524 views

Uploaded by JohnSmith

Primary Cementing Calculation

Primary Cementing Calculation

© All Rights Reserved

- Calculation of Cementing Operation on Location
- Cementing Calculation
- 8. Squeeze Cementing
- 5. 4. Primary Cementing Calculations
- Halliburton Cementing
- Cementing Engineering Manual Part 1
- 6. Liner Cementing
- Cementing Best Practices
- Halliburton-Petroleum Well Construction
- Oil Well cementing
- 10. Downhole Cementing Equipment
- 7. Plug-Back Cementing
- Primary and Remedial Cementing
- BP & Chevron - Cement Manual
- Cementing Best Practice Jorge Sierra
- Oil well Cementing
- Cementing
- 1) CementingCalculation(ForUTP)v02
- Casing and Cementing Preview b
- Cementing Calculation

You are on page 1of 39

Table of Contents

Introduction................................................................................................................................................5-3

Topic Area..............................................................................................................................................5-3

Learning Objectives ...............................................................................................................................5-3

Unit A: Capacity Calculations ...................................................................................................................5-3

Fill-Up Calculations ...............................................................................................................................5-4

Displacement..........................................................................................................................................5-5

Bull-Plugged Pipe ..................................................................................................................................5-5

Open-Ended Pipe....................................................................................................................................5-5

Unit A Test:............................................................................................................................................5-7

Unit B: Annular Volume Calculations.......................................................................................................5-8

Unit B Test ...........................................................................................................................................5-11

Unit C: Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations ....................................................................................5-12

Density .................................................................................................................................................5-12

Specific Gravity....................................................................................................................................5-13

API Gravity ..........................................................................................................................................5-13

Absolute Density vs. Bulk Density ......................................................................................................5-13

Absolute Volume..................................................................................................................................5-13

Unit C Quiz: .........................................................................................................................................5-17

Unit D: Primary Cementing Calculations Example .................................................................................5-18

Given Information for Primary Cementing Calculations .....................................................................5-20

1 Calculations for Pressure Required to Lift Pipe...............................................................................5-20

2 Calculations for Amount of Cement ................................................................................................5-22

3 Sacks of Cement ..............................................................................................................................5-25

4 Calculations for Amount of Mixing Water ......................................................................................5-25

5 Calculations for Amount of Fluid to Displace Top Plug .................................................................5-26

6 Calculations for Pressure to Land the Plug ......................................................................................5-27

7 Calculations for Resulting Force......................................................................................................5-28

Intermediate Casing Job One ...............................................................................................................5-33

Unit D Quiz ..........................................................................................................................................5-36

Answers to Unit Quizzes .........................................................................................................................5-37

51

Cementing 1

52

Cementing 1

Introduction

Primary cementing is the cementing operation

performed immediately after the casing has been

run downhole. The materials, tools, equipment,

and techniques to be used vary depending on the

hole conditions, depth of the well, and the

people planning the job. Successful primary

cementing presents a constant challenge and

requires up-to-date knowledge and technology.

D. Primary Cementing Calculations Example

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this section, you should be

familiar with:

Topic Area

The units in this section are:

A. Capacity Calculations

B. Annular Volume Calculations

Primary job.

for the cement.

land the top plug

It is recommended to caliper a number of joints

of casing just inside the pin area. These are used

to come up with an average ID for the casing

being run.

interchangeably with volume. As used in the

oilfield, it is the volume that a certain length of

pipe will hold. Knowing the shape of the pipe is

round, the volume can be calculated by hand.

relating to casing capacity. The volume

difference in can be significant.

displacement calculations.

use the table values for ID as accurate.

of mathematical problems that can be greatly

simplified by using the Halliburton Cementing

Tables (Red Book). Section 210 lists capacity

factors for various sizes of drill pipe, tubing and

casing. Currently, these are listed in terms of

gallons per foot, barrels per foot, and cubic feet

per foot. See Figure 5.1 for a sample of a

capacity table for drill pipe.

table for the type of pipe youre dealing with:

drill pipe, tubing, or casing. Next, locate the size

and weight of pipe in the two left columns.

(Note: For tubing, there are four columns.) Then

find the volume units you want across the top.

Read the capacity factor where the columns

intersect.

always larger than the value stated in the tables.

This is due to the manufacturing process of

seamless tubulars. The actual tolerances are

identified in API specification 5CT.

Sample Problem

What is the capacity, in gallons, of 1000 ft of 27/8 in., 10.4 lb/ft internal upset drill pipe? Use

53

Cementing 1

Capacity = 0.1888 gal/ft 1000 ft = 188.8 gal

to aid your calculations.

Solution

Find the appropriate capacity factor (in gal/ft) in

Figure 5.1. Then multiply by the length of the

drill pipe.

Figure 5.1

Sample Problem

Fill-Up Calculations

upset drill pipe will 25 barrels of oil fill? Use

Figure 5.1 to aid in your calculations.

specified volume will fill. Fill-up factors are also

listed in Section 210 of the Red Book.

Solution:

Fill-up Factor = 152.05 ft/bbl

54

Cementing 1

Sample Problem

Displacement

string of bull-plugged pipe shown in Figure 5.2?

displaced by an object when it is placed in that

fluid. In the oilfield, the terms displacement and

displace may be confused. The word displace

often refers to pumping the fluid inside the pipe

out of the pipe, as in displacing cement with

fresh water. To do this, the volume of fluid

pumped is usually equal to the capacity of the

pipe. This is totally different from the definition

of displacement as given in the first sentence of

this paragraph.

Solution:

3 in. = 0.25 ft

Displacement =

0.7854 0.25 ft 0.25 ft 1000 ft =

49.09 ft3

Conversion factor =

(located in section 240, page 85)

0.1781 bbl/ft3

Displacement =

49.09 ft3 0.1781 bbl/ft3 =

8.74 bbl

Bull-Plugged Pipe

Open-Ended Pipe

displaced when bull-plugged pipe is run in the

hole. This volume is equal to the outside

diameters flat surface area multiplied by the

length of the pipe:

opening permits the pipe to fill up on the inside

as it is lowered into the well), it will displace

less fluid than the bull-plugged string. As shown

in Figure 5.3, open-ended pipe will displace a

volume equal only to the volume of steel placed

in fluid. This displacement can be calculated by

multiplying the cross-sectional area by the

length:

or

Displacement = 0.7854 OD OD Length

3 in.

1.5 in.

3 in.

1.5 in.

Dry

1,000 ft

Bottom

BullPlugged

Outside View

Dry

1,000 ft

Sectional View

Figure 5.2

Bottom Open

Outside View

Sectional View

Figure 5.3

55

Cementing 1

Sample Problem

Displacement =

0.0368 ft2 1000 ft = 36.8 ft3

open-ended pipe illustrated in Figure 5.3?

Displacement =

36.8 ft3 0.1781 bbl/ft3 = 6.55 bbl

Solution:

OD = 3 in. = 0.25 ft

assumed that the tubular goods were flush joint;

that is, no allowance was made for internal

upsets, external upsets, or couplings. Section

130 of the Red Book contains factors that allow

for upsets and couplings, as shown in Figure 5.4.

