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.',v

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

COPYRIGHT, 1890,
BY THE BUTTERICK PUBLISHING COMPANY, [LIMITED].

METROPOLITAN

CULTURE SERIES
THE

Pattern Cook-Book,
iC--.

^.

0-7^
?

FIRST EDITION.

NEW YORK:
THE BUTTERICK PUBLISHING COMPANY,
1890.

[LIMITED].

s'>

'

Ah happy age when ladies learn to bake,


And when kings' daughters know to knead
!

a cake.

Rebecca was esteem'd of comely hue,


Yet not so nice her comeliness to keep
But that she water for the camels drew."

Thomas Fuller.
'

The turnpike road

to people's hearts, I find,

Lies through their mouths, or

mistake mankind."

Dr. Wolcot.

INTRODUCTION.

BOOK on cookery

that

is

to

be of genuine assistance

alike to the experienced housewife

must, in

our opinion, possess

tions

the

in

sented in

it

first

in

to

the beginner

two important quaUfica-

place, the dishes

and preparations

pre-

must be such as may be readily made up

with the facilities to be found

and

and

the second

should be couched

in

an ordinary household*

place, all instructions


in

can comprehend them.

and directions

language so simple that every one


It

has been our earnest endeavor

that in both these respects the present work shall excel.

The
all

recipes are eminently practical

and easy

to follow,

having been thoroughly and successfully tested by the

author; and

in

their selection

chief attention has

been

given to those unpretentious yet dainty and wholesome


dishes that are so acceptable and appropriate upon the

average family board.

Among

the admirable features of the

book deserving

INTRODUCTION.
mention

special

of

lengthy

dissertation

Cook's Time-Table

Remedies
sions
of

an

intelligent

but

not

on

the

Chemistry

of

Food

a chapter

for the Sick

Measurements

"Things

neous Helps;"

list

too
;

on Cookery and Simple


of

Terms used

a Glossary of

omies,"

are

Menus

for

Cooking

in

all

occa-

Table

helpful talks regarding " Small Econ-

Worth

and

Knowing,"

lastly,

and

"Miscella-

most admirably arranged

index.

When we add
whose experience
authority in

all

we have said
fully

and

and

that the
entitles

work

is

from the pen of one

her to a position of foremost

matters pertaining to the culinary science,


all

that

is

needful to

heartily to the world of

commend

the

book

w'omen as a complete

reliable guide in the selection, preparation

and cook-

ing of food.

The Butterick Publishing

Co.

\Li7nited\

CONTENTS.
PREFATORY.
Difference between the Cookery of the Past and
Present. What Cookery is. The Effect of Heat,
Cold, Water, and Air in Cookery,

Why we

THE CHEMISTRY OF FOOD.


Eat. What to Eat. Whkn to Eat

tain Foods,

13

Cer-

17

THE KITCHEN.
Room. Care of Room and Utensils.

Plans for the


Utensils Needed. List of Utensils, with Prices.
Cuts of some of the Utensils Needed,

25

MARKETING.

for the Different Meats. Beef, with Cut


of Ox. Veal, with Cut of Calf. Mutton, with
Cut of Sheep. Lamb, with Cut of Lamb. Venison, WITH Cut of Deer. Pork, with Cut of Pig.
How to Select Poultry, Fish, Game, Eggs and

Se.'^sons

Apples,

.......

47

PLAIN DIRECTIONS.
How to
How

do Roasting. Broiling. Boiling. Frying.


TO Clarify Fat for Frying. How to do SauTEiNG. Braising. Larding. (with cut of larded
meat.) Boning and Steaming. The Cook's Time
Table for Roasting. Broiling. Baking, Etc.,

57

CONTENTS.

SOUP.

Soup for Stock. Meat for Stock. To Clear Stock.


To Season Stock. Thickening for Stock. Coloring FOR Stock. What may be Served in Soup.
Recipes for Soup with Stock. Soup without

....

Stock, with Recipes,

FISH.

70

Fish. To Clean. To Skin. Fillets


OF Fish. Fish Boiled. Fish Baked, with Stuffings.
Fish Fried. Fish Broiled. Other Modes
of Dressing. Fish Remnants. Shell-Fish. Fish
Sauces,

Something about

.......

MEATS.

96

Beef. Uses for Cooked Beef. Veal. Mutton. Lamb.


Pork. Poultry and Game. Recipes for the
Preparation of the Several Kinds of Meats,

142

VEGETABLES.
General Suggestions. Proper Vegetables to Serve
with the Different Me.\ts. Recipes for the Prep-

Many Kinds

aration of

of Vegetables,

SALADS.

Dressings.

Coloring

Combinations,

......
for

Salad

Dressing.

239

Salad
292

CHEESE DISHES.
Various ways of Preparing Cheese. How Rare-bits,
Straws and other Dainties are Made,
.

308

3^^

EGG DISHES.
The Cooking of

Eggs, Omelettes, Etc.,

BREAD.

General Helps

in

Making. Flour. Yeast. Sponge.

Moulding. Baking. R e c i p e s for


Bread made with the Different Yeasts. How to
make Rolls, Buns, Rusk, Etc.,
Kneading.

.'.,

33^

CONTENTS.

BREAKFAST DISHES, BISCUIT, GEMS,

ETC.

Recipes for Muffins. Griddle Cakes. Southern


Cakes, as Corn Dodgers, Corn-pone, Etc. Doughnuts. Fritters. Cereals for Breakfast,

358

PIES.
Pastry.

for

Puff

Paste.

Many Kinds

How

to Shape Paste. Recipes

of Pie,

.388

PUDDINGS.

(teneral Suggestions. Recipes for Hot Puddings.


Recipes for Cold Puddings. Sauces for Both Hot
and Cold,

.......

413

FROZEN DISHES.

How to Make a Mousse Ices Sherbet Frozen Fruits, Etc.,

Ice-Cream of Various Kinds.


Souffl:^s

461

CUSTARD, CREAMS AND GELATINE JELLIES.

Custard. Baked Custard Whipped Cream,


with Ways of Using. Jellies. How to Clear.
How TO Remove from the Mould. Recipes for

Boiled

Jellies,

.481

TARTS COOKIES MOLASSES CAKES,


Fillings for Tarts.

Gingerbread,

ETC.

.....

Various

Etc.,

Recipes for Cookies

503

CAKE.
General Helps

in

Making.

Loaf-cake Layer-cake.

Fillings for Layer-cake. Frosting


Cakes. How to Decorate with Icing,

or

Icing
.

-5^5

BEVERAGES.
Remarks on
Drinks.

Menu,

Drinks. Tea Coffee Cocoa Summer

.......

The

Service of

Wine, with

Wine

554

CONTENTS.

lO

FRUIT HOW TO SERVE

IT.

.......

Various Kinds of Fruit.


Fruits,

How

to Ice Fruit.

COOKERY FOR THE

Cooked

SICK.

Suggestions for Preparing Various Dishes.


Broths Gruels, Etc. Drinks for the
Three Menus for an Invalid,

Teas
Sick.

....

566

573

MENUS.
A Thanksgiving

Dinner.

Christmas

Dinner.

Menus for a Day in Spring. A Day in Summer.


Day in Aufumn. A Day in Winter. Menus for a
Lenten Day. A Company Luncheon. A Company
Dinner. Two Menus for Evening Card Parties,
.

588

596

MEASUREMENTS.
Helpful Table for Housekeepers,

SMALL ECONOMIES.

.......

Various Ways ro Economize.


Saved,

How

to Use

What

is

sqG

THINGS WORTH KNOWING.


How TO DO Various Things not Commonly Understood.
How to Make Various Kinds of Sugar. How
to Cream Butter. How to Make Claret Vinegar.
How to Keep Food in the Ice Chest. What
I-iME

Water

LNDEX,

is

good for,

....

604

617

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK,


PREFATORY.
"

There's no want of meat,

sir,

Portly and curious viands are prepared

To

please

all

kinds of appetite."

Massinger.

''The destiny

of nations

depends on

their diet," says

Savarin, an opinion exactly coinciding with that of the

ancient

ballad-monger who asserted the

Britons

so long as they were fed

exactly agreeing with either of

its

cookery

beef.

Without

has proven

these, time

that the civilization of a people or

tained by the style of

infallibility of

upon

may be

age

ascer-

that gastronomic taste

changes with the progress of a people. In the time of


Henry VIII. a porpoise was esteemed a great delicacy.

The seasoning
being
pere

of dishes

predominating

speaks of this

the clown,

in

was strong and pungent,


flavoring

"

"

The

fee-favor of the city of

ring-pies,

them.

Winter's

Tale,"

saffron

Shaks-

when

sent shopping for the sheep-shearing feast,

says,

The

for

must have

warden pies."
Norwich was twenty-four hereach containing five herrings. They were carsaffron to color the

13

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

14

vied to court by the

These

1629.

Lord

pies were

of the

Manor

of Carleton in

seasoned with ginger, pepper,

cinnamon, cloves, and " grains of Paradise," which were

much used

in

those days of

gent and peppery.


ury,

we

recent
to

strong palates, being pun-

Looking back only

to the last cent-

arc confronted with the coarseness of our


ancestors'

cookery.

A gammon

of

bacon

more
was

be boiled and a quantity of hay was tied up in a

and placed in the water during the cooking for


A neck of lamb was fried with ale, which
appears to have been freely used in cooking. Simplicity
evidently was unknown, as may be gathered from a

cloth

flavoring.

perusal of the " Cook's Dictionary," published a century


ago.

But we must not. forget, while criticising the cookery

and country have been laid


under contribution to supply the materials with which
the modern cook works, and that our tables are now supof the past, that every age

plied,

thanks to the increased and rapid intercourse with

other lands, from the larder of

tlie

world.

How

best to

use and enjoy these gifts of Providence became at length

and a literature of cookery gradually arose.


books were written by cooks or housewives, who
lacked the power of language to convey their knowledge
to others
and like the " Cook's Dictionary," their books,
ill-spelled and poorly expressed, were of no great use to
a study,

The

first

the worker.

But

in

the present day, as the art improves,

books on the subject grow with

it,

and

ladies vie, in

writing them, with the professional cook.

COOKING
is

the art of preparing food for the nourishment of the

INTRODUCTION.
human

body.

It

is

usually done by the direct applica-

and some

tion of heat, fruits


their natural state

of the vegetables eaten in


having really been " cooked " by the

Milk and eggs, which are perfect food, would be

sun.

nothing unless they came from the warm living animal.

Foods dried or smoked have undergone a certain process


of natural cooking,

HEAT
seems

create

to

and

taste

new

opens the cells of starch in


hardens the albumen in eggs,
tough

fibre

of

gives

new

and

flavors

digestibility of nearly

meat, hard

to

all

flour,

fish

change the odor,


of food.

articles
rice

and meal

vegetables

It

and potatoes
;

and

softens the
fruits

and

flavor to tea, coffee, etc.

COLD
is

also

food

most important factor

honey,

dishes and

ices,

many

custards,

in

the preparation

salads,

others being only

fit

to eat

of

gelatine

butter,

when

cold.

WATER
or

some other

sary in the

liquid, in

many forms

connection with heat,


of cookery.

neces-

is

Grains, dried

fruit,

and foods which have parted with nearly all their moisture in the ripening or drying process, need the addition
of a large
swell

quantity of water in cooking to soften and

the gluten

and starch before they are

fit

for the

table.

AIR,

or the free action of oxygen upon our food while cooking,

THE PA TTERN CO OK- B O 0K\

develops certain flavors not otherwise obtainable

thus.

meat roasted or broiled has a much finer flavor than


when boiled or fried. Food cooked before the fire or in
the open air (as "camping-out" parties can testify)
shows the advantages of this combined action of heat and
Drying in the sun was one of the earliest modes of
air.
cookery.

Then came

roasting before the

over the coals, and baking in hot ashes

or broiling

fire

this last

was the

As the art of making kitchen utensils


developed, other modes were adopted. Then to enconomize heat, ovens were invented. The oven originally conprimitive oven.

sisted of a covered dish set over or near the

fire,

sometimes a double cover filled with


stoves, which kept the fire and heat

Afterwards

them, that

doing

all

in

having

a limited space,

and so extensive are the improvements


we now have conveniences with them for

were introduced
in

coals.

forms of cooking with w^ood, coal,

oil

or gas.

THE CHEMISTRY OF FOOD.


Now, good

"

And

digestion wait on appetite,

health on both."

Shakspere.

Why

we

what

eat,

questions which

all

man may eat his


fact.
What then
quantity

but

often, indeed,

meat

is

fill

is

to

eat,

and yet be hungry


the reason

the quality of
it

and when

another's poison, but

it

in

one climate, may be poison


in

on

eat

another climate.

is

are

a well-known

is

satisfies
is

and

one man's

also true that

year or time of
at

it,

That a

certainly not the

food which

food at one season of the


or

It is

not only happens that what

is

age

to

should be able to answer.

what

life,

or

another season or

Dwellers

in

the

tropics

upon which the inhabitants of the frigid


zone would starve, while the blubber and oil that completely nourish the Icelander would be fatal if eaten
under the Equatorial sun.
Even the same person
requires fruit in the tropics and fat and oils in the frozen
zones.
The child requires food made up of different elements from that needed by the adult, and the food of a
laborer in the field must differ from that of the student,
who takes little exercise, and whose strain of life is
thrive

fruits

heavy on the nervous system.


