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Section 5

Primary Cementing Calculations


Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................................................5-3
Topic Area..............................................................................................................................................5-3
Learning Objectives ...............................................................................................................................5-3
Unit A: Capacity Calculations ...................................................................................................................5-3
Fill-Up Calculations ...............................................................................................................................5-4
Displacement..........................................................................................................................................5-5
Bull-Plugged Pipe ..................................................................................................................................5-5
Open-Ended Pipe....................................................................................................................................5-5
Unit A Test:............................................................................................................................................5-7
Unit B: Annular Volume Calculations.......................................................................................................5-8
Unit B Test ...........................................................................................................................................5-11
Unit C: Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations ....................................................................................5-12
Density .................................................................................................................................................5-12
Specific Gravity....................................................................................................................................5-13
API Gravity ..........................................................................................................................................5-13
Absolute Density vs. Bulk Density ......................................................................................................5-13
Absolute Volume..................................................................................................................................5-13
Unit C Quiz: .........................................................................................................................................5-17
Unit D: Primary Cementing Calculations Example .................................................................................5-18
Given Information for Primary Cementing Calculations .....................................................................5-20
1 Calculations for Pressure Required to Lift Pipe...............................................................................5-20
2 Calculations for Amount of Cement ................................................................................................5-22
3 Sacks of Cement ..............................................................................................................................5-25
4 Calculations for Amount of Mixing Water ......................................................................................5-25
5 Calculations for Amount of Fluid to Displace Top Plug .................................................................5-26
6 Calculations for Pressure to Land the Plug ......................................................................................5-27
7 Calculations for Resulting Force......................................................................................................5-28
Intermediate Casing Job One ...............................................................................................................5-33
Unit D Quiz ..........................................................................................................................................5-36
Answers to Unit Quizzes .........................................................................................................................5-37

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Use for Section Notes

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Introduction
Primary cementing is the cementing operation
performed immediately after the casing has been
run downhole. The materials, tools, equipment,
and techniques to be used vary depending on the
hole conditions, depth of the well, and the
people planning the job. Successful primary
cementing presents a constant challenge and
requires up-to-date knowledge and technology.

C. Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations


D. Primary Cementing Calculations Example

Learning Objectives
Upon completion of this section, you should be
familiar with:

Topic Area
The units in this section are:
A. Capacity Calculations
B. Annular Volume Calculations

How to calculate the amount of cement for a


Primary job.

How to calculate the mixing water required


for the cement.

How to calculate the pressure required to


land the top plug

Unit A: Capacity Calculations


It is recommended to caliper a number of joints
of casing just inside the pin area. These are used
to come up with an average ID for the casing
being run.

Capacity is a term frequently used


interchangeably with volume. As used in the
oilfield, it is the volume that a certain length of
pipe will hold. Knowing the shape of the pipe is
round, the volume can be calculated by hand.

This ID should be used in the final calculations


relating to casing capacity. The volume
difference in can be significant.

In this unit, we will discuss fill-up and


displacement calculations.

Unless a caliper value is given, this course will


use the table values for ID as accurate.

Capacity calculations are one of the many types


of mathematical problems that can be greatly
simplified by using the Halliburton Cementing
Tables (Red Book). Section 210 lists capacity
factors for various sizes of drill pipe, tubing and
casing. Currently, these are listed in terms of
gallons per foot, barrels per foot, and cubic feet
per foot. See Figure 5.1 for a sample of a
capacity table for drill pipe.

To use the Capacity tables, locate the correct


table for the type of pipe youre dealing with:
drill pipe, tubing, or casing. Next, locate the size
and weight of pipe in the two left columns.
(Note: For tubing, there are four columns.) Then
find the volume units you want across the top.
Read the capacity factor where the columns
intersect.

The actual ID of a joint of casing is almost


always larger than the value stated in the tables.
This is due to the manufacturing process of
seamless tubulars. The actual tolerances are
identified in API specification 5CT.

Sample Problem
What is the capacity, in gallons, of 1000 ft of 27/8 in., 10.4 lb/ft internal upset drill pipe? Use

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Capacity Factor = 0.1888 gal/ft


Capacity = 0.1888 gal/ft 1000 ft = 188.8 gal

the sample of Section 210 shown in Figure 5.1


to aid your calculations.

Solution
Find the appropriate capacity factor (in gal/ft) in
Figure 5.1. Then multiply by the length of the
drill pipe.

Figure 5.1

Sample Problem

Fill-Up Calculations

How many feet of 3-1/2 in., 15.50 lb/ft internal


upset drill pipe will 25 barrels of oil fill? Use
Figure 5.1 to aid in your calculations.

Fill-up of pipe is defined as the length of pipe a


specified volume will fill. Fill-up factors are also
listed in Section 210 of the Red Book.

Solution:
Fill-up Factor = 152.05 ft/bbl

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Sample Problem

Fill-up = 152.05 ft/bbl 25 bbl = 3801.25 ft

Displacement

What is the displacement, in barrels, for the


string of bull-plugged pipe shown in Figure 5.2?

Displacement is defined as the volume of fluid


displaced by an object when it is placed in that
fluid. In the oilfield, the terms displacement and
displace may be confused. The word displace
often refers to pumping the fluid inside the pipe
out of the pipe, as in displacing cement with
fresh water. To do this, the volume of fluid
pumped is usually equal to the capacity of the
pipe. This is totally different from the definition
of displacement as given in the first sentence of
this paragraph.

Solution:
3 in. = 0.25 ft
Displacement =
0.7854 0.25 ft 0.25 ft 1000 ft =
49.09 ft3
Conversion factor =
(located in section 240, page 85)
0.1781 bbl/ft3
Displacement =
49.09 ft3 0.1781 bbl/ft3 =
8.74 bbl

Bull-Plugged Pipe
Open-Ended Pipe

Figure 5.2 illustrates the volume of fluid


displaced when bull-plugged pipe is run in the
hole. This volume is equal to the outside
diameters flat surface area multiplied by the
length of the pipe:

When the pipe is open-ended (that is, some


opening permits the pipe to fill up on the inside
as it is lowered into the well), it will displace
less fluid than the bull-plugged string. As shown
in Figure 5.3, open-ended pipe will displace a
volume equal only to the volume of steel placed
in fluid. This displacement can be calculated by
multiplying the cross-sectional area by the
length:

Displacement = OD Area Length


or
Displacement = 0.7854 OD OD Length

Displacement = Cross-sectional Area Length

3 in.
1.5 in.

3 in.
1.5 in.
Dry
1,000 ft

Bottom
BullPlugged

Outside View

Dry

1,000 ft

Sectional View

Figure 5.2

Bottom Open
Outside View

Sectional View

Figure 5.3

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Sample Problem

Displacement =
0.0368 ft2 1000 ft = 36.8 ft3

What is the displacement, in barrels, for the


open-ended pipe illustrated in Figure 5.3?

Conversion Factor = 0.1781 bbl/ft3


Displacement =
36.8 ft3 0.1781 bbl/ft3 = 6.55 bbl

Solution:
OD = 3 in. = 0.25 ft

NOTE: In the above examples, it has been


assumed that the tubular goods were flush joint;
that is, no allowance was made for internal
upsets, external upsets, or couplings. Section
130 of the Red Book contains factors that allow
for upsets and couplings, as shown in Figure 5.4.