OD Area = 0.7854 0.25 ft 0.25 ft =

0.0491 ft2

ID Area = 0.7854 0.125 ft 0.125 ft =

0.0123 ft2

Cross-sectional Area =

0.0491 ft2 0.0123 ft2 =

0.0368 ft2

56

Cementing 1

Unit A Test:

For items 1 and 2, fill in the blanks. For items 3 to 5, use your Red Book as a reference and find the

solutions to check your progress in Unit A.

1. The volume that a certain length of pipe will hold is known as the pipe's ______________________.

2. ____________________________is defined as the volume of fluid displaced by an object when it is

placed in that fluid.

3. What is the capacity, in barrels, of 10,000 ft of 7 in., 23.0 lb/ft casing?

4. The casing ID is callipered on location with an average ID measured of 6.50. What is the

recalculated capacity, in barrels, of 10,000 ft of 7 in., 23.0 lb/ft casing?

5. How many feet of 4-1/2 in., 16.6 lb/ft internal upset drill pipe will 25 barrels of oil fill?

OD = 4.5 in.

ID = 2.0 in.

Length = 2000 ft

Now, check your answers against the Answer Key at the back of this section.

57

Cementing 1

Annular volume is the volume contained

between the outside of the pipe and the open

hole (Figure 5.5) or between the outside of the

drill pipe or tubing and the inside of the casing

(Figure 5.6).

Annular volumes can be determined by

calculating the cross-sectional area between the

open hole or casing ID and the drill pipe OD and

multiplying this by the length.

Figure 5.6

same unit of measurement.

Rather than calculating cross-sectional areas to

determine annular volumes, you can refer to the

Red Book, which provides factors that you can

multiply by the length of the annulus to more

simply arrive at volumes. There are two sections

in the Red Book that you should become familiar

with regarding annular volumes:

Figure 5.5

58

volume and annular fillup factors with

tubular goods in various size holes. It also

lists the factors for multiple strings of

tubular goods in various hole sizes.

inside other pipe. There are tables for

tubing, drill pipe, and casing inside of larger

casing. Like Section 122, there are also

tables for multiple tubing strings inside

casing.

Cementing 1

Figure 5.7

479 bbl

Sample Problem

length that a given volume of fluid will fill.

6000 ft of 2-3/8 in. (2.375 in.), 4.7 lb/ft tubing

and a 6-1/8 in. hole. Use Section 122-A of the

Red Book (see Figure 5.7).

Sample Problem

Solution:

in., 10.5 lb/ft casing and a 6 in. hole will 100 bbl

of cement fill? Use Section 122 of the Red Book.

the Red Book)

Annular Volume = 0.0310 bbl/ft 6000 ft =

186 bbl

Solution:

Sample Problem

6535.97 ft

ft of 5-1/2 in., 17 lb/ft casing inside 9-5/8 in., 36

lb/ft casing? Use Section 221 of the Red Book.

between a string of casing and the ID of the hole

is by using Section 210 of the Red Book. This

contains the factors for different size cylinders

or holes with a length of 1 foot. Annular volume

can be calculated by subtracting the annular

Solution:

Annular Volume Factor = 0.0479 bbl/ft

59

Cementing 1

multiplying by the desired annular height.

Solution:

Sample Problem

0.0055 bbl/ft

Find the annular volume, in barrels, between 23/8 in., 4.7 lb/ft tubing and a 6-1/8 in. hole. Use

Section 210 of the Red Book.

0.0364 bbl/ft 0.0055 bbl/ft =

0.0309 bbl/ft

185.4 bbl

The differences between this way of determining

annular volume and using Section 122 can be

explained by the methods used when rounding

off of decimals in establishing the tables.

5 10

Cementing 1

Unit B Test

Calculate the answers for the following:

1. What is the annular volume, in gallons, between 5000 ft of 9-5/8 in., 53.50 lb/ft casing and 12-1/4 in.

hole? Use the Red Book to find the appropriate factor.

2. What is the annular volume in cubic feet, for 7675 ft of 2-7/8 in., 6.5 lb/ft tubing inside 7 in., 26 lb/ft

casing? Use the Red Book to find the appropriate factor.

Now, look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section.

5 11

Cementing 1

The density of a base fluid is affected by the

addition of additives. This density should be

collected for additive concentration when

determining hydrostatic pressure.

Density in

lb/ft3

Solids

Gold

Mercury

Lead

Iron

Aluminum

Wood

Ice

will introduce you to several terms. After

completing this unit, you will be familiar with:

Density in

g/cc

volume

API gravity

specific gravity

absolute density vs. bulk density

absolute volume

slurry weight and volume calculations

1206.2

846.0

712.5

485.0

165.6

50.0

56.9

19.3

13.5

11.4

7.7

2.6

0.8

0.9

125.0

64.3

62.5

50.0

46.8

2.00

1.03

1.00

0.80

0.75

Liquids

Sulfuric Acid

Sea Water

Fresh Water

Kerosene

Gasoline

Gases

Density

Air 0.075

Oxygen

Nitrogen

Carbon Monoxide

Hydrogen

substance per unit volume. In the English

system, one cubic foot is a unit of volume, and

one pound is a unit of weight. In the metric

system, a unit of volume is cubic centimeter (cc)

and weight can be measured in grams (g). If you

measured the weight of a specific volume of

iron, wood, lead, and water, you would find they

have widely different weights. Therefore, a term

is needed to refer to the weight of a unit-volume

of substance -- that term is density. For example,

a cubic foot of water weighs 62.4 lb, so the

density of water is 62.4 lb/ft3.

0.0075

0.084

0.0737

0.0734

0.0053

0.0012

0.00134

0.00118

0.00117

0.000085

compared with air at atmospheric pressure

instead of with water. Using air as a comparative

reference, the vapor densities of the gases listed

above are:

Air

Oxygen

Nitrogen

Carbon Monoxide

Hydrogen

material, you can calculate its weight:

Weight = Density Volume

1.00

1.120

0.983

0.979

2.004

here for your reference.

5 12

Cementing 1

Specific Gravity

Specific gravity (abbreviated Sp Gr) is the

weight of a volume of material divided by the

weight of the same volume of material taken as a

standard. For solids and liquids, the standard is

water; for gases, the standard is air. Another

definition of specific gravity is the ratio of the

density of a substance to the density of water or

air. The density of water is 8.33 lb/gal. It is a

simple matter to convert density to specific

gravity (or vice versa).

Sample Problem

Degrees API Gravity =

Specific Gravity =

141.5

- 131.5

Sp Gr

141.5

API 131.5

Density

Solution

Absolute density considers only the actual

volume occupied by a material. Bulk density is

mass per unit bulk volume -- which includes the

actual volume of the material plus the volume of

trapped air.

density of substance

Sp Gr =

density of standard

Sp Gr =

of 60F. If taken at any other temperature,

readings must be converted to 60F to be

accurate. Tables for this conversion and for

conversion of API gravity to specific gravity can

be found in the API Standard 2500 bulletin and

in various engineering handbooks.