17

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

who are forced


economy should know just what will
best supply the needs of a family and how the most nourWe are
ishment may be had at a minimum of expense.
It

particularly important that those

is

practice

to

rigid

by scientists that an adult requires daily eight


and a-quarter pounds of dry food and water, with air
The same amount is thrown
necessary for respiration.
off
as waste, or in other words eight and a-quarter
pounds is used up as fuel to keep the machinery of life in

told

motion, and

The

that fuel

if

better the

oil,

is

perfectly suited the food

the

more vigorous

working

Food

will

first

and brain.

it

is

at

When

digested.

it

once acted upon by the gas-

which pours from the walls

and sickness

follows.

the stomach.

of

Consequently, anything that dilutes this


retard digestion,

and the more

wants of the system,

to the

masticated, then

reaches the stomach


tric juice,

is

be the body, the more perfect the

of muscle, nerve
is

not forthcoming, death ensues.

the better the light

fluid

tends

Therefore,

it

to
is

mistake to drink freely during mastication, or until some


little

do

time has elapsed after eating to allow the stomach to

its

work unhindered.

As

the juices of the stomach act

only upon the surface of the food which passes into


it

can readily be seen why light

bread

is

it,

more whole-

some than heavy bread. Light, spongy bread is acted


upon in every part because the gastric juice is able to
penetrajte it; and if all housewives knew this, they would
not place the heavy, stale loaf on the table,
Truly,

many

child for bread

Fats of
require

all

the

*'

to save it."

mother gives a stone when asked by her

kinds do not digest


action

of

the

bile

in

the stomach, but

and pancreatic

juice

THE CHEMISTRY OF FOOD.


to

make them

available as

carbon for living combus-

combined with other food is it a


benefit to the system, and the use of more than can be
perfectly blended brings on indigestion and often excestion.

Only as

fat is

sive " heart-burning," to use a domestic term.

the repair

Food has primarily two functions


and the supply of the body

lar waste,

temperature up to 98

and each

of

muscu-

with fuel to keep the

indispensable to health

is

and strength. The chief part of our food goes to keep up


this living warmth, and the balance, except small portions
of mineral substances, such as sulphur and potash, goes
The secret of healthy
to muscle and brain production.
food is to adapt it to the present needs of those for whom
Foods are divided into three classes:
it is prepared.
the Nitrogeneous, in which nitrogen

is

the chief element,

and which feed the muscles only the Non-nitrogeneous


and those
or Carbonaceous, which produce heat chiefly
in which the first two are combined.
It is known that the body requires four to five ounces
of food for heat to one for muscle, and this is the key to
preparing food in dift'erent climates and for different
occupations and conditions. The whites of eggs (pure
albumen) are richest in nitrogen or muscle-providing
food.
The lean parts of beef, mutton, venison and game
;

contain nearly as great a percentage


in

one hundred.

about

Grain, peas, beans

milk are also rich in nitrogen, and


that were needed, these

if

fifteen parts

and the curd of


muscles were

all

would be almost perfect food.


But for one ounce that goes to muscle, five ounces must
go to heat, and this means Carbon.
Carbon, the heat producer, .comes chiefly from starch,
of which the vegetable kingdom is largely composed,

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

20

Sago, tapioca, arrow-root and corn starch are almost pure


starch,

and desserts made

of

them are easily digested and


do not feed the muscles,

contribute largely of carbon, but

except they be combined with eggs, milk,

etc., in

cooking.

Consequently^ children and working people who need to


have their muscles fed should be fed on such things

muscle-making food has also


For the student, the aged and those who do
not exercise much, these foods are most valuable, being
easily digested and productive of warmth.
rather

sparingly, unless

been eaten.

The

following table shows the proportion of starch in

common

grains, etc.

Rice Flour,

THE CHEMISTRY OF FOOD.


has proven that the

ahnost identical

in

The substance
to the

body

new process

"'

and graham are

flour

these elements.

of next importance in supplying carbon

The oils used are butter, lard and the


They contain about 80 parts of carbon in

is oil.

meat.

fat of

''

21

100. Grains contain oils in varying quantities, as follows

Corn meal, 9 parts

in 100.

Oatmeal,

"

"

Rye,

2>%

"

"

"

"

"

"

Wheat,

to 2

"

This furnishes the best of reason why fats should be sparingly used in hot weather, the grains and vegetables
supplying

sufficient

warmth-producing

material.

The

excessive use of fats in cooking causes an over-secretion


of

and

bile,

this

produces indigestion, sickness at the

stomach, and often fevers of different kinds.


particularly should reject fried

One
that

condition of

life calls

long exposure to

is

and

Dyspeptics

oily foods.

for a daily diet of fat,

excessive

cold.

When

and
the

breath freezes on the beard, the lungs require a large

amount
ture.

of heat to

The

keep the body up

to a

best bread for cold weather

normal tempera-

is

that containing

Corn bread ranks first, oatmeal second, rye


third and wheat last.
Woodmen, sailors, street-car driv^ers, railroad men and others exposed to long, cold storms,
especially when there is little opportunity for exercise,
should eat freely of fat meat and butter. Let the cook
remember, however, that fats are physic and truly harmful if not blended with substances containing starch.
An
ounce of lard and a pound of flour thoroughly blended in
wheat bread are digestible, but the same in corn meal
the most

oil.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

22

already rich in

oil

would only be fit for an Icelander.


of oil in food is found in milk,

The proper proportion

which contains 3_^ parts in loo.


The next element which supplies carbon

which

found

is

in

is

sugar,

vegetables and largely in milk.

all

Sugar contains 40 parts carbon and 60 parts water; consequently candy should be sparingly eaten in the warm
months and children should be allowed little if any.
There are other elements found in food, and while
noticed only in small quantities, they are no less essential

One

is

largely enters into the building

up

to

and

health

Phosphorus

waste.

is

found

phosphorus,

in eggs,

fish,

which

and nerve

of brain

oysters, lob-

game, cheese and potatoes, and these should be

sters,

freely eaten

growth of

there

is

so

hair, nails,

much found

contact with them.


rich in sulphur.

found

in

Another element that

by the brain-w^orker.

into body-building

enters
for

comfort.

most

in

Curd

Iron

is

sulphur, which

is

required

Of

bones and cartilage.


eggs that silver
of milk

is

and. cheese are also

also present in the blood

is

articles of food,

this

darkened by

and

being most abundant

is

in

the juice of beef, in eggs and in milk.


also

needed

for the body, the lime

Lime and salt are


making bone, while salt

Lime is found in all grains, in wheat


Nothing is more healthful for growmg
children than bread and milk, as it supplies heat, muscle
and bone material.
Races develop largely in proportion to their adeptness
aids

and

digestion.

in

milk.

supplying heat and muscle producing food.


The
Scotch use oatmeal, rich in nitrogen the Irish endure a

in

large

amount

of labor

on cheap

and milk largely entering

fare, potatoes,

into their daily food.

cabbage

The use

THE CHEMISTRY OF FOOD.


of "

23

is to learn how to combine


With a meal that contains much
nitrogen should be served vegetables and dessert that
are rich in carbon, to make up the needed healthy food.
For instance, the farmer's dinner of salt pork, cabbage
and potatoes is about perfect for an outdoor laborer in
cold weather, the cabbage giving the nitrogen and the
pork the carbon. It is a proper dinner also from the
fact that it takes four hours and a-half to digest, and, 2"
an old farmer once said, " it stands by a man," although
the why of the '' standing " had never entered into his
education.
Venison is about the easiest of digestion of

Chemistry

in

Cooking,"

all

the

all

meats and contains

the

same proportion

life essentials.

fifteen parts of nitrogen,

as beef.

Wheat bread does

which

is

not con-

muscle-producing material enough for a laboring


man, and should be supplemented with lean meat consequently a sandwich made of rare roast beef and bread is
most nourishing.
Beans contain, next to meat, the most nitrogen and
form a durable food for laborers, and this is the reason
the inmates of our State prisons have beans served to
tain

form of soup, made with fat pork, the


Cabbage ranks next
fat supplying the carbon needed.
to beans in nitrogeneous qualities, and then come oats,
wheat and barley. Milk, containing all the elements of

them

daily in the

body

building,

and eggs,

rich in nitrogen,

used together

with rice and sugar, containing carbon, produce a most


nutritious dish that

healthful drink in
jiarts,

and the

is

easy of digestion.

summer

as

it is

still

acidity aids digestion.

large quantity of carbon

food for cold weather.

and

are, in

Buttermilk
rich in

is

nutritive

Eggs contain a

consequence, good

Wheat bread alone

will

support

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

24
life

longer than any one food, except meat, the propor-

tion of nitrogen to

for the student

carbon

to 5

being

nearly correct

and those not taking vigorous exercise.


however, more nitrogen is needed, and

For active life,


lean meat should be used.

Considering the requirements of the body and the elements that make up food, a wholesome breakfast should
and muscle-making food.
strength-giving
consist of
Nothing is better than broiled beefsteak, which is most
especially

digested,

easily

by real

Eggs are

workers.

nourishing but less stimulating and provide for the mus-

For

cles.

with

fruit

taken

at

heat, bread

mild acid aids digestion.

all

during the day,

morninoj, as

it is

time to pass

off

In

and cakes are

its

summer

stimulatino^,

it

to

If coffee

and the

etc.

in

effect should

be
the

have

before the hour for retiring comes.

less

carbon should appear on the

be served for dessert.


will

to

is

should be drank

and blanc-manges, creams, berries and


ess

be preferred, and

consider

bill of fare,

ripe fruits should

In giving a dinner the wise host-

her company, their occupation,

well

party of hunters or outdoor workers would require

an abundance of meat, while persons of sedentary occupation would be better pleased with delicacies and nothings.

sleighing party will devour carbon, but persons

almost fainting under a July sun long for cooling fruits


and the leanest of meat. The time when food is given
should decide the nature of the
easy of digestion or not

bill

of

fare

whether

thus those starting upon a jour-

ney should be given rare roast beef or beefsteak, which


can be quickly disposed of by the stomach (thus preventing possible

loss

by car sickness), rather than a

pork-chop, that takes nearly five hours to digest.

fried

THE KITCHEN.
"

There

And

is

always work.

tools to

work

withal, for those

who

will."

Lowell.
It

is

almost impossible to give any except general sug-

gestions as to the arrangement of the kitchen.


If

every housewife had the pleasure of planning this

part of her house, a model kitchen might be fully drawn

out

but unfortunately the large percentage of our peo-

ple live in rented houses, in which the kitchen has to be

taken just as

found, and endured

it is

veniences.

few

hints,

among

other incon-

however, for those about to

homes for themselves may be found helpful.


The room should not be too large, 15x15 feet being

build

keep

it

needed

more tim.e will be required to


properly cleaned, and many more steps will be

very good size.

to

If larger,

accomplish the necessary work.

of ventilation should

The matter

be given an important place

in

the

planning of the kitchen, since the comfort of the entire

household depends upon

it.

The odors from

the cook-

ing should not go through the house, and high and wide

windows
venting

in

the kitchen furnish the only

this.

Good

indispensable, for

means

of pre-

and plenty of light are


there should be no dark corners to
ventilation

25

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

26

The

tempt untidiness.
a carpet should
stove,

Many

where an

cover

should

floor

maple or birch, and

pine,

all

the

oil-cloth

floor,

hard

of

neater.

the kitchen, but

in

and

except around the

be found much

will

persons object to a carpet

restful to tired feet

made

be

laid in three-inch strips,

it

is

and can be taken up and washed

when soiled.
About the room should be

a wainscot of oiled pine

wood-work should be painted.


the room are by many considered quite

wood, and none of the

The

walls of

improperly finished unless paint

is

applied, but

unless

you are sure the painter understands just the kind of


Well painted walls are
paint to use, paper them instead.
a continual satisfaction, for they can be easily cleaned

but

when poorly painted they

good housekeeper, inasmuch as no amount


them.

cleans

paper

If

is

any

The

disasters

of cleaning

used, choose neither a light

nor a dark tone, and have plenty of


repair

are great burdens to the

left

it

may come

that

to

over to

the

walls.

usual objection to paper, that the steam from the

cooking ruins

it,

will

not hold good

if

windows are

the

lowered from the top a couple of inches throughout the


day.

Whitewash the

ceiling,

and have

it

re-whitened

every spring at the usual cleaning time.