ID = 1.5 in. = 0.125 ft


OD Area = 0.7854 0.25 ft 0.25 ft =
0.0491 ft2
ID Area = 0.7854 0.125 ft 0.125 ft =
0.0123 ft2
Cross-sectional Area =
0.0491 ft2 0.0123 ft2 =
0.0368 ft2

Figure 5.4 Red Book data.

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Unit A Test:
For items 1 and 2, fill in the blanks. For items 3 to 5, use your Red Book as a reference and find the
solutions to check your progress in Unit A.
1. The volume that a certain length of pipe will hold is known as the pipe's ______________________.
2. ____________________________is defined as the volume of fluid displaced by an object when it is
placed in that fluid.
3. What is the capacity, in barrels, of 10,000 ft of 7 in., 23.0 lb/ft casing?

4. The casing ID is callipered on location with an average ID measured of 6.50. What is the
recalculated capacity, in barrels, of 10,000 ft of 7 in., 23.0 lb/ft casing?

5. How many feet of 4-1/2 in., 16.6 lb/ft internal upset drill pipe will 25 barrels of oil fill?

6. What is the displacement, in barrels, for this open-ended pipe?


OD = 4.5 in.
ID = 2.0 in.
Length = 2000 ft

Now, check your answers against the Answer Key at the back of this section.

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Unit B: Annular Volume Calculations


Annular volume is the volume contained
between the outside of the pipe and the open
hole (Figure 5.5) or between the outside of the
drill pipe or tubing and the inside of the casing
(Figure 5.6).
Annular volumes can be determined by
calculating the cross-sectional area between the
open hole or casing ID and the drill pipe OD and
multiplying this by the length.

Figure 5.6

Note: Diameters and lengths must be in the


same unit of measurement.
Rather than calculating cross-sectional areas to
determine annular volumes, you can refer to the
Red Book, which provides factors that you can
multiply by the length of the annulus to more
simply arrive at volumes. There are two sections
in the Red Book that you should become familiar
with regarding annular volumes:

Figure 5.5

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Section 122 is a set of tables of annular


volume and annular fillup factors with
tubular goods in various size holes. It also
lists the factors for multiple strings of
tubular goods in various hole sizes.

Section 221 lists factors for pipe strings


inside other pipe. There are tables for
tubing, drill pipe, and casing inside of larger
casing. Like Section 122, there are also
tables for multiple tubing strings inside
casing.

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Figure 5.7

Annular Volume = 0.0479 bbl/ft 1000 ft =


479 bbl

Sample Problem

You can also use these tables to determine the


length that a given volume of fluid will fill.

Find the annular volume, in barrels, between


6000 ft of 2-3/8 in. (2.375 in.), 4.7 lb/ft tubing
and a 6-1/8 in. hole. Use Section 122-A of the
Red Book (see Figure 5.7).

Sample Problem

Solution:

How many feet of annular space between 4-1/2


in., 10.5 lb/ft casing and a 6 in. hole will 100 bbl
of cement fill? Use Section 122 of the Red Book.

Annular Volume Factor = 0.0310 bbl/ft (from


the Red Book)
Annular Volume = 0.0310 bbl/ft 6000 ft =
186 bbl

Solution:

Sample Problem

Annular Fill-up = 65.3597 ft/bbl 100 bbl =


6535.97 ft

What is the annular volume, in barrels, for 1000


ft of 5-1/2 in., 17 lb/ft casing inside 9-5/8 in., 36
lb/ft casing? Use Section 221 of the Red Book.

Another way of calculating annular volume


between a string of casing and the ID of the hole
is by using Section 210 of the Red Book. This
contains the factors for different size cylinders
or holes with a length of 1 foot. Annular volume
can be calculated by subtracting the annular

Annular Fill-up Factor = 65.3597 ft/bbl

Solution:
Annular Volume Factor = 0.0479 bbl/ft

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volume factors for one foot of height and then


multiplying by the desired annular height.

Solution:

Sample Problem

Volume Factor for 2-3/8 in. tubing =


0.0055 bbl/ft

Find the annular volume, in barrels, between 23/8 in., 4.7 lb/ft tubing and a 6-1/8 in. hole. Use
Section 210 of the Red Book.

Annular Volume Factor =


0.0364 bbl/ft 0.0055 bbl/ft =
0.0309 bbl/ft

Volume Factor for 6-1/8 in. hole = 0.0364 bbl/ft

Annular Volume = 6000 ft 0.0309 bbl/ft =


185.4 bbl
The differences between this way of determining
annular volume and using Section 122 can be
explained by the methods used when rounding
off of decimals in establishing the tables.

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Unit B Test
Calculate the answers for the following:
1. What is the annular volume, in gallons, between 5000 ft of 9-5/8 in., 53.50 lb/ft casing and 12-1/4 in.
hole? Use the Red Book to find the appropriate factor.

2. What is the annular volume in cubic feet, for 7675 ft of 2-7/8 in., 6.5 lb/ft tubing inside 7 in., 26 lb/ft
casing? Use the Red Book to find the appropriate factor.

Now, look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section.

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Unit C: Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations


The density of a base fluid is affected by the
addition of additives. This density should be
collected for additive concentration when
determining hydrostatic pressure.

Density in
lb/ft3
Solids
Gold
Mercury
Lead
Iron
Aluminum
Wood
Ice

To help you with density calculations, this unit


will introduce you to several terms. After
completing this unit, you will be familiar with:

Density in
g/cc

the relationships among density, weight, and


volume
API gravity
specific gravity
absolute density vs. bulk density
absolute volume
slurry weight and volume calculations

1206.2
846.0
712.5
485.0
165.6
50.0
56.9

19.3
13.5
11.4
7.7
2.6
0.8
0.9

125.0
64.3
62.5
50.0
46.8

2.00
1.03
1.00
0.80
0.75

Liquids
Sulfuric Acid
Sea Water
Fresh Water
Kerosene
Gasoline
Gases

Density

Air 0.075
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Carbon Monoxide
Hydrogen

Density can be defined as the weight of a


substance per unit volume. In the English
system, one cubic foot is a unit of volume, and
one pound is a unit of weight. In the metric
system, a unit of volume is cubic centimeter (cc)
and weight can be measured in grams (g). If you
measured the weight of a specific volume of
iron, wood, lead, and water, you would find they
have widely different weights. Therefore, a term
is needed to refer to the weight of a unit-volume
of substance -- that term is density. For example,
a cubic foot of water weighs 62.4 lb, so the
density of water is 62.4 lb/ft3.

0.0075
0.084
0.0737
0.0734
0.0053

0.0012
0.00134
0.00118
0.00117
0.000085

For practical purposes, the densities of gases are


compared with air at atmospheric pressure
instead of with water. Using air as a comparative
reference, the vapor densities of the gases listed
above are:
Air
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Carbon Monoxide
Hydrogen

If you know the density and the volume of a


material, you can calculate its weight:
Weight = Density Volume

1.00
1.120
0.983
0.979
2.004

Some densities of common materials are listed


here for your reference.

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Specific Gravity
Specific gravity (abbreviated Sp Gr) is the
weight of a volume of material divided by the
weight of the same volume of material taken as a
standard. For solids and liquids, the standard is
water; for gases, the standard is air. Another
definition of specific gravity is the ratio of the
density of a substance to the density of water or
air. The density of water is 8.33 lb/gal. It is a
simple matter to convert density to specific
gravity (or vice versa).

