43
0.12
$24.11

Total

Drilling spaed, ia per min.............................


Per round:
Advance, ft................................................ 4.5
No of hoies...........................................32 to 35
Sticks of powder........................................ 260

Water pumped, gal per hr......................


5 000
Cost per ft;
Labor (drill, muck, timber)................. $31.85
Explosive (except caps and fuse)........
5.28
Total cost per ft.................................. $52.7ft

Butte district, M ont (15), operating more than 60 shafts, affords steady employment
to specialized sinking crews. Sinking in 1920 cost approx $100 per ft, including equipment.
Anselmo mine shaft, 3-compt, 19 by 6.5 ft outside timbers, was then being sunk in altered
granite and rhyolite porphyry. Labor, 5 miners per shift, on contract a i $40 per ft; also
1 shift boss and 1 topman per shift. Clipper drills (4, in hard rock 5) made round of
30 holes in 4 hr, in 10 rows of 3 across the shaft; V -cut hoies 9.5 ft deep, pointed at 45
from 4.5-5 ft collar; side holes 5.5-6 ft deep; after finishing a round, drills were overhauled.
Powder, 40% gelatin, 100-125 lb per round. Timber, 12 b y 12-in; set placed in 1.5-2 hr.
Water L3y shaft (12) Eureka, Nev, 3-compt, 15.5 by 5.75 ft outside timbers, was sunk 427.5 ft
in 31 days (Sept, 1920) through porphyry and 00 ft of limestone; in another month, 416 it, all in

SHAFT SIN K IN G IN ROCK

7-5

limestone. Rock hoisted through 2 compts, partly lined to prevent buckets from catching on timbers- non-rotation ropes, no crossheads. A bonus was based on monthly advance. 3 shallow drill
rounds were more effective than 1 or 2 deeper rounds. Sets of 8 by 8-rn timber placed 5-ft centers;
lagging 2 by 12-in. Data for record month: aver advance per day, 13.8 ft; shaft sets placed per
day 2.8; rounds per day, 3; holes per round, 23.9; buckets (17 cu ft) per shift, 72.5; 9 hammer
Hrilia on the job; aver number in use at one time, 5; gelatin, 35% in porphyry, some 50% in lime
stone, lb per ft, 15.25. Regular daily wage: shaftmen, $5.25; hoistmen, 5; topmen, $3.75. Shift
men per shift, 5.7. Timbermen per day, 4.8. Total delay for month, due to repairs and failure of
power, 13 hr
Porphyry shaft, Inspiration Mine, Aria, rock section 17 2/3 b y 1 3 1/3 ft, timbered. 2 -4
unmounted Clipper drills made aver round o f 30 holes in 4 hr. Record advance for 7
months, Feb-Aug, 1922, 1 037 ft, in a total of 1 403 ft.
Shifts per ft advance

Man-shifta

Max month
Min month
Aver month

Ft
sunk

Cu yd
rock

209
128
148

1823
1116
1292

Shaftmen Topmen
936.6
653.0
833.4

179.0
164.2
169.2

Hoist
men Shaft
93
84
90.7

Top

7.3
3.1
5.6

1.3
0.8
1.1

Shifts per cu yd

Holst Shaft
0.8
0.4
0.6

0.83
0.36
0.64

Top

Hoist

0.15
0.09
0.13

0.08
0.05
0.07

Bisbee Queen shaft, Ariz (29), 8 b y 17 ft, 3 compt, no water. Sunk 823 ft from surface;
best month s advance, 235 ft. Contract price for labor and explosive, $40 per ft; con
tractor paid $8 per man-shift ($9 if months advance reached 200 ft). Insurance, 5.5%
of payroll; elec power, aver, 2i per kw-hr; powder, 16.5^ per ib; timber, $30 per M bd ft
delivered. Cost per ft (1927):
Labor:
Shaft....................
Blacksmiths..........
Timber framing...
Hoistmen..............
Total.................

