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CHEMISTRY II (FAC0025)

TUTORIAL 1

1.

Look at following reactions and find which ones of them have solubility increasing

with temperature.

I. XY(s) + Heat X2+(aq) + Y2II. XY2(s) X2+ (aq) + 2Y- (aq) + Heat

III. XY3(s) X3+ (aq) + 3Y-(aq) + Heat

Answer:

In endothermic solutions, solubility increases with increasing temperature. Thus,

since I. is endothermic reaction solubility of it increases with increasing temperature.

II and III are exothermic reactions, so solubility of them decreases with temperature.

2.

I. Pure water

II. NaNO3(aq)

III. Na2SO4(aq)

Answer:

Solubility of NaCl in pure water is larger than others since they have no common

ions. NaCl has one common ion with NaNO3 and 2 common ion with Na2SO4.

Increase in the number of common ion decreases solubility. Thus; I>II>III

3.

Why is it that ceric sulphate which is a solid inorganic salt becomes less soluble in

water as the temperature increases?

Answer:

Cerium (III) sulfate, become less soluble in water as temperature increases. This

temperature dependence is sometimes referred to as retrograde or inverse solubility,

and exists when a salt's dissolution is exothermic (according to Le Chatelier's

principle, extra heat will cause equilibrium for an exothermic process to shift

towards the reactants). So the dissolution of ceric sulphate decreases with the

increase in the temperature.

4.

Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, is a toxic gas responsible for the odor of rotten eggs. The

solubility of H2S (g) in water at STP is 0.195 M. What is the solubility in water at

0oC and a partial pressure of 25 mm Hg.

Answer:

STP Temperature = 0oC, pressure = 1 atm

S kPg Henry's law constant, k

P 25 mm Hg

S

M

0.195

pg

atm

1 atm

0.03289 atm

760 mm Hg

3

solubility of H 2 S at 25 mm Hg S kPg 0.195

0.0336 6.414 10 M

atm

5.

The vapor pressure of pure water at 600C is 149 torr. The vapor pressure of water

over a solution at 600C containing equal numbers of moles of water and ethylene

glycol is 67 torr. Is the solution ideal in terms of Raoults law? Justify your answer.

Answer:

Ideal solutions obey Raoults law. Calculate the vapor pressure predicted by Raoults

law and compare it to the experimental vapor pressure. Assume ethylene glycol (eg)

is the solute.

2

The vapor pressure of the solution (PA), 67 torr, is less than the value predicted by

Raoults law for an ideal solution. The solution is non-ideal.

6.

At 63.50C, the vapor pressure of H2O is 175 torr, and that of ethanol, C2H5OH, is 400

torr. A solution is made by mixing equal masses of H2O and C2H5OH.

(a) What is the mole fraction of ethanol in the solution?

(b) Assuming ideal-solution behavior, what is the vapor pressure of the solution at

63.50C?

(c) What is the mole fraction of ethanol in the vapor pressure above the solution?

Answer:

0

At 63.50 C, PH02O 175 torr , PEth

400 torr

Let G the mass of H 2 O and / or C2 H 5OH

(a) Eth

G

46.07 g C 2 H 5 OH

G

G

46.07 g C 2 H 5 OH 18.02 g H 2 O

2

Multiplying top and bottom of the right side of the equation by 1/G gives:

Eth

1

46.07

1

1

46.07 18.02

0.02171

0.2812

0.02171 0.05549

(b)

0

PT PEth PH 2O ; PEth Eth PEth

; PH 2O H 2O PH02O

H O 1 0.2812 0.7188 ; PH O 0.7188(175 torr ) 125.8 126 torr

2

T

7.

PEth

112.5 torr

0.4721 0.472

Ptotal 238.3 torr

0.335 M solution of lactose in water has a density of 1.0432 g/mL at 20oC. Calculate:

(a) the mole fraction,

(b) the mass percentage,

(c) the molality of the solution.