Sample Problem

Formulas for conversion are:


Degrees API Gravity =
Specific Gravity =

141.5
- 131.5
Sp Gr

141.5
API 131.5

Absolute Density vs. Bulk


Density

What is the specific gravity of a 10 lb/gal brine?


Solution

Absolute density is the mass per unit volume.


Absolute density considers only the actual
volume occupied by a material. Bulk density is
mass per unit bulk volume -- which includes the
actual volume of the material plus the volume of
trapped air.

density of substance
Sp Gr =
density of standard

Sp Gr =

API readings are standardized at a temperature


of 60F. If taken at any other temperature,
readings must be converted to 60F to be
accurate. Tables for this conversion and for
conversion of API gravity to specific gravity can
be found in the API Standard 2500 bulletin and
in various engineering handbooks.

10 lb/gal
8.33 lb/gal

Sp Gr = 1.2

Absolute Volume

If you were given the specific gravity of a liquid


as 1.2, the density can be calculated:

Absolute volume is the volume per unit mass.


Here is an example of absolute volume. Let's
assume we have a container (Figure 5.8) that
measures one cubic foot (1 ft high, 1 ft deep, 1 ft
wide). This container is filled with golf balls.
There are void spaces between the golf balls
filled with trapped air. We want to know the
volume in gallons that is occupied by the golf
balls only.

1.2 8.33 lb/gal = 10 lb/gal

API Gravity
Baumes gravity is a scale that uses salt water as
a reference rather than fresh water. It is used in
refineries to determine the gravity of acids and
alkalis only.
API gravity is used in most other instances in the
oil field. Water is used as the standard. Water's
API gravity is 10 degrees.
As the specific gravity increases, the API gravity
decreases. Crude oil with a 42 API gravity has
an actual specific gravity of 0.82. American
crude is commonly run from 0.768 to 0.966
specific gravity, which would range from 52.6
to 10.5 on the API gravity scale.

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The volume occupied by the golf balls can best


be determined by first calculating the volume
occupied by the void spaces. For this, we could
add water to the container and measure it. After
obtaining the number of gallons of water needed
to fill the void spaces, we can subtract from
7.4805 gal/ft3 to determine the volume occupied
by the golf balls alone.

One cubic foot


7.4805 gal.
1 ft

1 ft
1 ft

The volume of golf balls determined in this way


is called the absolute volume. While this
example is exaggerated, it does help explain the
concept. We work with sand, cement, etc. rather
than golf balls, but the balls can be seen as a
magnification of sand or cement particles. Void
spaces exist in sand; the volume we add to
fracturing fluids is actually the absolute volume
of the sand.

This container below is filled with golf balls.

1 ft

1 ft

Calculating absolute volume for sand or cement


can be simplified by using the tables for
"Physical Properties of Cementing Materials and
Admixtures" provided in the Technical Data
section of the Halliburton Cementing Tables
(Figure 5.9).

1 ft

Figure 5.8 The volume of golf balls is less


than the total volume because of the spaces
between them.

Figure 5.9 Red Book data.

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Total lb Total abs gal = lb/gal

The left-hand column lists the material, the


second column gives the bulk weight in lb per
ft3. The third column gives the specific gravity,
and the fourth column provides absolute volume
in gal/lb.

12.33 lb 1.1824 gal = 10.427943 lb/gal

Sample Problem
What is the absolute volume (gallons) and
weight (lb per gallon) of this slurry?

Note: When using fluids in absolute volume


calculations, you will not find a gal/lb factor in
the Red Book. However, you can calculate this
factor if you know the fluid density in lb/gal.
Simply divide 1 by the fluid density. For
example, water is 8.33 lb/gal, so:

gal/lb = 1 8.33 lb/gal = 0.12 gal/lb

Base Fluid is water @ 8.33 lb/gal


Additive is 3% KC1
4 lb of sand is added

Solution
ABSOLUTE

Sample Problem

MATERIAL

FACTOR

MATERIALS

(lb)

(gal/lb)

What is the absolute volume (gallons) and


weight (lb per gallon) of this slurry?

Water

8.33

0.1200

0.2499

0.0443

= 0.0110705

Sand

4.0

0.0456

3% KC1

Base Fluid is water @ 8.33 lb/gal


4 lb of sand is added.

TOTALS

(gallons)
1.0

0.1824
1.1934705 gal

Total lb Total abs gal = lb/gal

Solution
We will use the chart below to help in our
calculation of absolute volume. First, list the
materials and their weights in the first two
columns. Then, using the Red Book table, list the
absolute volume factors (gal/lb) in the third
column.
FACTOR

VOLUME

MATERIALS

(lb)

(gal/lb)

(gallons)

Water

8.33

0.1200

Sand

0.0456

Multiply the materials (lb) by the factor (gal/lb)


to obtain the absolute volume and add these
values to the table. For the totals, add the
materials (lb) together and add the absolute
volumes together:
VOLUME

MATERIALS

(lb)

(gal/lb)

(gallons)

Water

8.33

0.1200

1.0

Sand

4.0

0.0456

0.1824

12.33 lb

Class H Cement
Water @ 8.33 lb/gal

Solution
For this cementing problem, we will add a
column to the chart for mixing water
requirements. Proceed as in the last two sample
problems until you need to fill in the mixing
water requirements for the Class H cement. This
quantity you can find in the Technical Data
section of the Red Book in the table for Water
Requirements. For Class H cement, the
requirements are 4.3 gal/sk. Enter this under the
appropriate column:

ABSOLUTE
FACTOR

Note: Generally, when working with sand and


water (or base fluid) slurries, the calculations are
based on 1 gallon of base fluid and the weight of
that 1 gallon of fluid.

What is the absolute volume (gallons) and


weight (lb per gallon) of this slurry?

TOTALS

MATERIAL

12.5799 lb 1.1934705 gal = 10.5 lb/gal

Sample Problem

ABSOLUTE
MATERIAL

TOTALS

12.579 lb

VOLUME

1.1824 gal

Find the weight of the mixed slurry using this


formula:

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ABSOLUTE

MIXING

MATERIAL FACTOR VOLUME


MATERIALS

(lb)

Cement

94

Water

(gal/lb)

0.0382

ABSOLUTE

WATER

(gallons)

(gallons)

3.6

4.3

MATERIAL FACTOR VOLUME


MATERIALS
Cement

8.33

Water

TOTALS

MIXING

TOTALS

(lb)

(gal/lb)

(gallons)
4.3

94

0.0382

3.6

35.82

8.33

4.3

129.82 lb

WATER

(gallons)

7.9 gal

Total lb Total abs gal = lb/gal

Enter 5.2 gal for the absolute volume for water.


Divide the water factor by the absolute volume
to determine the materials (lb) for water. Then
calculate the totals:

129.82 lb 7.9 gal = 16.4 lb/gal


Find the yield of cement (ft3 per sack) by using
this formula:
Total abs gal 7.4805 gal/ft3 = ft3/sk
7.9 gal/sk* 7.4805 gal/ft3 = 1.06 ft3/sk
*NOTE: When working with cement slurries,
the calculations are usually based on one sack of
cement and the weight of that sack.

