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QUADRATURE

900 3DB COUPLER

DESIGN PROJECT

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Field & Waves

CONTENTS
1. ABSTRACT
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

INTRODUCTION:
DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS
HYBRID COUPLERS
MICROSTRIP TRANSMISSION LINE
MICROSTRIP DESIGN
TYPES OF COUPLERS
APPLICATION
CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 90 Degree hybrid design...................................................................................
Figure 2 DIRECTION COUPLER..................................................................................
Figure 3PART OF POWER DIVIDER AND DIRECTIONAL................................................
Figure 4Block diagram of 90 Degree hybrid coupler feeding into LNAs....................................
Figure 5 Geometry of a branch-line coupler.....................................................................
Figure 6 Even modes of Configuration...........................................................................
Figure 7 Odd modes of Configuration............................................................................
Figure 8 Even & Odd modes.......................................................................................
Figure 9 Micro Strip Dimensions..................................................................................
Figure 10 Model of Coupler........................................................................................
Figure 11 Microstrip Cross-Section...............................................................................
Figure 12 Embedded Microstrip Cross-Section.................................................................

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Figure 13 S21 and S31 magnitude using Electronic Calibration.............................................


Figure 14 Phase difference using Electronic Calibration......................................................
Figure 15 Amplitude difference using Electronic Calibration................................................
Figure 16 Bi-directional Coupler..................................................................................
Figure 17 Dual-directional coupler................................................................................
Figure 18 Micro-strip Zo as a function W/h.....................................................................

ABSTRACT
90o QUADRATURE HYBRID COUPLER
We intend to design a Quadrature Hybrid (90 degree) microwave coupler. The
component will include both lumped and distributed elements including resistors and
quarter-wave transmission lines. We could include both hand calculations (including
Smith Charts) and computer simulations to verify that our coupler works.

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Applications of the hybrid include mono pulse comparators, mixers, power


combiners, dividers, modulators and phased array radar antenna systems. By the basis
of equation in microstrip, simulation by microwave office software terminated by 50
ohm is made using ideal transmission line. Also from microstrip technology, the design
was fabricated on the copper clad board.

Block Diagram:

INTRODUCTION:

The Conventional Quadrature Coupler:


Quadrature hybrid is a 3dB directional coupler, and has a 90 o phase
difference between the outputs.
The [S] matrix of the 90o hybrid is:

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The [S] matrix above shows that all ports are matched, and the input power is
divided equally between the coupled and through outputs only.

The conventional 90 hybrid design is shown in figure below.


o

Figure 1 90 Degree hybrid design

DIRECTIONAL COUPLER
A directional coupler is a passive device which couples part of the
transmission power by a known amount out through another port, often by
using two transmission lines set close enough together such that energy
passing through one is coupled to the other. As shown in Figure, the device

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has four ports: input, transmitted, coupled, and isolated. The term "main
line" refers to the section between ports 1 and 2. On some directional
couplers, the main line is designed for high power operation (large
connectors), while the coupled port may use a small SMA connector. Often
the isolated port is terminated with an internal or external matched load
(typically 50 ohms). It should be pointed out that since the directional
coupler is a linear device, the notations on Figure are arbitrary. Any port
can be the input, which will result in the directly connected port being the
transmitted port, adjacent port being the coupled port, and the diagonal
port being the isolated port.

Figure 2 DIRECTION COUPLER

Common properties desired for all directional couplers are wide


operational bandwidth, high directivity, and a good impedance match at all
ports when the other ports are terminated in matched loads. These
performance characteristics of hybrid or non-hybrid directional couplers
are self-explanatory.
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POWER DIVIDER:
Power

dividers also power

splitters and,

when

used

in

reverse, power combiners and directional couplers are passive devices used
in the field of radio technology. They couple a defined amount of the
electromagnetic power in a transmission line to a port enabling the signal
to be used in another circuit. An essential feature of directional couplers is
that they only couple power flowing in one direction. Power entering the
output port is coupled to the isolated port but not to the coupled port.
Directional couplers are most frequently constructed from two
coupled transmission lines set close enough together such that energy
passing through one is coupled to the other. This technique is favoured at
the microwave frequencies the devices are commonly employed with.
However, lumped component

devices

are

also

possible

at

lower

frequencies. Also at microwave frequencies, particularly the higher bands,


waveguide designs can be used. Many of these waveguide couplers
correspond to one of the conducting transmission line designs, but there
are also types that are unique to waveguide.
Directional couplers and power dividers have many applications,
these include; providing a signal sample for measurement or monitoring,
feedback, combining feeds to and from antennae, antenna beam forming,
providing taps for cable distributed systems such as cable TV, and
separating transmitted and received signals on telephone lines.