10 lb/gal

8.33 lb/gal

Sp Gr = 1.2

Absolute Volume

as 1.2, the density can be calculated:

Here is an example of absolute volume. Let's

assume we have a container (Figure 5.8) that

measures one cubic foot (1 ft high, 1 ft deep, 1 ft

wide). This container is filled with golf balls.

There are void spaces between the golf balls

filled with trapped air. We want to know the

volume in gallons that is occupied by the golf

balls only.

API Gravity

Baumes gravity is a scale that uses salt water as

a reference rather than fresh water. It is used in

refineries to determine the gravity of acids and

alkalis only.

API gravity is used in most other instances in the

oil field. Water is used as the standard. Water's

API gravity is 10 degrees.

As the specific gravity increases, the API gravity

decreases. Crude oil with a 42 API gravity has

an actual specific gravity of 0.82. American

crude is commonly run from 0.768 to 0.966

specific gravity, which would range from 52.6

to 10.5 on the API gravity scale.

5 13

Cementing 1

be determined by first calculating the volume

occupied by the void spaces. For this, we could

add water to the container and measure it. After

obtaining the number of gallons of water needed

to fill the void spaces, we can subtract from

7.4805 gal/ft3 to determine the volume occupied

by the golf balls alone.

7.4805 gal.

1 ft

1 ft

1 ft

is called the absolute volume. While this

example is exaggerated, it does help explain the

concept. We work with sand, cement, etc. rather

than golf balls, but the balls can be seen as a

magnification of sand or cement particles. Void

spaces exist in sand; the volume we add to

fracturing fluids is actually the absolute volume

of the sand.

1 ft

1 ft

can be simplified by using the tables for

"Physical Properties of Cementing Materials and

Admixtures" provided in the Technical Data

section of the Halliburton Cementing Tables

(Figure 5.9).

1 ft

than the total volume because of the spaces

between them.

5 14

Cementing 1

second column gives the bulk weight in lb per

ft3. The third column gives the specific gravity,

and the fourth column provides absolute volume

in gal/lb.

Sample Problem

What is the absolute volume (gallons) and

weight (lb per gallon) of this slurry?

calculations, you will not find a gal/lb factor in

the Red Book. However, you can calculate this

factor if you know the fluid density in lb/gal.

Simply divide 1 by the fluid density. For

example, water is 8.33 lb/gal, so:

Additive is 3% KC1

4 lb of sand is added

Solution

ABSOLUTE

Sample Problem

MATERIAL

FACTOR

MATERIALS

(lb)

(gal/lb)

weight (lb per gallon) of this slurry?

Water

8.33

0.1200

0.2499

0.0443

= 0.0110705

Sand

4.0

0.0456

3% KC1

4 lb of sand is added.

TOTALS

(gallons)

1.0

0.1824

1.1934705 gal

Solution

We will use the chart below to help in our

calculation of absolute volume. First, list the

materials and their weights in the first two

columns. Then, using the Red Book table, list the

absolute volume factors (gal/lb) in the third

column.

FACTOR

VOLUME

MATERIALS

(lb)

(gal/lb)

(gallons)

Water

8.33

0.1200

Sand

0.0456

to obtain the absolute volume and add these

values to the table. For the totals, add the

materials (lb) together and add the absolute

volumes together:

VOLUME

MATERIALS

(lb)

(gal/lb)

(gallons)

Water

8.33

0.1200

1.0

Sand

4.0

0.0456

0.1824

12.33 lb

Class H Cement

Water @ 8.33 lb/gal

Solution

For this cementing problem, we will add a

column to the chart for mixing water

requirements. Proceed as in the last two sample

problems until you need to fill in the mixing

water requirements for the Class H cement. This

quantity you can find in the Technical Data

section of the Red Book in the table for Water

Requirements. For Class H cement, the

requirements are 4.3 gal/sk. Enter this under the

appropriate column:

ABSOLUTE

FACTOR

water (or base fluid) slurries, the calculations are

based on 1 gallon of base fluid and the weight of

that 1 gallon of fluid.

weight (lb per gallon) of this slurry?

TOTALS

MATERIAL

Sample Problem

ABSOLUTE

MATERIAL

TOTALS

12.579 lb

VOLUME

1.1824 gal

formula:

5 15

Cementing 1

ABSOLUTE

MIXING

MATERIALS

(lb)

Cement

94

Water

(gal/lb)

0.0382

ABSOLUTE

WATER

(gallons)

(gallons)

3.6

4.3

MATERIALS

Cement

8.33

Water

TOTALS

MIXING

TOTALS

(lb)

(gal/lb)

(gallons)

4.3

94

0.0382

3.6

35.82

8.33

4.3

129.82 lb

WATER

(gallons)

7.9 gal

Divide the water factor by the absolute volume

to determine the materials (lb) for water. Then

calculate the totals:

Find the yield of cement (ft3 per sack) by using

this formula:

Total abs gal 7.4805 gal/ft3 = ft3/sk

7.9 gal/sk* 7.4805 gal/ft3 = 1.06 ft3/sk

*NOTE: When working with cement slurries,

the calculations are usually based on one sack of

cement and the weight of that sack.

5 16

Cementing 1

Unit C Quiz:

For items 1 3, fill in the blanks. For items 4 and 5, calculate the answer.

1. In dealing with specific gravity, the weight of a volume of a material is ________________________

by the weight of the same volume of a material taken as a_______.

2. Absolute density considers only the___________ ____________ occupied by the material.

3. Volume per unit mass defines ______________ _______________.

4. Calculate the weight (lb/gal) of the following slurry:

base fluid is 10 lb/gal brine

sand at 10 lb/gal (0.0456 gal/lb)

5. Using Class H cement (94 lb/sk) and 4.3 gallons mixing water, what is the cement slurry density (lb/

gal) and yield (ft3/sk)?

Now, look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section.

5 17

Cementing 1

Before a primary cementing job can begin,

several calculations must be done. In this unit,

you will learn these calculations:

7 critical calculations that need to be made with every

surface casing job

worksheet.

(pump) the casing out of the hole

the required footage of the annulus plus the shoe track

capacity.

cement into sacks.

to the top of the shoe track.

required to pump the plug to the top of the shoe track.

of the casing once the plug has landed.

F

A

Well Parameters

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

B

5

Pipe Size

Well Fluid

Hole Size

Pipe Depth

Shoe Track Length

Required Cement fill-up

Excess volume required (percent)

Calculation Guidelines

Do not apply any decimal places for pressure or sacks

Apply 2 decimal places for

psi/bbl

cubic feet

pounds

feet

area

gallons

barrels

Book Hydrostatic Pressure And Fluid Weight Conversion

Tables

Rounding numbers if the last number is to be dropped,

round up if 5, down if < 5.

5 18

Cementing 1

MATERIAL

NAME

Material

(lb)

Water

Absolute

Volume

(gal)

Factor

(gal/lb)

Mixing Water

Requirements

(gal)

lb/gal

gal

TOTALS ==>

gal

Total mixing water must be entered under absolute gallons before totaling.