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Unit C Quiz:
For items 1 3, fill in the blanks. For items 4 and 5, calculate the answer.
1. In dealing with specific gravity, the weight of a volume of a material is ________________________
by the weight of the same volume of a material taken as a_______.
2. Absolute density considers only the___________ ____________ occupied by the material.
3. Volume per unit mass defines ______________ _______________.
4. Calculate the weight (lb/gal) of the following slurry:
base fluid is 10 lb/gal brine
sand at 10 lb/gal (0.0456 gal/lb)

5. Using Class H cement (94 lb/sk) and 4.3 gallons mixing water, what is the cement slurry density (lb/
gal) and yield (ft3/sk)?

Now, look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section.

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Unit D: Primary Cementing Calculations Example


Before a primary cementing job can begin,
several calculations must be done. In this unit,
you will learn these calculations:

Primary Cementing Calculations


7 critical calculations that need to be made with every
surface casing job

Also included is a new slurry weight and yield


worksheet.

Critical Circulating Pressure Pressure required to lift


(pump) the casing out of the hole

Cement volume The volume of cement required to fill


the required footage of the annulus plus the shoe track
capacity.

Sacks of Cement Converting the required volume of


cement into sacks.

Mixing water required for given slurries.

Displacement fluid required to the top plug from surface


to the top of the shoe track.

Pressure to land the plug Differential pressure


required to pump the plug to the top of the shoe track.

Resulting Force The calculated hook load at the top


of the casing once the plug has landed.

F
A

Well Parameters
A
B
C
D
E
F
G

B
5

Pipe Size
Well Fluid
Hole Size
Pipe Depth
Shoe Track Length
Required Cement fill-up
Excess volume required (percent)

Calculation Guidelines
Do not apply any decimal places for pressure or sacks

Apply one decimal place for lb/gal


Apply 2 decimal places for
psi/bbl
cubic feet
pounds
feet
area
gallons
barrels

For psi/ft use same number of decimal places as in Red


Book Hydrostatic Pressure And Fluid Weight Conversion
Tables

Figure 5.10 Primary Cementing Setup

Show one decimal place for bbl/min


Rounding numbers if the last number is to be dropped,
round up if 5, down if < 5.

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Worksheet for Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations


MATERIAL
NAME

Material
(lb)

Water

Absolute
Volume
(gal)

Factor
(gal/lb)

Mixing Water
Requirements
(gal)

lb/gal

gal

TOTALS ==>

gal

Total mixing water must be entered under absolute gallons before totaling.
Find the weight of the mixed cement by using this formula:
Total Pounds/Total Absolute gallons = lb/gal
Find the cement yield in cubic feet per sack by using this formula:
Total Absolute gallons / 7.4805 gal/ft3 (constant) = ft3/sack
The mixing water per sack is the sum of the gallons in the far right column

Cement Density (lb/gal) ==>

lb/gal

Cement Yield (ft3/sk) ===>

ft3/sk

Mixing Water required ===>

gal/sk

Figure 5.11 Absolute Volume Worksheet

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Primary Cementing Calculations


7 critical calculations that need to be made with every
surface casing job

Critical Circulating Pressure Pressure required to lift


(pump) the casing out of the hole

Cement volume The volume of cement required to fill


the required footage of the annulus plus the shoe track
capacity.

Sacks of Cement Converting the required volume of


cement into sacks.

Mixing water required for given slurries.

Displacement fluid required to the top plug from surface


to the top of the shoe track.

Pressure to land the plug Differential pressure


required to pump the plug to the top of the shoe track.

Resulting Force The calculated hook load at the top


of the casing once the plug has landed.

In the Essential Red Book course, you were


introduced to the basic calculations and concepts
needed in preparing for a primary cementing
job. In this unit you will be shown the steps for
calculating a surface casing cement job. Later,
youll be asked to actually make the calculations
for a similar job on your own.

Given Information for Primary


Cementing Calculations
Refer to the well parameter information as you
work through the calculations for the surface
casing cementing job.
Figure 5.12 Surface Casing Cementing
Job

1 Calculations for Pressure


Required to Lift Pipe

Surface Casing Job One


When pipe is run into a hole, the result in a ram
effect. This ram effect increases as the running
speed and the diameter of the pipe increases. In
some cases, the ram effect will break down lowpressure zones. Sand may slough off and bridge
the annulus. If the casing is stuck in the hole,
you cannot pull it out without parting it.

This casing job consists of a single slurry, which is to be


circulated from total depth to surface.

Well Parameters
Pipe Size

9 5/8 in 36 lb/ft

Well Fluid

8.7 lb/gal

Hole Size

12.25 in

Pipe Depth

300 ft

Shoe Track Length

40 ft

Required Cement Fill-Up

To surface

Excess Volume Required (percent)

100%

These calculations are performed as a


precaution. They are done before mixing any
cement. Just in case the annulus has bridged,
you need to know how much pressure would be
required to lift the pipe. This pressure could

5 20

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

d) The buoyancy factor (Step 2a)


multiplied by the weight per foot of
casing (Step 2b) times the length of the
casing (Step 2c) equals the weight of the
pipe hanging in fluid:

possibly lift the pipe out of the hole, so you need


to chain the pipe down during the operations.
1. First, the area of the casing must be found.
a) In the Calculations and Formulae
section of the Red Book (see also Figure
5.13), look up the formula for the area
of a circle.
Area = 0.7854 D

0.8671 BF 36 lb/ft 300 ft = 9364.68 lb


(The arrow indicates the direction of this force.)

3. Now you have enough information to


calculate the amount of pressure to apply to
the casing at the surface, pumping
downward through the casing below the
casing shoe, to start the lift (or to balance the
pipe). The larger the diameter of the pipe the
less pressure is required to lift the string.
This is why you need to chain down large
diameter casing during the pumping
operation (chain it to the substructure or a
leg of the derrick, but not to the rotary
table).

Figure 5.13

The downward force of the pipe (step 2d)


divided by the area of the pipe (step 1b) is the
pressure needed to start the lift:

b) Plug the diameter (9 5/8 in.) into the


formula for area of a circle (area of the
casing):

9364.68 lb 72.76 in. = 129 psi

9.625 in. 9.625 in. 0.7854 = 72.76 in.2

When applying pressure to start circulation,


caution should be taken to prevent the pipe from
blowing out of the hole and causing damage.
The casing should be chained down and all
personnel except the operator, should be cleared
off the rig floor.

2. The next step is to calculate the weight of


the pipe when it is hanging in fluid (the
downward force of the pipe in the wellbore.)
a) First, look up the buoyancy factor for
the wellbore fluid you are working with.
Keep in mind that this buoyancy factor
relates to the fact that open-ended pipe
weighs less in a fluid than it does in air.
The weight of this fluid is 8.7 lb/gal.
Referring to the Displacement section
of the Red Book (see also Figure 5.14),
you will see that the buoyancy factor is
0.8671 for a fluid of that weight.
b) You also need to know how much your
casing weights in air. From the casing
stamp, you can find that this casing
weigh 36 lb/ft.
c) Since it is not known at what depth the
annulus might become bridged, use the
overall length of your casing (300 ft) for
these calculations.

