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Regenerative Braking System (RBS): Energy Measurement

LOI WEI CHEONG

This report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award
of a Bachelor Degree in Mechanical Engineering (Automotive)

Mechanical Engineering Faculty


University Technical Malaysia Melaka

JUNE 2012

SUPERVISORS DECLARATION

I hereby declare that I have read this report and in my opinion this report is sufficient
in term of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Mechanical
Engineering (Automotive)

Signature

1ST Supervisor

: DR.MUSTHAFAH BIN MOHD TAHIR

Date

ii

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the work in this report is my own except for summaries and
quotations which have been duly acknowledged.

Signature

Author

: LOI WEI CHEONG

Date

iii

DEDICATION

To my parents, who have never failed to give me financial and moral support, for
fulfilling my need during the time of developing myself and for teaching me that
even the largest task can be accomplished if it is done one step at a time.
To my brother, sisters and friends whose indirectly contribute to this thesis.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I would like to thank my supervisor of this project,


Dr.Musthafah Bin Mohd Tahir for his valuable guidance and advice. He inspired me
greatly to work on this project. His willingness to motivate and spend his valuable
time for me is the biggest contributions to my project. I would also like to thank him
for providing me some basic information related to my topic at the very beginning of
this project.
Besides, I would like to thank University Technical Malaysia Melaka (UTeM)
for providing me a good environment and great facilities to conduct my PSM 1.
Addition, I would like to thank to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FKM) for
their guidance, starting from PSM 1 subject registration until the final presentation of
my PSM. A special thank to my presentation panels, Dr. Noreffendy and En. Faizul
for their attending and judging, and provide me some important information
regarding to this project.
Finally, an honourable mention goes to our families and friends for their
understandings and supports on me in completing this project.

ABSTRACT

Regenerative Braking System (RBS) is an efficient system to reduce vehicle


emission and fuel consumption. RBS is a system which converts mechanical energy
to electrical energy during braking action. It will become an important system for
future vehicle such as hybrid and electric car. This study will start with literature
review about the Regenerative Braking System (RBS). The basic design and
components used in the regenerative braking for current vehicles will also be
reviewed. Through the study, a RBS model can be design or develop for future study.
The working mechanism was studied to understand how the RBS could convert
mechanical energy to electrical energy. The important components used in RBS will
be determined such as electric motor, motor controller and battery. To produce a
RBS model, an e-bike conversion kit has been bought from Hong Kong and an
alternator was selected to be installed in the bicycle. The results and calculations
show that both devices can function properly, that means both devices can form
recovery energy to charge battery during braking. During the recovery energy
working, brake effects are formed to decelerate the bike. The recovery energy during
braking for both devices are taken and compared to found out which one can produce
high recovery energy during braking. In addition this RBS model can be used for
future study.

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ABSTRAK

Regenerative Braking System (RBS) adalah satu sistem yang berkesan untuk
mengurangkan pencemaran kenderaan dan penggunaan bahan api. RBS sistem
menukar tenaga mekanikal kepada tenaga elektrik semasa tindakan brek. Ia akan
menjadi satu sistem yang penting bagi kenderaan masa depan seperti kereta hibrid
dan elektrik. Kajian ini akan bermula dengan kajian literatur mengenai Regenerative
Braking System (RBS). Reka bentuk asas dan komponen-komponen yang digunakan
dalam regenerative brek bagi kenderaan semasa juga akan dikaji semula. Melalui
kajian ini, model RBS boleh direka bentuk atau dibangunkan untuk kajian masa
depan. Mekanisme kerja telah dikaji untuk memahami bagaimana RBS boleh
menukar tenaga mekanikal kepada tenaga elektrik. Komponen penting yang
digunakan dalam RBS ditentukan seperti motor elektrik, motor controller dan bateri.
Untuk menghasilkan model RBS, kit penukaran e-basikal telah dibeli dari Hong
Kong dan satu alternator dipilih untuk memasang ke atas basikal. Keputusan dan
pengiraan menunjukkan bahawa kedua-dua peranti boleh berfungsi dengan baik, ini
bermakna kedua-dua peranti boleh membentuk pemulihan tenaga untuk mengecas
bateri semasa brek. Semasa kerja pemulihan tenaga, kesan brek dihasilkan dan
menyahpecutkan basikal. Tenaga pemulihan semasa brek untuk kedua-dua peranti
diambil dan membandingkan untuk mendapat tahu yang mana satu boleh
menghasilkan tenaga pemulihan yang tinggi semasa brek. Model RBS ini boleh
digunakan untuk kajian pada masa akan datang.