Have
slate, as
if

a large sink, choosing

dishes are

a stone sink

is

more

used.

one

likely to

The

of iron rather than of

be chipped and broken

strainer in the sink should

be fastened down permanently, as anything that

will

not

run through the holes ought not to go into the drain pipe
at all.

great temptation to raise the lid and

ment pass through


space under the

is

thus removed.

sink, for

such

Do

let sedi-

not enclose the

a closet

will

afford

THE KITCHEN.
secure

and

2/

abiding-place

inaccessible

this

be

left

open, the manner

in

which

it

bugs

water

for

should they gain a foothold in the kitchen.

Besides,
is

kept

if

will

furnish a reliable criterion of the neatness of the kitchen-

maid.
In

many

" dresser

''

parts

what

of the country

in the kitchen is not in

is

known

as the

use, the pantry giving

space enough for dishes and utensils of

all

kinds.

dresser usually has two closets above and two below, with

two deep drawers at the top of the lower closets. In the


upper closets should be kept all the dishes necessary for
use in the kitchen, and in the lower ones all pots, saucepans and other utensils of

In one of the

kind.

this

drawers should be the cooking knives and forks, larding


needles,

and

in

wooden

strainer, fish cloths, a

that

may be

of twine
is

can-opener,

spoons,

etc.

large extra piece of cheese-cloth

torn into convenient pieces as wanted, a ball

and

all

other necessary articles of this kind.

a question whether a dresser

dishes, as the doors of the


left

rolling-pin,

the other the jelly-bags, dish-towels, linen soup-

is

good arrangement

It

for

upper closets are frequently

open by careless workers, so that the smoke from

broiling and the steam from the cooking

untidy effect upon the dishes.

It

is

have a most

very unwise to dis-

pense with a pantry altogether and depend on one of


these dressers.
Have a pantry always, even if you are
compelled to do away wnth the parlor of the house to

make room

for

it.

There should be a large table in the kitchen, or two,


if there be room enough
but if there is to be no separate laundry and the stationary tubs are in the kitchen,
the top of the tubs forms a very handy table for dishes.
;

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

28

A small

etc.

range

is

table covered wiUi zinc

and placed near the

a most convenient addition to the kitchen furni-

can be placed on it to
There should also be a good-sized shelf or mantel,
upon which the clock, match-safe, candle-sticks, etc., may

ture, as hot dessert, cake, pie, etc.,

cool.

be kept.
Screen the windows and the door in sumirier, or
swarms of flies will enter, rendering it impossible to keep
the room clean and creating a personal annoyance that
must be endured to be fully appreciated.
In the pantry under the shelves should be built a long
bin divided into compartments for holding wheat flour,
corn meal, graham, etc.
This is a most satisfactory
arrangement, for often a space that is large enough for
the purpose would be found entirely too small to contain
a barrel of flour.

CARE OF THE KITCHEN AND THE UTENSILS.


"
is

place for everything, and everything in

its

place

"

a motto to be followed in the kitchen more than in any

other part of the house


dishes,

etc.,

unless order

is

But even

the worker

day

set

if

for there are so

that confusion

the

first

thought
is

many

certain to reign

is

all

utensils,

supreme

day and every day.

careful, there should

be one

apart for general cleaning and putting in order

room. The entire woodwork should be cleaned at least once a month, and
around the tubs and wherever the strain of the work is
the greatest it should be cleaned every week.

of everything pertaining to the

The
with

sink requires

special

attention.

soap and water, always giving a

scalding water.

Wash
final

it

daily

rinse wilh

Set a regular time for this cleaning, just

THE KITCHEN.

29

work is out of the way being obviously


most convenient. The drain pipe of the sink should
be carefully cleansed once every ten days with washing
after the dinner

the

To prepare a cleansing agent for this purpose,


soda.
pour three quarts of boiling water on a pound of washing
when the

soda, and

latter is

dissolved, bottle

for use.

Pour a pint of this liquid down the drain-pipe when it


needs purifying; the soda unites with the grease and
keeps the pipe free from deposits.
Tinware, granite-ware and frying pans will need frequent scouring, and nothing is of greater comfort in the
kitchen for this work than a generous supply of Sapolio.
Bristol brick

with

may be used

admirable

as

Woodenware
before the

for

this

purpose, but scarcely

labor expended.
been washed should never be dried
as the wood will warp and crack when
for

results

the

that has

fire,

thus exposed to the heat.

ened with Sapolio.

The

Steel knives should be brightrefrigerator should be carefully

cleansed throughout once a week and a wire run through


the

drain

pipe

dropped into

it.

to

dislodge

It is

anything that

very unwise to have

may

this

have

pipe con-

nected with the sewer or the drain of the house, as such

an arrangetnent offers a constant menace to the health of


the household.

The range

once a fortnight,

all

or stove should be cleaned

the flues being swept out, the top of

oiT, and the stove pipe sharply tapped


any soot that may have formed.

the oven brushed


to loosen

Above

all,

the kitchen should be plentifully supplied

There should be three kinds some of crash


which can be made to go over a roller
some of soft crash for dishes and kitchen implements generallv
and some of unbleached cotton for use about the
wath towels.

for the hands,

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

30
range

monly

they can

as

use,

in

Tliese cotton towels are

hot utensils.

lifiing

in

much more convenient than

padded holders com-

the

be easily washed, and the

heated dishes can be handled

much more

safely with

them.

UTENSILS NEEDED.

young housekeeper will, we believe, gladly


some advice in the matter of choosing the utenneeded to produce a well-furnished kitchen. In buy-

The

receive
sils

tinware

this

part of the house)

best

the

in

any

indeed,

(and,

ing

is

it

beginning.

It

is

equipping

for

article

economy

to

purchase the

well-known fact

to

experienced housekeepers that American wares for the


kitchen

are

not

kitchen, a

the

way,

it

Of
so durable as English.
more here, but if, when furnishing
more money be expended in this

nearly

course, the latter cost


little

never be regretted, since the best wares

will

fully twice as

quality of tinware will


varieties will

long as those of poorer quality.


last

last

superior

a life-time, while the cheap

scarcely survive a year's

usage.

The

best

and
worn out its surface will stand
great heat without becoming rough, but when the poorer
tin is thus exposed, the coating melts, producing a rough
surface that is difficult to clean, and to which the food
lin

has a smooth and rather dull-looking surface

keeps

its

shape

clings until

XX

it

until

burns.

The

utensils should

all

be made

and the bread and cake pans, when not made


of iron, should be of the XXXX quality.
The surface of the iron-ware for the kitchen becomes
of

tin,

smoother with use, but iron utensils of poor quality are a


great annoyance and can never be relied upon to attain

THE KITCHEN.
desired

this

smoothness.

Before

iron-ware

is

used,

The

should be washed out and dried perfectly.

it

inside

should then be rubbed with fat or

oil that contains no


and be allowed to remain thus greased for six or
eight hours before washing again.
Place the utensil on
the fire and heat it gradually, after which wash it
thoroughly with soap and water and rub with a dry towel.
This process will smooth the surface, if carefully done.
salt,

Iron comes next to copper in the matter of retaining

although

heat,

it

Copper

respect.

is

below the

far

utensils

metal

latter

much used

in

this

two
weight and the danger of poisoning. Copper requires constant inspection and care and does not
reasons

are

housekeepers generally.

be cleaned with sour milk and

and

if its
it

on

is

eventually displace

will

In selecting

in

every part, or

enamel, reject

it,

for

Granite-ware
it

Two

will

will last a
lists

a piece does

is

a flaw in the

chip

and crack.

long time.

One, which

itself.
it

the

dollars.

The

"one

is

each being-

called by the

hundred dollar

outfit,"

the kitchen and is sold for


other is the " twenty-five dollar
in

articles furnished amounting to


For those who cannot afford the costlier outexpensive one will be found very complete.

outfit," the cost for the

the less

if

not endure rough treatment, but with

in

supplying

one hundred

fit,

there

the granite will

includes everything needed

that sum.

if

other varieties of

ware,

of kitchen utensils are here given,

very complete

house

all

this

seem firm

care,

may

account of

cooking utensils.
not

It

salt.

most commonly used nowadays, being


its lightness and cleanliness
cost can only be brought to a more reasonable

Granite-ware

figure,

for

their

find favor in the eyes of

preferred

not

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.


List No.
Step Ladder
Clothes Horse

$2.
i.

"

Line, 50 Yds
o Doz. Clothes Pins
Skirt Board

i,

5,

4,

Egg Whip
Skimmer

7
5

3
5
12

Tea

Rolling Pin
Potato Masher

Vegetable Slicer
Clothes Wringer

5'

Wash Bench
Cedar Wash Tub

i.

i.

Wash Board
Flour Bucket

Box

Nest Boxes
Coflfee Mill

Wooden Spoons
Soap Cup

Strainer
Coffee Strainer
Fish Boiler
Waffle Iron

2.85
i.oo
22
i.oo

Wire Vegetable Boiler


Soap Stone Griddle
Pudding Boiler
Jelly Mould
Melon Mould
Soup Strainer,
Dust Pan
Dust Brush
Bread Box
Cake "
Sugar Can

75

50
55
85

20
40
80
75
75
18
15

Coffee Canister
"
Tea
Spice Box

Boiler, Lined.

Muffin Pan

Roasting Pan
Bread Pans

Crumb Tray and Brush


Japanned Trays
Mincing Knife
Bread Knife
Butcher Knife
Set Sad Irons

Fry Pan
Omelette Pan

Garbage Can
Tea Kettle
Agate Cook Pot

70
60

i.io
18

35

20
1.40

Polishing Iron
"
"
"
"
"
"

Sauce-Pan
Farina Boiler

Ice Pick

12

Egg Poacher

25

Hatchet

40
40

Colander
I

Tea Pot
Jelly

Meat Saw
Tack Claw

Cake Plates

Butter Kettle

Turk's Head

Steamer
Oyster Fryer

Wire Broiler

Cleaver

Iron Spoons, assorted

Hanging Safe
Set Table Mats

Basin.

Wash

Boiler,

Copper Bottom..

Toaster
Radish Grater
Chain Dish Cloth
Croquette Mould
Nutmeg Grater
Set Skewers

Flour Dredge
"
Sugar
Pepper "
Tin Cup
Dish Pan

15
1.65

Set Scales and Weights


Stove Brush
Package Stove blacking
Dish Mop

Tin Pie Plates


"

80

i
i

Pudding Pan
Coffee Pot

15
12

50
25
6

Scoop
Cake Cutter

Water Bucket

Oval Iron

$100.00.
Graduated Measure
Cake Turner
Dipper
Oyster Broiler
Egg Beater

Ironing Table
Zinc Top Kitchen Table
Dish Drainer

Salt

I,

35
5
12

50
1.25

60
4.00
85

Market Basket
Clothes

80

"

1.50

Knife Box
Meat Board

40

Broom

25
25

Coal Scuttle
Coal Shovel

50
8

Poker
Paring Knife
Family Nail Box

10
10

Refrigerator

i5-75

$ 00.00
1

THE KITCHEN.
List No.
1

Wash Tub
"
"

% 55

"
"

70
85

Wringer

2.25

Wash Board

I
I

25
25

33

$25.00,
Coffee Canister
Tea Canister

Japanese Tray
Crumb Brush and Tray

Dust-Pan
" Brush
Bread Box
Market Basket
Pudding Pan
Cake Cutter

10
10
12

45
9

Line
"
Doz.
Pins
Clothes Props
"
Horse
Ironing Board
Step Ladder
Kitchen Table

Coffee Mill

60

Dish-Pan

20

10

Flour Sieve

15

RoUing-Pin
Potato-Masher
Pie Board
Radish Grater
Slaw Cutter
Meat Board
Flour Bucket

Water

25 Yds. Clothes
3
2
I
I
I

I
I

I
I
I

t
I
I

6
20
75

60
90
1.25

Round Iron

Oval

Round Sauce-Pan,

Boiler,

Lined

"

"
"

3
55
9

"

25

Scrub Brush
Set Skewers
Chain Dish Cloth

Gem Pan

1.20

Colander

3
5
15
15
18

20

57

30
40

Toaster

Broom

25

Chamois

Griddle

Frying Pan

20
25
25

Pie Plates
Basin

Bread

15

Tin Coffee-Pot

"

Tea

I
I
I
I

Tea

45
15
12

"

Strainer
"
Coffee

5
5

Butter Kettle

Coal Scuttle
Roasting Pan

"
Waffle Iron

20

Apple Corer

6
12

Egg Whip
Nutmeg Grater

Broiler

.....

20
70
66

Boiler
Tin Kettle

Dredge
Pepper Box
Iron Fork
"
Spoon

Ash Sieve
Tea Kettle

12

Wash

8
25
8
25

30
20

"

Soap Cup
Wooden Spoon

20
60
60

'.

10

Tin Cup

4
10
12

Paring Knife

Flat Irons

65

Hatchet
Mincing Knife

40
18

Tack Claw

Ice Pick

Knives and Forks


Can Opener

Scoop
Ladle

Flat Iron-Stand

Skimmer
Spice Box

Butcher Knife
Bosom Board

60
8
5

20
25

25

$25.00

dish-drainer

If the sink is too

the drainer,

is

a great convenience

In

the kitchen.

small to hold both the dish pan and

a dripping

pan should be

set

under

the

made of slats of wood on which to


place the dish-pan when in use is a necessity.
The modern potato-masher is a great improvement on
The potatoes should be seathe old wooden pounder.

drainer.

sink-rack

THE PATTERN COOK-JWOK.