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Figure 3PART OF POWER DIVIDER AND DIRECTIONAL

COUPLING FACTOR
The coupling factor is defined as:

Where P1 is the input power at port 1 and P3 is the output power


from the coupled port. The coupling factor represents the primary property
of a directional coupler. Coupling is not constant, but varies with
frequency.

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ISOLATION
Isolation of a directional coupler can be defined as the difference in
signal levels in dB between the input port and the isolated port when the
two output ports are terminated by matched loads, or:

Isolation can also be defined between the two output ports. In this
case, one of the output ports is used as the input; the other is considered the
output port while the other two ports (input and isolated) are terminated by
matched loads.
Consequently:

DIRECTIVITY
Directivity is directly related to Isolation. It is defined as:

Where: P3 is the output power from the coupled port and P4 is the power
output from the isolated port.
The directivity should be as high as possible. Waveguide directional
couplers will have the best directivity. Directivity is not directly
measurable, and is calculated from the isolation and coupling
measurements as:
Directivity (dB) = Isolation (dB) - Coupling (dB)
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HYBRID COUPLERS
The hybrid coupler, or 3 dB directional coupler, in which the two outputs are of
equal amplitude, takes many forms. Not too long ago the quadrature (90 degree) 3 dB
coupler with outputs 90 degrees out of phase was what came to mind when a hybrid
coupler was mentioned. Now any matched 4-port with isolated arms and equal power
division is called a hybrid or hybrid coupler. Today the characterizing feature is the
phase difference of the outputs. If 90 degrees, it is a 90 degree hybrid. If 180 degrees, it
is a 180 degree hybrid. Even the Wilkinson power divider which has 0 degrees phase
difference is actually a hybrid although the fourth arm is normally imbedded.
Applications of the hybrid include monopulse comparators, mixers, power
combiners, dividers, modulators, and phased array radar antenna systems.Hybrid
couplers are four-port devices that split the incident power signal into two output ports.
The signals at the outputs are attenuated by three decibels (3dB) and have a 90 degree
phase difference with respect to each other. Three decibel attenuation means that 50%
of the input power is lost [2]. In addition, reflections due to mismatches are sent to the
isolation port preventing any power from reflecting back to the input port. In addition
to splitting a signal they can also be used to combine power signals with a high degree
of isolation between the ports. A block diagram of this functionality.

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Figure 4Block diagram of 90 Degree hybrid coupler feeding into LNAs

90-degree hybrid couplers are often called branch-line couplers. As the name
implies power is equally divided between the output ports and are therefore electrically
and mechanically symmetrical. These branch-line couplers are built using transmission
lines and their size is proportional to the wavelength of the designated center frequency,
which can be meters long. This becomes a significant drawback in applications where a
small footprint is required. Hybrid couplers can also be built by using lumped
components, which are resistors,
inductors, and capacitors with an ideal (lossless) connection. The lumped component
design is promising because it provides low insertion loss, wider bandwidth, and a
smaller size circuit, making it a good fit for a monolithic microwave integrated circuit
(MMIC).

AMPLITUDE BALANCE
This terminology defines the power difference in dB between the two output
ports of a 3 dB hybrid. In an ideal hybrid circuit, the difference should be 0 dB.
However, in a practical device the amplitude balance is frequency dependent and
departs from the ideal 0 dB difference.

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PHASE BALANCE
The phase difference between the two output ports of a hybrid coupler should
be 0, 90, or 180 degrees depending on the type used. However, like amplitude balance,
the phase difference is sensitive to the input frequency and typically will vary a few
degrees.
The phase properties of a 90 degree hybrid coupler can be used to great
advantage in microwave circuits. For example in a balanced microwave amplifier the
two input stages are fed through a hybrid coupler. The FET device normally has a very
poor match and reflects much of the incident energy. However, since the devices are
essentially identical the reflection coefficients from each device are equal. The reflected
voltage from the FETs is in phase at the isolated port and is 180E different at the input
port. Therefore, all of the reflected power from the FETs goes to the load at the isolated
port and no power goes to the input port. This results in a good input match (low
VSWR).
A hybrid coupler is a passive device used in radio and telecommunications. It is
a type of directional coupler where the input power is equally divided between two
output ports. Hybrid couplers are the special case of a four-port directional coupler that
is designed for a 3-dB (equal) power split. Hybrids come in two types, 90 degree or
quadrature hybrids, and 180 degree hybrids.

