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Trimester January 2013

CHEMISTRY II (FAC0025)
TUTORIAL 3
1.

Consider the decomposition of liquid benzene, C6H6(l), to gaseous acetylene, C2H2(g):

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C6 H 6 (l )  C 2 H 2 ( g )
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   210 kJ

a) What is the enthalpy change for the reverse reaction?
b) What is H for the decomposition of 1 mol of benzene to acetylene?
c) Which is more likely to be thermodynamically favored, the forward reaction or the reverse
reaction?
d) If C6H6(g) were consumed instead of C6H6(l), would you expect the magnitude of H to
increase, decrease, or stay the same? Explain.
Answer:

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C 6H6 (l)
3
b) C6H6 (l)  3C2H2 (g)
a) C 2H2 (g) 

   210kJ

  3(210) kJ   630kJ

c) The exothermic reverse reaction is more likely to be thermodynamically favored.
d) If the reactant is in the higher enthalpy gas phase, the overall H for the reaction has a smaller
positive value.

2. Consider the following reaction:
CH3OH(g)  CO(g) + 2H2(g)
H = +90.7 kJ
a) Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic?
b) Calculate the amount of heat transferred when 45.0 g of CH3OH are decomposed by this
reaction at constant pressure.
c) If the enthalpy changed is 16.5 kJ, how many grams of hydrogen gas are produced?
d) How many kilojoules of heat are released when 10.0 g of CO(g) reacts completely with H 2(g) to
form CH3OH(g) at constant pressure?
Answer:
a) Endothermic (H is positive)
b) 45.0 g CH 3OH 

1 mol CH 3OH
90.7 kJ

  127 kJ heat transferred
32.04 g CH 3OH 1 mol CH 3OH

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Trimester January 2013

c) 16.5 kJ 

2 mol H2 2.106g H2

 0.733g H2 produced
90.7 kJ
1 mol H2

d) This is the reverse of the reaction given, so the sign of H is reversed.

10.0g CO 

3.

1 mol CO  90.7 kJ

  32.4 kJ heat transferred.
28.01g CO 1mol CO

a. What is a spontaneous change/process?
b. State the second law of thermodynamics.
c. Will the entropy change for each of the following be positive or negative?
i.
Moisture condenses on the outside of a cold glass.
ii.
Raindrops from a cloud.
iii.
Gasoline vaporizes in the carburetor.
iv.
2SO2(g) + O2(g)  2SO3(g)
v.
FeCl2(s) + H2(g)  Fe(s) + 2HCl(g)

Answer:
a.
A spontaneous change, in thermodynamics terms, is one for which the sign of G is
negative. It is a process that occurs by itself, without continued outside assistance.
b.
The entropy of the universe increases when a spontaneous event occurs.
c.
i.
Negative
ii.
Negative
iii.
Positive
iv.
Negative
v.
Positive

4.

The element gallium, Ga freezes at 29.8oC, and its enthalphy of fusion is
mol-1.
a. When Ga(l) freezes to Ga(s) at 29.8oC, is S positive or negative?
b. Calculate the value of S for the freezing of 90.0 g of Ga(l) at 29.8oC.

Answer:
a. Negative

H  90.0 g 
b.

S 

1 mol Ga
5.59 kJ

 7.2157  7.22 kJ
69.723 g Ga mol Ga

H
1000 J
1
 7.2157 kJ 

 23.8 J K 1
273.15  29.8 K
T
1kJ

2

Hfus = 5.59 kJ

Trimester January 2013

5. Given:

H2(g) + F2(g)

2HF(g)

ΔH = -537 kJ

C(s) + 2 F2(g)

CF4(g)

ΔH = -680 kJ

2 C(s) + 2 H2(g)

C2H4(g)

ΔH = +52.3 kJ

Calculate ΔH using Hess’s law for: C2H4(g) + 6 F2(g)

2 CF4(g) + 4 HF(g)

Answer:

C2H4(g)
2 C(s) + 4 F2(g)
2 H2(g) + 2 F2(g)

2 C(s) + 2 H2(g)
2 CF4(g)
4 HF(g)

C2H4(g) + 6 F2(g)

2 CF4(g) + 4 HF(g)

ΔH = -52.3 kJ
ΔH = -1360 kJ
ΔH = -1074 kJ
ΔH = -2486 kJ

6. Indicate whether the reactions below are spontaneous or not at 25 oC, given the ΔH and ΔS. If they
are not spontaneous, at what temperature (if any) will they become spontaneous?

a) 2 PbS(s) + 3 O2(g)

2 PbO(s) + 2 SO2(g)

ΔHo = -844 kJ; ΔSo = -165 J/K;

b) 2 POCl3(g)

ΔG = (-844 kJ) - (298 K)(-0.165 kJ/K) = -794.8 kJ (spontaneous)

2 PCl3(g) + O2(g)

ΔHo = +542 kJ; ΔSo = +179 J/K; ΔG = (543 kJ) - (298 K)(0.179 kJ/K) = 489.7 kJ (nonspontaneous)
spon. when ΔG <0,

 (543 kJ) - (T)(0.179 kJ/K) < 0
T > 3033.5 K

7.

For a particular reaction, H = 32 kJ and S = 98 J K-1. Assume that H and S do not vary
with temperature.
a. At what temperature will the reaction have G = 0?
b. If T is increased from that in part (a), will the reaction be spontaneous or nonspontaneous?

Answer:
a. G = H - TS; 0 = (-32 kJ) – T(-98 J K-1);

32 x 103 J = T (98 J K-1)

T
b. nonspontaneous

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32  103 J
 326.5  330 K
98 J K 1