34
soned

after being put through

masher the

the

time

first

they should then be re-heated and pressed through into the

DISH-DRAINEK.

They should not be smoothed nor patted


down before being sent to table, as that
would greatly diminish their lightness. The

serving-dish.

masher or strainer here

illustrated

O inexpensive, costing only


and

SINK-J^ACK.

it

crushing berries,
etc.,

the

method

in

quite

is

twenty-five cents

be used in many ways


powdering the yolks of eggs,

can

of doing

which

is

for

etc.,

described further on.

There are many


ferent

kinds

table

cutters.

are

made

set

and

of

of

They
tin,

graded

shapes

dif-

vege-

of

and
sizes

be

can

very useful.

They are
The cups

or ends

figures

purchased.

of

and B are pressed into


POTATO-MASHER.

then

given

turn

around.

^j-^g

The

vegctablcs,

and

make

cutter

will

THE KITCHEN.
little

potato

potatoes

cutter

shown
that

''^

la

at figure

will cut

bread

are

cutters
to

fried.

oblong forms.

are

The
The

be used for cutting veg-

i"

O
O

^5

Q
VEGETABLE

and

when

<

-.

pose

which

diameter,

have been previously sliced for the pur-

&

These

ni

Farisienne''

E and F may

cutters C, D,

etables

one inch

balls

called

35

fry,

intended for
can also

the shapes

be

CI TTEK'-

decorations

or

used for cutting

for soup.
slices

of

resulting being very attractive

DOUGHNUl'

when

served.
There should also be biscuit cutters, one
and one small these will answer for ginger-snaps
as well.
Then a round and a fluted cook)^-cutter will be
needed and if doughnuts are to be made, a double cutter will be found of great assistance.
large

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

36

Among
French

the various knives needed in the kitchen, the

fluted knife will

It cuts solid

be found a great convenience.

vegetables in a round, fluted shape.

tbtmJ-

ID

KEiNCH FLUTED KiMH

The French
is

cook's knife

easily kept sharp.

It

is

is

made

and

of the best steel

very useful for boning.

costs about eighty cents, but will,

It

properly used, last

if

for years in constant service.

^=
FRENCH COOK'S KNIFE.

This coffee-mill

is

one of the newest, and


regulated

to

or fine, by
thumb-screw
It

is

costing

$1.75

manipulated
It

coarse

means
on

of

the

more

little

sive than the

easily

is

grind

expen-

common
;

but

more

side.

mill,
is

it

easily.

can be held on the table

while in use.
" bain-marie "

The
is

COFFEE MILL.

an

filled

placed on the back of the range


or cups with handles are fitted

pan

open vessel to be
with hot water and

in,

several

sauce-pans

and are intended

to

THE KITCHEN.
hold sauces,
served

hot.

entrees

The

and other dishes

flavoring

is

not

that

must be

diminished when

articles are kept hot in this way.

MUFFIN-PAN.

lir

""

muffin-pan, for coolv-

ing muffins or corn cakes,

should be made of iron,

BAIN-MARIE

and should be thoroughly heated before each using.


There are different depths for these pans, and a shallow
one is not advisable.
A measuring cup is a most necessary
article in the culinary

this

kind are graded

department.
in

two ways

Cups

of

at the

quarter cupfuls and at the eighths..

Oysters cannot be properly broiled without a separate utensil for the

purpose.

MEA.SURING

Cll',

In the broiler

OYSTER-BROILER.

here

shown the wires are so close together that the

oysters cannot slip into the

fire.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK,

38

The Dover egg-beater, than which no better


may seem a luxury to many who do not possess
as

made,

is

one, but

they cost but twenty-five cents, they are within the

means
tured

of the
is

The egg-whip

most economical.

used simply to whisk the eggs

without beating them

here pic-

light.

This kettle
ing

fish.

is

It

used for

on the

the fish

raick

removed when the


FISH-KETTLE, WITH RACK.

The

fish

ing

danger

all

the

is

and sub-

The rack can be

merged.
done,

boil-

half filled

is

with water, and


laid

avoided.

them,

thin

to

latter

should be drained a

fish

of

being

moment

is

breakthus

over a

pan or kettle before being removed from the rack.

The
It

waffle-iron

finds a place in nearly every kitchen.

should not be on a frame that

lifts it

fire,

and

will

be a source of great annoyance.

it

should

fit

the stove,

if

too high from the

possible, otherwise

Through the winter griddle-cakes

are eaten

in

it

every

household, so the choice of the griddle on which to frv

THE KITCHEN.

39

The

them should be given some thought.


griddle does not require oiling

there

is,

no odor or smoke from cooking the cakes.


however, two

objections to this griddle

soap-stone

consequently,

it

There

are,

takes a very

WAFFLE-IKC)

long time to heat through, and

the

cakes

tender as when fried on an iron griddle.


the

little

not

as

prefer

crispness that the oiling of the griddle imparts

In buying an iron griddle, chose one of

to the cakes.

medium

are

Many

thickness.

MEAT-REST.

meat-rest

should be included

among

the utensils.

any size to fit the roasting pan.


Roasting should not be done without a rack.
This raises the meat sufficiently from the bottom of the

Such a

rest

pan

cook

to

can be purchased

it

in

evenly, and, by keeping ,the

meat out

of

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

40
the juice

and gravy, prevents

it

being boiled instead of

roasted.

braising-pan

braised

is

is

The food

here represented.

put into the lower pan and the

lid

be

to

covered with

Recipes for brais-

hot coals.

ing are given in

body

the

of

the book.

Bread pans should not be


large.
They should be
made of Russia iron and will
Roasting pans
last a lifetime.

too
^

BRAISING-PAN.

this iron.

The

first

are
cost

is

also

best

when made

of

nearly twice as great as that

of the ordinary iron pan, but the durability of this metal

more than pays


lighter to

for

the

handle than the

extra

expense and

common

it

much

is

variety.

WIRE BASKET,

The

frying-

pan, with basket


frying

for

FRYING-PAN.

The support

ing an ordinary frying-pan.

inches in diameter, costs one


of

wire

may

croquettes,

etc.,

is

useful

for the basket can

be taken

pan
dollar.

of

oys-

ters,

very

article.

out, thus leav-

this

kind,

basket

nine

made

also be obtained for frying in this way, but

THE KITCHEN.
the

work

is

41

then done in a kettle of fat without the use of

made

Frying-pans are best

a frying-pan.

granite-ware pans are not satisfactory,

burn

likely to

used, which

is

in

The

of iron.

as food is very

them, unless a large amount of

fat

is

not always possible or economical.

There should also be a shorthandled frying-pan that can be put


in the oven if necessary, and anFRYING-PAN.

other with a long handle.

:^I^G-PAN.

An

omelet pan, with sloping sides,

best results are desired in

is

a requisite

if

the

making omelets.

FRYING-PAN.

One
useful

articles

latest

for

of

the

the "saladThe lettuce is

kitchen

is

washer."
placed

washer

the

of

inside,
is

and

the

then closed and

well shaken, all the water


that

may

washers

SALAD-WASHER.

cling to the salad being thus thrown

may be had

in

four sizes, from

off.

Salad-

seven to

ten

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

42

inches in diameter, and the smallest size costs seventyfive cents.

Scales are a necessity in every well-regulated kitchen.

There are two varieties which are about equally desirable

the
scales.

old-fashioned "counter" scales and

The

dial scales

the vessel the article

is

"
the " dial

can be adjusted to the weight of


weighed in by means of a simple

screw at the top, and on this account are very convenient.

Moulds
f'fWffTf'/^'f''m\
ill

1 1 h' 1 1 I
rf II

for

mmm

ice-creams,

m^L

^^^^"^ forms.

-'^^^-^^-kXL^^^^m tempt
BLANC-MANGE OR JELLY
MOULD.

too

blanc-manges,

jelly,

come

etc.,

is

fancy

cream, as the result

m many

dif-

not best to

It

is

form for

at-

ice-

apt to be very

none but an experienced packer can use elaborate moulds to advantage.


disappointing

INDIVIDUAL JELLY MOULDS.

We

give a simple form that the least skilful

need not

fear to attempt.

Moulds

for

earthenware.

puddings are shown

The

in

pretty designs in

best tin moulds are quite expensive,

THE KITCHEN.
but
in

jelly

43

and cream cool much more quickly

than

in tin

earthen ware.

Individual jelly moulds are not very expensive when


purchased by the dozen, and a very pretty dessert may
be produced by their use.

ROUND MOULD, HOLLOW CENTER.

The round mould,


i-uDDiNG MOULD.

ccutcr

with open

steamed

pu

d-

dings, renders expeditious cooking a possibility, as the

steam can penetrate the center as well as the

The round mould

for

pudding made

hollow center.

tine has a

When

sides.

of corn starch or gela-

the pudding

is

turned from

the mould, and the center or hollow filled with strawber-

whipped cream, a very attractive dish is the result.


There should be a plentiful supply of kettles in every
kitchen
and one should be set
apart for boiling ham, as the odor is
ries or

so lasting.

The

farina

boiler, as

kettle,

is

it

or

sometimes

doublecalled,

is

one of the most useful of kitchen


utensils.

ing

preparations,

such

as

cream for filling


layer cake, blanc-mange and any

boiled
in

can be used for cook-

It

many

dish

custards,

that

Water

is

is

made

placed

upper one

in

of heated milk.

FARINA KETTLE.

the lower kettle and the milk in the

and the

latter,

being heated by the steam

THE PA TTEKN COOK-BOOK.

44
from

The

the

boiling water, cannot

price of this boiler

is

small,

possibly be scorched.
one that has a two-quart

capacity for the upper kettle costing seventy-five cents.

small

upper

family will

only need the quart size for

the

kettle.

A kettle
cook

to

without

or saucepan in which

mush

for

breakfast,

danger

of

scorching,

been very recently inOatmeal or cracked


wheat is served on nearly all
has

vented.

breakfast tables nowadays, and


^^'^"^^^-

of

these cereals with

to

cook

ordinary kettle,

both

no easy matter

is

it

either

the

requiring to be stirred almost constantly to prevent their


sticking to the bottom of the vessel.
fore, is gladly

tinware, while

is

of copper

part

and the

This

kettle, there-

made of good
space B is solidly
is

with asbestos, the inside bottom of the kettle being

filled

where
least

The

welcomed.

and B meet.

In this way the food

an inch from the top of the stove or

is

fire.

held at

Such a

ketde of two-quart size costs seventy cents.

The dust-pan here shown

is

an improvement on the old

THE KITCHEN,
Style.

The

the dust

is

sweeper.

wire

foot

is

45

placed on the section marked

and

taken up without stooping on the part of the


This dust-pan costs thirty cents.
soap-bracket should

hang over the kitchen sink in a


convenient position; and a
soap shaker will use up all the

The

small bits of soap.

latter

costs fifteen cents.

Those who have not

'

frigerator

serve

food

in

which

to

will find a

re-

pre-

set

of

most useful.
Food can then be placed on the

wire

screens

SOAP-BRACKET.

cellar floor

(if

the house

iiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiili

SOAP-SHAKER.
is

fortunate enough to have a good cellar) and

safely

covered with the screens.

LARUING AND

TRl'SSIxNG

NEEDLES.

Larding needles must be provided if larding is


be done. These have split ends, like a cleft stick,

to
to

receive strips of fat meat.

Trussing needles, or skewers, are also very convenient.

A paste jagger for cutting pie-crust or doughnuts


be found of great utility.

will

THE PATTEK.V COOK-BOOK,

46

needed.

Fish scissors are

washed and dried

ASlh,

after

Tliey

should be carefully

each using and placed just where

JaGGER.

they can be found when needed again.

A whip or "syllabub" churn is a


and useful article. It costs but eighand is made of tin. The handle, A,
inside the

tube

B,

very cneap
leen cents

placed

is

and the whole

is

then

bowl of sweetened and flavored cream. By churning and pressing it


through the perforated holes at the bottom
dipped

of

&
WHIP chuk:

the

light

into

tube,

froth,

soon as formed
tinued until

all

cream

the

which
;

is

soon

skimmed

becomes

off the

and the churning

the froth possible

is

top as
is

con-

obtained.

MARKETING.
" But yet I run before

my

horse to market."

Shakspere.

Few

housekeepers know how to market wisely and

They

economically.

trust the butcher's opinion entirely

or else give their orders to the market-boy, and then are

obliged in consequence to take what


the weekly or monthly

bill

is

sent and to pay

without knowing whether

it is

Circumstances are often such that


correct or not.
" order boys " are of necessity the only avenue of communication

but when

should insist on a

bill

this

the

is

case,

the

mistress

being sent with each purchase of

supplies and also that every

article

be weighed

in

the

kitchen, thus relieving the tradesman of any temptation


to give

under weight.
it is the fashion to go to market, and
do so except those favored ones who can

In some cities
all

ladies

employ servants enough to relieve them of all care of


the house and housekeeping.
Skill and experience are
certainly required in purchasing meat, and it is our
endeavor here to give directions by which the inexperienced housewife may be aided in choosing good food.