$30.93
2.07
2.84
2.77
$38.61

Power.......................
Insurance.................
Trucking..................
Office and general...
Preliminary exp.......
Total....................

. $ 2.39
.
2.15
.
1.31
.
2.06
.
2.14
. $10.05

Supplies:
Explosive................. $ 5.49
Timber.....................
7.60
Miso supplies..........
7.40
Total.................... $20.49
Grand total................. $69.15

Wisconsin zinc district (14). In 1920, 2- and 3-compt shafts, traversing 10-40 ft of overburden
and varying depths of rock, with not more than 500 gal of water per min, were sunk at usual rates of
65-85 ft per month and cost $20-$50 per ft.
t
,
,
,
Ajas shaft, Cripple Creek, Colo (10), vert, 3-compt, 15ft by 6 ft 2 m outside timbers, was deepened
502 5 ft below 1481 ft in 1915-16. Labor: 2 8-hr shifts, each of 4 shaftmen, 1 hosstman, with topmea
and skippers as needed; day shift drilled, blasted and timbered; night shift mucked and sometimes
timbered- overtime as needed- 4 hammer drills made 40 holes per round: aver depth, 4 ft. Plates
and corner posts, 10 by 10 in: dividers and interior posts, 8 by 10 in. Drill bite per round, aver,
126.5. Total time, 293 days; mar monthly advance, 95 ft; aver ft per round, 3.03. Per ft advance,
aver: m&chine-shifts, 1.3; sinking hoist-shifts, 0.86.
Aver wage Per ft
Drillers.............................................. $5.25
$ 6.51
M uckers......................................4 .5 0
6.47
Tim bermen....................................... 5 .2 5
5. 11
Hoistmen..........................................
4 .1 3
3.75
Shift bosses....................................... 5 .0 0
1.51
Machinist, blacksmith................... 4.50
0.49
4.00
1.19
Topm en, skippers...........................
Pipemen, repairers.........................
4 .0 0
0. 74
T o ta l labor................................................
$25.77

7 -2 7

W O R K IN G SHAFTS, M ETAL MINES

Per ft
40 and 60% powder, 20.71b @ 19.42*-----$ 4.02
Fuse, 143 ft @ 0.6*.................................
0.86
Caps, $i.75per 100.................................
0.24
Timber, 232 bd ft, $28.33 per M ............
6.57
Machine drills..........................................
1^79
Pipe.........................................................
1- 53
1.01
Iroaandsteel..........................................
Miscel......................................................
0-91
Total supplies...................................... $16.93

Hoisting waste, @ 60* per skip...................................................................................................... $5.61


Air for drills, @ $2 per machine shift...........................................................................................
L-
A ir for sinking hoist, @ $2.50 per shift........................................................................................
*
Sharpening steel, @ 10* per b it......................................................................................................
10

1V

T otal c o s t per f t ...........................................................................................................................................

Macassa mine, Kirkland Lake, Ont (30). Vert 3-com pt shaft, 9 b y 17 ft rock section.
Timbering 8 by 8-in, sets at 7-ft centers; bd ft per ft of depth, sete 85.0, blocking 17.2,
sheathing 5.0, guides 12.5, total 119.7; plus 18 linear ft of 8-in poles for lagging. 38 holes,
300 ft drilled per round b y 4 drills. For cost o f sinking plant, see Art 3. W age scale:
shaftmen $6 plus bonus, aver about $8.50 total; hoistmen $5.20, deekmen $4.15 per shift,
topman $150 per month, all plus bonus;' blacksmith $7.; surface laborers 40.0 per hr.
Man-hr and coste per ft (1931-32) :

Cost per ft of depth, Api, 1932


Man-hr Sinking Drills,
per ft labor
repairs,
Con
depth
Ex
and
steel; air Power
Timber creting
(171 ft) super and water
plosive
collar
vision
lines
Drilling and blasting.

8.52
11.53
2.61
4.44
7.90

$10.38
10.88
3.54
2.99
3.57

$6.62*

$2.90

$6.37

$....

