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Propierties of petroleum fluid

Ideal gas propierties:

The volume occupied by the molecules is insignificant with respect to the


occupied by the gas
There are no attractive or repulsive forces between the molecules or
between the molecules and the walls of the container.
All collisions of molecules are perfectly elastic, that is, there is no loss of
internal energy upon collision.

Boyles equation
Boyle observed that the volume of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to
pressure for a given mass of gas when temperature is maintained constant.
V= 1/p
Charles equation
The volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to temperature for a given
mass of gas when pressure is maintained constant.
V/T = constant
Avogadros law
Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all
ideal gases constain the same number of molecules. this is equivalent to the
statement that at a given temperature and pressure one molecular weight of
any ideal gas occupies the same volume as one molecular weight of any other
ideal gas. There are 2.73 x 1026 molecules per pound mole of ideal gas.
Kinetic theory of gases
The molecules of any substance are in a constant state of motion at all
temperatures above absolute zero. The molecules of an ideal gas, however, are
completely separated from each other and move with an average velocity, v.
molecular velocity increases as the temperature of the gas increases.
Daltons law of partial pressures.
The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the
pressures exerted by its components. The pressure exerted by each of
component gases is known as its partial pressure.
Amagats law of partial volumes.

The total volume occupied by a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the volumes
that the pure components would occupy at the same pressure and
temperature. The volumes occupied by the individual components are known
as partial volume.
Apparent molecular weight of a gas mixture.
a gas mixture behaves as if has a definite molecular weight
Specific gravity. It is defined as the ratio of the density to the density of dry
air with both measured at the same temperature and pressure.
Compressibility equation of state. one way of writing an equation of state
for a real gas is to insert a correction factor into the ideal gas equation. zis
known as the compressibility factor, it is the ratio os the volume actually
occupied by a gas at given pressure and temperature to the volume gas would
occupy at the same pressure and temperature if it behaved like an ideal gas.
Law of corresponding states. All pure gases have the same z-factor at the
same values of reduced pressure and reduced temperature.

Van der Waals equation of state (1873): this equation differs from the

ideal gas equation by addition of the term a/VM2 that represents an attempt to
correct pressure for the forces of attraction between the molecules. The
constant b is regarded as the correction to the molar volume due to the volume
occupied by the molecules. it often is called two-constant equations of state,
although there are actually three constants: a, b and R. these equations also
are caleed cubir equations of state.

The five reservoirs fluid.


Black oil: GOR: 2000 scf/STB or less. Stock-tank oil: below 45 OAPI. The
stock-tank oil is very dark, indicating the presence of heavy hydrocarbons,
often black, sometime with a greenish cast, or brown. This type of reservoir

fluid has also been called low-shrinkage crude oil or ordinary oil. Initial oil
formation factor of 2.0 res bbl/STB or less.
Volatile oils. Also called high-shrinkage clude oils or near-critical oils. GOR:
2000-3000 scf/STB. Stock-tank oil gravity: 40 OAPI. Bo: greater than 2.0 res
bbl/STB. The oil is colored (usually brown, orange, or sometimes green)
Retrograde Gas: GOR: 3000 scf/STB. Stock tank liquid graviry: 40-60
O
API. the liquid can be lightly colored, brown, orange, greenish, or water-white.
Retrograde gases are also called retrograde gas-condensates, retrograde
condensate gases, gas condensates, or condensates.
Wet gases. Refers to the hydrocarbon liquid which condensates at surface.
Reservoir gas is normally saturated with water. Produce stock-tank liquids with
the same range of gravities as the liquids from retrograde gases. A wet gas
exists solely as a gas in the reservoir throughout the reduction in reservoir
pressure.
Dry gas. is primarily methane with some intermediates. The word dry
indicates that tha gas does not contain enough of the heavier molecules to
form hydrocarbon liquid at the surface.
Gas formation volume factor is defined as the volumen of gas at reservoir
conditions required to produce one standard cubic feet per standard cubic foot.
The reciprocal of the formation volume factor sometimes is called gas
expansion factor.

Coefficient of isothermal compressibility is defined as the fractional


change of volume as pressure is changed at constant temperature.
Heating value. It is the quantity of heat produced when the gas is burned

completely to carbon dioxide and water. It usually value usually is expressed as


british thermal units per standard cubic foot of gas, BTU/scf. Wet means that
the gas is saturated with water vapor, about 1.75 volume percent. And dry
means that the gas contains no water vapor. Gross heating value is the heat
produced in complete combustion under constant pressure with the
combustion products cooled to standard conditions and the water in the
combustion products condensed to the liquid state. Net is defined similarly,
except the water of combustion remains vapor at standard conditions.

Formation volume factor of oil. It is defined as the volume of reservoir oil


required to produce one barrel of oil in the stock tank. The of Bo is called the
shrinkage factor.
Solution gas-oil ratio. The quantity of gas dissolved in an oil at reservoir
conditions. It is the amount of gas that evolves from the oil as the oil is
transported from the reservoir to surface condition.
Coefficient of isothermal compressibility of oil. at pressure above the
bubble point, it is defined exactly as the coefficient of isothermal
compressibility of a gas. at pressure below the bubble point an additional term
must be added to the definition to account for the volume of gas which
evolves.
Coefficient of viscosity of oil. an decrease of pressure causes a decrease in
viscosity. A decrease in the amount of gas in solution in the liquid causes an
increase in viscosity.
Interfacial tension. The force required to prevent destruction of the surface.
The units are in terms of the force holding the surface together in dynes acting
along one centimeter of length.