MEAT
is

the general term applied to the flesh of animals used

for food,

and

is

of three classes

47

Meat, including beef,

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

48

mutton, lamb and pork

veal,

Poultry, including chick-

and ducks Game, including quail,


partridge, grouse, pigeons and other birds, venison and
any wild meat that is hunted in the forest or field.
ens, geese, turkeys

Meat

is in

season

the year round, but certain kinds

all

Pork is good only in


autumn and winter. Veal should be eaten in the spring
and summer. Venison is in season in the winter fowls
lamb in the summer and fall, and
in autumn and winter
seasons.

best at certain

are

mutton and beef throughout the year.


Beef is considered by most people the best and most
An ox should be five or six years old
nutritious of meat.
before

is killed,

it

being then

The meat

the best.

is

in

its

prime.

Ox-beef

is

fine-grained, the lean being of

marbled throughout with fat, when the


and of good breed. The fat should be
white, not yellow and the suet should also be white and
a bright red color,

animal

is

firm.

Beef should never be lean

well-fed

amount

that

is,

lacking in

is a good
meat will be tough and undesirable.
Heifer-beef is paler in hue than ox-beef and of closer
grain, the fat being white, and the bones, of course,
Bull-beef should always be avoided.
It is dark
smaller.
colored and coarse-grained, has very little fat, and
If when meat
possesses a very strong, meaty smell.

the

usual

quantity of

is

but

the meat

indicates
is unfit

is

or

fat

if

finger

it

that

for use,

quickly

rebounds,

it

the dent disappears slowly or not at

of inferior quality.

the

there

the

pressed with the

prime
the

fat,

fat; for unless

of

bone,

or

Any

is
all,

greenish tints about

any slipperiness of

surface,

meat has been kept too long and


except by those who enjoy what is known
the

as a "high flavor."

MARKETING.
Meat
try,

49

cut differently in different parts of the coun-

is

but the accompanying cut of an ox shows one way of

dividing

it.

1.

Sirloin.

2.

lop

3.

Rump.

4.

Round.

or aitch-bone.

5.

Lower

part of round

6.

Veiny

piece.
flank.

7.

Thick

8.

Thin

9.

Leg.

10

Fore-rib (5 ribs).

11.

Middle rib

12.

Chuck

13.

Shoulder.

(4 ribs)

rib (3 nbs)

14.

Brisket.

15.

Clod.

16.

Sticking.

17.

Shin.

OX.

Choose the

ribs

former be selected,
unless the bone
stuffed,

is

is lost in

is

or

the

sirloin for

roasting

too thin to be an economical cut, because

cooking.

if

the

them be the middle ribs. One rib,


taken out and the meat rolled and

let

In selecting sirloin, have

it

much

cut from

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

50

chump end," which has a


good under-cut. The tenderloin lies under the short ribs
and close to the back. It is considered by many to be
the choicest piece and can be purchased by itself, but
what butchers

call

the

"

Loin, best end.

Loin,

chump

end.

Fillet.

Hind knuckle.
Fore knuckle.

Neck, best end.

Neck, scrag end.


8.

Blade bone.

9.

Breast, best end

10.

Breast, brisket end.

CALF.
only at the larger markets.

It is

usually cut through

with the porterhouse and sirloin steaks.

porterhouse

is

porterhouse

Of these the

generally preferred, and the short or small

is

the

The
may be used for

most economical.

tough end of the large steaks

coarse and
soup.

The

family that has to carefully consider the expense of meat


will

find recipes farther

cuts so as to

make

on for preparing the cheapest

a nutritious dinner at small cost.

MARKETING.
Veal
if

best

is

when

the calf

51

two or three months old

is

over four months old, the flesh

will

be coarse.

should be white and the kidney well covered with

IS

If

fat.

dark and hangs loosely about the bone,


not good.
It should be dry and closely grained

the flesh

Veal

is

it
if

Leg.

Chump

end of

loin.

Best end of loin.

Neck, best end.


Neck, scrag end.

A
A

6.

Shoulder.

7.

Breast.

saddle
chine

is

is

the two loins undivided.

the two sides of the neck

undivided.

SHEEP,
moist and clammy, avoid

and best end


breast

head

is

is

of the

it.

usually stewed, as
a great delicacy.

is

to

loin,

shoulder

joints.

The

calf's

also the knuckle.

jelly.

Sweetbreads have

be looked upon as a great delicacy and are

therefore expensive.
cut,

fillet,

Calves' feet are boiled and

stewed, or used for making

come

The

neck are the roasting

The

calf is divided as illustrated in

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK,

52

Mutton should be fat, and the fat should be clear, hard


and white. Wether-mutton is the best and may be known
by having a knob of fat on the upper part of the leg.

Mutton

to

six years

be

from sheep

perfection should be

The

old.

flesh

should be

1.

Leg.

2.

Loin.

3.

.Shoulder.

4.

Breast.

5.

Forequarter,

3,

five or

dark-colored,

the

Ribs.

4 and 5 together.

LAMB.

The ribs may be used


waste,
the bones taking up
much
for chops, but there
The leg chops are most economihalf of the weight.
All the joints of a sheep may be roasted, the sadcal.
The leg and
dle being the best, and the haunch next.
neck are used for boiling. The scrag end an eco-

color being an indication of age.


is

nomical piece
rice.

ing.

is

The sheep

very sw^eet stewed


is

and served with

cut up as illustrated in the engrav-

MARKETING.
Lamb

should be a year old

red and should be

is

and

Lamb

is

is

it

best

when from

1.

Haunch.

2.

Neck.

3.

Shoulder.

4.

Breast.

more digestible

flesh should

be a pale

generally roasted or

chops being from the

broiled, the finest

Venison

fat.

The

than any other young meat.

53

loin.

The

the female deer.

flesh

DEER.
should be a reddish-brown, and the fat thick, clean and
close.

This meat

is

more often eaten

" high " than

any

other variety.

Buy pork only when


have good meat

most

to

upon to
meat the
should be firm, and the

the butcher can be relied

for diseased pork

be avoided.

The

fat

lean white and finely grained.

is

of

If the fat is

kernels, the pig has been measly, and the

all

full of

meat

is

small
unfit

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

54
for use.

Pork should never be eaten during the warm

months.

The

pig

is

divided as illustrated below.

Spare-rib.

1.

2.

Hand.

3.

Belly.

4.

Fore-loin.

5.

Hind-loin.

6.

Leg.

PIG.

TO CHOOSE TURKEY.

They

are in season in fall and winter and the old ones

have long hairs and the flesh is purplish where it shows


under the skin on the legs and back. When young they
are white

and plump, with smooth black

legs,

and the

cock bird has a sharp spur. When fresh the eyes are
and the absence of
bright and full and the feet supple
;

MARKETING.

55

these signs denotes age and staleness.

Hen-turkeys are

inferior in flavor to the gobblers, but are smaller,

and

plumper

fatter.

FOWLS.

These

The

are always in season.

old ones have long,


on the back and legs
has a purplish shade, the legs being rough and hard.
V'oung fowls have tender skin, smooth legs and comb, the

and

thin necks

breast bone

is

feet,

soft

and the

and

flesh

and

easily bent with the fingers,

the feet and neck are large in proportion to the body.

Choose white-legged fowls

for

stewing and dark-legged

ones for roasting.


GEESE.

Young geese have yellow and


tender skin, and the breast

An

old goose

is

not

fit

supple bills and feet and


plump and the fat white.
the table.
It has red and

is

for

hairy legs.

DUCKS.

Young ducks
of the foot
thick,

is

under the wings, and the web

feel tender

transparent.

hard breasts.

The

Those are best

that

have

wild duck has reddish legs, and

the tame duck yellow ones.


FISH.

The

eyes of fresh fish are bright, the gills of a fine,

clear red, the

body

stiff,

and the smell not unpleasant.


must be eaten very soon

Fish, in order to be palataljle,


after being taken

from the water.

Chloride of soda

will

THE PATTERIV COOK-BOOK.

56

restore fish that

good

when

as

is

not extremely fresh, but

never so

it is

freshly caught.

OYSTERS.
If fresh, oysters will

the knife

when

If the shell gapes in the least degree, the oyster

opened.
is

close forcibly on

losing

its

the oyster

is

freshness

and when the

shell

remains open

dead.

HARES AND RABBITS.

When

these animals are young and fresh the cleft in the

narrow, the body

lip is

sharp.

Old and

stale

hares

indications the reverse of

hare

is

young or

crack the animal

and the claws smooth and


and rabbits will present
To ascertain whether a
these.

stiff,

old, turn the


is

young.

claws side w^ ays

The

ears

also

if

they

should be

tender and should bend easily.


EGGS.

Shake the eggs, and if not altogether good, they will


rattle.
Another test is to place them in a basin of water
if they lie on their sides, they are fresh, but if they turn
on end, they are not good.
VEGETABLES.
Vegetables should be crisp and fresh-looking.

Apples.

In choosing these, be

guided by the -weight,


and those should be selected
which, on being pressed by the thumb, yield to it with a
the heaviest being the best

slight cracking noise.

Prefer large apples to small, for

in peeling and coring them.


Apples should be kept in a dry place, and if convenient
should be laid on a straw bad, which is a great safeguard

the waste

is

not so great

against decay.

PLAIN DIRECTIONS.
Not

to

From

know

at large of things

use, obscure

and

remote

subtle, but to

That which before us lies


Is the prime wisdom."

know

in daily life

Milton.

The knowledge

of

how

to properly

cook meat

possessed by half the housewives in this country.


finest cuts of

meat are often provided and then

ruined by the one preparing them for the table.


is

not

is

The
utterly

This

not due to a lack of mterest on the part of the mother

of the family, but to

the fact that she does

principles of cooking

stand the

first

ruin to the

meat and often

well.

not under-

and the

result

is

to the health of the family as

few principles cover the entire ground and can

be briefly explained without going into the chemistry of

meat

at

all

and when these are once understood, the

housewife can readily apply them,

ment and

to

the

much

to her enlighten-

advantage of those looking to her

for

and well prepared food.


Meat, when properly cooked, should be juicy, well
flavored and as tender as possible.
It is largely made up
of albumen and fibrine, and when these are exposed to a
degree of heat higher than the boiling point, the meat
becomes hard and indigestible. With the following facts
nutritious

57

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

58

make no
meat First, heat
higher than the boiling point hardens and shrinks meat,
but when kept at the boiling point for a long time,
it will make the meat tender, provided there is plenty of
Second, meat to be roasted or boiled should
moisture.
well

mind, the young housekeeper need

in

e^Tor in the preparation

be exposed for the


degree of heat

and cooking

first

fifteen

of

minutes to

greater

than the boiling point, so that the surface

meat may be crusted and hardened to keep in the


Third, the heat must not be allowed to fall below
the boiling point while the meat is cooking, that temperature being necessary for the development of the flavor.
Thus we see that the meat must first be treated to a high
of the

juices.

degree of heat, to close the pores of the surface, after

which

it

must be maintained uniformly

(212) until the cooking

is

at

boiling point

done.

ROASTING.

There are three modes of roasting^-before the coals,


under a sheet of flame in a gas stove, and in an ordinary
range or stove. The last named process is unanimously
conceded
the oven
unless

be inferior

to
is

to

either

of the

always available while the


preparation

special

has

first

others,

made

been

but

two are not,


for

the

work.

For roasting before the

fire

it is

necessary to have the

range constructed for this purpose, and a

tin

screen with

a spit and jack to place before the coals, on which to do

Some

the work.
spring-jack

the

spring

wound

before

the

up,

fire.

of

the

roasters

are

arranged with a

meat is placed on the spit and the


which sets the meat revolving slowly
The meat should first be placed near

PLAIN DIRECTIONS.
the coals to quickly crust the surface,

59

and then moved

back a little to cook through without burning. Baste


and if the roast is very large, it
the meat frequently
should be surrounded with a buttered paper. Just before
the meat is done, it should be basted with a little butter,
then sprinkled with flour and placed nearer the fire to
brown. Sprinkle a little salt upon the roast, but not
until it is ready to serve, as salt draws out the juices.
;

The

fire

it

should be

made ready some time before putting


may be bright and hot and

meat, that the coals

in the

should be strong enough to last through the roasting,

with possibly the addition of a

meat
pan.

rest,

little coal.

should be placed on a
and thus raised from the bottom of the baking

In roasting in a pan, the


(This rest

is

described

Dredge the meat with


kle a quantity

nifeat

among

of flour in

the kitchen utensils.)

and

sprin-

the bottom of the pan.

