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# Research Methods for Science

Michael P. Marder
Cambridge University Press, 27 Jan 2011
A unique introduction to the design, analysis, and presentation of scientific projects,
this is an essential textbook for undergraduate majors in science and mathematics.
The textbook gives an overview of the main methods used in scientific research,
including hypothesis testing, the measurement of functional relationships, and
observational research. It describes important features of experimental design, such
as the control of errors, instrument calibration, data analysis, laboratory safety, and
the treatment of human subjects. Important concepts in statistics are discussed,
focusing on standard error, the meaning of p values, and use of elementary
statistical tests. The textbook introduces some of the main ideas in mathematical
modeling, including order-of-magnitude analysis, function fitting, Fourier transforms,
recursion relations, and difference approximations to differential equations. It also
provides guidelines on accessing scientific literature, and preparing scientific papers
and presentations. An extensive instructor's manual containing sample lessons and
student papers is available at www.cambridge.org/Marder.

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Rather.There are many types of research methods. they follow the scientific method closely. The process begins with a basic observation and description of a phenomenon. These methods are particularly useful for 2 . qualitative methods are not based on a prediction between two variables. Research methods in science are based on what is known as the scientific method. Researchers then put forth a hypothesis. Researchers then conduct specific types of experiments meant to prove or disprove this prediction. researchers can reduce mistakes based on their own biases or prejudices. of what will happen or what the outcome of certain phenomena will be. Quantitative methods are concerned with conducting experiments in the interest of investigating a specific hypothesis. The scientific method is the basic process that all researchers follow when exploring a specific topic. Qualitative Methods Unlike quantitative methods. Quantitative Methods Quantitative research methods vary. which states how two things are related. The Scientific Method All research methods are based on the scientific method. By using these specific methods. These methods are important since an individual's beliefs can influence how she interprets certain phenomena. Observations lead researchers to have questions about why certain phenomena occur. A hypothesis is a prediction about a phenomenon. however. Experiments look at the relationships between these variables with the goal of discovering what the cause of the phenomena is. qualitative methods are used to openly explore a specific topic. Different methods are used depending on the type of research being pursued. These are referred to as the independent and dependent variables. The scientific method has four primary components. or prediction.

such as running an experiment with more exploratory methods. for instance.looking at topics about which not much is known and for understanding subjective information.html Read more : http://www. These types of designs use both a traditional scientific methodology.com/info_8060655_research-methodsscience. Although these designs can be costly and burdensome to the researcher. Considerations  Although many studies use just one method of investigation. such as a case study. 3 . there are many ways to combine methods. participant observation. the experiences of individuals. a mixed methods design is a way to combine qualitative and quantitative research methods to understand a phenomenon more thoroughly. For example.ehow.com/info_8060655_research-methodsscience. survey research and interviews are all methods of qualitative research.html Read more : http://www. Read more : http://www. Case studies.ehow.ehow. they also can create a solid study by incorporating the strengths in both methods.com/info_8060655_research-methodsscience.html Introduction to the Scientific Method Overview of the Scientific Method The scientific method is a set of techniques used by the scientific community to investigate natural phenomena by providing an objective framework in which to make scientific inquiry and analyze the data to reach a conclusion about that inquiry.