5 21

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

You will find Class G slurry properties on page


3 of the Class G Section in the Technical Data
Section of the Red Book. We will work through
the absolute volume calculations as an example.
Refer to the gray pages in the Technical Data:
section of your Red Book (see also Figure 5.9).
You will see that the table labeled Physical
Properties of Cementing Materials and
Admixtures contains much of the information
needed to calculate the slurrys absolute volume
(as well as its weight that will be calculated
later).
To aid in these calculations, the Worksheet for
Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations has
been developed (Figure 5.11). This worksheet
will be completed as the following calculations
are worked out.
1. First, find the bulk weight of API cements
listed in Figure 5.9 94 lb/ft3. The factor for
absolute volume of API cements is 0.0382
gal/lb.
2. Then calculate the correct figures for each of
the additives and the water being used.
a) Calculate how much the calcium
chloride will weigh by multiplying the
weight of cement by 2%:
0.02 94 lb = 1.88 lb
b) Look up the factor for absolute volume
of Calcium Chloride, which is 0.0612
lb/gal.
Figure 5.14

c) Look up the absolute volume factor for


Flocele, which is 0.0845 gal/lb.
3. To find the absolute volumes of the cement,
Calcium Chloride and Flocele, multiply the
numbers in the materials column by the
numbers in the factor column:

2 Calculations for Amount of


Cement

94 lb 0.0382 gal/lb = 3.6 gal


1.88 lb 0.0612 gal/lb = 0.12 gal.
0.25 lb 0.0845 gal/lb = 0.02 gal

To find the amount (sacks) of cement needed for


this surface casing cementing job, you need to
know the type of cement, its weight and its
yield.
Class G cement with 2% calcium chloride and
lb/sk Flocele has been chosen for this surface
casing job. Using this information, you can
perform the calculations necessary to eventually
find out how much cement you will need.

5 22

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Worksheet for Slurry Volumes


Worksheet for Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations
Casing Job One
API Cement Weight = 94 lb/sack
1 sack = 1 cubic foot
Material
Name

Material
(lb)

Class G
Cement
2% Calcium
Chloride
.25lb Flocele

Figure 5.15 Class G data from Red Book

4. To find the mixing water requirements for a


sack of cement with its additives, refer to the
gray pages in the Technical Data section
of your handbook (see also Figure 5.15).
These requirements are 5.0 gal., 0 gal and 0
gal for the cement, Calcium Chloride and
Flocele respectively. Add these figures
together for the waters absolute volume:

Water
Totals

Factor
(gal/lb)

94

Absolute Mixing
Volume Water
(gal) Required
(gal)
0.0382 =
3.5908 5.00

1.88

0.0612 =

0.11506

0.25

0.845 =
=

0.02113

41.65

8.33 =

5.00

137.78

8.7270

5.00

Total mixing water must be entered under absolute gallons


before totaling.
Find the weight of the mixed cement by using this formula:
Total Pounds Total Absolute gallons = lb/gal
Find the cement yield in cubic feet per sack by using this
formula:
3

Total Absolute gal 7.4805 gal/ft (constant) = ft /sk

5 gal + 0 + 0 gal = 5 gal

The mixing water per sack is the sum of the gallons in the far
right column

5. To obtain the weight of the water required,


multiply the weight per gallon of water by
the volume of water (step 4):
8.33 gal/lb 5 gal = 41.65 lb

Cement Density

137.78

8.7270 =

15.8

lb/gal

Cement Yield

8.7270

7.4805 =

1.17

ft /sk

5.00

gal/sk

Mixing Water
Required

6. Total the materials and absolute volume


columns:

5 23

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

8. Then find the yield by dividing the total


absolute volume in gallons (Step 6) by the
constant which can be found in the table
Conversion Constants (Figure 5.16)
7.4805 gal/ft3
8.7270 gal 7.4805 gal/ft3 = 1.17 ft3/sk
Now assume that you have circulated through
the surface casing down to a depth of 300 ft and
that you have a well-conditioned hole. It is
necessary to calculate the volume of slurry
needed for the job. This is a combination of the
slurry needed to fill annular space and to fill the
shoe joint.
9. To determine how much slurry is needed to
fill the annulus, the ft3/ft for the annulus is
multiplied by the length of the annulus.
a) First, refer to the Volume and Height
Between Tubing, Casing, Drill Pipe, and
Hole section in the handbook. (To use
this table, you need to find the table with
the correct number of strings. For
example, see the four different tables for
tubing with an OD of 3 in). Look on
the table for 9 5/8 in (see also Figure
5.17). The ft3/ft for this annulus is
0.3132.
b) You know that the length of the annulus
is 300 ft. Multiplying this by the ft3/ft
value found in Step 9a results in the
volume needed to fill the annular space.
300 ft 0.3132 ft3/ft = 93.96 ft3.
c) Excess cement knowing we need
100% excess (double the calculation
volume) we calculate the following:

Figure 5.16

93.96 ft3 2 = 187.92 ft3

7. To find the weight of the cement slurry in


pounds per gallon, divide the total pounds
by the total absolute volume in gallons:
137.78 8.7270 gal = 15.8 lb/gal

5 24

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Figure 5.17

10. Now, the amount of slurry in the shoe joint


(or track) needs to be calculated in the last
step, to determine how much slurry is in the
shoe joint, the capacity factor of the joint is
multiplied by its length.

3 Sacks of Cement
1. Now that you know the cubic feet needed
(Step 11), you use the yield (Step 8) to
calculate the number of sacks needed:

a) To find this capacity factor, turn to the


Capacity section of the Cementing
Table (See also Figure 5.18) You need
to know the OD (9 5/8 in.) and the
weight (36 lb/ft) of your casing. The
capacity factor is 0.4340 ft3/ft.

205.28 ft3 1.17 ft3/sk = 175 sk

4 Calculations for Amount of


Mixing Water

b) The length of the shoe track was given


as 40 ft.

After you know the number of sacks of cement


needed, you need to calculate the volume of
water required on location to mix the slurry.
This water should always be fresh water (unless
slurry is designed for salt or seawater).

c) Multiply the capacity factor for the shoe


joint (10a) by the length of the shoe
joint (10b) for the capacity for the shoe
joint:
0.4340 ft3/ft 40 ft = 17.36 ft3

Your worksheet shows that you will need 5 gal


of water per sack of cement. This is multiplied
by the number of sacks in order to obtain the
total number of gallons of mixing water needed.
This unit of measurement needs to be converted
to barrels since tanks on trucks are marked off in
barrels.

11. Add the volume of slurry to fill the annulus


(step 9c) to the volume of slurry to fill the
shoe joint (step10c) to determine the total
numbers of barrels of cement that you need:
187.92 ft3 + 17.36 ft3 = 205.28 ft3

5 25

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Figure 5.18
When all of the cement has been mixed, the top
plug will be pumped down to a depth of 260 ft.
The number of barrels needed to do this is the
same as the capacity of the casing to the float
collar.

First, find out how much mixing water you need


in gallons:
5 gal/sk 175 sk = 875 gal
1. Since there are 42 gal in a barrel, convert to
barrels:

0.0773 bbl/ft 260 ft = 20.1 bbl

875 gal 42 gal/bbl = 20.83 bbl


Therefore, it will take this amount of water to
mix your cement. You will need more water on
location, considering the water used for cleanup,
spacer, etc.

5 Calculations for Amount of


Fluid to Displace Top Plug
The first step in the cementing process is to run
a bottom plug to wipe the casing clean of mud
buildup. The cement following the bottom plug
will rupture the plugs diaphragm. Then it will
move through the center of the plug, out the
bottom of the shoe, and up the annulus. If a
bottom plug is not run, the top plug will wipe
down the walls and mud will collect in the shoe
joint between the top plug and the cement slurry.