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CONTENTS

CHAPTER

CHAPTER I

CHAPTER II

TITLE

PAGES

DECLARATION

ii

DEDICATION

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iv

ABSTRACT

ABSTRAK

vi

CONTENTS

vii

LIST OF TABLES

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

xii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

xiv

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

xv

LIST OF APPENDIX

xvi

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Project Introduction

1.2

Background

1.3

Objective

1.4

Scope

1.5

Problem Statement

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

Introduction of Regenerative Braking


System (RBS)

2.2

RBS as Future Solution

2.3

Energy Efficiency for RBS

2.4

Type of RBS

viii

CHAPTER

CHAPTER III

CHAPTER IV

CHAPTER V

TITLE

PAGES

2.5

Energy Storage System

11

2.6

How RBS Works

12

2.7

Fuel Economy

13

2.8

Maximize Energy Recovery in RBS

13

2.9

Effect Of RBS On The Stability Of The


Vehicle

14

2.10

Main components in RBS

14

2.11

Alternator

21

2.12

Voltage Rectifier

23

2.13

Voltage Regulator

25

METHODOLOGY

27

3.1

Project Overview

27

3.2

Project General Flow

27

3.3

Gantt Chart for PSM 1 & 2

29

3.4

Stage 1: Research Method

30

3.5

Stage 2: Prototype Design Stage


(Identifying Components)

31

3.6

Stage 3 Components Selection

33

3.7

Stage 4: Components Purchasing

37

3.8

Stage 5: Components Installation

38

3.9

Stage 6: Engineering Drawing

44

3.10

Stage 7: Model Testing and Analyzing

49

RESULTS

54

4.1

CAD Drawing

54

4.2

Items Purchasing

55

4.3

Model build-up

58

4.4

Functional Testing and Analysis

60

DISCUSSION

66

ix

CHAPTER VI

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

67

REFERENCES

70

APPENDIX

78

LIST OF TABLES

NO.

TITLE

PAGES

2.1

Comparison between conventional, series hybrid, parallel hybrid and fuel cell
vehicle. ............................................................................................................. 7

2.2

Input and output vehicle parameters obtained from NRELs ADVISOR


simulations. ...................................................................................................... 9

2.3

Working principle of Electric Motor (EM) ..................................................... 16

2.4

Comparison between large electrolytic capacitor, Ultracapacitor paralleled


with electrolytic capacitor and DC/DC controlled ultracapacitor module. .... 20

3.1

Gantt chart for PSM 1 ..................................................................................... 29

3.2

Gantt chart for PSM 2 ..................................................................................... 29

3.3

Type of classification of alternator ................................................................. 34

3.4

Comparison of batteries .................................................................................. 35

3.5

Purchased Items .............................................................................................. 39

3.6

Example of functions used to develop 3D product in CATIA ........................ 48

3.7

Testing apparatus ............................................................................................ 50

4.1

Parts drawing................................................................................................... 54

4.2

Total spending for the project ......................................................................... 57

4.3

Model before and after installation ................................................................. 58

4.4

Unit converts ................................................................................................... 62

4.5

Single lead-acid battery specification ............................................................. 63

4.6

Results for the 24V generator and 12V alternator

65

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

NO.