Find the weight of the mixed cement by using this formula:

Total Pounds/Total Absolute gallons = lb/gal

Find the cement yield in cubic feet per sack by using this formula:

Total Absolute gallons / 7.4805 gal/ft3 (constant) = ft3/sack

The mixing water per sack is the sum of the gallons in the far right column

lb/gal

ft3/sk

gal/sk

5 19

Cementing 1

7 critical calculations that need to be made with every

surface casing job

(pump) the casing out of the hole

the required footage of the annulus plus the shoe track

capacity.

cement into sacks.

to the top of the shoe track.

required to pump the plug to the top of the shoe track.

of the casing once the plug has landed.

introduced to the basic calculations and concepts

needed in preparing for a primary cementing

job. In this unit you will be shown the steps for

calculating a surface casing cement job. Later,

youll be asked to actually make the calculations

for a similar job on your own.

Cementing Calculations

Refer to the well parameter information as you

work through the calculations for the surface

casing cementing job.

Figure 5.12 Surface Casing Cementing

Job

Required to Lift Pipe

When pipe is run into a hole, the result in a ram

effect. This ram effect increases as the running

speed and the diameter of the pipe increases. In

some cases, the ram effect will break down lowpressure zones. Sand may slough off and bridge

the annulus. If the casing is stuck in the hole,

you cannot pull it out without parting it.

circulated from total depth to surface.

Well Parameters

Pipe Size

9 5/8 in 36 lb/ft

Well Fluid

8.7 lb/gal

Hole Size

12.25 in

Pipe Depth

300 ft

40 ft

To surface

100%

precaution. They are done before mixing any

cement. Just in case the annulus has bridged,

you need to know how much pressure would be

required to lift the pipe. This pressure could

5 20

Cementing 1

multiplied by the weight per foot of

casing (Step 2b) times the length of the

casing (Step 2c) equals the weight of the

pipe hanging in fluid:

to chain the pipe down during the operations.

1. First, the area of the casing must be found.

a) In the Calculations and Formulae

section of the Red Book (see also Figure

5.13), look up the formula for the area

of a circle.

Area = 0.7854 D

(The arrow indicates the direction of this force.)

calculate the amount of pressure to apply to

the casing at the surface, pumping

downward through the casing below the

casing shoe, to start the lift (or to balance the

pipe). The larger the diameter of the pipe the

less pressure is required to lift the string.

This is why you need to chain down large

diameter casing during the pumping

operation (chain it to the substructure or a

leg of the derrick, but not to the rotary

table).

Figure 5.13

divided by the area of the pipe (step 1b) is the

pressure needed to start the lift:

formula for area of a circle (area of the

casing):

caution should be taken to prevent the pipe from

blowing out of the hole and causing damage.

The casing should be chained down and all

personnel except the operator, should be cleared

off the rig floor.

the pipe when it is hanging in fluid (the

downward force of the pipe in the wellbore.)

a) First, look up the buoyancy factor for

the wellbore fluid you are working with.

Keep in mind that this buoyancy factor

relates to the fact that open-ended pipe

weighs less in a fluid than it does in air.

The weight of this fluid is 8.7 lb/gal.

Referring to the Displacement section

of the Red Book (see also Figure 5.14),

you will see that the buoyancy factor is

0.8671 for a fluid of that weight.

b) You also need to know how much your

casing weights in air. From the casing

stamp, you can find that this casing

weigh 36 lb/ft.

c) Since it is not known at what depth the

annulus might become bridged, use the

overall length of your casing (300 ft) for

these calculations.

5 21

Cementing 1

3 of the Class G Section in the Technical Data

Section of the Red Book. We will work through

the absolute volume calculations as an example.

Refer to the gray pages in the Technical Data:

section of your Red Book (see also Figure 5.9).

You will see that the table labeled Physical

Properties of Cementing Materials and

Admixtures contains much of the information

needed to calculate the slurrys absolute volume

(as well as its weight that will be calculated

later).

To aid in these calculations, the Worksheet for

Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations has

been developed (Figure 5.11). This worksheet

will be completed as the following calculations

are worked out.

1. First, find the bulk weight of API cements

listed in Figure 5.9 94 lb/ft3. The factor for

absolute volume of API cements is 0.0382

gal/lb.

2. Then calculate the correct figures for each of

the additives and the water being used.

a) Calculate how much the calcium

chloride will weigh by multiplying the

weight of cement by 2%:

0.02 94 lb = 1.88 lb

b) Look up the factor for absolute volume

of Calcium Chloride, which is 0.0612

lb/gal.

Figure 5.14

Flocele, which is 0.0845 gal/lb.

3. To find the absolute volumes of the cement,

Calcium Chloride and Flocele, multiply the

numbers in the materials column by the

numbers in the factor column:

Cement

1.88 lb 0.0612 gal/lb = 0.12 gal.

0.25 lb 0.0845 gal/lb = 0.02 gal

this surface casing cementing job, you need to

know the type of cement, its weight and its

yield.

Class G cement with 2% calcium chloride and

lb/sk Flocele has been chosen for this surface

casing job. Using this information, you can

perform the calculations necessary to eventually

find out how much cement you will need.

5 22

Cementing 1

Worksheet for Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations

Casing Job One

API Cement Weight = 94 lb/sack

1 sack = 1 cubic foot

Material

Name

Material

(lb)

Class G

Cement

2% Calcium

Chloride

.25lb Flocele

sack of cement with its additives, refer to the

gray pages in the Technical Data section

of your handbook (see also Figure 5.15).

These requirements are 5.0 gal., 0 gal and 0

gal for the cement, Calcium Chloride and

Flocele respectively. Add these figures

together for the waters absolute volume:

Water

Totals

Factor

(gal/lb)

94

Absolute Mixing

Volume Water

(gal) Required

(gal)

0.0382 =

3.5908 5.00

1.88

0.0612 =

0.11506

0.25

0.845 =

=

0.02113

41.65

8.33 =

5.00

137.78

8.7270

5.00

before totaling.

Find the weight of the mixed cement by using this formula:

Total Pounds Total Absolute gallons = lb/gal

Find the cement yield in cubic feet per sack by using this

formula:

3

The mixing water per sack is the sum of the gallons in the far

right column

multiply the weight per gallon of water by

the volume of water (step 4):

8.33 gal/lb 5 gal = 41.65 lb

Cement Density

137.78

8.7270 =

15.8

lb/gal

Cement Yield

8.7270

7.4805 =

1.17

ft /sk

5.00

gal/sk

Mixing Water

Required

columns:

5 23

Cementing 1

absolute volume in gallons (Step 6) by the

constant which can be found in the table

Conversion Constants (Figure 5.16)

7.4805 gal/ft3

8.7270 gal 7.4805 gal/ft3 = 1.17 ft3/sk

Now assume that you have circulated through

the surface casing down to a depth of 300 ft and

that you have a well-conditioned hole. It is

necessary to calculate the volume of slurry

needed for the job. This is a combination of the

slurry needed to fill annular space and to fill the

shoe joint.

