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SENTENCE PATTERNS

1. NOUN VERB
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
NOUN
VERB
They
run
He
sleeps
The police
is exercising
The professor and his colleagues
read and study
Exercise:
Make more sentences of this type by supplying the missing parts in the
following sentences:
1. _________ is thinking.
6. _________ is playing.
2. _________ are studying.
7. _________ were ringing.
3. The sun _________
8. Professor Root _________
4. _________ is singing.
9. _________ had been waiting.
5. The wind __________
10. The children _________
AGREEMENT
Agreement of Subject and Predicate
The singular subjects in the third person, like she and Sheila are followed by
the s form of either the simple verb or an auxiliary.
Ex:
Dr. Sheila teaches.
- She is lecturing.
- Her students are listening.
- They dont study.
- She doesnt approve.

Agreement and Compound Subjects


a. If the parts of the compound subject are joined by and, whether they are
singular or plural, the plural form of the verb is used.
- The boys and girls are playing.
- Mark and Helena agree.
b. If the parts of the compound subject are singular and are joined by such
connectives as or, nor, either or, neither nor, not only but also, the
singular form of the verb is used.
- Either John or his friend is invited.
- Neither Helga nor Andy works.
c. If the parts of the compound subject joined by or, nor, either or, neither
nor, not only but also are different in number of person, the part
nearest the verb determines the form of the verb used.
- Either John or his friends are invited.
- Not only the students but also the teacher is excited.

Agreement and Collective Nouns


Occasionally, a noun that is singular if form may be used in a plural sense.
- The crowd were waiving their hands and shouting.
- The committee were arguing.

Usually, however, nouns like class, group, committee, jury, and so on called
collective are considered singular and the s form of the verb is used with
them.
- The committee is meeting.
- The jury has been dismissed.

Verb Forms and Auxiliaries That do not Change Form for Agreement
The simple past form of the verb and modal auxiliaries do not change when
the person or number of the subject changes.
- The guesses came
- They worked
- We can
sing
- He came
- He worked
- He can sing

EXERCISES
a. Use a form of the auxiliary be in each of the following blanks.
Example: The engineers and the company president are attending.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Both the teachers and the students _____ reading.


Neither Jim nor Tom _____ writing.
Teddy and his brother _____ talking.
Either Ron or his brothers _____ leaving.
Mrs. Smith, together with her daughters, _____ shopping.

b. Combine the following pairs or groups of sentences into one sentence. Make sure
that the subjects and predicates agree.
Example: The boy is talking. He is laughing. (and)
The boy is talking and laughing.
1. The students are listening. The students are writing. (and)
2. John is not speaking. John is not writing. (or)
3. They observe. They report. (neither, nor)
4. The boys are conducting research. The girls are conducting research. (not
only, but also)
5. He runs. He jumps. (either, or)
c. Find the elements in the following sentences that form the basic sentence
pattern noun + verb.
Example:
After a long wait, the gleaming glass doors of the new department
store finally opened
to the public. The doors opened.
1. The 6:45 express train from Newtown at long last arrived at the crowded
stations.
2. A small but vicious dog at our neighbors house noisily and persistently
barked all night.
3. The securely wrapped package of spare parts for the tractor came yesterday
by registered mail.
4. In spite of our best efforts, all essential work in the rubber tire factory
stopped completely.
5. A very famous musician from the conservatory played for one hour yesterday.
6. That very popular tourist hotel will soon open for the summer season.

