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You are on page 1of 33

The Laplacian

R Horan & M Lavelle

assessment programme for students who want to

apply the Laplacian operator.

Copyright

Last Revision Date: April 4, 2005

Version 1.0

Table of Contents

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The Laplacian

The Laplacian of a Product of Fields

The Laplacian and Vector Fields

Final Quiz

Solutions to Exercises

Solutions to Quizzes

should they be required, can be obtained from our web

page Mathematics Support Materials.

The vector differential operator , called del or nabla, is defined

in three dimensions to be:

i+

j+

k

=

x

y

z

The result of applying this vector operator to a scalar field is called

the gradient of the scalar field:

f

f

f

gradf (x, y, z) = f (x, y, z) =

i+

j+

k.

x

y

z

(See the package on Gradients and Directional Derivatives.)

The scalar product of this vector operator with a vector field F (x, y, z)

is called the divergence of the vector field:

F1

F2

F3

divF (x, y, z) = F =

+

+

.

x

y

z

The vector product of the vector with a vector field F (x, y, z) is the

curl of the vector field. It is written as curl F (x, y, z) = F

F3

y

i

=

x

F

F (x, y, z) = (

F2

F3

F1

F2

F1

)i (

)j + (

)k

z

x

z

x

y

j

k

,

y z

F

F

2

where the last line is a formal representation of the line above. (See

also the package on Divergence and Curl.)

Here are some revision exercises.

Exercise 1. For f = x2 y z and F = xi xyj + z 2 k calculate the

following (click on the green letters for the solutions).

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

f F

2. The Laplacian

The Laplacian operator is defined as:

2 =

2

2

2

+

+

.

x2

y 2

z 2

generates a scalar field.

Example 1 The Laplacian of the scalar field f (x, y, z) = xy 2 + z 3 is:

2f

2f

2f

+ 2 + 2

2

x

y

z

2

2

2

(xy 2 + z 3 ) + 2 (xy 2 + z 3 ) + 2 (xy 2 + z 3 )

=

2

x

y

z

2

=

(y + 0) +

(2xy + 0) +

(0 + 3z 2 )

x

y

z

= 0 + 2x + 6z = 2x + 6z

2 f (x, y, z) =

(click on the green letters for the solutions).

(b) f (x, y, z) = xz + y

p

1

(c) f (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 (d) f (x, y, z) = p

2

x + y2 + z2

p

1

where r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 .

n

r

n

(b)

rn+2

n(n + 5)

(d)

rn+2

(a)

(c)

1

rn+2

n(n 1)

rn+2

The equation 2 f = 0 is called Laplaces equation. This is an important equation in science. From the above exercises and quiz we see

1

that f = is a solution of Laplaces equation except at r = 0.

r

2 f = f

i.e., as the divergence of the gradient of f . To see this consider

f

f

f

f = ( i +

j+

k)

x

y

z

f

f

f

( )+

( )+

( )

=

x x

y y

z z

2f

2f

2f

+

+

= 2 f

=

x2

y 2

z 2

Exercise 3. Find the Laplacian of the scalar fields f whose gradients

f are given below (click on the green letters for the solutions).

x

1

x

(a) f = 2xzi + x2 k

(b) f =

i 2 j 2k

yz

y z

yz

1

1

1

(c) f = ez i + yj + xez k

(d) f = i + j + k

x

y

z

If a field may be written as a product of two functions, then:

2 (uv) = (2 u)v + u2 v + 2(u) (v)

A proof of this is given at the end of this section.

Example 2 The Laplacian of f (x, y, z) = (x + y + z)(x 2z) may be

directly calculated from the above rule

2 f (x, y, z)

+2(x + y + z) (x 2z)

right hand side vanishes.

To calculate the second line we note that

(x + y + z) (x + y + z)

(x + y + z)

(x+y+z) =

i+

j+

k = i+j+k

x

y

z

and

(x 2z)

(x 2z)

(x 2z)

i+

j+

k = i 2k

x

y

z

and taking their scalar product we obtain

(x 2z) =

2 f (x, y, z)

= 0 + 2(x + y + z) (x 2z)

= 2(i + j + k) (i 2k) = 2(1 + 0 2)

= 2.

directly calculating the Laplacian.

