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APES Chapter 10: Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity

Student Notes
Case Study: Reintroducing Gray Wolves to Yellowstone
1. Describe why gray wolves were reintroduced to
Yellowstone National Park.
To help restore and sustain Yellowstones Biodiversity
to what it was in times before. .
2. Explain how the gray wolves affected the
ecosystem of Yellowstone. Do you think this
was a positive event? Why or why not?

Section 10-1: What are the major threats to forest ecosystems?

1. Compare and contrast the terms old-growth
forests, second-growth forests, and tree farms.
Old growth forest: an uncut or regenerated primary
forest that has not been seriously disturbed by human
activities or natural disasters for 200 years or more.
Second growth forest: a stand of trees resulting from
secondary ecological succession.
Tree-Farms: a managed tract wit uniformly aged trees
of one or two genetically uniform species that usually
are harvested by clear-cutting as soon as they become
commercially valuable.
2. Which type of forest has the greatest primary
productivity? Explain your answer.
Old growth forest because they have the highest
amount of biodiversity.
3. Describe the crop rotation system used on a
tree plantation.
It is a short 25-30 year cycle in non-tropical countries
but can be 6-10 in tropical countries. In order for this to
take place. Old or Second growth forest have to be
clear-cut to provide the room for it. Seedlings are
planted and 15 years later weak trees are removed. 10
year after the (25) the trees are cut down the process
begins again.
4. List 5 ecological services provided by forests.
Reduce Soil Erosion, Absorb and release water, purify
water and air, influence local and regional climate, store
atmospheric carbon, and provide numerous wildlife
5. List 5 threats to forests worldwide.
Unsustainable Logging, Fire, Insects, Climate Change,
and the economy.

Teacher Notes

6. What is the leading cause for the loss of forests

worldwide? What can be done to decrease
deforestation for this reason?

7. Describe the three systems of logging. Which

one is most sustainable? Which one is least
sustainable? Support your answer.
Selective Cutting: Happens when select trees are cut
down leaving trees but reduces the density.
Clear-Cutting: Removes all trees in the area.
Strip Cutting: A strip of the trees is taken way leaving
either trees both above and below OR both left and
8. Explain the difference between crown fires and
surface fires. What can be done to prevent
uncontrollable forest fires?
Crown fires react to the top of the trees will surface
fires stay on the ground, burning just the underbrush.
9. Describe the benefits of natural forest fires.
Natural forest fires allow for rebirth of the natural
ecosystem. They help maintain the biodiversity.
10. How does climate change affect forests?
Global warming could cause plants that are sensitive to
heat to die off. Also they cause more forest fires.
Though they are good, having them to often isnt.
11. Provide 5 examples of invasive species that
are threatening forests in the US.
White Pine Blister Rust, Pine Shoot Beetle, Beech Bark
Disease, Hemlock Wooly Adelgid, and Sudden oak
12. Where is most deforestation occurring?
Developing Countries especially those in tropical areas
of Latin America, Indonesia, and Africa.
13. What has happened to the total acreage of
forests in the us? Explain what has been done
to support the regrowth of forests.
It has increased since 1920. Many of the cut down old
growth forest have grown back as second growth forest
or third growth.
14. Explain why deforestation of tropical forests is
especially harmful to the environment.
Because at least half of the worlds known species of
terrestrial plant and animals live in tropical rain forest.

Section 10-2: How should we manage and sustain forests?

1. Describe how forests can be managed
Identify and protect forest areas high in biodiversity,
rely more on selective and strop cutting, no clear
cutting on steep slopes, no logging of old-growth forest,
sharply reduce road building into uncut forest areas,
leave most standing dead trees and fallen timber for
wildlife habitat and nutrient recycling, plant tree
plantations primarily on deforested and degraded land,
certify timber grown by sustainable methods, and
include ecological services of forest in estimating their
economic value.
2. What can be done to reduce accidental forest
fires? How has Smokey the Bear played a role
in these efforts?
Clear away small fire-prone trees and underbrush
under careful environmental controls. Prescribed fires
and allow public land burns.
3. Describe the 2003 Healthy Forests Restoration
Act. Has it been effective? Why or why not?
It allows timber companies to cut down economically
valuable medium-size and large trees in 71% of the
countrys national forest in return for clearing away
smaller, more fire-prone trees and underbrush.
4. What is certified sustainable timber? What are
some organizations that certify forests? What
types of products are created from these
Sustainable timber is wood that is harvested using
ecological friendly and sustainable ways. The Forest
Stewardship Council (FSC) and The Scientific
Certification System (SCS). Wood Products.
5. How can we reduce the demand for harvested
trees? List at least two reasons.
To improve the efficiency of wood use and Recycling
6. Much of the world uses trees for energy as a
biomass fuel. Describe possible alternatives,
especially for those in developing countries.
Developing small plantations of fast-growing fuel wood
trees and shrubs around farms and in community
woodlots. They could also use the sundried roots of
various gourds and squash.
7. How can you reduce tropical deforestation?