9. To determine how much slurry is needed to

fill the annulus, the ft3/ft for the annulus is

multiplied by the length of the annulus.

a) First, refer to the Volume and Height

Between Tubing, Casing, Drill Pipe, and

Hole section in the handbook. (To use

this table, you need to find the table with

the correct number of strings. For

example, see the four different tables for

tubing with an OD of 3 in). Look on

the table for 9 5/8 in (see also Figure

5.17). The ft3/ft for this annulus is

0.3132.

b) You know that the length of the annulus

is 300 ft. Multiplying this by the ft3/ft

value found in Step 9a results in the

volume needed to fill the annular space.

300 ft 0.3132 ft3/ft = 93.96 ft3.

c) Excess cement knowing we need

100% excess (double the calculation

volume) we calculate the following:

Figure 5.16

pounds per gallon, divide the total pounds

by the total absolute volume in gallons:

137.78 8.7270 gal = 15.8 lb/gal

5 24

Cementing 1

Figure 5.17

(or track) needs to be calculated in the last

step, to determine how much slurry is in the

shoe joint, the capacity factor of the joint is

multiplied by its length.

3 Sacks of Cement

1. Now that you know the cubic feet needed

(Step 11), you use the yield (Step 8) to

calculate the number of sacks needed:

Capacity section of the Cementing

Table (See also Figure 5.18) You need

to know the OD (9 5/8 in.) and the

weight (36 lb/ft) of your casing. The

capacity factor is 0.4340 ft3/ft.

Mixing Water

as 40 ft.

needed, you need to calculate the volume of

water required on location to mix the slurry.

This water should always be fresh water (unless

slurry is designed for salt or seawater).

joint (10a) by the length of the shoe

joint (10b) for the capacity for the shoe

joint:

0.4340 ft3/ft 40 ft = 17.36 ft3

of water per sack of cement. This is multiplied

by the number of sacks in order to obtain the

total number of gallons of mixing water needed.

This unit of measurement needs to be converted

to barrels since tanks on trucks are marked off in

barrels.

(step 9c) to the volume of slurry to fill the

shoe joint (step10c) to determine the total

numbers of barrels of cement that you need:

187.92 ft3 + 17.36 ft3 = 205.28 ft3

5 25

Cementing 1

Figure 5.18

When all of the cement has been mixed, the top

plug will be pumped down to a depth of 260 ft.

The number of barrels needed to do this is the

same as the capacity of the casing to the float

collar.

in gallons:

5 gal/sk 175 sk = 875 gal

1. Since there are 42 gal in a barrel, convert to

barrels:

Therefore, it will take this amount of water to

mix your cement. You will need more water on

location, considering the water used for cleanup,

spacer, etc.

Fluid to Displace Top Plug

The first step in the cementing process is to run

a bottom plug to wipe the casing clean of mud

buildup. The cement following the bottom plug

will rupture the plugs diaphragm. Then it will

move through the center of the plug, out the

bottom of the shoe, and up the annulus. If a

bottom plug is not run, the top plug will wipe

down the walls and mud will collect in the shoe

joint between the top plug and the cement slurry.

5 26

which is based on the stated ID of this particular

casing OD and weight. The actual ID of a joint

of casing is almost always larger than the value

stated in the tables. This is due to the

manufacturing process of seamless tubulars. The

actual tolerances are identified in API

specification 5CT.

It is recommended to caliper a number of joints

of casing just inside the pin area. These are used

to come up with an average ID for the casing

being run.

The caliper ID should be used in the final

calculations relating to casing capacity such as

shoe track volume and fluid to displace the top

plug. The volume difference in displacing the

top plug can be significant.

Cementing 1

Land the Plug

Calculations for pressure to land the plug should

be made on each job. You need to know the

pressure required to put the cement in place.

Any pressure buildup in excess of this pressure

might indicate channeling or bridging in the

annulus. A loss of pressure could mean a loss of

cement into the formation.

Figure 5.12 shows a balanced section of hole.

The shoe is at 300 feet and the plug landing

point is 260 feet. The shoe joint and the annular

space opposite it are full of the same weight

cement. Therefore that part of the well is

balanced and no calculations are required.

You do need to make a few calculations

concerning the unbalanced portion of the hole

indicated in Figure 5.12. The annular space from

260 ft back to surface is filled with 15.8 lb/gal

cement (this density was determined during the

amount of cement calculations, Step 7 in

Calculations for Amount of Cement). Also, you

have displaced the plug with 8.7 lb/gal fluid in

the casing. Because the fluids have different

densities, a differential pressure results.

You must convert the lb/gal of the cement and

displacement fluid to psi/ft in order to make the

calculation (Figure 5.19).

Figure 5.19

Weight Conversion tables in the

Calculations and Formulae section of your

Red Book (see also Figure 5.19). To find the

psi/ft for the weight of the cement (15.8

lb/gal),

To minimize errors, here is the most accurate

way to make this calculation: Working form the

bottom of the casing up to the surface, calculate

the hydrostatic pressure outside, then calculate

the hydrostatic pressure inside.

Remember, work from the bottom up, for the

entire casing string.

5 27

Cementing 1

lbs/gal.

Hydrostatic Outside

Cement

300 ft 0.8208 psi/ft

Total: 300 ft

pressure in the annular space. The plug will

close off the pressure in the casing when it lands

on a float collar. If you do not land the plug or

run a float collar or back pressure valve, but

only stop the plug in the casing, then you will

close in the cementing head and the pressure to

land the plug will remain on the casing until the

cement has set.

246 psi

246 psi

Hydrostatic Inside

Cement

40 ft 0.8208 psi/ft

Well Fluid

260 ft 0.4519 psi/ft

Total 300 ft

33 psi

117 psi

150 psi

depth, multiply that depth by the psi/ft of the

fluid in the annulus in this case, cement slurry:

= 96 psi

with the same depth then something is wrong.

half-barrel per minute to read this on a

chart or gauge because high rates create

friction pressure (which can give you a

false pressure reading).

Force

Precautions must be taken before pumping the

plug down when you are working on the surface

casing. You need to find out if the casing will

remain still, or if the plug landing pressure will

pump the casing out of the hole if so, you will

need to chain the pipe down (in addition to

chaining the head to the elevators).

position and 96 psi is readable on the gauge, this

job has been done successfully. Remember that

you will not be able to correctly read the

pressure to land a plug on all jobs. Losing

cement into the formation or developing

channels in the cement will alter the pressure

reading. Release the pressure when the plug

lands; this will prevent a microannulus. Keep in

mind that most companies will require more

pressure than what is required to land the plug in

order to test the plugs seal. Depending on the

situation, some customers will pressure test

casing after the plug lands.

the difference between the upward force on the

pipe and the downward force on the pipe.

