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SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL

ENGINEERING
(Division of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering)

Nanyang Technological
University

Yr 2 / SEMESTER 2
N1.2-B4-16
CH2702

Experiment C5
Forced Convection

Name: Le Vu Anh Phuong

Student ID: U1320848B

Group: 14

Date: 3/2/15

Experiment description
The experiments aim to calculate the heat transfer coefficients h of forced convection for a
heated cylinder under cross air flow, and compare with that obtained from theoretical formula
with empirical corrections. Experimental h can be computed based on power delivered to the
heater, area of heat transfer and the temperature difference. To compare that with the
theoretical model, Nusselt numbers using experimental data and theoretical model are
calculated and plotted as a function of Reynolds numbers. From here h from both models can be
obtained and compared at each Re number.
Pre-laboratory problems:
1).
Forced convection: fluid movement caused by external forces such as a fan, pump, wind, ect.
Natural convection: fluid movement caused by its own density differences within the fluid body,
leading to buoyancy forces acting on fluid elements.
2).
=

All are dimentionless


3).
Nusselt number: the measure of convection heat transfer
Reynolds number: the ratio of inertial force to viscous force in fluid
Prandtl number: ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity.
4).
a.
=

1007 184.6 107


=
= 0.7068

26.3 103

b.
=

1004 230.1 107


=
= 0.6903

33.8 103

c.
=

5 0.02 1.1614
=
= 6291

184.6 107

d.
2

4
0.7068 4
= ( ) = 0.26 62910.6 0.70680.37 (

) = 43.75

0.6903
=

0.0263 43.75

=
= 72.8

0.0158

5).
From equation 15 we have
1 2
22
= 2 => =
2

With the correction constant we have:


22
22
=
=


Since 1mmH2O = 9.81 Pa we have
2 9.81 8.314 2
2
= 0.98
= 73.48
0.029

LOG SHEET Forced Convection Experiment


Atmospheric pressure pair = 101000 Pa

25V Speed (Hz)


Power P (W)
Air temperature T (oC)
Surface temperature TS (oC)
pH2O (mmH2O)
U
h

20
8.93
22.3
48.4
18
16.86
137.83

25
8.93
22.6
46
27
20.66
153.73

30
8.93
22.8
44.1
41
25.47
168.89

35
8.93
22.9
42.6
51
28.41
182.61

40
8.93
23.1
41.6
65
32.08
194.45

35V Speed (Hz)


Power P (W)
Air temperature T (oC)
Surface temperature TS (oC)
pH2O (mmH2O)
U
h

20
17.50
22.9
74.4
17
16.40
136.91

25
17.50
23.1
66.8
28
21.05
161.34

30
17.50
23.2
64.4
40
25.17
171.14

35
17.50
23.4
60.3
50
28.15
191.08

40
17.50
23.6
58.2
64
31.85
203.78

Sample calculation: 20 Hz, 25 V


Air temperature T(oC): 22.3
Surface temperature TS (oC): 48.4
Duct air velocity U (m/s): 16.86
Mass density of air at T (kg/m3): 1.18
viscosity of air at T (kg/s.m): 182.5x10-7
viscosity of air at TS (kg/s.m): 195x10-7
Reynolds number
=

16.86 15.8 103 1.18


=
= 17192.8

182.5 107

Air thermal conductivity k in flow T (W/m.K): 25.9x10-3


Air thermal conductivity k at surface TS (W/m.K): 27.875x10-3
Specific heat CP of air in flow T (J/kg.K): 1006.875
Specific heat CP of air at surface TS (J/kg.K): 1007.625
Prandtl number in fluid:
=

1006.875 182.5 107


=
= 0.709

25.9 103

Prandtl number at surface:


=

1007.625 195 107


=
= 0.701

27.875 103

Calculated Nusselt number:


1

4
0.709 4

) = 0.26 17192.80.6 0.7090.37 (


) = 79.816
= (

0.701
Experimental Nusselt number at T:

137.83 0.0158
=
= 83.96

25.936 103

25V
2.100
2.080
2.060

log10(Nu)

2.040
2.020
2.000
1.980

Theoretical Nu

1.960

Experimental Nu

1.940
1.920
1.900
1.880
4.200

4.250

4.300

4.350

4.400

4.450

4.500

4.550

log10(Re)

35V
2.120
2.100
2.080
2.060

log10(Nu)

2.040
2.020
2.000

Experimental Nu

1.980

Theoretical Nu

1.960
1.940
1.920
1.900
1.880
4.200

4.250

4.300

4.350

4.400

4.450

4.500

4.550

log10(Re)

Discussion and conclusion


From both sets of experiments, both experimental and theoretical Nusselt number follow a
linear relation with the Reynolds number. The experimental Nu graph is consistently higher but
closed to the theoretical values. The discrepancy between them could have been due to
experimental errors. For instance the power delivered by the electrical source to the cylindrical
heater may be less than what indicated from the voltmeter, possibly due to internal resistance
of the instrument causing heat loss. This makes the calculated heat transfer coefficient
5

. However the
consistently higher than its actual value and hence higher experimental
experimental model to calculate average Nusselt number is still within good range of agreement
with the theoretical model.