Exercise 4. Use this rule to calculate the Laplacian of the scalar

fields given below (click on the green letters for the solutions).

(a) (2x 5y + z)(x 3y + z)

(c)

(y z)(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )

(d)

p

x x2 + y 2 + z 2

10

By definition 2 (uv) =

2

2

2

(uv)

+

(uv)

+

(uv) . Consider

x2

y 2

z 2

therefore:

2

(uv) =

x2

v

(uv) =

v+u

x x

x x

x

2

2

u v

u

u v

v

v+

=

+

+u 2

x2

x x x x

x

u v

2u

2v

v

+

2

=

+

u

x2

x x

x2

where the product rule was repeatedly used.

2

2u

u v

2v

(uv) =

v+2

+ u 2 and

2

2

y

y

y y

y

2

2u

u v

2v

(uv) =

v+2

+ u 2 . Adding these results yields the

z 2

z 2

z z

z

desired result.

By symmetry we also have:

11

If the scalar Laplacian operator is applied to a vector field, it acts on

each component in turn and generates a vector field.

Example 3 The Laplacian of F (x, y, z) = 3z 2 i + xyzj + x2 z 2 k is:

2 F (x, y, z) = 2 (3z 2 )i + 2 (xyz)j + 2 (x2 z 2 )k

Calculating the components in turn we find:

2

2

2

2

2

(3z

)

+

(3z

)

+

(3z 2 ) = 0 + 0 + 6 = 6

x2

y 2

z 2

2

2

2

2 (xyz) =

(xyz)

+

(xyz)

+

(xyz) = 0 + 0 + 0 = 0

x2

y 2

z 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 (x2 z 2 ) =

(x

(x

(x z ) = 2z 2 + 0 + 2x2

z

)

+

z

)

+

x2

y 2

z 2

So the Laplacian of F is:

2 (3z 2 ) =

12

Quiz Select from the answers below the Laplacian of the vector field

F = x3 yi + ln(z)j + ln(xy)k .

x2 + y 2

1

k

(a) 6xyi

(b) 6xyi 2 j

z

x2 y 2

1

1

1

y 2 x2

k

k

(c) 3xi + 2 j

(d) y 3 i + x2 j

2

2

z

x

y

z2

Quiz Choose the Laplacian of F = 3x2 zi sin(y)j + ln(2x3 )k at the

point (1, 2, 1)?

(a)

(b) 6i 3k

(c) 3i 3k

(d) 6i 2 j 6k

Quiz Which of the following choices is the Laplacian of the vector field

F = ln(y)i + z 2 j sin(2x)k at (1, 1, )?

(a) i + 2j

(b) 0

(c) 4j + 4 2 k

(d) i + j + k

13

5. Final Quiz

Begin Quiz Choose the solutions from the options given.

1. Choose the Laplacian of f (r) = 5x3 y 4 z 2 .

(a) 30xy 4 z 2 + 60x3 y 2 z 2 + 10x3 y 4 (b) 30x + 20y 2 + 10

(c) 30xy 4 z 2 + 75x3 y 2 z 2 + 15x3 y 4 (d) 30xy 4 z 2 + 12x3 y 2 z 2 + 15x3 y 4

2. Choose the Laplacian of f (x, y, z) = ln(r) where r =

(a) 0

(b)

2

r2

(c)

1

2r2

(d)

x2 + y 2 + z 2 .

1

r2

(a) 6xi

(c) 6xi + 3 sin(2y)k

End Quiz Score:

(d) 6xi 12 sin(2y)k

Correct

Solutions to Exercises

14

Solutions to Exercises

Exercise 1(a)

To find the gradient

partial derivatives:

f

=

x

f

=

y

f

=

z

2

(x y z) = 2x21 y = 2xy ,

x

2

(x y z) = x2 y 11 = x2 ,

y

2

(x y z) = 0 z 11 = 1 .

z

f

f

f

f (x, y, z) =

i+

j+

k

x

y

z

= 2xyi + x2 j k .

Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Exercises

15

Exercise 1(b)

To find the divergence of the vector field F = xi xyj + z 2 k, we

recognise that its components are

F1 = x ,

F2 = xy ,

F3 = z 2 ,

F1

F2

F3

F =

+

+

x

y

z

2

=

(x) +

(xy) +

(z )

x

y

z

= x11 x y 11 + 2 z 21

= 1 x + 2z .

Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Exercises

16

Exercise 1(c)

The curl of the vector field F whose components are

F1 = x ,

F2 = xy ,

F3 = z 2 ,

F3

F2

F3

F1

F2

F1

F =

j+

k

y

z

x

z

x

y

2

2

=

(z )

(xy) i

(z )

(x) j

y

z

x

z

+

(xy)

(x) k

x

y

= (0 + 0) i (0 0) j + (y 0) k

= yk .

Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Exercises

17

Exercise 1(d)

To subtract the curl of the vector F = xixyj+z 2 k from the gradient

of the scalar field f = x2 y z

f F .

we use the results of Exercise 1a and Exercise 1c, where it was found

that

f = 2xyi + x2 j k and

F = yk .

Therefore the difference of these two vectors is

f F

= 2xyi + x2 j k (y)k

= 2xyi + x2 j (1 y)k .

Solutions to Exercises

18

Exercise 2(a)

The Laplacian of the scalar field f = 3x3 y 2 z 3 is:

2 f

=

=

=

=

2f

2f

2f

+ 2 + 2

2

x

y

z

2

2

2

3 2 3

3 2 3

(3x

y

z

)

+

(3x

y

z

)

+

(3x3 y 2 z 3 )

x2

y 2

z 2

(9x2 y 2 z 3 ) +

(6x3 yz 3 ) +

(9x3 y 2 z 2 )

x

y

z

18xy 2 z 3 + 6x3 z 3 + 18x3 y 2 z .

2 f = 6xz 3y 2 z 2 + x2 z 2 + 3x2 y 2

= 6xz 3y 2 (z 2 + x2 ) + x2 z 2 .

Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Exercises

19

Exercise 2(b)

2 1 1

2 1 1

2 1 1

2z2 + y

2z2 + y

2z2 + y

+

+

x

x

x

2 f =

x2

y 2

z 2

1 ( 1 1) 1

1 1 ( 1 1)

=

x 2

z2 +

(1) +

x2 z 2

x 2

y

z 2

1 1 1

1 1 1

=

x 2z2 + 0 +

x2 z 2

x 2

z 2

1

1 1 ( 1 1) 1

1 1 1

=

( )x 2

z 2 + ( )x 2 z ( 2 1)

2 2

2 2

1 3 1

1 1 3

= x 2 z 2 x 2 z 2 .

4

4

This result may be rewritten as

1

1 1 1 2

1

1

2

2

=

f = x2 z 2 x + z

xz

+ 2 .

4

4

x2

z

Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Exercises

20

p

Exercise 2(c) To calculate 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 , define u = x2 +y 2 +z 2 ,

so f = u1/2 . From the chain rule we have

1

1

u 2

u

1 1

f

=

= u( 2 1) 2x = xu 2 .

x

u

x

2

Therefore the second derivative is (from the product and chain rules):

1

1

3

u 2

u

2f

12

=

(x)

u

+

x

= u 2 x2 u 2 .

x2

x

u

x

Since f and u are symmetric in x, y and z we have

2f

y 2

= u 2 y 2 u 2

1

3

2f

= u 2 z 2 u 2 .

z 2

and

1

1

1

3

3

3

2 f =

u 2 x2 u 2 + u 2 y 2 u 2 + u 2 z 2 u 2

=

3u 2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )u 2 = 2u 2 = p

x2

.