Answer:

MW C12H22O11 = 342.30 g/mol

Assume 1.00 L solution

Mass of solution = (1000 mL)(1.0432 g/ml) = 1043.2 g

g

114.7 g C12 H 22 O11

mol

mass of H2 O 1043.2 114.7 928.5 g H2 O

mass of solute 0.335 mol 342.0

mol C12 H 22 O11 0.335 mol

928.5 g

51.53 mol

g

18.02

mol

0.335

a) mol fraction, X C12H 22O11

0.00646

0.335 51.53

114.7 g

b) mass % C12 H 22 O11

100 11.0 mass %

1043.2 g

mol H2 O

c) molality

0.335 mol

0.361m

0.9285 kg

8.

Using

data

from Table 7,

calculate the

(a) 0.17 m glycerol in ethanol

(b) 1.92 mol of naphthalene, C10H8, in 16.8 mol chloroform

(c) 5.44 g KBr and 6.35 g glucose, C6H12O6, in 200 g of water

Table 7

Solvent

Normal Boiling

Point (0C)

Kb

(0C/m)

Normal Freezing

Point (0C)

Kf

(0C/m)

Water, H2O

100.0

0.52

0.0

1.86

Benzene, C6H6

80.1

2.53

5.5

5.12

Ethanol, C2H5OH

78.4

1.22

-114.6

1.99

76.8

5.02

-22.3

29.8

Chloroform, CHCl3

61.2

3.63

-63.5

4.68

Answer:

T = K (m) ; first, calculate the molality of each solution

(a) 0.17 m

16.8 mol CHCl3

(b)

119.4 g CHCl3

2.006 2.01 kg;

mol CHCl3

1.92 mol C 10 H 8

0.9571 0.957 m

2.006 kg CHCl3

5.44 g KBr

1 mol KBr

2 mol particles

119.0 g KBr

1 mol

m

1 mol C 6 H 12O6

0.0352 mol particles

180.2 g C 6 H 12O6

particles

0.200 kg H 2 O

0.63335 0.633 m

(a)

(b)

(c)

9.

m

0.17

0.957

0.633

Tf

-114.6

-63.5

0.0

-Kf(m)

-1.99(0.17) = -0.34

-4.68(0.957) = -4.48

-1.86(0.633) = -1.20

f.p.

-114.9

-68.0

-1.2

Tb

78.4

61.2

100.0

+Kb(m)

1.22(0.17) = 0.21

3.63(0.957) = 3.47

0.52(0.633) = 0.33

b.p.

78.6

64.7

100.3

Lysozyme is an enzyme that breaks bacterial cell walls. A solution containing 0.150

g of this enzyme in 210 mL of solution has an osmotic pressure of 9.53 torr at 25 0C.

What is the molar mass of this substance?

Answer:

MRT ; M

; T 25 0 C 273 298 K

RT

1 atm

K mol

1

M 9.53 torr

5.128 10 5 5.13 M

760 torr 0.08206 L atm 298 K

MM

0.150 g

g

g

1.39 10 3

lysozyme

4

mol 1.077 10 mol

mol

10. (a) Calculate how much strontium fluoride will dissolve in 1 L of water given

Ksp = 2.5 x 10-9 at 25oC.

SrF2(s)

Sr2+(aq)

+

2F-(aq)

to

a

0

0

Change

-x

+x

+2x

Eqm

(a-x)

x

2x

Answer:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

SrF2(s) Sr2+(aq) + 2F-(aq)

Write the equilibrium expression:

Ksp = [Sr2+][F-]2 = 2.5 x 10-9

Determine the relative concentrations of each ion:

at equilibrium [Sr2+] = x and [F-] = 2x (from the balanced chemical

equation)

Substitute these vales into the equilibrium expression:

2.5 x 10-9 = [x][2x]2 = 4x3

Solve for x:

2.5 x 10-9 4 = x3 = 6.25 x 10-10

x = 36.25 x 10-10 = 8.5 x 10-4M

8.5 x 10-4 moles of SrF2 will dissolve in 1L of water at 25oC.

(b) Chemical analysis gave [Sr2+] = 0.012 M, and [F-] = 0.024 M in a solution. Is the

solution saturated, supersaturated or unsaturated?