TITLE

PAGES

1.1

24V generator (previous work)

1.2

12V alternator (current work)

2.1

Regenerative Braking System (RBS) ............................................................... 5

2.2

Energy conversion in RBS ............................................................................... 6

2.3

Toyota Prius ..................................................................................................... 6

2.4

Honda Insight ................................................................................................... 7

2.5

Energy flow for various vehicle configurations. .............................................. 8

2.6

Series regenerative braking ............................................................................ 10

2.7

Parallel regenerative braking.......................................................................... 10

2.8

Toyota Prius battery ....................................................................................... 11

2.9

Honda Insight battery ..................................................................................... 11

2.10

Flywheel storage system (KERS) .................................................................. 12

2.11

Regenerative Braking System (RBS) ............................................................. 12

2.12

Configuration of series hybrid electric vehicle .............................................. 15

2.13

Configuration of parallel hybrid vehicle ........................................................ 15

2.14

Toyota Prius inverter ...................................................................................... 17

2.15

Honda Insight inverter.................................................................................... 18

2.16

ZEBRA battery............................................................................................... 19

2.17

Stator .............................................................................................................. 22

2.18

Rotor............................................................................................................... 22

2.19

Diode .............................................................................................................. 22

2.20

Voltage rectifier ............................................................................................. 24

2.21

Voltage regulator............................................................................................ 26

3.1

Flow chart ...................................................................................................... 28

3.2

Parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) layout .............................................. 31

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3.3

Alternator ....................................................................................................... 32

3.4

Switch............................................................................................................. 32

3.5

Battery ............................................................................................................ 32

3.6

Regenerative braking layout structures .......................................................... 33

3.7

Components layout ........................................................................................ 38

3.8

Second hand 12V battery ............................................................................... 38

3.9

Tools needed .................................................................................................. 41

3.10

Install primary support ................................................................................... 41

3.11

Install secondary support................................................................................ 42

3.12

Install alternator ............................................................................................. 42

3.13

Install push-off switch .................................................................................... 43

3.14

Wiring the system .......................................................................................... 43

3.15

24V generator ................................................................................................. 45

3.16

Front light ....................................................................................................... 46

3.17

Controller ....................................................................................................... 46

3.18

Regenerative brake handle ............................................................................. 46

3.19

12V alternator................................................................................................. 47

3.20

Constraint ....................................................................................................... 47

3.21

Voltage output measurement using multi-meter ............................................ 51

3.22

Testing method for 24V generator ................................................................. 52

3.23

Testing method for 12V alternator ................................................................. 53

4.1

Purchase items location .................................................................................... 57

4.2

Result for 12V alternator ................................................................................ 60

4.3

Result for 24V generator ................................................................................ 61

xiii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

F reg

Regenerative braking Force

T EM_reg

EM available regenerative braking torque

T EM_max
T UC_max

EM maximum generation

Capacitor charging capacities

Transmission efficiency

Wheel radius

Weight factor

Weight factor of ultracapacitor

Weight factor of vehicle velocity

Weight factor of Electric motor state

P Ge_max

EM maximum generation power

P Ch_max

Ultracapacitor maximum charging power

n2

Motor rotational speed

Gear ratio

i0

Final reduction gear ratio

Power

Current

xiv

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

AC

Alternating current

BCU

Brake control unit

CAD

Computer aided design

DC

Direct current

DOF

Degree of freedom

EECB

Emulated Engine Compression Braking

EHB

Electro hydraulic braking

EM

Electric motor

EPA

Environmental Protection Agencies

EV

Electric vehicle

FLC

Fuzzy logic control

HEV

Hybrid electric vehicle

ICE

Internal combustion engine

IM

Inductive motor

KERS

Kinetic Energy Recovery System

PHEV

Parallel hybrid electric vehicle

PM

Permanent magnet motor

RBS

Regenerative Braking System

RESS

Rechargeable Energy Storage System

RTD

Regenerative Torque Distribution

RTO

Regenerative Torque Optimization

SHEV

Series hybrid electric vehicle

SOC

State of charge

SRM

Switched reluctant motor

xv

LIST OF APPENDIX

NO.