1. You have calculated the area of the surface

casing (Step 1b - Pressure to Lift the Pipe

Calculations) to be 72.76 in.2. In addition,

you know the pressure to land the plug is 96

psi (Step 6 Pressure to Land the Plug

Calculations). Multiplying the two values

will give you the amount of upward force in

pounds.

at a Given Depth

You need to be able to calculate the hydrostatic

pressure at any depth. For the purpose of this

problem, you will determine the hydrostatic psi

at 260 ft. Will this formation support the amount

of pressure exerted by the column of cement

down the annulus to the given point?

hydrostatic pressure to work with since you have

cement from the top to the bottom of the well.

That pressure is 0.8208 psi/ft, which you

determined earlier (Pressure to Land the Plug

5 28

buoyancy factor for the 8.7 lb/gal

displacement fluid (Step 2a Pressure to

Lift the Pipe Calculations). Referring to the

Displacement section again, look up the

buoyancy factor for the cement used (see

also Figure 5.14) The weight of cement is

15.8 lb/gal as determined in Step 7 of the

amount of cement calculations. To find the

Cementing 1

look up 15.8.

force contributed by the cement:

in question are needed. Cement is inside the pipe

in the shoe joint (40 ft) and displacement fluid is

inside the pipe above the float collar (260 ft).

The weight of the pipe is 36 lb/gal.

4. Adding these two downward forces together

(Step 2 and 3) will give you the total

downward force:

8116.06 lb + 1092.38 lb = 9208.44 lb

determine the downward force contributed by

the displacement fluid:

downward force (Step 4) to obtain the

resulting force:

displacement fluid inside the pipe pipe weight

per foot = pounds of downward force

Although this is considered a downward force, it

will be necessary to chain down the casing as a

precautionary measure.

5 29

Cementing 1

This casing job consists of LEAD and TAIL slurries in which

cement is to be circulated from total depth to surface.

Well Parameters

13 3/8-in. Casing

17 1/2-in. Hole

Pipe Size

Well Fluid

8.5 lb/gal

Hole Size

17.5 in.

Pipe Depth

2400 ft

80 ft

400 ft

2000 ft

120%

Area Of Pipe

2

13.375 in 13.375 in 0.7854 = 140.50 in.

(Section 240 Page 85)

2,000 ft

Hook Load

2,400 ft 68 lb/ft 0.8701 = 142,000.32/lbs

(Section 130 Table 132 Buoyancy Factor)

Pressure to lift (pump) pipe out of the hole

2

142,000.32 lb 140.50 in. = 1010 psi

2,320 ft

2

Lead

Tail

Displacement

2,400 ft

Figure 5.20

Cement Volume

Halliburton Light Cement

2% Calcium Chloride

1/4 lb/sk Flocele

Given

Sl. Wt 13.6 lb/gal

3

Sl. Vol. 1.55 ft /sk

Water 7.62 gal/sk

Class H Premium

1% Calcium

1/4 lb/sk Flocele

Given

Sl Wt 16.4 lb/gal

3

Sl. Vol 1.07 ft /sk

Water 4.3 gal/sk

Tail

3

400 ft (openhole) 0.6946 ft /ft

277.84 ft

3

80 ft (shoes) 0.8406 ft /ft

=

=

611.25 ft

3

67.25 ft

3

678.50 ft (tail)

Lead

3

2000 ft (openhole) 0.6946 ft /ft

1389.20 ft

3056.24 ft (lead)

cement on this job; 120% excess is equal to

multiplying the perfect hole volume by 2.2.

5 30

Cementing 1

Calculations

Calculations

Material

Name

Material

(lb)

65% Class H

Cement

35% Poz

6% Bentonite

2% Calcium

Chloride

.25lb Flocele

Water

Totals

Factor

(gal/lb)

61.1

Absolute Mixing

Volume Water

(gal) Required

(gal)

0.0382 = 2.33402

2.75

25.9

5.22

1.74

0.0488 =

0.0453 =

0.0612 =

1.26392

0.23647

0.10649

1.27

3.60

0.00

0.25

0.0845

0.02113

0.00

63.47 =

8.33

157.68

7.62

Material

Name

Material

(lb)

Class H

Cement

1% Calcium

Chloride

.25lb Flocele

Water

11.5820

7.62

Factor

(gal/lb)

94

Absolute Mixing

Volume Water

(gal) Required

(gal)

0.0382 =

3.5908

4.30

0.94

0.0612 =

0.05753

0.25

0.0845 =

=

0.02113

35.819 =

8.33

4.30

Totals 131.009

7.9695

4.30

gallons before totaling.

gallons before totaling.

formula:

formula:

this formula:

this formula:

the far right column

the far right column

Cement Density

Cement Density

Cement Yield

Mixing Water

Required

157.68

11.5820 =

13.6

lb/gal

11.5820

7.4805 =

1.55

ft /sk

Cement Yield

7.62

gal/sk

Mixing Water

Required

5 31

131.009

7.9695 =

16.4

lb/gal

7.9695

7.4805 =

1.07

ft /sk

4.3

gal/sk

Cementing 1

Sacks of Cement

Resulting Force

Force Down

Tail

3

3

678.50 ft 1.07 ft /sk

634 sk

Lead

3

3

3056.24 ft 1.55 ft /sk

1972 sk

80 ft 68 lb/ft 0.7494 BF

2400 ft Total Down

Tail

634 sk 4.3 gal/sk

Lead

1972 sk 7.62 gal/sk

=

=

64.91 bbl

=

=

357.78 bbl

137266.98 lb

4,076.74 lb

141343.72 lb

Force Up

140.50 in 661 psi

=

=

Hook Load

92870.50 lb

141343.72 lb

92870.50 lb

48473.22 lb Downward Force

When Plug Lands

Shoe)

2320 ft 0.1497 bbl/ft = 347.30 bbl

** Working From The Bottom Up**

Hydrostatic Outside

Tail

400 ft 0.8519 psi/ft

Lead

2000 ft 0.7065 psi/ft

341 psi

1413 psi

Total: 2400 ft

1754 psi

Hydrostatic Inside

Tail

80 ft 0.8519 psi/ft

Well Fluid

2320 ft 0.4416 psi/ft

Total 2400 ft

68 psi

1025 psi

1093 psi

= 661 psi

both outside and inside pipe segments are

calculated. If the lengths are not the same then

the calculations will be incorrect.

5 32

Cementing 1

This casing job consists of a single tail slurry

with 500 ft fill.

Well Parameters

Well fluid

Spacer

Cement

Pipe Size

7 in. 32 lb/ft

Well Fluid

10.4 lb WBM

Hole Size

8 in.

Pipe Depth

9700 ft

80 ft

500 ft

25%

GIVEN:

Cement through casing as follows

30 bbl spacer @ 11.4 lb/gal

TOS (top

of spacer)

Followed by:

Premium Class G Cement containing 0.5% CFR-3 + 0.1%

HR-5. Displace plug with 10.4 lb/gal WBM.

TOC (top

of cement)

9,200 ft

water.