7. The engineering students in Prof. Allens class busily studied for their
examination all night.
8. Dr. Steven, the well known physicist at the research laboratory, is lecturing
today at the auditorium.
9. The jumbo jet airliner, after a long delay, finally landed safely at the airport.
10.A very strange thing happened on the way to work.
2. NOUN VERB
NOUN
PHRASE
NOUN
Mr. Hard
He
She
We
You
They

ADVERBIAL (1)
VERB PHRASE
VERB
works
played
drove
sing
laugh
will stop

ADVERB
hard
all day
home
cheerful
ly
loudly
soon

Adverb
Adverbs normally follow the verb. There are three types:
a. Adverb of Manner
Adverb of manner explain how the action of the verb is done.
Example:
- Alice drives fast.
- She walked slowly.
- They can answer correctly.
b. Adverb of Place.
These adverbs usually answer the question where about the action of the
verb, and come after the verb.
Example:
- The students went home.
- The boat sails away.
- The elevator is going up.
- The Smith lives here.
c. Adverb of Time.
Adverbs of time usually follow the verb; however, they may also introduce
the sentence for reasons of style or for emphasis.
Example:
- He is working now.
- He will finish soon.
- He can leave then.
When different adverb types occur together, the order is usually place manner
time. The order is not strict, however, both She went there gladly today and She
went there today gladly are acceptable combinations. When there are two or three
adverbs, the adverb of time is often used at the beginning of the sentence.
NOUN
VERB
She went
She went

PLACE

MANNER

TIME

there
-

gladly

She
She
She
She

went
went
went
went

there
there

gladly
gladly
gladly

today
today
today

Adverb of frequency
These adverbs explain the frequency subject does something.
(always, usually, often, frequently, sometimes, rarely, seldom, never).
Normally, these adverbs occur before the main adverb, except when the main verb
is be, they follow be.
Example:
Laila frequently arrives at the library early and usually stays there
most of the day.
- She never leaves before noon.
- She is always at the library.
- We are usually at home on Sundays.
EXERCISES:
a. Complete the following sentences with adverbs of manner such as quietly,
calmly, angrily, well, quickly, gladly, suddenly, slowly, strongly,
immediately, hurriedly, carefully, thoroughly, fast, smoothly, noisily,
promptly, peacefully, violently.
Example:
1. The electric motors stopped _____.
2. The technicians arrived_____.
3. The repair crew worked _____.
4. The machines would not start _____.
5. The supervisors complained _____.
b. Complete the following sentences with adverbs of time such as then, next,
now, soon, later, Saturday, last night, next week, today, early, daily,
tomorrow, late.
Example: Work stopped last week.
1. The technicians are working _____.
2. The package came _____.
3. They will finish _____.
4. The machines will run _____.
5. Our inspectors should return _____.
c. Combine the following groups of sentences. Make sure that the adverbs are in
acceptable order.
Example: Prof. Allen works here. He works industriously. He works every day.
Prof. Allen works here industriously every day.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

He teaches enthusiastically. He teaches all year. He teaches here.


He lectures all morning. He lectures energetically. He lectures here.
Luna stays at home. She stays quietly. She stays every night.
Children are playing. They are playing in the park. They are playing noisily.
The teacher looked up. He looked then. He looked quickly.
Alice went home. She went sadly. She went that day.
The rain came. It came down. It came all night. It came softly and steadily.
The family dined quietly. They dined at home. They dined at evening.

9. Mrs. Ols works outside. She works constantly. She works every day.
10.Children swim in the pool. They swim all morning. They swim noisily.
3. NOUN VERB ADVERBIAL (2)
Flight 891 is on the runway ready for takeoff. The passengers had waited in
the airline terminal for one hour. The planes departure was announced over
the loudspeaker ten minutes ago. They walked to the gate and climbed
aboard the plane. Some passengers are travelling for pleasure, while others
are going on business. Still others are travelling for family reasons. A few
students are returning to their universities. The passengers will fly for about
three hours. They will arrive at the airport in Phoenix at 6:30 p.m.
The pattern:
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
NOUN
VERB
PHREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
The passengers
had waited
in the airline terminal
The planes
was
(place)
departure
announced
over the loudspeaker
Some passengers
are travelling (manner)
The passengers
will fly
for pleasure (reason)
for about three hours
(time)
Examples of prepositional phrase:
Adverb of Place
in Surabaya, at the office, by the sea, near the station, on the
desk, under the table, over the fireplace, above the bookcase,
beside the window.
Adverb of Manner
by ship, by telephone, by airmail, via email, with a smile, like a
duck, in a hurry, by chance, by accident, by taxi.
Adverb of Time
at 6:00, on Wednesday, in an hour, in two days, for three
weeks, during the summer, after 8:00, before breakfast, until
noon, on time, about three days, from 9:00 to 12:00
Adverb of Reason
for pleasure, on business, on purpose, for his health.
Order of Prepositional Phrases Used as Adverbs
a. Place, Manner, Time
The order for prepositional phrases used as adverbs is the same as for simple
adverbs: place, manner, time.
She is going to Chicago on business.
She is going to Chicago by train.
She is going on Saturday on business.
She is going to Chicago by train on business.
b. Order from the General to the Specific.
When two or more prepositional phrases of the same type (place, manner, time,
reason) are used together, the order is usually from the general to the specific.
He lectures on Tuesday at 3:00. (general time, specific time).
c. At the Beginning of a Sentence.
For variety or emphasis, some prepositional phrases may be used at the
beginning of sentences.
On Saturday she is going to Chicago.
EXERCISES