TITLE

PAGES

Gantt chart for PSM 1 ................................................................................... 78

Gantt chart for PSM 2 ................................................................................... 78

Series hybrid .................................................................................................. 79

Parallel hybrid ............................................................................................... 79

Series-parallel hybrid ..................................................................................... 79

Right view for model ..................................................................................... 80

Left view of model ........................................................................................ 80

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Introduction

The subject of Final Year Project (PSM), BMCU 4973 and BMCU 4983 are a
research and related scientific fields of study at the Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering (FKM) that must be provided by final year students to fulfill the
requirement of award of degree. Under this subject, every student will be supervised
by a lecturer and doing research regarded to the topic he or she has chosen. At the
end of the semester/year, students have to carry out a presentation regarded to this
project, and showing out all the result and findings of his research.

The purposes of this PSM are to train and improve a student's ability to use
knowledge and experience in related field of engineering. Students must able to carry
out research through scientific methods such as scientific research, collect and
analyze data and produce a design or product. Students must able to handle work
with minimal supervision and independently in this final year project. Students must
able to present their project work through seminars and written reports properly.

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1.2 Background

Regenerative Braking System (RBS) in vehicle is my PSM title. My


supervisor is Dr. Musthafah bin Mohd Tahir. As we know, RBS is not new
technologies that exist at present. RBS was first used in the locomotive industry. Due
to the lack of sophisticated technological knowledge on suitable battery power
storage, therefore RBS attracted less interest and further study of this system is also
suspended. Nowadays, pollution problems and the limited fuel resources for vehicles
have made the RBS back to become an important system for future vehicles. RBS
can reduce air pollution and fuel consumption. After understanding the importance of
this RBS, which is the purpose of my PSM project will produce an RBS model for
future studies. In general, RBS is a system that can recuperate mechanical energy to
electrical energy during braking action. This system allows the vehicle kinetic energy
to be converted into electrical energy and be storage in the power storage system.
This saved energy will be used again to move the vehicle.

My final objective is to compare between DC motor and alternator which can


recuperate highest energy during braking action. So, a DC motor and alternator will
be assembled in the front tire of bicycle. The DC motor type is already been done by
the previous student. Hence, this project will start by collecting information from
literature review and then the installation of the alternator in the front tire of the
bicycle. Figure 1.1 and 1.2 show the previous work and current work.

Figure 1.1: 24V generator (previous work)

Figure 1.2: 12V alternator (current work)

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1.3 Objective

The objectives of this PSM are:


1. To study the basic design of some regenerative braking system used in the vehicles.
2. To measure the regenerative braking energy for 24V DC motor.
3. To measure the regenerative braking energy for 12V alternator.
4. To compare the results of regenerative braking energy for 24V DC motor and 12V
alternator.
5. To evaluate an efficient system for future study.

1.4 Scope

The scopes of this PSM are covering:


1. Literature review and existing design information gathering.
2. Model making using 12V vehicle alternator.
3. Build a regenerative braking circuit for 12V alternator.
4. Draw the regenerative braking components using CATIA.
5. Do off road test to the 24V generator and 12V alternator.

1.5 Problem Statement


At the 21th century, the automotive industry has post a great challenge in
order to reduce the vehicle fuel consumption and emission, these is due to the
shortage of fuel resources and worsen air pollution problem. According to figures
released by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conventional ICE
vehicles currently contribute 40-50% of ozone, 80-90% of carbon monoxide, and 5060% of air toxins found in urban areas.