9,620 ft

9,700 ft

5 33

Cementing 1

MATERIAL

NAME

Class G Cement

Material

(lb)

94

X

Factor

(gal/lb)

0.0382

Absolute

Volume

(gal)

3.5908

Mixing Water

Requirements

(gal)

5.00

0.47

0.0938

0.04409

0.094

0.0750

0.00705

Water

41.65 =

TOTALS ==>

8.33

136.214

5.00

gal

8.6419

5.00 gal

Total mixing water must be entered under absolute gallons before totaling.

Find the weight of the mixed cement by using this formula:

Total Pounds/Total Absolute gallons = pounds/gallons

Find the cement yield in cubic feet per sack by using this formula:

Total Absolute gallons / 7.4805 gal/ ft3 (constant) = ft3./sack

The mixing water per sack is the sum of the gallons in the far right column

Cement Yield (ft3/sk) ===>

Mixing Water required ===>

136.214 /

8.6419 =

15.8

lb/gal

8.6419 /

7.4805 =

1.16

ft3/sk

5.00

gal/sk

5 34

Cementing 1

Cement Volume

3

3

25% Excess: 75.15 ft 25%

3/

Shoe Track: 80 ft 0.2025 ft /ft

Total:

95 sks

=

=

475 gal

11.31 bbl

95 sk 5 gal/sk

475 gal 42 gal/bbl

75.15 ft

3

18.79 ft

3

16.2 ft

3

110.14 ft

Sacks of Cement

=

=

=

347.76 bbl

Height of Cement (for worst case)

Discussion: In calculating the pressure to land the plug, we

want to anticipate worst case which would be an increased

pressure over plan. We planned our cement volume based

upon hole washout (in this case 25%). We need to calculate

the height of cement & spacer (Which are heavier than the

mud) in a perfect hole situation which will give us a taller

column & higher differential pressure.

Height Of Cement

3

25% Excess Volume

=

=

(7 in OD 8 3/4 in hole)

3

3

93.94 ft x 6.652 ft/ft

75.15 ft (From 1)

3

18.79 ft

3

93.94 ft

3

6.652 ft/ft

624.89 ft cement

30 bbl 37.3484 ft/bbl

=

** Working from the bottom up**

1120.45 ft spacer

Height Of Spacer

Height Of Mud

9700 ft - 624.89 ft - 1120.45 ft

7954.66 ft

Hydrostatic Outside

Cement: 624.89 ft 0.8208 psi/ft

Spacer: 1120.45 ft 0.5922 psi/ft

WBM: 7954.66 ft 0.5403 psi/ft

=

=

=

Total: 9700 ft

513 psi

664 psi

4298 psi

5475 psi

Hydrostatic Inside

Cement (in shoe): 40 ft 0.8208 psi/ft

WBM:

9660 ft 0.5403 psi/ft

=

=

Total: 9700 ft

Differential Pressure (at top of shoe)

5475 psi - 5252 psi

33 psi

5219 psi

5252 psi

223 psi

5 35

Cementing 1

Unit D Quiz

Fill in the blank with one or more words to check your progress in Unit D.

1. When using the Worksheet for Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations, the first thing you need to

know is what ___________ of cement is being used. Then you can look up the ingredients

______________ and _____________ volume factors.

2. An absolute volume for each material is calculated by multiplying its _____ by its ___________.

3. To obtain the density of the cement mixture, divide the ________________ of the materials by the

________________________________________ of the materials.

4. To find the yield, the total absolute volume in gallons is divided by the constant, ___________ gal/ft.

5. To calculate the total volume of slurry needed for this job, add the slurry needed to fill the

_________________ and the slurry needed to fill the ____________________. Your unit of measure

will be ___________ which needs to be converted to __________.

6. To calculate the number of sacks needed for this job, divide the amount of slurry in _____________

by the _______________________________ in cubic feet per sack.

7. To obtain the total amount of mixing water you will need, multiply the number of ______/sk water by

the number of __________.Then convert to the unit of measurement used in tanks, ___________, by

dividing gallons by _______gal/bbl.

8. You need to calculate the pressure needed to land the plug, since a pressure build up might

indicate_________ and a loss of pressure may mean

______________________________________________.

9. For the pressure to land the plug, you will need to use the ____________

___________________________________ conversion tables in the Calculations and Formulas

section of you handbook. You will look up the _____/ft of the fluids (extrapolating, if necessary),

then multiply these by the depth of the float collar (or the length of the _____________ part of the

hole).

Now, look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section.

5 36

Cementing 1

Items from Unit A Quiz

Refer to

Page

1. capacity

2. Displacement

3. Turn to Section 210 Pages 21

0.0393 bbl/ft 10,000 ft = 393 bbl

4. ID2 3.14159/4/144 = 0.230438cft/ft

0.230438 / 5.6146 cft/bbl = 0.041043 bbl/ft

0.041043 bbl/ft 10,000 ft = 410.43 bbl

5. Turn to Section 210, Table 212B, Page 9

25 bbl 70.32 ft/bbl = 1758 ft

6. OD = 4.5 in. = 0.375 ft

ID = 2.0 in. = 0.167 ft

OD Area = 0.7854 0.375 ft 0.375 ft =

0.1104 ft2

ID Area = 0.7854 0.167 ft 0.167 ft =

0.0219 ft2

Cross-sectional Area =

0.1104 ft2 - 0.0219 ft2 = 0.0885 ft2

Displacement =

0.0885 ft2 2000 ft = 117 ft3

Conversion Factor = 0.1781 bbl/ft3

Displacement =

117 ft3 0.1781 bbl/ft3 = 31.52 bbl

Refer to

Page

0.3132 ft3/ft 5000 ft = 1566 ft3

1566 ft3 7.4805 gal/ft3 = 11714 gal

2. Turn to Section 221-B, Page 73

0.1697 ft3/ft 7675 ft = 1302.45 ft3

Refer to

Page

1. Divided, standard

2. Actual volume

5 37

Cementing 1

3. Absolute volume

4.

ABSOLUTE

MATERIAL

FACTOR

VOLUME

MATERIALS

(lb)

(gal/lb)

(gal)

Brine Water

10

Sand

10

TOTALS

0.0456

20 lbs

1.0

0.456

1.456 gal

5.

1 sack = 1 cubic foot

Absolute

MATERIAL

Material

Factor

Volume

(lb)

(gal/lb)

(gal)

NAME

Class H Cement

Water

94 X

35.819 =

TOTALS ==>

0.0382 =

3.5908

8.33 lb/gal

129.819

Mixing Water

Requirements

(gal)

4.30

4.30 gal

7.8908

4.30 gal

Total Pounds/ Total Absolute gallons = pounds/gallon.

Find the cement yield in cubic feet per sack by using this formula:

Total Absolute gallons / 7.4805 gal / ft3 (constant) = ft3/sack

The mixing water per sack is the sum of the gallons in the far right column.