a. Complete the following sentences by supplying objects for prepositions.


Example: Alice lives in San Francisco near the bay.
1. She lives in _____ on _____.
2. She works in _____ near _____.
3. Her work begins in _____ at _____.
4. She travels to _____ by _____.
5. Her bus stops at _____ near _____.
b. Make new sentences by adding adverbs and prepositional phrases that give
the information indicated in parenthesis after each sentence.
Example: Dr. Andy teaches (where) (when)
1. Mrs. Woro lectured (where) (when)
2. The students listened (how)
3. They neither read nor slept (when)
4. They asked questions and took notes (when)
5. A difficult lecture ended (how)
c. Combine the following pairs and groups of sentences, making sure that the
adverbs and prepositional phrases are placed in acceptable order.
Example: The sea otter lives along the Asiatic and North American coasts. It
lives in the Pacific Ocean. The sea otter lives in the Pacific Ocean along the
Asiatic and North American coasts.
1. The number of otters decreased dramatically. It decreased before 1938. It
decreased because of intense hunting.
2. The sea otter population has been growing since 1938. It has been
growing in the North Pacific. It has been growing significantly.
3. The otter lives in cold water. It lives comfortably.
4. Otters come together for sleep and social life. They come together in
herds. They come together is short distance from the shore.
5. They swim expertly. They swim through seaweed forest. They swim in
search of shellfish.
4. NOUN VERB NOUN
The professor is reading a new book. She enjoys books about the sea and buys
them often. In fact, she is always studying this subject. She teaches
oceanography. Her students attend her classes regularly. They like her lectures,
but they dont care for the tests. They take many tests, however. The professor
may give one at any time.
Sentence pattern: Noun + Verb + Noun
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
SUBJECT
VERB
DIRECT OBJECT
NOUN
NOUN
They
are reading
a new book
She
enjoys
books
He
teaches
oceanography
They
take
many tests
Transitive Verbs are the verbs which are followed by nouns. The nouns that
follow them are direct objects.

Example:
- Mrs. Akira left her office.
- She ate lunch in town.
- The professor takes work home with her.
- Today she prepares a lecture on plant life.
- The students enjoy her lectures.
Intransitive verbs are verbs which are followed by nothing or by adverbials.
Examples:
- The professor waited.
- Her book came.
- She read all day.
Verbs in general fall into three groups:
1. Some verbs are always intransitive and are followed by nothing or by an
adverbial modifier. They are used only in the noun + verb
(+adverb/prepositional phrase) sentence pattern and are never followed by a
noun. They are used in the noun + verb sentence pattern.
She is eating
We laugh
They waited for three days.
He stays in a famous hotel.
She went to Jakarta.
2. Some verbs are always transitive. They are always used in the noun + verb
+ noun sentence pattern. They must be followed by a noun or pronoun or by
a construction used as a noun, all of which function as direct object.
She enjoys herself.
The students like the professors lectures.
She loves taking pictures.
He appreciates the students hard working.
3. Some verbs may be transitive or intransitive. They may be used in the basic
sentence patterns, that is they may be followed either by nothing or by an
object.
He reads constantly
He reads books and newspaper.
She writes well.
She writes short stories.
EXERCISES:
a. Finish each of these sentences and indicate its sentence pattern as (1) noun +
verb or (2) noun + verb + noun.
Example:
My friend enjoyed the party (2)
I always sleep well every night (1)
1. Louis loves _____ .
2. He enjoys _____ .
3. She practiced _____ .
4. The children are playing _____ .
5. They like _____ .
6. Tommy studies _____ .
7. She goes _____ .
8. Yesterday, we went _____ .
9. I saw _____ .
10.She had _____ .
b. Combine the following groups of sentences into one sentence