A study shows that, one third (21 to 24%) energy is consumed during brake.
The invention of Regenerative Braking System is viewed as a solution to these

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problems, as it recovered wasted energy and restored to become another form of
useful energy. Although we realize the beneficial and positive effect bring by
Regenerative Braking System, but it still has its issue or problem to be solved; one of
the major problems is regarded as the suitable battery to be used in this type of
vehicle. Today, most Hybrid car batteries are one of these two types:

1. Nickel metal hydride


2. Lithium ion

Both are regarded as more environmentally friendly than lead-based batteries,


but both battery are very expensive and still can cause environmental damage due to
the toxic content.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction of Regenerative Braking System (RBS)

Figure 2.1: Regenerative Braking System (RBS)


(Source: www.brighthub.com)

The Figure 2.1 above show the basic design for RBS. RBS is an important
and useful system to reduce the environment pollution and shortage of the fuel
resources problem. According to the conservation of energy, energy cannot be
created or destroyed but it can change the type of energy. RBS is a system which can
convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. This system is used in a vehicle to
recuperate the waste energy during braking and converting it to a useful energy for
conventional hydraulic brake vehicle. The waste energy was produced when

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conventional brake is applied. The recuperate energy is then been saved in a power
storage for future usage.

In RBS, the DC motor is used as a generator to recover kinetic energy from


the wheel of the vehicle into electrical energy. The conventional hydraulic brake will
continue to be used as an emergency brake. Because the RBS is only able to stop the
vehicle in a relatively long distance and time. This situation would cause accident to
occur. The RBS efficiently reduces the waste energy and regenerate energy during
braking as shown in Figure 2.2.

Kinetic energy /waste

Generated energy stored

energy from wheel

in power storage

Figure 2.2: Energy conversion in RBS

Nowadays, many modern hybrid and electric vehicles use this Regenerative
Braking System (RBS). Examples include the hybrids such as Toyota Prius (Figure
2.3) Honda Insight (Figure 2.4), and the Vectrix electric maxi-scooter.

Figure 2.3: Toyota Prius


(Source: www.fastmotoring.com)

Figure 2.4: Honda Insight


(Source: www.en.automobile.de)

2.2 RBS as Future Solution

The need to increase environmental protection and energy conservation has


brought a big challenge for the automotive industry to reduce vehicle emissions and.
fuel consumption. For this purpose, extensive solutions for alternative power train
has been proposed, including hybrid technology is regarded as the best. Government
regulations around the world have become more stringent, requiring lower
production for the car (Especially U.S. EPA Tier 2 Bin 5, followed by a Euro 5).

In 2003, a research has been done by V. Dawood and A. Emadi in order to


compare between fuel cell, parallel & series hybrid electric and conventional transit
bus. ADVISOR software was used to simulate the various heavy-duty buses. Results
show a magnificent (as indicated in Table 2.1) improvement in the fuel economy
especially in the parallel configuration. [9]

Table 2.1: Comparison between conventional, series hybrid, parallel hybrid and fuel
cell vehicle.
(Source: V. Dawood. 2003)

Fuel
Converter(kW)
Energy
storage(kW)

Conventional

Series

Fuel cell

Parallel

350

100

200

150

300

300

250

8
Motor(kW)

300

250

200

Total propulsion
power( kW)
Fuel
Economy(mpg)/
(km/kg)
0-60 mph (s) or 0-

350

300

250

350

5.1 / 0.0082

7.4 / 0.0119

7.5 / 0.0121

9.3 / 0.0149

25.7

18.2

19.1

18.0

6.0

2.5

2.3

2.5

138.4

138.9

138.7

138.1

96.6 km/h
Grade Ability
(%)
Max. speed
(km/h)

2.3 Energy Efficiency for RBS

Demirdven, N. and Deutch, J. (2003) compare the energy efficiency of


conventional internal combustion engines, fuel cell and hybrid vehicles. In their
analysis (as indicated in Figure 2.5 and Table 2.2) indicates that fuel cell vehicles
using hydrogen from fossil fuels offer no significant energy efficiency advantage
over hybrid vehicles operating in an urban drive cycle. They conclude that priority
should be placed on hybrid vehicles by industry and government.[32]

Figure 2.5: Energy flow for various vehicle configurations.