ANALYSIS:
Quadrature 90 degrees hybrid couplers are 3dB couplers with a 90 degrees
phase difference between the two output ports. This is achieved using 4 quarter-wave
transmission lines connected and matched as shown below:

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Figure 5 Geometry of a branch-line coupler

When all ports are matched, power is entered through port 1 and divided evenly
(3dB loss) across ports 2 and 3. Ports 2 and 3 are also 90 degrees out of phase, with no
power being coupled or reflected to port 4. Hence, high isolation results from the
design. In addition, the coupler is also symmetrical...meaning that ports 2 and 3 can
serve as the input and isolation ports, respectively, while ports 1 and 4 can serve as the
outputs. In addition to all ports being matched, the coupler is reciprocal and lossless.
The S-parameters are defined by the matrix:

[S] =

ej

ej

ej

ej

For 90 degrees, symmetrical:


[S] =

= = 90 degrees:

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In order to achieve equal power division: = = 1/2:

[S] =

1/2 *

Even and Odd modes


Even and odd mode analysis is a technique used to extract the even and oddmodeImpedances of a circuit. It is employed in horizontally or vertically symmetric
circuits. ThisTechnique is based on two principles: symmetry of the circuit and
superposition. An example of a Hybrid coupler is shown in Figure 10. The coupler is
properly terminated (matched) so that the reflected power at the input port is zero.
For even mode analysis the TL is cut in half and set as an open circuit. This is
shown in Figure 12 the voltage supply in port 1 and 2 of the quad hybrid has the same
polarity.

Figure 6Even modes of Configuration

For the odd mode analysis the TL is cut in half and grounded along the
symmetry line, as is shown in Figure 13. The voltage supply of ports 1 and 2 of the
quad hybrid has the opposite polarity. Since the hybrid coupler is a 4 port device, it is

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analyzed based on the 4x4 matrix representation of the S-parameters. See section 4 for
a more in depth analysis.

Figure 7 Odd modes of Configuration

There are two modes of current flow in an electromagnetic situation such as


this: the first is one flowing down one conductor with a contra-flow current back up the
other conductor caused by displacement current coupling between the two conductors.
This is termed the odd mode or differential mode current, and has associated odd mode
characteristic impedance, styled Z0o. Imagine it conceptually like this. Energy couples
from one line into the other, flowing away from the source to the matched load. No
energy returns from the far end matched loads, but some flows back out towards the
source, so there is a plus arrow going away down one conductor and a minus arrow
coming back out of the other conductor.
The other component of current flows by displacement current between each
center conductor carrying the same polarity, and the ground that is common between
them. Hence this is called the common or even mode current, and has an associated
even mode characteristic impedance, styled Z0e.

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Figure 8 Even & Odd modes


From the electrostatic field patterns, it is clear that there are 3 values of
capacitance involved for the odd mode, and each must figure in the Z 0 formula
somewhere. The first is the direct capacitance to ground of each trace, the second is the
mutual capacitance between the traces, and the third represents the distortion of each
caused by the presence of the coupled element.

MICROSTRIP LINE
A microstrip transmission line is a "high grade" printed circuit construction,
consisting of a track of copper or other conductor on an insulating substrate. There is a
"backplane" on the other side of the insulating substrate, formed from a similar
conductor. Looked at one end, there is a "hot" conductor, which is the track on the top,
and a "return" conductor, which is the backplane on the bottom. A microstrip is
therefore a variant of a two-wire transmission line.

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Figure 9 Micro Strip Dimensions

If one solves the electromagnetic equations to find the field distributions in the
vicinity of a microstrip, one finds very nearly a completely TEM (transverse
electromagnetic) wave pattern. This means that there are only a few regions in which
there is a component of electric or magnetic field in the direction of (as opposed to
perpendicular to the direction of) wave propagation. This field pattern is commonly
referred to as a Quasi TEM pattern.

Figure 10 Model of Coupler


Since some of the electric energy that is stored in this conductor configuration is in the
air, andsome is in the dielectric, the effective dielectric constant for the waves on the
transmission linewill lie somewhere between that of the air and that of the dielectric.
Typically, the effectivedielectric constant will be 50-85% of the substrate dielectric

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constant, depending on the2geometry of the microstrip. This effective dielectric


constant determines the phase velocity ofelectromagnetic waves on the microstrip
transmission line.