Example:
The students read constantly. They read books about marine
life.
The students read books about marine life constantly.
1. The students take examinations. They take them quite regularly.
2. The cat eat hungrily. They eat fish and mouse.
3. She studies biology. She studies several hours a day. She studies hard.
4. She will study plant life. She will study next semester.
5. Lia studies mathematics. She studies every night.
6. Riri plays piano. She plays very well.
7. Ronaldo plays football. He plays with great skill.
8. Ms. Rivera drove her new car. She drove it home. She drove it carefully.
9. He flies a plane. He flies for pleasure. He flies for business.
10.Budi rides a bicycle. He rides every day. He rides to work.
5. NOUN VERB NOUN NOUN
Illustration:
Tim told his friends something exciting. The university had awarded him a
scholarship. The scholarship committee sent him the news yesterday. Tim
showed me the letter. It gave him all the details. Each month, the university will
mail him a check. Then, he must pay the university the required fee. The
university has given Tim a very great honor.
Sentence pattern: Noun + Verb + Noun + Noun
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
SUBJECT
VERB
INDIRECT OBJECT
NOUN
NOUN/PRONOUN
Tim
told
his friends
The university
had awarded
Tim
The committee
sent
him
Tim
showed
me
The letter
gave
him
The university
will mail
him
He
must pay
the university
The university
has given
Tim

DIRECT OBJECT
NOUN
something
a scholarship
the news
the letter
the details
a check
the fee
an honor.

Verbs that take Indirect Object:


The following verbs are often used in the pattern noun + Verb + Noun + Noun:
Ask, assign, award, bring, buy, cause, cost, deny, do, get, grant, guarantee,
hand, lease, leave, lend, mail, make, offer, owe, pass, pay, play, promise, read,
rent, save, sell, send, serve, show, spare, teach, tell, throw.
Examples:
The students asked Prof. Ted a lot of questions.
She assigned them some homework.
We bought Mrs. Ross a gift.
EXERCISES
a. Make more sentences of this type by supplying the missing parts.
Example: Mr. Chen teaches the new students _____ .
Mr. Chen teaches the new students mathematics.
1. He gives _____ lessons.
2. The university _____ Tim a letter.
3. Mrs. Gonzales will buy _____ a present.

4. _____ paid Tono his salary.