+ y2 + z2

Solutions to Exercises

21

1

again define u = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . From the chain rule

1

3

1

f

u 2

u

1

=

= u( 2 1) 2x = xu 2 .

x

u

x

2

Thus the second order derivative is:

3

3

5

2f

u 2

u

32

=

(x)

= u 2 + 3x2 u 2 .

x2

x

u

x

Due to the symmetry under interchange of x, y and z :

3

5

2f

2f

32

2 52

=

u

= u 2 + 3z 2 u 2 .

+

3y

u

,

2

2

y

z

Therefore we find that the Laplacian of f vanishes:

3

5

5

5

3

3

2 f = u 2 + 3x2 u 2 + u 2 + y 2 u 2 + u 2 + 3z 2 u 2

3

= 3u 2 + 3(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )u 2 = 3u 2 + 3u 2 = 0 .

Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Exercises

22

Exercise 3(a)

If the gradient of the scalar function f is f = 2xzi + x2 k, then the

Laplacian of f is given by the divergence of this vector

2 f = div (f ) .

Therefore the Laplacian of f is

2 f

=

=

=

=

div 2xzi + x2 k

2

(2xz) +

(0) +

(x )

x

y

z

2z + 0 + 0

2z .

Solutions to Exercises

23

Exercise 3(b)

If a scalar field f has gradient f =

x

x

1

i 2 j 2 k , its Laplacian

yz

y z

yz

2 f = div (f ) .

Using this formula we can find 2 f as follows

x

1

x

2

f = div

i 2 j 2k

yz

y z

yz

x

=

+

2

+

2

x yz

y

y z

z

yz

x

x

= (0) (2) 3 (2) 3

y z

yz

y2 + z2

= 2x 3 3 .

y z

Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Exercises

24

Exercise 3(c)

As above if the gradient of f is

f = ez i + yj + xez k

its Laplacian is the scalar divergence of the vector f :

2 f = div (f ) .

Therefore

2 f

z

(e ) +

(y) +

(xez )

=

x

y

z

= (0) + 1 + xez

= 1 + xez .

=

Solutions to Exercises

25

Exercise 3(d)

1

1

1

If f = i + j + k , then the Laplacian of f is the divergence of

x

y

z

the gradient of f :

2 f = div (f ) .

Therefore

1

1

1

2

f = div

i+ j+ k

x

y

z

1

1

1

=

+

+

x x

y y

z z

1

1

1

= 2 2 2.

x

y

z

This may also be written as follows

2 f =

x2 y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 z 2

.

x2 y 2 z 2

Solutions to Exercises

26

Exercise 4(a)

To find the Laplacian of f = (2x 5y + z)(x 3y + z), we use

2 (uv) = (2 u)v + u2 v + 2(u) (v)

with u = 2x 5y + z and v = x 3y + z. This implies

u

v

= 2i 5j + k

= i 3j + k

and so

2 u = 2 v = 0

The above rule therefore gives:

2 f = 2u v

= 0 + 0 + 2(2i 5j + k) (i 3j + k)

= 2(2 + 15 + 1)

= 36 .

Solutions to Exercises

27

Exercise 4(b)

To find the Laplacian of f = (x2 y)(x + z), we use

2 (uv) = (2 u)v + u2 v + 2(u) (v)

with u = x2 y and v = x + z. This implies

u

v

and so

2 u = 2xi =

= 2xi j

= i+k

(2x)

=2

x

and 2 v = 0

2 f

=

=

=

2(x + z) + 0 + 2(2i j) (i + k)

2(x + z) + 2(2)

2(x + z + 2) .

Solutions to Exercises

28

Exercise 4(c)

To find the Laplacian of f = (y z)(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ), we use

2 (uv) = (2 u)v + u2 v + 2(u) (v)

with u = y z and v = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . This implies

u = j k

and 2 u = 0

while

v

2 u

= 2+2+2=6

2 f

= 6 + 2(0 + 2 2)

= 6.