Microstrip parameters
The basic configuration of the microstrip is shown in the picture above. One of
the mostchallenging problems associated with this configuration arises from the fact
that the small strip isnot immersed in a single dielectric. On one side there is the board
dielectric, and on the top isusually air. The technique that has been developed to handle
this challenge uses, as wasmentioned above, the concept of effective relative dielectric
constant, eff. This value representssome intermediate value between the relative
dielectric constant of the board material, r, andthat of air (assumed equal to 1) that can
be used to compute microstrip parameters as though thestrip were completely
surrounded by material of that effective relative dielectric constant. Oneobvious
advantage of the microstrip structure is the "open" line which makes it very easy
toconnect components. On the other hand, the configuration doesn't provide the
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"shielded" signalline advantage of the stripline. Another advantage is that microstrips


can be packed togetherwith fairly high density (multiple channels) with only minimal
"crosstalk" interference, andtherefore lends itself well to RF and microwave IC design.

Figure 11Microstrip Cross-Section

Figure 12 Embedded Microstrip Cross-Section

Aside from the difficulty of calculating the value of eff, there is another
important effect. It isclear that eff will depend on both W and h. Hence, the phase
velocity along the microstrip willdepend on these parameters. Assuming the relative
permeability of all materials in the linedesign is well approximated by r = 1, the phase
velocity will be given by:Since the characteristic impedance (Zo) of the line will also
depend on these parameters, everytime we need to design a microstrip with a new
characteristic impedance, we will be faced withup = ceff
The additional complication of having to deal with a change in phase velocity
(or delay time) andconsequently of the wavelength of waves on that microstrip. Note
that this is not a problem withcoaxial cable or stripline design.To get an idea of the
range of eff, consider the cases of a very wide W and then a very narrow W.For a wide
microstrip, nearly all of the electric field lines will be concentrated between the
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metalplanes, similar to the case of a parallel plate capacitor that you studied in physics.
Thus:

On the other extreme, for narrow W the electric field lines will be about equally
divided between the air and the board dielectric so that:

This gives you a range:

Several different equations have been developed for use in calculating


characteristic impedance for microstrip design. Probably the most useful are the
following which are reported to be accurate to within about 1%:

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Figure 13 S21 and S31 magnitude using Electronic Calibration

Figure 14 Phase difference using Electronic Calibration

Figure 15 Amplitude difference using Electronic Calibration

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Microstrip Design Equation Set SelectionProcedure


Design Logic

The correction for finite thickness t of the microstrip is small and can be neglected in
the
design logic.
Assume W/h = 1 and calculate Zo1 using equations 1 and 2.
D1 = Zo1 Zo (If Zo is smaller than Zo1, then W/h must be greater than 1.)
If D1 0, compute using equations 3, 4, and 5 (micro3)
If D1 < 0, assume W/h = 1/(2) and calculate Zo2 using equations 1 and 2.
D2 = Zo2 Zo (If Zo is smaller than Zo2, then W/h must be greater than 1/2.)
If D2 0, compute using equations 1, 2, and 5 (micro2)
If D2 < 0, compute using equations 1, 2, and 6 (micro1)

Types of Couplers
Bethe-hole coupler
Bethe-hole is a waveguide directional coupler, using a single hole, and it works
over a narrow band. The Bethe-hole is a reverse coupler, as opposed to most waveguide
couplers that use multi-hole and are forward couplers.The origin of the name comes
from a paper published by H A Bethe, titled "Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes",
published in the Physical Review, back in 1942. If you google it you might find it, even
though it is probably subject to copyright protection. This is a tough read, unless you
like to ponder equations.

Multi-hole coupler
In waveguide, a two-hole coupler, two waveguides share a broad wall. The
holes are 1/4 wave apart. In the forward case the coupled signals add, in the reverse
they subtract (180 apart) and disappear. Coupling factor is controlled by hole size. The

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"holes" are often x-shaped, or perhaps other proprietary shapes. It is possible to provide
very flat coupling over an entire waveguide band.

Bi-directional property
Any directional coupler is bi-directional, that is, it performs equally well when
the signal is incident on port 2 versus port 1, but the coupled and isolated ports flip. All
direction couplers are bi-directional, unless you terminate one of the ports. Consider the
coupled-line coupler below. Port 4 is the coupled port when a signal is incident on port
1, and port 3 is the coupled port when a signal is incident on port 2.