Using GPS to mark what needs to be protected. Debt

for Natural swamps make protecting tropical forest
appealing, loggers could use more sustainable
methods of harvesting (strip cutting or selective
cutting), and for building project we could use bamboo
and recycled plastic building materials.
Section 10-3: How should we manage and sustain grasslands?
1. What is overgrazing and how does it affect the
Overgrazing: occur when too many animals graze for
too look and exceed the carrying capacity of a
rangeland area. It reduced grass cover, exposes the
soil to erosion by water and wing, and compacts the
soil (which diminishes its capacity to hold water). It also
enhances invasion by species such as sagebrush,
mesquite, cactus, and cheat grass, which cattle will not
2. List 5 ecological services provided by

3. What can be done to manage grasslands more

Rotational grazing so that we dont exceed the carrying
capacity, protecting overgrazed areas, and to suppress
the growth of unwanted invader plants by use of
4. What are riparian areas and why should they
be protected? What long term effects result
when riparian areas are not protected?
Riparian Zones: thin strips of lush vegetation along
streams or rivers. The area can be destroyed by
Section 10-4: How should we manage and sustain parks and nature reserves?
1. Where are national parks located? How are
they protected?
In more than 120 countries. Many of them arent. In
developing countries too few personnel and little money
hinder the protection of the national parks.
2. What problems do US national parks face?
Can anything be done to decrease these
effects? Support your answer.
Noise pollution, invasive species, common
commodities are wanted, polluted air, and repairs are
needed. Some of these can but some cant. We can

ban the noise polluters, we can allow for hunting of the

invasive species, we can try to find the cause of the
polluted air and restrict it, and we can repair the
needed building, trails, bridges etc. However, people
just need to understand that its a national park not a
3. Describe the buffer zone concept for national
Buffer Zone Concept: used to design and manage
nature reserves. This means producing and inner core
of a reserve by usually establishing two buffer zones in
which local people can extract resources sustainably
without harming the inner core.
4. What is a habitat corridor and what role does it
play in managing national parks?
Habitat Corridors: allow migration of individuals and
populations when environmental conditions in a reserve
deteriorate, forcing animals to more to a new location,
and they support animals that must make seasonal
migration to obtain food.
5. How has Costa Rica treated its forests? Why?
What is the result? Explain your answer
They have established a system of nature reserves and
national parks that, by 2006, included about a quarter
of its land. 6% of which was reserved for indigenous
6. Describe the Wilderness Act.
Wilderness Act: It allowed the government to protect
undeveloped tracts of public land from development as
part of the National Wilderness Preservation System.
Section10-5: What is the ecosystem approach to sustaining biodiversity?
1. What is a biodiversity hot spot? Should all of
them be protected? Why or why not?
Biodiversity Hot stop: arks especially rich in plant
species that are found nowhere else and are in great
danger of extinction. They suffer serious ecological
disruption, mostly because of rapid human population
growth and the resulting pressure on natural resources.
2. What are the major threats to the biodiversity
hot spot in Tanzania? What is being done to
protect it?
Humans now threaten to do what the ice ages could
not do. Kill off its forest. Farmers and loggers have
cleared 70% of the ancient forest. Plant and animals
that are endemic to this are alive in these mountainside

forest in considerable numbers. The government has

reserved the land to stop the issue. But fire is a growing
threat as global warming is on the rise.
3. Describe the UN Millennium Assessment from
UN Millennium Assessment: a 4-year study by 1360
experts from 95 countries. It identified key ecosystem
services that provide numerous ecological and
economic benefits.
4. List and describe the four ways ecosystems
can be assisted in recovery.
Restoration: Returning a particular degraded habitat
or ecosystem to a condition as similar as possible to its
natural state.
Rehabilitation: turning a degraded ecosystem into a
functional or useful ecosystem without trying to restore
it to its original condition. Example include removing
pollutants and replanting to reduce soil erosion in
abandoned mining sites and landfills and in clear-cut
Replacement: replacing a degraded ecosystem with
another type of ecosystem. Fore example, a productive
pasture or tree plantation may replace a degraded
Creating artificial ecosystems: For example,
creating artificial wetlands to help reduce flooding or to
treat sewage.