Answer:

Qsp = [0.012] [0.024]2 = 6.9 x 10-6 > 2.5 x 10-9 (Ksp).

This question deals with the concept of ion product, Qsp.

If Qsp = [Pb2+][Br-]2 > Ksp the solution is supersaturated.

(c) Will a precipitate form if 0.100 L of 0.30 M Ca(NO3)2 is mixed with 0.200 L of

0.060 M NaF? (Ksp for CaF2 at 25oC is 3.2 x 10-11)

Answer:

Method: Calculate Qsp and compare with Ksp.

First: What is the sparingly soluble salt? NaNO3, like all Na+ and NO3- salts, is

very soluble in water it must be CaF2.

CaF2 (s) Ca2+ (aq) + 2 F- (aq)

Ksp = [Ca2+][F-]2 need [Ca2+] and [F-].

a) We start with 0.30 M Ca(NO3)2 = 0.30 M [Ca2+] (100% dissociation)

b) We start with 0.060 M NaF = 0.060 M [F-]

(100% dissociation)

Remember:

[Ca2+]f =

MiVi = MfVf

(i = initial, f = final)

[Ca 2 ]i Vi

(0.30 M)(0.100 L)

=

(0.200 L 0.100 L)

Vf

[Ca2+]f = 0.10 M

[F-]f =

[F - ]i Vi

(0.060 M)(0.200 L)

=

(0.300 L)

Vf

[F-]f = 0.040 M

Qsp = [Ca2+][F-]2 = (0.10)(0.040)2 = 1.6 x 10-4

Ksp = 3.2 x 10-11 Qsp > Ksp

CaF2 (s) precipitates until Qsp = Ksp

11.

(a) Write an expression for the solubility product, Ksp, of calcium hydroxide,

Ca(OH)2.

(b) In a titration experiment in the school chemistry laboratory, 20.0 cm3 of an

aqueous calcium hydroxide solution is completely neutralised by 18.2 cm3 of

hydrochloric acid solution with a molar concentration of 0.050 moldm-3.

(i) Determine the hydroxide ion concentration.

(ii) Calculate the solubility product of calcium hydroxide.

(iii) State one use of calcium hydroxide which depends on its solubility in water.

Answer:

(a) Dissociation Equation: Ca(OH)2(aq) Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

Solubility constant, Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2

(b) (i) The ionic equation for neutralisation is H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l)

Mole of H+ = 0.050 x (18.2/1000) = 9.10 x 10-4 mol

Since 1 mole of H+ reacts with 1 mole of OH-, thus:

Mole of OH- = 9.10 x 10-4 mol

Therefore, [OH-] = (9.10 x 10-4 mol) / (20.0/1000) = 0.0455 mol dm-3

(ii) Dissociation Equation: Ca(OH)2(aq) Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

[Ca2+] = 1/2[OH-] = 0.0455/2

Therefore, Ksp = (0.0455/2)(0.0455)2 = 4.71 x 10-5

(iii) Calcium hydroxide is commonly used in agriculture to reduce the acidity of

soils i.e. liming the soil.

12. Estimate the solubility of barium sulfate in a 0.020 M sodium sulfate solution. The

solubility product constant for barium sulfate is 1.1 x 10-10.

Answer:

Write the equation and the equilibrium expression for the dissolving of barium

sulfate.

Ksp = [Ba2+][SO42-]

Make an "ICE" chart.

Let "x" represent the barium sulfate that dissolves in the sodium sulfate solution

expressed in moles per liter.

Initial Concentration

Change in Concentration

Equilibrium Concentration

BaSO4(s)

Ba2+(aq)

SO42-(aq)

All solid

- x dissolves

+x

+x

Less solid

0.020 M + x

Substitute into the equilibrium expression and solve for x. We will make the

assumption that since x is going to be very small (the solubility is reduced in the

presence of a common ion), the term "0.020 + x" is the same as "0.020." (You can

leave x in the term and use the quadratic equation or the method of successive

approximations to solve for x, but it will not improve the significance of your

answer.)

1.1 x 10-10 = [x][0.020 + x] = [x][0.020]

x = 5.5 x 10-9 M

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