$....
....

Other
sup
plies
$0.22
0.17

Total

$26.49
11.05
9.63
8.18
3.60
1.57
2.24
0.22

6.09
"2.97
"2.22
Decking and disposal.
0.03
Ventilation...............
1.52
0.05
Pumping anddrainage 65
0.54
"l! 70
Concreting collar.. . .
0.22
Supervision and work
men's compensation 2.80
4.81
4.81
Miscellaneous...........
0. 12
4.21t
0.51
0.63
$6.58 $6.37 $6.09 $0.22 $4.85 $68.42
Total direct........... 42.66 $36.17 $8. 14
Proportion of general charges.................................... .......................................................... .
2.51
Total cost per ft................................................................................................................
$70,93
* Includes $3.06 labor, $3.56 material, t Includes 3.28 man-hr of blacksmithing, steel sharpen
ing, drill repair and general surface.
Magma N o 7 shaft, Ariz (7); 7.5 b y 16.5 ft.
Preparation and plant expense
Labor Supplies Total
$1454
Hoist installation........... $886 $568
Headframe..................... 976
574
I 550
Collar......... .........................................
1623
Change room.................. 318
440
758
Stations.......................... 928
211
1 139
Tail drifts..................
913
232
1 145
T o t a l............................................
$7 669
Total per ft of shaft.........................
$5.24

Costs for 1 465 ft o f depth (1931):


Sinking crew (per ft)

Jiggers.... J...............
Shaftmen.. .............
Toplanders.................
Bonus.........................
Total.......................

Total cost per ft

Labor
Supplies
Power
$ 1.71
$ 1.19
$ ....
Sinking crew (above)........................................................ 39.41
. . . . . .
Explosive.......................................................................... . . . . . .
5.54
T i m b e r . ...................................................................
1.42
10.20
Compressed air.................................................................
1.16
Hoisting............................................................................
0.71
0.22
Pumping...........................................................................
0.05
Air and water lines...........................................................
0.12
0.64
Power lines.......................................................................
0.03
0.02
Ventilation........................................................................
0.02
0.34
0.26
0.05
1.12
Miscellaneous.
0.87
$49.01
$19.61
$1.38
Preparation and plant expense (above)..............
Total cost per ft...........................................................................................................

$ 4.39
10.37
2.62
22.03
$39.41

Total per ft
$ 2.90
39.41
5.54
11.62
1.16
5.77
0.13
0.76
0.05
0.36
0.3-1
1.99
$70.00
5.24
$75.24

Magma N o S shaft, Ariz (31), vert, 4-com p, 8 b y 21-ft rock section, sunk from surface
to 2 531-ft depth. 24-hr cycle; setting up 0.5 hr, drilling 5.5 hr, blasting 1.5 hr, mucking
13.5 hr, timbering 3 hr. Timber, 10 b y 10-in, sets 4 -8 ft apart. Powder per ft, 25 ib
40% gelatin. Costa (1925-28):
gmlring plant expense
Labor Supplies Total
" 500 hoist*.......................................
$ 3 242
" 2550 hoist*.............$ 921 $ 776
1 697
Towers......................... 1 201
1.629
2 830
Collars and sheaves.. . .
850
2 463
3313
Skips and cages........... 2 935
810
3745
Pumps and motors....... 3 206
8 713
11 919
Change and dry room.. 3 171
303
3 474
T o ta l............................................ ;
$30 220
Total per ft of shaft..........................
$11.94

Sinking crew (per ft)


Jiggers @ $6.00f..................................... $ 3 .85
Shaftmen @ $5.50f.................................
16.39
Toplanders @ $4.13f..............................
2.96
Trammers @ $4.13f................................
0.58
Sinking bonus.......................................... 29.76
T ota l.................................................. $53.54
* Installation cost, f Base wage.