The

flour, salt

and pepper

it,

salt draws out the juices, but the flour unites with them,

making a paste
within the meat.

that soon hardens

When

the flour

and imprisons those


pan is brown,

in the

After the
put in just enough water to cover the bottom.
meat has browned, it should be basted at least every ten
minutes, wifti the gravy in the pan, and then treated to
another light sprinkling of flour. The water in the pan

should be renewed frequently, but none should be added


that there will be nothing

during the last half hour, so

remaining in the pan but oil and sediment. When the


meat is done, lay it on a warm platter, lift the meat-rest
from the pan, pour off the fat, and scrape the sediment
from the sides and bottom. Place the pan on the stove,
and add a cupful of hot water when this has boiled up
once, stir in a thickening composed of flour and water
;

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

6o
rubbed

paste, pouiing

to a thin

in

only a

little

of

paste at a time so the gravy will not be too thick.

the

Let

the gravy boil for two or three minutes to cook the flour,
stirring constantly

strain into a hot

meat

is

then season with salt and pepper and

The time

dish.

required for roasting

given in the cook's time-table.

BROILING.
is

This

cooking directly over the hot coals.

simplest

and

forms

cooking

of

meats,

yet

The

required to broil properly.

skill are

be bright red and nearly to the top of the


the broiler

one

is

care,

of the

niceness

fire

should

fire-box, so that

may almost touch the fire but there should


The wire broiler is much more easily man;

be no flame.

aged than the iron gridiron


easily, and,

if

the

held away from

it

is at

fire

it

can be turned quickly and

too great a heat, can be easily

down

to allow the fire to cool

to the de-

Grease the broiler well with a bit of fat from


the meat, and place the thickest part of whatever is to be
broiled next to the middle of the broiler. Do not salt the
sired point.

meat unless a sprinkling


time, as in roasting

season when the meat


this point.

of

flour is

used

at

the

same

but the better way seems to be to


is

cooked, although cooks differ on

Place the broiler as near the

and when the surface


turn and crust the other

of

the

side.

meat
If

fire

is

as possible,

seared, quickly
that drips off

the fat

catches in a blaze, quickly remove the broiler until the


flame has died down, and throw a
clear

it

again.

stantly until the

Keep

little

salt

on the

fire to

turning the broiler almost con-

meat is cooked. Never thrust a fork


meat that is broiling, as the juice is

into the lean part of

thus

started

and much

of

it

escapes.

Cook

ten

min-

PLAIN DIRECTIONS.
utes

the meat

if

an inch thick, so as to have

is

it

a fine

and serve very hot. The


smaller and thinner the article to be broiled, the hotter
should be the fire and the larger the piece, the more
moderate should be the fire or the greater the distance at
which the meat should be held from the heat.
Butter well,

rare dressing.

broihng

In

prevent

to

slightly heated.

it

generally

is

When

burning.

first
is

it

paper, rub the broiler well with butter

broiled without

and have

it

paper

buttered

fish,

wrapped around

broiled fish entire, dip the

To

fish,

preserve the skin

as soon

as

it

of

has been

washed and cleaned, in vinegar for a second, dry it in a


and flour it.
Chops, bacon and birds, as well as fish, are often

cloth,

broiled in paper.

lows

Take

To

broil in

this

way, proceed as

fol-

and rub it
Season the chop or

a large sheet of white letter-paper,

well with butter, to keep out the


bird with salt

and pepper, place

air.
it

near the center of the

paper, and fold the edges of the covering over several


times, pinching

paper

them together close

char a

will

lor^g

time before

to the meat.
it

blazes,

if

The

care be

taken not to break through the paper and thus admit the
air

and

let

The meat

will

be basted

longer time

is

the paper

well brov/ned, the

broiled

come from
own juice. A
way, but when

out the fat and juice that will have

the meat.

is

are

in

its

required for broiling in this

cut open

meat is done.
and the inside laid

Birds to be
to

the

fire

first.

Anything egged and crumbed should be well buttered


The broiler should be covered with a tin
pan or a baking pan when pieces that require any length

before broiling.

of time

to dress are to

be broiled.

In broiling a good-

THE PA TTER.V COOK-BOOK.

62

amount

sized chicken a great

care

of

is

required,

and

none but a professional can be sure of the result.


The amateur will be better pleased to broil the chicken
only long enough to give it a rich brown tone on all
sides, and then put it in a shallow pan or a frying-pan,
really

and

finish

moderate oven.

in a

it

Pan-broiling

is

a hissing hot frying-pan.

broiling in

This way often has to be

relied

upon when wood

is

burned instead of coal, the difficulty of securing a deep


bed of wood coals to broil over being not easily overcome. Heat the pan very hot and rub across it once
with a bit of fat from the meat, to keep the latter from
but do not leave any fat in the pan.
sticking to the pan
Sear the meat quickly on one side, then turn it carefully
(without piercing the lean of the meat) and brown the
;

Cook

other side before any juice escapes into the pan.

about

five

minutes for meat an inch thick,

dressed rare, turning

it

seasoning with butter,

meat prepared

be liked

but broiling on iron,

ing or rather sauteing,


flavor of

it

and serve very hot, after


and pepper. This is not fry-

twice

salt

if

in this

way

is

and the

excellent.

BOILING.
Salted meats, such as ham, corned-beef, salt tongue,
etc.,

should be put on the


salt,

boiling point

and kept

avoided, as

it

fire

to boil in cold water, to

and should be gently brought

draw out the

to the

there, rapid boiling being carefully

hardens and ruins the meat. All other


in boiling water at the first, and

meats should be plunged

when
when

the water boils again


the meat

is

(it will

put in) skim

ing point for fifteen minutes

be cooled somewhat

and keep it
then draw the
it

at the boil-

kettle

away

PLAIN DIRECTIONS.
from the

fire,

where

it

will

6^

be kept at just the bubbling

point, care being taken that the water never gets below
this

heat while the meat

is

If these

cooking.

are followed, every piece of boiled

tender and juicy when done and

meat

will cut

will

directions

be found

smoothly, while

meat that has been boiled rapidly will break into long
shreds when cut, and will be hard and tasteless.
Fish that is to be boiled should first be wrapped in
cheese-cloth, the cloth being pinned or tied together at
the lapping places the fish can thus be easily kept from
;

cloth

When done

it
should be lifted out by the
and drained thoroughly before being placed on the

breaking.

serving dish.

FRYING
cooking by immersion in hot fat. The fat should be
deep enough to entirely cover the article to be cooked,
and as the same fat may be used many times, it is

is

not so extravagant to take such a quantity as

The

some house-

cook saves all the fat that


can be collected from boiling meat of any sort, the fat
ends of steaks and mutton-chops, and from all other

keepers think.

sources of this kind.

careful

The

fat should,

however, be

clari-

fied before using.

TO CLARIFY FAT,

and heat it slowly.


where it will simply
bubble, and keep it there until there is no motion and all
Then
the sediment has fallen to the bottom of the pan.
Many persons object to the
drain and set away for use.

place

When

it

on the stove

the

fat

is

odor of clarifying

in the frying-pan,

melted,

set

it

fat and, therefore, place

the frying-pan

THE PA TTERX COOK-BOOK.

64
in the

oven

be

left

air

to

become darkened,

it

should

it

after the

may be

cleared thus

with about six times

in a kettle

boil

fully as suc-

is

oven should not be too hot, and

pan has been removed.


has been used a number of times, and has

open

After fat

and

This method

to melt the fat.

cessful, but the

twenty minutes.

its

Turn

Place the fat

quantity of hot water,

the liquid into a large

pan and set in a cool place. When cold, the fat will be
found in a solid cake on the surface of the water, but
must then be clarified in the manner already described.
The secret of successful frying is to have the fat hot

enough to instantly harden the surface of the article fried


The fat
and thus prevent the fat soaking in.
should be heated slowly, and when blue smoke arises
from the center of the liquid, drop a bit of bread into it;
if the bread browns in one minute, the fat is hot enough.
Only the experienced can know what is meant by the
words "hot fat" the unskilled in housekeeping will have
The word " boiling " as applied to fat
to learn by tests.
is misleading, as it would imply a motion of the liquid.
When fat does not contain any foreign substances, there is
no motion to it at this degree of heat. The novice can
best tell by watching for the smoke to rise from the center
;

when

the

fat

hoi enough.

is

stove while frying

ant smell, but

is

it is

Coffee sprinkled on the

being done

will disguise the

a matter of taste which odor

unpleasis

to

be

preferred.

The
kitchen.
fried

frying-basket

is

fast

gaining

place

in

every

After placing in the basket the articles to be

not,

however, crowding them

basket gently

in

the fat.

When

at

the food

all

lower

is

the basket, drain well, place in on a plate and

cooked,

the
lift

remove the

PLA IN DIRE C TIONS.


cooked.

articles

been spread
will

in a

Lay them on brown paper that has


warmed pan. If properly cooked they

hardly stain
all

this way.

The

Doughnuts, oysters,

paper.

the

kinds and

quettes of

65

many

frying-basket

cro-

other dishes are cooked in


illustrated in the kitchen

is

utensils.

SAUTfelNG.

The

ordinary method of frying

only a

little fat,

doing one side

French " sauteing."

To

in a frying-pan with

by the
work must be

at a time, is called

saute well the

done quickly so as to keep the juices in the meat. It is


by many considered an economical mode of cooking
small articles of food of all kinds.
Almost everything
that is saute'ed is much better when fried by immersion.

Some

people, however, are very unwilling to

make

the

change and persist in cooking in the old way, using a


little half-hot fat, which spatters over everythmg near it,
soaks into

fish or

meat, and

is

often served as the only

gravy.

BRAISING.

This mode of cooking

meat

is

lacking in flavor or

is
is

most successful when the


tough.

It is,

when properly

done, the act of cooking by the action of heat above as


well as below the article cooked.

Kitchen Utensilsj has

The

braising-pan (see

deep cover, on which live


charcoal is placed. The pan is air tight, and vegetables
are generally placed with the meat, thus imparting any
a

particular flavor desired.

there

is

any

at

Braising in the oven


5

added to the pan (if


be substituted.
much easier, and the result is
Stock

is

hand) or water may


is

THE PA TTEKN COOK-BOOK

66
practically

the same.

cover

answer

parts

will

in

deep pan with a

close-fitting

place of the regular pan, but the

must not be soldered together.


LARDING.

many a difficult and unnecessary


The only implement needed is a larding needle,

This may seem to


work.

which costs

fifteen cents

one who can sew can


of

strips

through

fat

the

and should

lard,

as

it

is

last a lifetime.

Any

merely sewing with

bacon or pork, leaving the fat midway


meat.
Lean and dry meats are much

C
improved by larding.

Take a piece

of

salt

pork two

inches wide and four inches long, and shave off the rind
the long

way

of the

pork

then cut the same way as the

rind two or three slices a quarter of an inch thick, cutting

only to the
rind, as

each

membrane which

lies

about an inch below the

this is the firmest part of the pork.

slice across the

wide

and thick and two inches long.

of a

lardon,

needle,

as

Then

cut

width into strips a quarter of an inch

each of

these

pieces

and then with the point

of

Insert one end


is

the

called, in the

needle

take

PL A IN DIRE C riONS.
up

stitch

half

an inch

deep

and

Draw

across the surface of the meat.

67
one

inch

lon<r

the needle through

and help the pork

to follow by pushing it until partly


through; then hold the end of the pork, and draw the
needle out, leaving the pork inserted in the meat, with

the ends projecting at

surface

equal

one inch apart,

stitches

covered.

is

is

and

strips

of

bacon or pork as

6 being the needle with the

partly

Take up more

rows, until the whole

a piece of meat to be larded,

and the numbers show the


inserted,

lengths.

in parallel

lardon

attached

drawn through.
BONING.

This

The aim
cutting

not difficult work.

is

sharp, pointed
is

it.

to

blade

at the first joint,

the

remove the

To bone

dle of the back.

is

small knife with a short

only implement required.

flesh

from the bone without


neck and the legs

a fowl, cut off the

and cut the skin in a line down the midThen, taking first one side of the cut in

your fingers and then the other, carefully separate the


flesh

from the bones, sliding the knife close

Unjoint the wings and the legs

at the

to

each bone.

body-joint

and,

cutting close to the bones, draw them, turning the flesh

and wings inside out. ,When all the bones


and flesh can be readjusted and stuffed
into shape.
The butcher will bone when so ordered.
The bones may be saved for soup.
of the legs

are out, the skin

STEAMING.

There are two ways of doing this work one in which


is acted upon by direct contact with steam, and

the meat

68

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

the other in

which the steam cooks without contact.