Cement Density (lb/gal) ==>

3

Mixing Water req (gal/sk)===>

129.819 /

7.8908 =

16.5

7.8908 /

7.4805 =

1.05

4.30

Refer to

Page

2. gal/lb, weight

3. weight, gallons

4. 7.4805

5. annulus, shoe joint, ft3, sk

6. ft3, yield

7. gal, sk, bbl, 42

5 38

Cementing 1

9. hydrostatic pressure & fluid weight, psi,

unbalanced

5 39

Cementing 1

- Calculation of Cementing Operation on LocationUploaded byMufti Ghazali
- Cementing CalculationUploaded byWanto Supriyo
- 8. Squeeze CementingUploaded byAli Aliiev
- 5. 4. Primary Cementing CalculationsUploaded byAli Aliiev
- Halliburton CementingUploaded bymuki10
- Cementing Engineering Manual Part 1Uploaded bySameul Norman
- 6. Liner CementingUploaded byAli Aliiev
- Cementing Best PracticesUploaded byRobert Beddingfield
- Halliburton-Petroleum Well ConstructionUploaded byIndah Ayu Putri
- Oil Well cementingUploaded byDozie Kesieme
- 10. Downhole Cementing EquipmentUploaded byAli Aliiev
- 7. Plug-Back CementingUploaded byAli Aliiev
- Primary and Remedial CementingUploaded byPablo Santo
- BP & Chevron - Cement ManualUploaded byellswors
- Cementing Best Practice Jorge SierraUploaded byhamora33
- Oil well CementingUploaded byginozky
- CementingUploaded byginozky
- 1) CementingCalculation(ForUTP)v02Uploaded byArchana Kumaran
- Casing and Cementing Preview bUploaded bygwapito03
- Cementing CalculationUploaded byAngel Ngo
- Cementing Handbook-george SumanUploaded bygiovas
- Halliburton Cementing TablesUploaded byAlex Castañeda
- Oilwell Cementing CalculationUploaded byRishi Ramnath
- Cementing ServicesUploaded byReeder Pat Price
- Special CementUploaded byBeye Mandan Stress
- Basic CementUploaded byRandy Wiranata
- 3. API Cements and AdditivesUploaded byAli Aliiev
- Well CementingUploaded byAnonymous T32l1R
- 12. Bulk Cement Storage and HandlingUploaded byAli Aliiev
- Vol 6 Remedial Cementing PracticesUploaded bydenywahyu

- Extraction of ThiopheneUploaded byJohnSmith
- Selective Extraction of Neutral Nitrogen Compounds Found in Diesel Feed ByUploaded byJohnSmith
- Zn-Containing Ionic Liquids for the Extractive Denitrogenation of a Model Oil - A Mechanistic ConsiderationUploaded byJohnSmith
- Selective Adsorption for Removal of Nitrogen Compounds From Liquid HC Streams Over Carbon- And Alumina- Based AdsorbentsUploaded byJohnSmith
- Are Deep EutecticUploaded byJohnSmith
- Inhibition Effects of Nitrogen Compounds on the HDS of Dibenzothiophene Part 2aUploaded byJohnSmith
- Chemical Reviews Volume 99 Issue 8 1999 [Doi 10.1021%2Fcr980032t] Welton, Thomas -- Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids. Solvents for Synthesis and CatalysisUploaded bysushantkadam75
- Seddon 2003Uploaded byJohnSmith
- Use of Ab AlgorithmicUploaded byJohnSmith
- Eutectic Mixtures Based Upon Multivalent Metal IonsUploaded byJohnSmith
- Deep Eutectic Solvent Concentration in the Room Temperature Ionic Conductivity and Thermal Behavior of Corn Starch Based Polymer ElectrolytesUploaded byJohnSmith
- Ionic Liquid Analogues Formed From Hydrated Metal SaltsUploaded byJohnSmith
- Properties and Phase Equilibria of Fluid Mixtures as the Basis for Developing Green Chemical ProcessesUploaded byJohnSmith
- Electrodeposition of Co, Sm and SmCo From a Deep Eutectic SolventUploaded byJohnSmith
- Synthesis of Monoclinic Structured BiVO4 Spindly Microtubes in Deep Eutectic Solvent and Their Application for Dye DegradationUploaded byJohnSmith
- Post-etch Residue Removal Using Choline Chloride–Malonic Acid Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES)Uploaded byJohnSmith
- Bacteria Incorporation in Deep-eutectic Solvents Through FreezeUploaded byJohnSmith
- Electrodeposition of Zinc–Tin Alloys From Deep Eutectic Solvents Based on Choline ChlorideUploaded byJohnSmith
- Methods for Stabilizing and Activating EnzymesUploaded byJohnSmith
- Direct Conversion of Inulin to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in BiorenewableUploaded byJohnSmith
- New synthetic route of polyoxometalate-based hybrids in choline chloride_urea eutectic media.pdfUploaded byJohnSmith
- Molar Heat Capacities of Choline Chloride-based Deep Eutectic Solvents and Their Binary Mixtures With WaterUploaded byJohnSmith
- Ionothermal Materials Synthesis Using UnstableUploaded byJohnSmith

- Yu_2013_IOP_Conf._Ser.%3A_Mater._Sci._Eng._47_012059Uploaded bysadhu
- C_PollockUploaded byAzwar Sutiono
- 1 2 13 p gliderdesignflightdataUploaded byapi-325609547
- Deviance and Group CohesionUploaded byMarcadeagua Bijuteria Artesanal
- Device ProposalUploaded byJulienne Christine Balbin
- Leonhardt Cable StayUploaded byTarun Kant Goyal
- Physics Lab 1Uploaded bysckleymann
- Compact Density Meter 100 Installation Manual DataUploaded byAHMED
- TI89 - TI92 Symbolic Math Guide - Texas Instruments (2001) WWUploaded byFrank Rizzo
- Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger DesignUploaded byDaniel James Watkins
- Fundamental Principles of MEUploaded bySree Iyer
- Exergetic_Analysis_of_a_Gas_Turbine_with_Inlet_Air_Cooling_System.pdfUploaded byWashoo Hasoo
- Application of MicroprocessorUploaded byberhe2121
- Acceleration and Deceleration LengthsUploaded byDakshina Murthy
- GM 1925Uploaded byShiva R
- Carbon Footprint RubricUploaded bygeoplex3917
- Design.language.apdlUploaded bypaaablo_o
- Compiled Questions in Philippine Grid Code.docUploaded byjeffpascua17
- Person Re-IdentificationUploaded byHemprasad Badgujar
- 150811pbdesignthinking-150811053102-lva1-app6892Uploaded byTaofik Rifai
- 43400953 Nakshatra and Dasa CalculatorUploaded byAliahmed Nizamani
- Cat FormUploaded byjagas123455123
- abacus tktUploaded byShailendra Sapkota
- Shiv Nadar the Role ModelUploaded bykhushi_thacker
- Lab Pid Motor ControlUploaded byacajahuaringa
- pdf - Mathematics for Scientists - Applied MathUploaded byAkeem Ajibola Ojo Engr
- Corrections to 8th EdUploaded byavner_biblarz
- sbac practice test answersUploaded byapi-234535650
- 9_Ashwani_Power_System_State_Estimation.pdfUploaded bysf111
- Steve and JohnUploaded byThameemul Buhari