Total per ft
Supplies
Power
Labor
$ 53.54
Total cost per 16
353 54
4 .12
Sinking crew (above).................... * ............................
4.12
16.84
Explosive....................................... ....................................... 2' 08
14.76
2.61
2.61
Timber...................................................................... ...............
6.52
Compressed air......................................................... 4 84
1.30
"6*38
7.99
1.32
5,96
0.71
Hoisting.........................................................................
2.56
1.72
Pumping..........................................................................
0 84
2.71
Air and water lines...................................................
q jg
2.13
1.46
1.38
Power lines...........................................................
0 I08
.6 7
0.53
Ventilation............................................................... . . . .
1.14
4.48
2.28
Dump...........................................................................
2 20
$104.50
Miscellaneous............................................................... ~^\~7A
$5.23
$28.01
.....................
11.94
..........................
Total
Sinking plant expense (above)............................................. ................................
$116.44
Total cost per It....................................................................................
.
~ f-L,.
M a tfjam b re shaft H o 2,
from surface; water,
with steel sets: plates and_dx
Below 1 050 -ft depth, double 4

S S ft S a S
f r L M

bunions; no temporary timbering required except near surface. Concrete, cu yd per ft


o f shaft: skip shaft, 3.87; manway 4.48. Powder 40% gelatin, lb per ft: skip shaft,
15.3; manway, 19.8. Man-hr and costs (1922-23):

Hoisting...............................
Pumping and piping...........

17.0
32.1
5.4
17.4
10.6
2.0

22.2
43.8
10.2
26.6
15.3
5.3

Suppl

Total

$0.64
0.47
0.24
1.57
0 .33
0 .8 3

$0.64
0.71
0.24
1.57
0 .33
0 .8 3

5.11

Cost per ft

Man-hr per ft
Total
labor

Supplies

Power

General
expense

$.....
9.16 $ 6.80 $ 0.04 $ . . . ; .
Engineering and supervision 9.16
3.69
0.93
8.55 'V . 8 12.73
1.40
1.71
1.71
i ! 45
17.97 '.25 21.22
15.07
7.15
7.92
2.93
3.58
1.22
Ladders, guides................... 2.36
1.46
1.78
7.17
Concreting........................... 1.78
4.19
9.00
46 13.09
Hoisting........................... . - 9.63 3'
0.44
3.02
8.05
4.86
Dumping and rock disposal.. 3.19
"17
3.21
0.87
1.06
0.90
Ventilation.......................... 0.16
0.10
0.03
0.88
1.07
Water and air lines............. 1.07
6.70
U l 72
Explosive...........................
Contract bonus and crew exp
4.50
Shop charges and misc repair
$
21.22
$
11.66
$66.63
$
66.02
63.50 25.02 88.52

Total
6.84
15.04
t 40
18.35
57.39
6.67
2.31
20.36
3.46
4.78
1.01

6.70
16.72
4.50
$165.53
18.11
$183.64

Miseel, including grouting.

0 .6
9 .6
10.6

3 .4
9 .8
15.3

105.3

151.9

Manway shaft

Labor

Supplies

Total

Labor

Supplies

Total

$ 57.50
25.30
1.34
3.06
0.20

$108.24
62.30
3.87
7.67
0 .33
3.58
24.60

$ 74.00
27.10
1.93
4.65
0.16

18.80

$ 50.74
37.00
2.53
4.61
0. 13
3.58
5.80

$106.20

$104.39

$210.59

$ 65.90
42.88
2.19
6.95
0.11
3.69
6.91
0.45
1.46
$130.54

$139.90
69.98
4.12
11.60
0.27
3.69
27.20
0.70
3.63
$261.09

S L iS
i
, s s s * p .'*
* (i92Mi)-

Cost per ft of preparing site, and sinking equipment


Labor
Labor Suppl Total
Blower..........................
$0.51 $0.08 $0.59
Eng s and supervision.
$(L24
Bin
and
dumping
gear..
0.33
0.04
Preparing site.................. -^
Buckets........................
2.22
1.48
liar
...............
0.74
Concrete collar
Drills..........................
1.44
1.01
0.43
Transformers and line
Drill hose...................
2.06
1.70
0 .36
Water and air lines...
Drill steel...................
6.27
5.66
0*61
Hoist and headframe.
0.51
0.50
Hoist cables..................... ->
Total....................... 53.27
0.37
0.29
HoiBt house...................... u-uo
Man-hours and total cost per ft