5. _____ will show _____ the way.
6. Dr. Rom asked the class _____ .
7. The UN offered _____ a fellowship.
8. The director promised the employees _____.
9. _____ assigned _____ our duties.
10.This problem has caused _____ a lot of trouble.
b. Combine the following pairs of sentences into one sentence, using the
pattern noun + Verb + Noun + Noun.
Example:
Bruce lives in a house. Mr. Ave is renting it.
Mr. Ave is renting Bruce a house
1. Thomas received the letter. The university mailed it on Tuesday.
2. His friends received the news. Tom told it.
3. Tom received a scholarship. The university gave it.
4. Ted receives instructions. The supervisor gives them.
5. Sara will receive a check each month. The bank will issue it.
6. The committee will receive a receipt. Thomas will send it.
7. The Smiths will receive a latter. John will write it.
8. The scholarship committee will receive many questions. Students will ask
them.
9. The scholarship winners received congratulations. The class sent them.
10.They received a gift. Their friends bought it.
6. NOUN VERB NOUN TO/FOR PHRASE
Illustration:
The university sent a letter to Tim. He showed it to his friends. He read it to me.
The letter had good news for him. It announced a special program for Tim. The
letter described a work-study plan for him. He reported the good news to the
class. They asked him many questions.
Sentence pattern: Noun + Verb + Noun + To/For phrase.
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
SUBJECT
VERB
DIRECT OBJECT
TO/FOR PHRASE
NOUN
NOUN
The university
sent
a letter
to Tim
He
showed
it
to his friends
He
read
it
to me
It
announced
a program
for Tim
He
reported
the news
to the class
Verbs that Take Either Indirect Objects or To/For
Whether a sentence with a to/for phrase after the direct object can be rewritten
in the noun + verb + noun + noun pattern depends on the verb that is used in
the sentence.
Some verbs that occur in either of these patterns are: show, read, give,
teach, buy, sell, offer, promise, tell, lend, and make.
Examples: - Tim told an exciting story to his friends.
Tim told his friends an exciting story.
- Fatima bought a present for her mother.
Fatima bought her mother a present

- The school gives a scholarship to Andy.


The school gives Andy a scholarship.
Some verbs that cannot occur are: say, speak, explain, describe, introduce,
repeat, announce, report, answer, cash, change, open, prescribe, and
pronounce.
Examples: - They said good-bye to us.
- The witness spoke the truth to the Judge.
- The newspaper reported the news to its readers.
- The radio station repeated the same information for its
listeners.

Verbs that Take For


Some verbs are customarily used with the for phrase. They are: answer, buy,
cash, change, do, get, make, open, prescribe, and pronounce.
Examples:
- The hotel cashed a travelers check for me.
- He bought some tickets for us.
- Tim changed some money for us.
- dr. Jan prescribed some medicine for the patients.
EXERCISES:
a. Make more noun + verb + noun + to/for phrase sentences of this type by
supplying the missing parts.
Example: Robert sent a letter to his friend.
1. He also gave _____ to her.
2. Mr. Gandi owes _____ to all his friends.
3. Aunt Fitri tells fairly tales _____.
4. Mr. Andi _____ the apartment to Tm and his roommate.
5. The earthquake _____ a lot of damage to the city.
6. The messenger _____ good news _____.
7. They offered an apology _____.
8. _____ assigned a research paper _____.
9. His uncle left a fortune _____.
10.The students asked _____ to _____.
b. Produce new sentences by combining each of the following sentences with
the noun in parentheses.
Example:
He sent a letter (Rita).
He sent a letter to Rita. He sent Rita a letter.
1. Mr. Gogon will buy a gift. (his wife)
2. Tim gives lesson. (them)
3. The university paid the money. (the students)
4. Hard work will cause no harm. (him)
5. The carpenter built a house. (Mr. Todd)
6. The university gave scholarship. (me)
7. The director granted a raise. (her staff)
8. She read a story. (her son)
9. The professor assigned a project. (the class)
10.The doctor will send the bill. (my father)