5 26

In this example we have used the Redbook value


which is based on the stated ID of this particular
casing OD and weight. The actual ID of a joint
of casing is almost always larger than the value
stated in the tables. This is due to the
manufacturing process of seamless tubulars. The
actual tolerances are identified in API
specification 5CT.
It is recommended to caliper a number of joints
of casing just inside the pin area. These are used
to come up with an average ID for the casing
being run.
The caliper ID should be used in the final
calculations relating to casing capacity such as
shoe track volume and fluid to displace the top
plug. The volume difference in displacing the
top plug can be significant.

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

6 Calculations for Pressure to


Land the Plug
Calculations for pressure to land the plug should
be made on each job. You need to know the
pressure required to put the cement in place.
Any pressure buildup in excess of this pressure
might indicate channeling or bridging in the
annulus. A loss of pressure could mean a loss of
cement into the formation.
Figure 5.12 shows a balanced section of hole.
The shoe is at 300 feet and the plug landing
point is 260 feet. The shoe joint and the annular
space opposite it are full of the same weight
cement. Therefore that part of the well is
balanced and no calculations are required.
You do need to make a few calculations
concerning the unbalanced portion of the hole
indicated in Figure 5.12. The annular space from
260 ft back to surface is filled with 15.8 lb/gal
cement (this density was determined during the
amount of cement calculations, Step 7 in
Calculations for Amount of Cement). Also, you
have displaced the plug with 8.7 lb/gal fluid in
the casing. Because the fluids have different
densities, a differential pressure results.
You must convert the lb/gal of the cement and
displacement fluid to psi/ft in order to make the
calculation (Figure 5.19).

Figure 5.19

1. Refer to the Hydrostatic Pressure and Fluid


Weight Conversion tables in the
Calculations and Formulae section of your
Red Book (see also Figure 5.19). To find the
psi/ft for the weight of the cement (15.8
lb/gal),
To minimize errors, here is the most accurate
way to make this calculation: Working form the
bottom of the casing up to the surface, calculate
the hydrostatic pressure outside, then calculate
the hydrostatic pressure inside.
Remember, work from the bottom up, for the
entire casing string.

5 27

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

calculations Step 1) for a fluid weighing 15.8


lbs/gal.

Hydrostatic Outside
Cement
300 ft 0.8208 psi/ft

Total: 300 ft

The hydrostatic pressure in a casing job is the


pressure in the annular space. The plug will
close off the pressure in the casing when it lands
on a float collar. If you do not land the plug or
run a float collar or back pressure valve, but
only stop the plug in the casing, then you will
close in the cementing head and the pressure to
land the plug will remain on the casing until the
cement has set.

246 psi
246 psi

Hydrostatic Inside
Cement
40 ft 0.8208 psi/ft
Well Fluid
260 ft 0.4519 psi/ft
Total 300 ft

33 psi

117 psi
150 psi

To calculate the hydrostatic pressure at a given


depth, multiply that depth by the psi/ft of the
fluid in the annulus in this case, cement slurry:

Differential Pressure (At top of shoe) = 246 psi 150 psi


= 96 psi

Always re-total the depth. If you dont end up


with the same depth then something is wrong.

300 ft 0.8203 psi/ft = 246 psi

NOTE: You must slow the pump rate down to a


half-barrel per minute to read this on a
chart or gauge because high rates create
friction pressure (which can give you a
false pressure reading).

7 Calculations for Resulting


Force
Precautions must be taken before pumping the
plug down when you are working on the surface
casing. You need to find out if the casing will
remain still, or if the plug landing pressure will
pump the casing out of the hole if so, you will
need to chain the pipe down (in addition to
chaining the head to the elevators).

When the plug has been pumped to its landing


position and 96 psi is readable on the gauge, this
job has been done successfully. Remember that
you will not be able to correctly read the
pressure to land a plug on all jobs. Losing
cement into the formation or developing
channels in the cement will alter the pressure
reading. Release the pressure when the plug
lands; this will prevent a microannulus. Keep in
mind that most companies will require more
pressure than what is required to land the plug in
order to test the plugs seal. Depending on the
situation, some customers will pressure test
casing after the plug lands.

As you did in Calculation 1, you will calculate


the difference between the upward force on the
pipe and the downward force on the pipe.
1. You have calculated the area of the surface
casing (Step 1b - Pressure to Lift the Pipe
Calculations) to be 72.76 in.2. In addition,
you know the pressure to land the plug is 96
psi (Step 6 Pressure to Land the Plug
Calculations). Multiplying the two values
will give you the amount of upward force in
pounds.

Calculations for Hydrostatic Pressure


at a Given Depth
You need to be able to calculate the hydrostatic
pressure at any depth. For the purpose of this
problem, you will determine the hydrostatic psi
at 260 ft. Will this formation support the amount
of pressure exerted by the column of cement
down the annulus to the given point?

72.76 in2 96 psi = 6984.96 lb

In this example problem, you will have only one


hydrostatic pressure to work with since you have
cement from the top to the bottom of the well.
That pressure is 0.8208 psi/ft, which you
determined earlier (Pressure to Land the Plug

5 28

2. In a previous problem, you looked up the


buoyancy factor for the 8.7 lb/gal
displacement fluid (Step 2a Pressure to
Lift the Pipe Calculations). Referring to the
Displacement section again, look up the
buoyancy factor for the cement used (see
also Figure 5.14) The weight of cement is
15.8 lb/gal as determined in Step 7 of the
amount of cement calculations. To find the

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

buoyancy factor for this weight, you must


look up 15.8.

3. In the same way, calculate the downward


force contributed by the cement:

Now the length and weight of the piece of pipe


in question are needed. Cement is inside the pipe
in the shoe joint (40 ft) and displacement fluid is
inside the pipe above the float collar (260 ft).
The weight of the pipe is 36 lb/gal.

40 ft 0.7586 BF 36 lb/ft = 1092.38 lb


4. Adding these two downward forces together
(Step 2 and 3) will give you the total
downward force:
8116.06 lb + 1092.38 lb = 9208.44 lb

Using the formula for downward force,


determine the downward force contributed by
the displacement fluid:

5. Subtract the upward force (Step 1) from the


downward force (Step 4) to obtain the
resulting force:

Length of pipe buoyancy factor for the


displacement fluid inside the pipe pipe weight
per foot = pounds of downward force

9208.44 lb - 6984.96 lb = 2223.96 lb


Although this is considered a downward force, it
will be necessary to chain down the casing as a
precautionary measure.

260 ft 0.8671 BF 36 lb/ft = 8116.06 lb

5 29

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Surface Casing Job Two


This casing job consists of LEAD and TAIL slurries in which
cement is to be circulated from total depth to surface.

Well Parameters

13 3/8-in. Casing

17 1/2-in. Hole

Pipe Size

13 3/8 in., 68 lb/ft

Well Fluid

8.5 lb/gal

Hole Size

17.5 in.