Figure 16 Bi-directional Coupler

Dual-directional coupler
Here we have two couplers in series, in opposing directions, with the isolated
ports internally terminated. This component is the basis for the reflectometer. Using
internal, well-matched loads helps remove errors associated with poor terminations that
might be present in real systems. We'll analyze that statement one of these days. Oops,
we have violated our clockwise notation rule below!

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Figure 17 Dual-directional coupler

Micro-strip Design &Calculation:


In this part, the calculation for width (W) and Length(L) has been finding, the
value from the calculation has been use in the circuit
Specifications & Assuming

W
h <2 at f=2.5GHz

z o=50
Er =10
h=1.5mm
W
8e A
h = e2A2
Z=50
Zo
A= 60

E r +1 Er 1
0.11
+
( 0.23+
)
2
Er + 1
Er

](

50 10+1 101
0.11
+
0.23+
[ Er =10 ]
A= 60
2
10+1
10

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[ ]

11 9
( 0.23+0.00916 )
+
2 11

A=0.833 ( 5.5 ) +0.818 ( 0.197 )


A=2.115

w
8 e 2.115
= 22.115
h e
2
w
=0.993
h
=900
= l
l
c
Eeff

2 =2 * * f x

c
L= 4f E
eff
w
>1
h
Eeff =

E r +1 Er 1
h 1/ 2
+
(1+12 )
2
2
w

1 /2

10+1 101
1.5
+
(1+12
)
2
2
1.490

5.5+4.5(0.276)
Eeff =6.744

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c
L= 4 f E
eff
3 x 108
= 4 x 2.5 x 109 6.744

8
Where C= 3 x 10

=0.01155mts
=1.15cm

w
>0.6
h

Since
w
h

Er

1 /2

1+ ( 0.63 ) ( E r1 )

= o
Er

10
= o
10 1+ ( 0.63 )( 101 )( 0.99 )

1 /2

=0.387 o
o =

c
f

3 x 10 8
9
2.5 x 10

o =0.03
=0.03 x 0.387

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=0.01161

z o 1=

zo
2

50
2

35.355
Assuming

W
h <2 at f=2.5 GHz

Er =10
h=1.5mm
W
8e A
h = e 2 A2
z=50
zo
A= 60

A=

E r +1 Er 1
0.11
+
( 0.23+
)
2
Er + 1
Er

](

35.355 10+1 101


0.11
+
0.23+
[ Er =10 ]
60
2
10+1
10

A=0.589

[ ]

11 9
( 0.23+0.00916 )
+
2 11

A=0.589 ( 1.658 ) +0.818 ( 0.197 )


A=1.543

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w
8 e 1.543
= 21.543
h e
2
w
=1.881
h
h=1.5mm (given)
W=1.881*1.5mm
=2.822mm
=900
= l

2 = l
Wl
=
2 Vp

2 fl

=
2
c Eeff
C
L= 4f E
eff

w
>1
h

1/ 2
E r +1 Er 1
h
Eeff =
+
(1+12 )
2
2
w

1+12(

1.5
)
2.88

10+1 101
+

2
2

5.5+4.5(0.371)

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Eeff =7.169

c
L= 4 f E
eff
3 x 10 8
= 42.5109 7.169

C=

3 x 108
0.0112 mt s

=0.280cm

w
>0.6
h

Since
w
h

Er

1 /2

1+ ( 0.63 ) ( E r1 )

= o
Er

1.881

10
1/2
1+ ( 0.63 )( 101 )

= o
10

=0.37 o

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o =

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c
f

3 x 10 8
2.5 x 10 9

o =0.03
=0.03 x 0.37

=0.012

Figure 18 Micro-strip Zo as a function W/h

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CONCLUSION
Bycalculating to get the correct parameters. The value of characteristic width
and wavelength had been found. The comparison is made between theoretical and
practical. The part is discussed abut the theory to analyze directional coupler
(Quadrature (90o) Hybrid) which are by calculation an simulation and the part is discuss
about the practical which is fabrication and testing.

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References:
Books
Microwave Engineering By Matthew Radmanesh Class notes of ECE 671
Microwave Engineering Second edition, John Wiley & sons,1998 Book by
David M Pozar

Website
Website

Title: -

Microwave

Encyclopedia,

Article

Title: Microstrip,

Website:http://www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/microstrip.cfm

Website

Title: Directional

Couplers

Microwave

Encyclopedia

Microwaves10,Article Title: Directional Couplers - Microwave Encyclopedia Microwaves10,Website:<//www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/directionalc


ouplers.cfm>

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