c. Make new sentences by expanding the following, using the to/for phrase.
Then change them to Noun + Verb + Noun + Noun sentences, if possible.
Example:
He described the art gallery. (her)
He described the art gallery to her.
1. The factory sent a new part. (the mechanic)
2. I cant explain it. (them)
3. His suggestion makes sense. (us)
4. The mechanic changed the oil. (me)
5. Bondan opened the window. (the teacher)
6. Tina got a surprise. (Alice)
7. He bought a ring. (her)
8. They announced their engagement. (their friends)
9. Alices mother reported the event. (her relatives)
10.She also wrote the news. (newspaper)
7. NOUN VERB NOUN NOUN/ADJECTIVE
A. NOUN VERB NOUN NOUN
Illustration
Last night Hiroko and Lorry went to a lecture on politics. They considered the
lecturer an authority. Hiroko found politics a fascinating subject. Lorry
considered it a bore. She considered political activities nothing but hard work.
Hiroko found them great fun. She found the lecture interesting. Lorry thought it
rather boring. The League of Women Voters may elect Hiroko next president.
Lorry will not envy her.
Sentence Pattern: Noun + verb + noun + noun
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
SUBJECT
VERB
DIRECT OBJECT
OBJECTIVE
COMPLEMENT
NOUN
NOUN
NOUN
They
considered
the lecturer
an authority
Hiroko
found
politics
a fascinating
Lorry
considered
it
subject
She
found
the activities
a bore
Hiroko
found
them
hard work
The League
may elect
Hiroko
great fun
its president
The two nouns after the verb are really two different names for the same person
or thing. The second noun renames the first and adds to its meaning.
The club elected John president.
Hart thought himself a great genius.
The first noun after the verb in these sentences is the direct object; the second
one is the objective complement. The objective complement is necessary to
complete the sentence and to complete the meaning of the direct object.
B. NOUN VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE
Illustration:
The Kenjis moved to another part of the country. At first they found their new
home strange. They found the people different and thought their speech

peculiar. The climate made the people easygoing, and they seemed casual
about everything. The natives found the Kenjis serious and impatient.
Sentence Pattern: Noun + verb + noun + adjective
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
SUBJECT
VERB
DIRECT OBJECT

OBJECTIVE
COMPLEMENT
NOUN
NOUN
ADJECTIVE
The Kenjis
found
their new home
strange
They
found
the people
different
They
thought
their speech
peculiar
The climate
made
the people
easygoing
Time
has made
the Kenjis
less critical
They
find
their new home
different
This pattern is an important variation of the pattern: Noun + verb + noun +
noun. The only difference is that this pattern has an adjective instead of a noun
in final position.
1. The weather made the trip a pleasure.
The weather made the trip pleasant
2. They suppose him an intelligent man
They suppose him intelligent
EXERCISES:
a. Complete the following sentences with objective complements using the
nouns given.
Example: I consider football a great sport.
good student hard work good teachers
intelligent students
1. The professor considers his lecturer _____ .
2. He finds Tim and Ted _____ .
3. They find him _____ .
4. They consider most of their professors _____ .
5. Their other professors usually find them _____ too.

a good teacher

a poor choice a stimulating activity secretary and treasurer


an important team a hard worker
6. The president appointed Harry and Prod _____ .
7. Unfortunately, everyone thought Harry _____ .
8. But he proved himself _____ .
9. The club members consider them _____ .
10.Harry and Prod find the photography club _____ .
a great football player a good sport
the year captain
11.Roger is making football _____ .
12.He has proved himself _____ .
13.He has also proved himself _____ .
14.His league has named him _____ .
15.His coach may appoint him _____ .

his career

player of

b. Combine the following pairs of sentences.


Example:
Her name is Lorraine. Her father named her
Her father named her Lorraine.
1. Parman is president. The club elected him.
2. The house is full of flowers. Mother keeps it.
3. The chair is yellow. I painted it.
4. Lecture may be short. I like them.
5. The eggs are red and blue. Marty colored them.
6. The party was enjoyable. The guests made it so.
7. The prisoner may be innocent. The lawyer believes it.
8. The leaves are yellow. The fall weather turned them.
9. Hiroko is chairperson. The president appointed her.
10.The tower is five hundred meters high. The carpenters built it.
c. Finish each of the following incomplete sentences, first with an adjective,
then with a noun.
Example:
I consider myself lucky.
I consider myself a lucky person.
1. The students considered the teacher _____ .
2. Chris thought her new cat _____ .
3. She considers cars _____ .
4. Tim believed the story _____ .
5. I found it _____ .
6. Hiroko called the lecturer _____ .
7. Lorraine finds politics _____ .
8. Everyone supposed him _____ .
9. Hard work made him _____ .
10.The toothache made her _____ .
8. NOUN LINKING VERB ADJECTIVE
Illustration
Water is necessary. Without water, soil is worthless and crops are poor.
However, too much water can be dangerous. Floods can be very harmful and
destructive. They are also wasteful. Natural resources are precious and limited.
Careful use of water and other resources is important.
Sentence pattern: Noun + Linking verb + adjective
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
SUBJECT
LINKING VERB
NOUN
Water
Crops
Water
Floods
Natural resources
Careful use of water

is
are
can be
can be
are
is

SUBJECTIVE
COMPLEMENT
ADJECTIVE
necessary
poor
dangerous
harmful
precious
important