Pipe Depth

2400 ft

Shoe Track Length

80 ft

Required Cement Fill-Up (TAIL)

400 ft

Required Cement Fill-Up (LEAD)

2000 ft

Excess Volume Required (percent)

120%

Critical Circulating Pressure

Area Of Pipe
2
13.375 in 13.375 in 0.7854 = 140.50 in.
(Section 240 Page 85)

2,000 ft

Hook Load
2,400 ft 68 lb/ft 0.8701 = 142,000.32/lbs
(Section 130 Table 132 Buoyancy Factor)
Pressure to lift (pump) pipe out of the hole
2
142,000.32 lb 140.50 in. = 1010 psi

2,320 ft

2
Lead
Tail
Displacement

2,400 ft

Figure 5.20

Cement Volume

Lead Slurry Composition


Halliburton Light Cement
2% Calcium Chloride
1/4 lb/sk Flocele

Given
Sl. Wt 13.6 lb/gal
3
Sl. Vol. 1.55 ft /sk
Water 7.62 gal/sk

Tail Slurry Composition


Class H Premium
1% Calcium
1/4 lb/sk Flocele

Given
Sl Wt 16.4 lb/gal
3
Sl. Vol 1.07 ft /sk
Water 4.3 gal/sk

Tail
3
400 ft (openhole) 0.6946 ft /ft

277.84 ft

277.84 ft 2.2 (excess)


3
80 ft (shoes) 0.8406 ft /ft

=
=

611.25 ft
3
67.25 ft
3
678.50 ft (tail)

Lead
3
2000 ft (openhole) 0.6946 ft /ft

1389.20 ft

3056.24 ft (lead)

1389.20 ft 2.2 (excess)

NOTE: We are required to pump 120% excess


cement on this job; 120% excess is equal to
multiplying the perfect hole volume by 2.2.

5 30

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Surface Casing Two Lead Cement

Surface Casing Two Tail Cement

Worksheet for Slurry Weight and Volume


Calculations

Worksheet for Slurry Weight and Volume


Calculations

Material
Name

Material
(lb)

65% Class H
Cement
35% Poz
6% Bentonite
2% Calcium
Chloride
.25lb Flocele
Water
Totals

Factor
(gal/lb)

61.1

Absolute Mixing
Volume Water
(gal) Required
(gal)
0.0382 = 2.33402
2.75

25.9
5.22
1.74

0.0488 =
0.0453 =
0.0612 =

1.26392
0.23647
0.10649

1.27
3.60
0.00

0.25

0.0845

0.02113

0.00

63.47 =

8.33

157.68

7.62

Material
Name

Material
(lb)

Class H
Cement
1% Calcium
Chloride
.25lb Flocele

Water

11.5820

7.62

Factor
(gal/lb)

94

Absolute Mixing
Volume Water
(gal) Required
(gal)
0.0382 =
3.5908
4.30

0.94

0.0612 =

0.05753

0.25

0.0845 =
=

0.02113

35.819 =

8.33

4.30

Totals 131.009

7.9695

4.30

Total mixing water must be entered under absolute


gallons before totaling.

Total mixing water must be entered under absolute


gallons before totaling.

Find the weight of the mixed cement by using this


formula:

Find the weight of the mixed cement by using this


formula:

Total Pounds Total Absolute gallons = lb/gal

Total Pounds Total Absolute gallons = lb/gal

Find the cement yield in cubic feet per sack by using


this formula:

Find the cement yield in cubic feet per sack by using


this formula:

Total Absolute gal 7.4805 gal/ft (constant) = ft /sk

Total Absolute gal 7.4805 gal/ft (constant) = ft /sk

The mixing water per sack is the sum of the gallons in


the far right column

The mixing water per sack is the sum of the gallons in


the far right column

Cement Density

Cement Density

Cement Yield
Mixing Water
Required

157.68

11.5820 =

13.6

lb/gal

11.5820

7.4805 =

1.55

ft /sk

Cement Yield

7.62

gal/sk

Mixing Water
Required

5 31

131.009

7.9695 =

16.4

lb/gal

7.9695

7.4805 =

1.07

ft /sk

4.3

gal/sk

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Sacks of Cement

Resulting Force

Force Down

Tail
3
3
678.50 ft 1.07 ft /sk

634 sk

Lead
3
3
3056.24 ft 1.55 ft /sk

1972 sk

2320 ft 68 lb/ft 0.8701 BF


80 ft 68 lb/ft 0.7494 BF
2400 ft Total Down

Mixing Water Required

Tail
634 sk 4.3 gal/sk

Lead
1972 sk 7.62 gal/sk

=
=

2726.2 gal 42 gal/bbl


64.91 bbl

=
=

15026.64 gal 42 gal/bbl


357.78 bbl

137266.98 lb
4,076.74 lb
141343.72 lb

Force Up
140.50 in 661 psi

=
=

Hook Load

92870.50 lb
141343.72 lb
92870.50 lb
48473.22 lb Downward Force
When Plug Lands

Total 422.69 bbl

Displacement Fluid Volume

2400 ft (Total Pipe) - 80 ft (Shoe Track) = 2320 ft (Top of


Shoe)
2320 ft 0.1497 bbl/ft = 347.30 bbl

Pressure To Land The Plug


** Working From The Bottom Up**

Hydrostatic Outside
Tail
400 ft 0.8519 psi/ft
Lead
2000 ft 0.7065 psi/ft

341 psi

1413 psi

Total: 2400 ft

1754 psi

Hydrostatic Inside
Tail
80 ft 0.8519 psi/ft
Well Fluid
2320 ft 0.4416 psi/ft
Total 2400 ft

68 psi

1025 psi
1093 psi

Differential Pressure (At top of shoe) 1754 psi 1093 psi


= 661 psi

Hint: Always re-total the lengths to make sure


both outside and inside pipe segments are
calculated. If the lengths are not the same then
the calculations will be incorrect.

5 32

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Intermediate Casing Job One


This casing job consists of a single tail slurry
with 500 ft fill.

Well Parameters

Well fluid
Spacer
Cement

Pipe Size

7 in. 32 lb/ft

Well Fluid

10.4 lb WBM

Hole Size

8 in.

Pipe Depth

9700 ft

Shoe track length

80 ft

Required cement fill-up (TAIL)

500 ft

Excess volume required (percent)

25%

GIVEN:
Cement through casing as follows
30 bbl spacer @ 11.4 lb/gal

TOS (top
of spacer)

Followed by:
Premium Class G Cement containing 0.5% CFR-3 + 0.1%
HR-5. Displace plug with 10.4 lb/gal WBM.

TOC (top
of cement)
9,200 ft

Due to drillout and deepening displace with mud instead of


water.