Steaming by contact

cooked
a

in

close-fitting

then

is

done by placing the article to be


is a round tin vessel with
and a perforated bottom; and

a steamer, which

settins:

cover

the steamer over a kettle of water that

kept at the boiling point

all

through the cooking.

is

Pud-

many meats
warmed over in this way, with good results. The
other way of steaming is done in a cooking pot made
dings are very delicious when steamed, and
are

expressly for this purpose.

and

something

very

sold in this country.

one

set

the meat

It

similar

is

to

an English invention,
the

original

is

now

This vessel consists of two kettles

containing
inside the other, the upper one
and the lower one boiling water. The arrange-

ment

for

latter

surrounds the upper

the

action

of

the

steam

kettle,

is

such that the

even the

so constructed that the steam passes into

cooking the meat

in its

nutritive properties.

own

lid
it

of

which

also,

juices without the loss of

is

thus

any

PLAUV DIRECTIONS.

69

Cook's Time-Table.
Roastingr.
Beef, sirloin, rare, per lb., 8 to 10 min.
Beef, sirloin, well done, per lb., 12 to
15

min.

Beef, rolled rib or rump, per

lb., 12

15 min.
Beef, long^ or

lb.,

short

fillet,

per

30 min.
Chickens, per lb., 20 min.
Fish, if long and thin, per lb., 10 to
min.
Fish, if thick, per lb., 15 min.
Game, 30 to 40 min.
Goose, per ib., i8 to 20 min.
Grouse, 30 min.
Lamb, well done, per lb., 15 min.
Mutton, well done, per lb., 15 min.
Mutton, rare, per lb., 10 min.
Pork, well done, per lb., 23 min.
Pigeons, 30 min.
.Small Birds, 20 to 25 min.
Turkey, per lb., 20 min.
Tame Duck, per lb., 40 to 60 min.
Veal, well done, per ib., 20 min.
V^enison, per lb., 15 min.

Baking.
Bread, 40 to 60 min.
Biscuit, 20 to 25 min.
Beans, 4 to 6 hrs.
Braised Meat, 3 to 4 hrs.
Cookies, 10 to 15 min.
Custards, 15 to 20 min.

Cake

Sponge, 45 to 60 min
Plain, 30 to 40 min.
Layer, 6 to 8 min.
Fruit, 2 to 3 hrs.
Gems, graham, 30 min.
(Gingerbread, 30 to 40 min.
Potatoes, 45 to 60 min.

Puddings

Bread,
Indian,

hour.

2 to 3 hrs.

Plum, 2 to 3 hrs.
Rice and Tapioca,

i hour.
Rolls, 20 to 30 min.
Scolloped Dishes, 20 to 30 min.

Boiling.
Asparagus, 20 min.
Beef, corned, 3 to 4 hrs.
Beets (young), 30 to 45 min.
Cabbage, 45 to 60 min.
Clams, 3 to 5 min.
Corn (green), 15 to 20 min.

10

20 to

12

Celery, 20 to 30 min.
Carrots, 30 to 45 min.
Cauliflower, 30 to 45 min.
Chickens, i to 2 hrs.
Coffee, 3 to 5 min.
Cod, per lb., 6 min.
Eggs (soft), 3 to 5 min.
Eggs (hard), 15 to 20 min.
Fowls, per lb., 25 min.
Fish (small), per lb., 6 min.
Fish, blue, per lb., 10 min.
Fish, bass, 10 min.

Ham,

4 to 5 hrs.

Haddock, per

lb., 6 min.
lb., 15 min.
to 2 hrs.
2 hrs.

Halibut, per

Hominy, i
Lamb, i to

Macaroni, 30 to 45 min.
Oysters, 3 to 5 min.
Onions, 30 to 45 min.
Oatmeal, i to 2 hrs.
Potatoes, 2o.to 30 min.
Peas, 15 to 20 min.
Parsnips, 30 to 45 min.
Rice, 15 to 20 min.
Squash, 20 to 30 min.
Spinach, 20 to 30 min.
Salsify, 45 to 60 min.
Salmon, per lb., 15 min.
Sweetbreads, 20 to 30 min.
Tomatoes, 15 to 20 min.
Turnips, 30 to 45 min.
Turkey, per lb., 25 min.

Tongue, smoked,

to 4 hrs.
i to 2 hrs.

Vegetables (Winter),
Veal, per lb., 25 min.

Wheat-mush,

to 2 hrs.

Broiling.
Beefsteak, one inch thick, rare, 10 min.
Beefsteak, one inch thick, well done,
14 min.
Chops (Lamb), 4 min.
Chickens (small), 30 min.
Fish (thick), 20 min.
Fish (thin), 12 min.

Frying by Immersion.
Croquettes, i min.
Chops (breaded), 4 to 6 min.
Doughnuts, 3 to 5 min.

Fish

Codfish Balls, i min.


fish, 2 min.
Smelts, 2 min.
Sliced Fish, 4 to 6 min.
Fritters, 3 to 5 min.

Small

SOUPS.
Man

bv bread alone.'

shall not live

Bible.

To make nutritious, healthful and palatable soup, with


flavors properly commingled, is an art which requires
There seems to be a general
made from almost noth-'
but this is a great mistake, although it often happens
a scanty allotment of material makes a delicate and

much

study and practice.

impression that soups should be


ing,

that
truly

good soup, but

in a

very small quantity.

supply of materials for soup-making should always

be kept on hand, such as dried sweet herbs (which

be purchased already dried

grow them
vegetables.

herself),

if

may

the housewife does not

whole and ground spices and fresh

In every pantry should be an earthenware

bowl for keeping the remnants of steaks, the bones


from roasts, etc., anything, in fact, that can be used
in

soup.

careful

After

breakfast

housewife will

or

dinner

look over the

the

wise

and

steaks, chops or

and put by themselves any pieces that can be again


(made dishes). Then all
the bones, trimmings and the gravy will be put in the
earthenware bowH just mentioned, to be used for soup.
All remnants of cooked vegetables will be saved, and the
water in which has been boiled a leg of mutton, a fowl, a
roast

used, either cold or for entrees

70

I;

SOUPS.

fresh tongue or a piece of beef will be utilized as a basis

Soup may either be made with what is called


(when meat is the material used for foundaor it may be made without stock and is then

for soup.
'*

stock "

tion),

called sotipe maigre.

SOUP WITH STOCK.

Under this head are included all the varieties of soup


made from beef, veal, mutton or poultry. In preparing
soup stock, the desired object

and flavoring

the nutritive

all

is

to obtain

from the meat

qualities contained in the

To accomplish this, the


lean parts and in the bones.
meat should be wiped well and cut into small pieces
this is to

expose as large a surface as possible

the

to

and water. Break or saw the bones


also into small pieces, and soak both meat and bones in
cold soft water, allowing a quart of water to every pound
of soup material
Having soaked the meat half an hour
off the lire, place the kettle on the back of the range for
another half hour, after which the water can be slowly
The kettle for soup-making should
heated to boiling.
have a tight cover, so that no steam can escape, or so
action of the heat

very

little

that

any extent.

to

it

will not

diminish the quantity of water

The water should be

soft,

since

hard

water hardens the meat and thus imprisons the juices.

No

salt is

added, for the same reason.

The scum

that rises with the boiling contains nothing

unclean, unless the meat has not been properly washed;

and although uninviting-looking


ofT,

for

it

contains

much

that

it

is

should not be skimmed


nutritious.

When

the

liquid has fully reached the boiling point, set the kettle

back where

it

will

o-entlv

bubble for about six hours.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

72

Now

strain

the

stock,

scraps, because all

the

tracted, thus leaving

and throw away the meat and


nutriment

the

meat

is,

or should

be, ex-

entirely unfit for further

Set the stock away to cool, as rapidly as possible,


and the next day remove the fat, which will have hardened on the top.
This is the simplest way of making soup-stock, and it
use.

can be made the foundation for a plain or a rich soup,

if

There should not be more than a


quarter of a pound of bone to -each three-quarters of a
pound of meat used. If a larger proportion of bone must

carefully prepared.

be used,

make

the allotment of water a

little

less

than a

quart to every pound.

MEAT FOR STOCK.

may

made

of only one kind of meat or


and it often happens that the
greater the variety of meats employed the better the
flavor of the soup will be.
Beef is the most valuable and
generally the cheapest meat to buy for soup.
The parts
used for different kinds of soup are as follows For
bouillon or consomme, the round, flank, shoulder or
brisket, and for a clear beef soup, the neck, cheek, leg,
shin or any scraggy part besides the bones.
A shin or
leg will be a cheap piece to use.
Butchers do not break
these parts into small enough pieces, for the leg should
be cut into at least eight or ten parts and washed well
in cold water.
When the cheek and neck are used,
they should also be washed, but the round need not be

Stock

either be

of several different kinds,

wipe

it

instead with a wet towel.

Poultry
white

is

stock

of

great value in making stock.

may be

light,

very economically produced thus

SOUPS.
Clean and

truss a fowl (skewer

as small a stew-pan as

and heat

water,

simmer

until the fowl

is

scum, so that the soup


fowl and set

it

away

it),

hold

will

tender,

be

will

put

it,

breast down, in

cover

it,

with cold

it

Let

the boiling point.

slowly to

it

73

skimming

light

off

then take up the

Strain the water, set

to cool.

it

the

all

it

away, and when cold, remove the fat that forms on the

The

top.

fowl can be used in

many ways

for breakfast

This stock

or luncheon or as an entree for dinner.

will

cream soups and white sauces.


The fowl should not be more than two years old. Someserve

the

as

basis for

They may be

times the feet of poultry are used in soup.

cleaned by holding them

and

until the skin cracks


oft'

easily

may

or they

with

tongs

curls,

when

over clear coals


it

can be rubbed

be covered with boiling water for

a few minutes and then scraped free of skin and nails.

They

give

off

body

When

stock.

to a soup.

it is

Mutton

before the meat

not

placed over the

is

exceedingly unpleasant

an

is

much used

for

so used, the fat should all be stripped

flavor

to

fire,

the

as

imparts

it

stock.

The

neck, shoulders and feet are the parts generally used for
this

purpose.

Any

kind of game

It is, of course,

but the remnants


to

may be used

expensive
left

for stock.

purchased for the purpose,

if

from roasts and broils

will

be found

improve stock very much.

The

flesh of

young animals

does not produce nearly so

is

fine

rarely used, because

it

a flavor as that of the

mature animal.
Veal and beef are most largely used and make
ciously smooth
shin,

head and

soups.
feet.

The

best parts of

veal

deli-

are the

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

74

TO CLEAR STOCK.

When
may be

the stock

is

cloudy and a clear soup

by the use

clarified

is

desired,

and

of the whites

it

shells of

one being used for every two quarts of stock.


until light, but not dry, and put it and the

eggs,

Beat the egg


crushed shell
the

fire,

stock back on

Now

cold stock.

slowly

it

scum

utes; a thick

water.

the

in

heat

will

and add

it

stand

through a napkin, placing a


kin to catch the

scum and

the stock over

and

ten

Draw

the

half a cupful of cold

minutes,

when

strain

sieve over the nap-

fine wire

shells,

min-

ten

boil

have formed.

then

the range,
let

Place

to boiling,

which would otherwise

clog the napkin.

TO SEASON STOCK.
In

warm weather when

six days,

the time

it is
it

stock

to

be kept for

made, because vegetable

is

quickly and sour the stock.

soning each day

To

is

five

or

better not to use vegetables for seasoning at

at the

jiu'ces

It is safer to

time the stock

is

cleared.

season and clear two quarts of stock, allow

One

Two
One

white o egg and the shell.

blades of celery.
bay-leaf.

One-half leaf of sage.

Three whole

cloves.

Six pepper-corns.

One
One

inch piece of cinnamon.

small onion.

One-half large slice of carrot.

One
One
One

sprig of parsley.

small sprig of thyme.


small sprig of

summer

savory.

ferment

add the

sea-

SOUPS.
One

75

small sprig of sweet marjoram.

One-half tea-spoonful of sugar

One and

a half tea-spoonful of

The herbs should be

Place

tied together.

soning, the beaten white of egg and


as

clearing

in

slowly,
kettle

soup,

together

all this

sea-

the crushed shell,

the

in

salt.

soup

heat very

and when the first bubbling appears, move the


to the back of the range, where it will keep at the

The

boiling point, without really boiling.

kettle should

be closely covered to keep the soup from being reduced.


Let

it

stand

in this

heat for half an hour, and then strain.

In this case the tgg

left

is

in longer than

when

simply desired to clear the soup, but the latter

it

will

is

only

be the clearer for the extra length of time.

When

seasoning the soup, as

ent vegetables, spices,

made, add the

first

as soon as the

otherwise directed

the range, unless


recipe.

etc.,

meat

is

differ-

put on

by the following

good authority on soup-making gives

proportion of seasoning to be used


of water to every

pound

of

this

Allowing one quart

meat and bone, add

for every

quart allowed,

One even
j
(

j
I

tea-spoonful of

salt,

Two

pepper corns, or

One

quarter of a tea-spoonful of ground pepper.

Two
Two

cloves.

One
One
One
One
One

tea-spoonful of

allspice berries.

mixed

herbs,

quarter of a tea-spoonful of celery

salt,

or

sprig of celery root.

sprig of parsley.
table-spoonful of each vegetable at hand.