In this pattern, a linking verb connects a subject to a complement which tells


something about the subject. The complement in this pattern is an adjective.
The most common linking verb is to be (is, am, are), remain, stay, become,
appear, continue, fell, grow, seem, and taste.
EXERCISE:
a. Complete the following sentences by supplying the missing adjective:
important, essential, happy, abundant, green, dangerous, full, destructive,
necessary.
Example:
Many plants depend on rain for life.
Rain is necessary.
1. Rain makes dry plants live again. These plants become _____ .
2. Dry rivers and lakes flow again. River appear _____ .
3. Too much rain causes problems. Floods can be _____ and _____ .
4. In general, rain makes farmers happy. Crops are usually_____ .
5. Rain provides water for drinking, irrigation, and power. Indeed, rain is
extremely _____ .
b. Complete the following sentences by supplying the missing adjective: great,
important, essential, difficult, thin, useful, impossible, indispensible.
Example:
Mountains are not suited for agriculture.
The soil is thin and poor.
1. Mountains affect modern life in other ways. Transportation is _____ and
manufacturing is often _____ .
2. Cattle raising, mining, and lumbering are mountain industries. They are
_____ .
3. Mountains provide forests and minerals. These assets are _____ .
4. Mountain rivers are sources of water power. Our need for water remains
_____ .
5. Mountain rivers support industry. Power and river transportation are _____
to industry.
9. NOUN LINKING VERB ADVERBIAL
Illustration
Dora is not here now. She is on her way downtown. Her doctors office is on the
corner of Wood Street. She must there soon. Her appointment is at 3:00. She
has been on the subway since 2:30, so she will probably be there on time. She
will be downtown until about 5:00. She should be home in time for dinner. She
has been home by 6:30 every day for ten years.
Sentence pattern: Noun + Linking verb + adverbial
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
SUBJECT
LINKING VERB
NOUN
Dora
She
The office
She
She
She

is not
is
is
must be
has been
will be

SUBJECTIVE
COMPLEMENT
ADJECTIVE
here now
on her way downtown
on the corner
there soon
on the subway since 2:30
there on time

She
She
She

will be
should be
has been

downtown until about


5:00
home in time for dinner
home by 6:30 for ten
years.

The only linking verb used in the pattern above is be and the adverbial may be
either an adverb or a prepositional phrase. Only time and place adverbials are
used in this pattern. When both time and place adverbials occur in the same
sentence, adverbials of place go before adverbials of time.
Example:
Dora will be there on time.
She must be at the doctors office at 3:00
EXERCISE:
a. Make more sentences of this type by supplying the missing parts.
Example: Mr. Roman must be at work on time.
1. Bashir _____ always _____ early.
2. The school is _____ in Rockville.
3. Juan was with his uncle _____.
4. Mrs. May cannot be _____ _____.
5. Many people _____ at the concert _____.
6. Concerned citizens _____ at the meeting _____.
7. The meeting will be at 8:00 _____.
8. Every one should be _____ on time.
9. The chairperson _____ there _____.
10.The office _____ closed tomorrow.
b. Supply the missing parts of the following sentences with the correct tense of
the verb be.
Example:
Mrs. Males will be at the theater tonight.
1. July _____ in Madison at the university last year.
2. This year he _____ in Hawaii.
3. He _____ at the East-West Center since last September.
4. It is March now, so he _____ there about seven month.
5. He _____ there for about three months.
6. Cory _____ there next year.
7. She _____ never _____ to the Jakarta before, but she _____ to Surabaya
many times.
8. She _____ on the beach often.
9. She _____ also _____ to the university library.
10.Tomorrow she _____ at the library all day for a visit.
c. Fill in the following blanks with in time for, on time, or by (a certain time).
Example:
The movie starts at 7:30. It lasts almost two hours. so we should
be out by 9:30.
1. Jerys class was at 8:00. He overslept and was in class at 8:15. He was not
_____.
2. The professor discussed the assignment from 8:00 to 8:15. At 8:15 there
was an examination. Jery was just _____ the examination.
3. The engineers will be in Bandung tomorrow. They will be arriving there
tonight _____ a good nights sleep.