Rock disposal and miseel

Skip shaft
Cost per ft

Skip shaft Manway

Man-hour per ft

Skip shaft Manway

Man-hour per ft

/OO', vert 8 b y 25-ft rock sec, 4-eompt, sunk 2 057 ft


(
First 70 ft concrete-lined; supported below
..
2 M b H. beam8; posts, 3 b y 3 b y */g-m angles,

, ^ outer plates overlapping the ends of


^
^
plates
M e . Total

Direct Indirect Total

7-29

W ITW ATE RSRA N D SHAFTS

SHAFT SIN K IN G IN ROCK

7-28

20.29
0.25
2.17
$130.55

No. 261 mine, air shaft (33), circular, 19 ft rock diam, concrete-lined to 17-ft inside diam, 563 ft
deep: sunk from surface near the preceding Grouting for depth of 168 ft. Concrete, cu yd per ft
of shaft, 2.62; powder, 40% gelatin, 13.7 lb per ft. Man-hr and costa (1922-23):
Man-hr per ft

Costs per ft

Drilling, blasting....................
18.4
Mucking..................................
32.5
Guides, bunions......................
3.4
Concreting...............................
18.3
Hoisting..................................
11.6
Pumping and piping...............
3.5
Rock disposaland miscelsurface
1.9
Miseel, including grouting.......
4.8
Supervision.............................
11.6
Total.................................... 106.0

Formwork (surface)..
Reinforcement..........
Piping.......................

Labor

Suppl

$51.90
16.30
0.08
" 1 i!1
9
1.00
1.68
$82.15

$45.57 $ 97.47
23.70 40.00
0.06
0.14
0.15
0.15
1.82 13.01
1.80
2.80
1.12
2.80
$74.22 $156.37

Total

Sevier Valley shaft, Utah, (7); vert, 3-compt, 17 b y 25-ft rock sec, 182 ft deep;
concreted. Costs per ft (192426):
Sinking labor:
Bosses...................... $ 7.00
Shaftmen... . . . . . . . .
i 8 . 50
Hoistmen.................
5.00
Topmen...................
4.60
Other........................
5.00
Total.................... $40.10

Total sinking:
Labor................. $40.10
Explosive..........3.56
Miseel............. 7.94
Total.................... $51.60

Concreting:
Labor..................... $ 42.00
Bonus, engg, super
vision..................
5.43
Supplies................. 117.50
Total concrete.. . $164.93
Total sinking.. . .
51.60
Total cost, per ft $216.53

23. WITWATERSRAND SHAFTS

Total coat per ft.

WORKING SHAFTS, COAL MINES


, . ^
roroti-a w V a (33).
Ho 261 mine, 2 hoisting shafts, Carette, W va (

Skip shaft, rectangular with


8ameah&^ t about,

oval ends, 12 by 28 ft on
{ ^
through sandstones and shales, water3 0 0 'S !' about 200 ft in each shaft were grouted. Concrete-lined, steel

Shafts o f large capacity on the Witwatersrand, So Africa, rectangular and timbered,


were estimated (19) in 1920-21 to cost approx 4 0 - 5 0 per ft, or, at aver sterling exchange
of $3.75 then prerailing, $150-$190 per ft.
City Deep, Ltd. Low hoisting capac and cost of sinking and maintenance in heavy
ground precluded use of inclines below 5 300-ft depth; hence, for 7 000-ft depth, a vert
circular shaft of 20-ft clear diam was designed to hoist 2 000 ton ore daiiy, handle all men
and supplies and pass 300 000 cu ft air per min. Hoisting planned in 2 stages o f 2 500 and

7 -3 0

SHAFT SIN K IN G IN