Solutions to Exercises

29

p

Exercise 4(d) To find the Laplacian of f = x x2 + y 2 + z 2 , we

use

2 (uv) = (2 u)v + u2 v + 2(u) (v)

p

with u = x and v = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . Therefore u = i and 2 u = 0 .

p

In Exercise 2(c) we saw 2 v = 2/ x2 + y 2 + z 2 . To find v use

2

1

3

the chain rule:

(x + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 = 2x ( 21 ) (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2

x

and similarly for the other partial derivatives. Thus

1

v =

3 (xi + yj + zk)

2

(x + y 2 + z 2 ) 2

The above rule therefore gives:

2

1

2 f = 0 + x p

+ 2i

3 (xi + yj + zk)

2

2

2

2

(x + y 2 + z 2 ) 2

x +y +z

2x2

2x

= p

3 .

(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2

x2 + y 2 + z 2

Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Quizzes

30

Solutions to Quizzes

Solution to Quiz: The first and the second order partial derivatives

1

of f = rn , r = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2 with respect to the variable x read:

n

f

r

r

x

x

=

= nrn1 = n n+2 .

x

r

x

r

r

2f

1 x

r

1

=

n

xn

x2

rn+2 x

r rn+2

x

x2

1

= n n+2 + n(n + 2) n+4 .

r

r

Due to the symmetry under interchange of x, y and z we have also

2f

1

y2

2f

1

z2

=

n

+

n(n

+

2)

,

=

n

+

n(n

+

2)

.

y 2

rn+2

rn+4

z 2

rn+2

rn+4

Adding these second order derivatives yields the Laplacian:

2 f =

3n

rn+2

+ n(n + 2)

x2 + y 2 + z 2

n(n 1)

=

.

rn+4

rn+2

End Quiz

Solutions to Quizzes

31

Solution to Quiz:

The Laplacian of the vector field F = x3 yi + ln(z)j + ln(xy)k is a

vector 2 F whose i , j components are correspondingly

2 (x3 y)

2 (ln(z))

2 3

2

2

(x y) + 2 (x3 y) + 2 (x3 y) = 6xy ,

2

x

y

z

1

2

1

(ln(z)) =

= 2,

2

z

z z

z

2 (ln(xy))

= 2 (ln(x) + ln(y)) =

1

1

x2 + y 2

.

x2

y2

x2 y 2

2 F = 6xyi

1

x2 + y 2

j

k.

z2

x2 y 2

End Quiz

Solutions to Quizzes

32

Solution to Quiz:

The Laplacian of the vector field F = 3x2 zi sin(y)j + ln(2x3 )k is

a vector 2 F whose i , j and k components are correspondingly

2

2

2

(3x2 z) + 2 (3x2 z) + 2 (3x2 z) = 6z ,

2 3x2 z

=

2

x

y

z

2

y

y

2

2

1

(ln(2x3 )) =

(ln(2) + 3 ln(x))) = 3 2 ,

2 ln(2x3 ) =

2

2

x

x

x

Therefore the Laplacian of F is

1

2 F = 6zi + 2 sin(y)j 3 2 k ,

x

and evaluating it at the point (1, 2, 1) we get

2 F = 6i + 2 sin(2)j 3k = 6i 3k .

End Quiz

Solutions to Quizzes

33

Solution to Quiz:

The Laplacian of F = ln(y)i+z 2 j sin(2x)k at (1, 1, ) is the vector

whose i, j and k components are in turn given by:

1

2 ln(y) 2 ln(y) 2 ln(y)

+

+

= 0 2 + 0,

2

2

2

x

y

z

y

2 2

2 2

2 2

z

2 z 2 =

+

+

= 0 + 0 + 2,

x2

y 2

z 2

2 sin(2x) 2 sin(2x) 2 sin(2x)

2 sin(2x) =

+

+

x2

y 2

z 2

2

= 4 sin(2x) + 0 + 0 ,

2 ln(y)

Therefore we have

2 F =

1

i + 2j 4 2 sin(2x)k

y2

End Quiz

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