4. Tomorrow they will be up _____ an 8:00 meeting.


5. Their plane to Bandung leaves tonight at 7:00. They hope it will be _____.
6. The plane leaves at 7:00, but they must be at the airport an hour before
flight time. They must be there _____ 6:00.
7. Mr. Mario is always home _____ dinner at 6:30 p.m.
8. He is always _____ .
9. Birds fly south in time to escape the winter cold. They return to the north
_____ the warm weather of spring.
10.They are always _____.
10.NOUN LINKING VERB NOUN
Illustration
My name is Janu. Im a student. Im going to be an engineer. My friends name is
Dewi. She is a student too. She will become a doctor. My cousin Mury is a
student. He wont become anything. He will probably be a student forever. He is
a history student.
Sentence pattern: Noun + Linking verb + Noun
NOUN PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
SUBJECT
LINKING VERB

SUBJECTIVE
COMPLEMENT
NOUN
NOUN
My name
is
Janu
I
am
a student
I
am going to be
an engineer
My friends name
is
Dewi
She
will become
a doctor
My cousin Mury
is
a student
He
wont become
anything
He
will remain
a student
In this pattern, a linking verb connects the subject of the sentence to a
complement which tells something about, or renames, the subject. The
complement in this pattern is a noun or pronoun, and is often called the
subjective complement or the predicative nominative.
EXERCISES
a. Complete the following sentences by using nouns formed from verbs.
Example:
He plans for the future. He is a planner.
1. He works for a living. He is a _____.
2. Her daughter studies English. She is a _____.
3. She writes books. She is a _____.
4. He acts in a film. He is a _____.
5. Her niece sings at the opera. She is a _____.
6. He bakes bread. He is a _____.
7. His son translates books. He is a _____.
8. My uncle lectures on psychology. He is a_____.
9. My cousin teaches Japanese. She is a_____.
10.He farms for a living. He is a _____.

b. Complete the following sentences by using noun-noun compounds formed


from the verb and the direct object.
Example:
They enjoy climbing mountains. They are mountain climbers.
1. He designs books. He is a _____.
2. After school, he drives a taxi. He is a _____.
3. Ms. Jeny collects stamps. She is a _____.
4. Jeny and Mary play football. They are _____.
5. This tool opens cans. It is a _____.
6. He drives a bus. He is a _____.
7. She manages the companys housing. She is a _____.
8. He distributes films. She is a _____.
9. Dora directs film. She is a _____.
10.Mr. Jaap paints houses. He is a _____.
c. Complete the following sentences with a noun that makes sense in the
context of the given sentences. The noun may be formed from the verb, the
direct object, or from a verbal in the given sentence.
Example:
Dora likes to talk. She talks very well. She is a good talker.
1. He certainly enjoys walking through the country. He is an enthusiastic
_____.
2. Bimbim ran faster than anyone in the race. He is a fast _____.
3. My mother really knows how to cook. She is an excellent _____.
4. Michael doesnt do his work well. He is a poor _____.
5. Mr. Roman always dresses himself in expensive and elegant clothes. He is
a fancy _____.
6. Can Dony swim very well? Of course! She is a very good _____.
7. Mrs. Reny has translated many Russian stories. She is an excellent _____.
8. Mark takes a long time to read the newspaper. He is a careful _____.
9. No one organizes his work as well as Mr. Moor. He is a good _____.
10.Ms. June is learning Javanese, and Madurese. She is a good _____.