9,620 ft

9,700 ft

Figure 5.21 Intermediate Casing Job

5 33

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Worksheet for Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations


MATERIAL
NAME
Class G Cement

Material
(lb)
94
X

Factor
(gal/lb)
0.0382

Absolute
Volume
(gal)
3.5908

Mixing Water
Requirements
(gal)
5.00

0.05% CFR-3 (dispersant)

0.47

0.0938

0.04409

0.1% HR-5 (retarder)

0.094

0.0750

0.00705

Water

41.65 =
TOTALS ==>

8.33

136.214

5.00

gal

8.6419

5.00 gal

Total mixing water must be entered under absolute gallons before totaling.
Find the weight of the mixed cement by using this formula:
Total Pounds/Total Absolute gallons = pounds/gallons
Find the cement yield in cubic feet per sack by using this formula:
Total Absolute gallons / 7.4805 gal/ ft3 (constant) = ft3./sack
The mixing water per sack is the sum of the gallons in the far right column

Cement Density (lb/gal) ==>


Cement Yield (ft3/sk) ===>
Mixing Water required ===>

136.214 /

8.6419 =

15.8

lb/gal

8.6419 /

7.4805 =

1.16

ft3/sk

5.00

gal/sk

5 34

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Cement Volume
3

Open Hole: 500 ft 0.1503 ft /ft


3
25% Excess: 75.15 ft 25%
3/
Shoe Track: 80 ft 0.2025 ft /ft
Total:

95 sks

=
=

475 gal
11.31 bbl

Displacement Fluid Volume

9660 ft 0.0360 bbl/ft

Mixing Water Required

95 sk 5 gal/sk
475 gal 42 gal/bbl

75.15 ft
3
18.79 ft
3
16.2 ft
3
110.14 ft

Sacks of Cement

110.14 ft 1.16 ft /sk

=
=
=

347.76 bbl

Pressure to Land The Plug

Unknown Height of Spacer (for worst case)


Height of Cement (for worst case)
Discussion: In calculating the pressure to land the plug, we
want to anticipate worst case which would be an increased
pressure over plan. We planned our cement volume based
upon hole washout (in this case 25%). We need to calculate
the height of cement & spacer (Which are heavier than the
mud) in a perfect hole situation which will give us a taller
column & higher differential pressure.
Height Of Cement
3

Open Hole Volume


25% Excess Volume

=
=

Perfect Hole Fill-up Factor


(7 in OD 8 3/4 in hole)
3
3
93.94 ft x 6.652 ft/ft

75.15 ft (From 1)
3
18.79 ft
3
93.94 ft
3
6.652 ft/ft

624.89 ft cement

30 bbl spacer (given)


30 bbl 37.3484 ft/bbl
=
** Working from the bottom up**

1120.45 ft spacer

Height Of Spacer

Height Of Mud
9700 ft - 624.89 ft - 1120.45 ft

7954.66 ft

Hydrostatic Outside
Cement: 624.89 ft 0.8208 psi/ft
Spacer: 1120.45 ft 0.5922 psi/ft
WBM: 7954.66 ft 0.5403 psi/ft

=
=
=

Total: 9700 ft

513 psi
664 psi
4298 psi
5475 psi

Hydrostatic Inside
Cement (in shoe): 40 ft 0.8208 psi/ft
WBM:
9660 ft 0.5403 psi/ft

=
=

Total: 9700 ft
Differential Pressure (at top of shoe)
5475 psi - 5252 psi

33 psi
5219 psi
5252 psi

223 psi

5 35

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Unit D Quiz
Fill in the blank with one or more words to check your progress in Unit D.

1. When using the Worksheet for Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations, the first thing you need to
know is what ___________ of cement is being used. Then you can look up the ingredients
______________ and _____________ volume factors.
2. An absolute volume for each material is calculated by multiplying its _____ by its ___________.
3. To obtain the density of the cement mixture, divide the ________________ of the materials by the
________________________________________ of the materials.
4. To find the yield, the total absolute volume in gallons is divided by the constant, ___________ gal/ft.
5. To calculate the total volume of slurry needed for this job, add the slurry needed to fill the
_________________ and the slurry needed to fill the ____________________. Your unit of measure
will be ___________ which needs to be converted to __________.
6. To calculate the number of sacks needed for this job, divide the amount of slurry in _____________
by the _______________________________ in cubic feet per sack.
7. To obtain the total amount of mixing water you will need, multiply the number of ______/sk water by
the number of __________.Then convert to the unit of measurement used in tanks, ___________, by
dividing gallons by _______gal/bbl.
8. You need to calculate the pressure needed to land the plug, since a pressure build up might
indicate_________ and a loss of pressure may mean
______________________________________________.
9. For the pressure to land the plug, you will need to use the ____________
___________________________________ conversion tables in the Calculations and Formulas
section of you handbook. You will look up the _____/ft of the fluids (extrapolating, if necessary),
then multiply these by the depth of the float collar (or the length of the _____________ part of the
hole).

Now, look up the suggested answers in the Answer Key at the back of this section.

5 36

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

Answers to Unit Quizzes


Items from Unit A Quiz

Refer to
Page

1. capacity
2. Displacement
3. Turn to Section 210 Pages 21
0.0393 bbl/ft 10,000 ft = 393 bbl
4. ID2 3.14159/4/144 = 0.230438cft/ft
0.230438 / 5.6146 cft/bbl = 0.041043 bbl/ft
0.041043 bbl/ft 10,000 ft = 410.43 bbl
5. Turn to Section 210, Table 212B, Page 9
25 bbl 70.32 ft/bbl = 1758 ft
6. OD = 4.5 in. = 0.375 ft
ID = 2.0 in. = 0.167 ft
OD Area = 0.7854 0.375 ft 0.375 ft =
0.1104 ft2
ID Area = 0.7854 0.167 ft 0.167 ft =
0.0219 ft2
Cross-sectional Area =
0.1104 ft2 - 0.0219 ft2 = 0.0885 ft2
Displacement =
0.0885 ft2 2000 ft = 117 ft3
Conversion Factor = 0.1781 bbl/ft3
Displacement =
117 ft3 0.1781 bbl/ft3 = 31.52 bbl

Items from Unit B Quiz

Refer to
Page

1. Turn to Section 122-B


0.3132 ft3/ft 5000 ft = 1566 ft3
1566 ft3 7.4805 gal/ft3 = 11714 gal
2. Turn to Section 221-B, Page 73
0.1697 ft3/ft 7675 ft = 1302.45 ft3

Refer to
Page

Items from Unit C Quiz


1. Divided, standard
2. Actual volume

5 37

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

3. Absolute volume

4.
ABSOLUTE
MATERIAL

FACTOR

VOLUME

MATERIALS

(lb)

(gal/lb)

(gal)

Brine Water

10

Sand

10

TOTALS

0.0456

20 lbs

1.0
0.456
1.456 gal

Slurry Weight = 20 lbs 1.456 gal = 13.74 lbs/gal

5.

Worksheet for Slurry Weight and Volume Calculations

API Cement weight = 94 lb/sack


1 sack = 1 cubic foot
Absolute
MATERIAL

Material

Factor

Volume

(lb)

(gal/lb)

(gal)

NAME
Class H Cement
Water

94 X
35.819 =

TOTALS ==>

0.0382 =

3.5908

8.33 lb/gal

129.819

Mixing Water
Requirements
(gal)
4.30

4.30 gal
7.8908

4.30 gal

Find the weight of the mixed cement by using this formula:


Total Pounds/ Total Absolute gallons = pounds/gallon.
Find the cement yield in cubic feet per sack by using this formula:
Total Absolute gallons / 7.4805 gal / ft3 (constant) = ft3/sack
The mixing water per sack is the sum of the gallons in the far right column.
Cement Density (lb/gal) ==>
3

Cement Yield (ft /sk) ===>


Mixing Water req (gal/sk)===>

129.819 /

7.8908 =

16.5

7.8908 /

7.4805 =

1.05

4.30

Items from Unit D Quiz

Refer to
Page

1. type, water requirement, absolute


2. gal/lb, weight
3. weight, gallons
4. 7.4805
5. annulus, shoe joint, ft3, sk
6. ft3, yield
7. gal, sk, bbl, 42

5 38

Cementing 1

Primary Cementing Calculations

8. bridging, lost circulation


9. hydrostatic pressure & fluid weight, psi,
unbalanced

5 39

Cementing 1