The vegetables generally used

are onion, carrots, tur-

nips and celery, and they should be cut into very small

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

j6

pieces that they

may be

accurately measured.

Strain the

soup when the meat has boiled to rags, and set

where

cool quickly

will

it

that will form on

This

the top.

helps to keep the stock

so

if

fat

excludes the

the soup

is

air

and

not to be used

at

once, do not remove the fat until needed.

or

oil

No

grease

should ever appear upon soup.


hasty plate of soup "

If " a

is

to

be made and there

is

time to wait for the stock to cool, place whatever

not

may be needed
of

away

it

then remove the cake of fat

cold water

harden the

in a

shallow pan and set

ice-water,

if

If there is

fat.

another pan

in

it

This

possible.

soon

will

not even time for

this,

take

possible with a spoon and wipe the rest off

off all the oil

with soft tissue paper.


Still

another method consists

in

straining

in

cold water

With

this

rinsed

the grease will adhere to the cloth.

seasoned stock for a basis, an endless variety

may be made.

of soups

soup

the

several times through a fine napkin that has been

This stock

be

will

clear for any ordinary soup, but for clear

sufficiently

amber soup the

&gg must be used for clarifying. When soup is made


from stock and rice, sago, tapioca, macaroni or anything
of a similar nature, except vermicelli, the stock should not
be wasted by boiling the added substance

enough
and,

cook

to

it

instead,

having drained

it

cook

it

should be crushed

dropped into the

and
in

in

it

long

matter separately

thoroughly, add

Vermicelli cooks in five minutes,

exception

this

it

is,

to the soup.

therefore, an

the hands as

it

is

kettle.

THICKENING FOR STOCK.

When

thickening

is

needed

for a clear soup, arrow-root.

SOUPS.
corn starch

or

ground

fine

yy
should

tapioca

decided preference being given the

be

used,

When

arrow-root.

no possible trace of thickening is desired, this will be by


the most satisfactory
Allow a table-spoonful of

far

arrow-root to each quart of stock, wetting the arrow-root

smooth

until

with

slowly for half

an

as

and should

ten

boil

used

in

minutes

and

gives

boil
little

in the

the

after.

many

grains in the soup, which to

Cream soups

liquid

same proporsame proportion


the soup, which should be boiling hot,
it is

Tapioca

arrow-root.

sprinkled into

is

the

Corn starch

cloudiness to the soup, but


tion

of

little

hour*

are thickened

This leaves small

are not objectionable.

very delicately with the

yolks of eggs, two yolks being allowed to a quart of soup.

The

yolks are beaten thoroughly and thinned with a

little

cold milk before being added to the soup, which should

be served after only a moment's boiling.

COLORING FOR STOCK.

To

color soup brown take equal parts of flour and butand brown them in a frying-pan, stirring constantly to
prevent burning; when well browned, add to the soup.
ter

piece of

burned,

bread toasted

may be simmered

serving to give

Many

it

very brown, but


in

no case

in

the soup for ten minutes,

a darker color.

preparations are obtainable for coloring soups,

such as soup paste, beef extract and caramel.

The

last

most frequently used and is easily made at home.


Melt a cupful of sugar, either white or brown, with a

is

table-spoonful

of water in a frying-pan, stir until of a


dark brown color, add a cupful of boiling water, stir for

ten

minutes

and

cool

and

bottle

for

use.

Many

78

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

housewives keep
it

may

this

always ready for

caramel

also be used for flavoring custards

use

and pudding

sauces, coloring jelly, etc.

Spinach greens, which some professional cooks use for


coloring

soup,

made

is

thus

Pound

the

spinach well, adding a few drops of water


the whole in a cloth, squeeze
it

over a good

When

fire.

is

off is

not used.

the juice through, and put

sieve.

the coloring matter,

sieve

uncooked
then place

the liquor looks curdy, take

and strain through a

off,

What remains on

and the

juice that

is

it

the

strained

TO BE SERVED IN SOUP.
Clear soup

much improved by dropping into


number of poached eggs

is

tureen before serving a

the
that

have been cooked in salted water and neatly trimmed


Slices of
around, one ^gg being provided for each plate.

lemon are sometimes added just before serving the soup,


one slice for each one at table or the same number of
yolks of hard boiled eggs may be dropped into the soup.
;

Fried bread may,"


is

made by

thick,

if

desired, be served with soup.

trimming

off the crusts,

This

bread half an inch

cutting neat slices of

and dividing the

slices into

half-inch cubes, which are then placed in a frying basket

and plunged into hot fat they should brown at once.


These cubes may be prepared some time before they are
needed and set away for use. The hot soup is poured
Crisped crackers are often
over them when served.
served with vegetable soups and oyster stews and in fish
chowders. They are first buttered and then browned
;

in the

oven, with the buttered side up,

great

many

different kinds of

fried

and baked

balls

SOUPS.
are

ni ade

to

be served

79

soup, and the varieties are

in

here given,

FORCE-MEAT BALLS.
One
One
One

cupful of any kind of cooked meat.


salt-spoonful of salt.

salt-spoonful of thyme.
One-half salt-spoonful of pepper.

One
One
One
One

tea-spoonful of lemon juice.

tea-spoonful of chopped parsley.


table-spoonful of flour.
table-spoonful of butter.

Yolk

A
Chop

of one raw egg.


few drops of onion

juice.

the meat very fine, and add the seasoning

the yolk of the tgg

and

stir

it

into the

meat

then

the mixture into balls the size of nutmegs, place

beat

make

them

in

a soup plate and sprinkle with flour, shaking the plate


until the balls are all floured.
Place the butter in a
frying-pan, and

when

it is

brown, drop

shake the pan occasionally

in

until they are

the balls, and

brown.

PROFITEROLES FOR SOUP.


One

gill of

Two

gills (scant) of flour.

One-half

Two

Heat

water.

gill of butter.

eggs.

the water to boiling in a small frying-pan, and

put in the butter, and


the flour, turning

when

in all at

the liquid boils again, add

one time.

Beat the mixture


well for two or three minutes, being careful not to burn
it; then turn it into a bowl and set away to cool.
When
cold,

it

add the eggs, one

at

a time, and' beat the

whole

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

8o

Butter a cake-pan very

thoroughly at least ten minutes.

and drop the mixture into it


ten minutes and set away until time
lightly,

tiny balls.

in

Bake

serve the soup

to

then place the balls in the tureen after the soup, and
serve at once.

EGG BALLS.
Five eggs.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-tenth tea-spoonful of pepper.

and mash the


add the salt
and pepper, and the other ^gg well beaten. Shape the
mass into tiny balls, roll them in flour, and fry brown in
the frying-pan with a little butter, tossing them about
Boil four of the eggs twenty minutes,

yolks to a smooth paste in a bowl

then

while frying to prevent them sticking to the pan.

may be made some

They

time before they are needed.

BOUILLON.

This soup
at

coffee cups
It

is

served as a

evening parties
;

or

it

may be made

method being

first

course at luncheons and

in bouillon cups,

may be
with

the

or

like large

without vegetables, the latter

most common.

for both, the quantities

which are

served in coffee or tea cups.

Recipes are given

named being

sufficient for ten

persons.

BOUILLON (without VEGETABLES).


Six pounds of beef and bone.

Two
Salt

Cut the meat

in

quarts of water.

and pepper.

small pieces, saw the bones

apart,

SOUPS.
and,
five

adding the cold water, heat slowly and simmer

Then

hours in a tightly covered soup kettle.

through a fine sieve, season

remove the

fat that

to taste,

has formed.

strain

and when

cold,

Should there be more

than ten cupfuls, reduce to that quantity.

To be

served

hot.

BOUILLON (with VEGETABLES).


Five pounds of round of beef (no bone).

Two and

a-half quarts of water.

One-haif of a large onion.

One-half slice of carrot.


One-half slice of turnip.
Eight pepper-corns.

Three Cloves.

Two

eggs (whites only).

One and a-half inch piece of cinnamon.


One and a-half tea-spoonful of salt.
One sprig of parsley.
One sprig of thyme.
One sprig of summer savory.

Two

small bay-leaves.
,

One leaf
One and

of sage.
a-half stalks of celery.

Having removed every particle of fat from the meat,


pound of the lean and set it aside then cut the

cut off a

remainder into small pieces, cover with the water, heat


slowly, and, when boiling, move back on the range where
it

will

end

keep

tied in a

and

fat that

fine the

set

simmer one hour, remove from the


away to cool. The next morning remove
;

may have

pound

of

the soup on the


6

bubbling point for six hours. At the


all the seasoning, having the herbs

add

muslin bag

fire, strain,

any

at the

of this time

collected on the stock.

Chop very

meat that was reserved, and place


fire,

it

in

beating the whites of eggs at the

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

82

same time and adding them, with the shells, while


soup is yet cool. Heat slowly, and when bubbling
the soup back, tightly covered,

and keep

it

at this

the
set

degree

one hour. Now add salt, if necessary, and


the soup is then ready to
strain through a napkin

of heat for

serve.

^
AMBER SOUP (cOxNSOMME).

This
light

is

served at almost

company

all

dinners.

It is a

soup and, therefore, a wise choice.

j
\

Four pounds of the shin


Four pounds of knuckle
Three pounds of fowl.
Four quarts of water.

Two

ounces of lean

of beef,
of veal, or

ham

or bacon.

Six cloves.
Six pepper corns.

One bouquet of herbs.


One table-spoonful of salt.
Three onions.

One
One

Two
Two

carrot.

turnip.
stalks of celery.

sprigs of parsley.

Three eggs (whites and

shells).

One salt-spoonful of celery seed.


One lemon (rind and juice).

Two

table-spoonfuls of tomato ketchup.

Cut the meat and break the bones into small pieces, reone pound of the beef. Place the balance on
Add the
the fire with the water, and simmer six hours.
vegetables and spices to cook the last two hours, having
serving

first

fried

pound

the vegetables

of beef set aside,

in

hot fat; also

and add

it

brown the

with the vegetables.

socrps.

83

When

the soup has cooked six hours, strain it, and


away to cool. Next morning remove the fat that
has formed and add tlie well beaten whites of the eggs
and the shells, and also the celery seed, lemon, salt and
pepper.
Heat slowly to boiling, and cook ten minutes.
Strain through the finest sieve, add more salt if necessary,
and heat again before serving. This soup is more often
set

served clear than otherwise, but


spaghetti,

rice,

serving.

Whatever

separate

diminished

is

stew-pan,
in

many cooks add

macaroni or pearl

added
as

quantity

if

barley just

boiled

before

line is cooked in
would be too much
thickening were boiled in it
in

this

the soup
this

until done.

JULIENNE SOUP.
This soup

is

served with the vegetables in

Two
One
One
One
One
One

quarts of stock.

it.

pint of turnip.

pint of carrot.
pint of celery.
pint of fine shredded lettuce.
gill

of sorrel.

Four table-spoonfuls

of butter.

Cut the vegetables in slices or in fancy shapes with


vegetable cutters, and put them in a frying-pan with the
butter.

Set the pan over a quick

fire

for a few minutes,

tossing the vegetables about until they are covered with


a thin glaze, and being careful they do not burn.
Now
draw the pan back on the range where the vegetables
will

them
the

cook slowly for twenty minutes, after which, draw


to one side of the pan, and press out as much of

butter as possible.

Meantime place

the lettuce in

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

84

cupful of boiling water, boil

a.

set

it

done.

minutes, drain and

ten

readiness to add to the vegetables as soon as

in

Then put

the vegetables and lettuce in the stock,

which should be

boiling

the

at

point

add

salt

and

pepper, cook gently, tightly covered, for fifteen minutes,

and

serve.

BEEF SOUP, WITH BARLEY.


This soup
small,

it

is

very frequently made, and as

commend

will

sider any outlay,

itself to

however

bay-leaf.

Two

cloves.

Remove

all

slice of carrot.

stalk of celery.

and pepper

hours.

hour longer.

two hours
to

it

in

barley,

to taste.

the fat from the meat, cut the latter into


it

finely.

Place the meat over the

with the water, heat slowly and

three

Add

the

Meantime cook
let all

let

vegetables,

plenty of water

the barley, and

it

and

simmer gently
simmer one

the barley very slowly for


;

then strain the soup, add

boil up.

Put the butter in a

and when hot, add the flour, stirring


paste is smooth and brown.
Turn the paste
soup, season with salt and pepper, and serve.

frying-pan,

is

onion.

small pieces and chop


fire

cost

to con-

of beef.

One third of a cupful of pearl


One table spoonful of butter.
One table-spoonful of flour.
Salt

its

who have

small.

Two pounds of round


Two quarts of water.
One
One
One
One

those

until the

into

the

SOUPS.

85

TURKISH SOUP.
One quart

of stock.

One-half tea-cupful of

Boil the

rice

rice.

Two

eggs (yolks only).

One

table-spoonful of cream.

Salt

and pepper

to taste.

and stock together

for twenty minutes,

Press them through

keeping the kettle tightly covered.


a sieve, returning to the

cream,

this the

to

beaten yolks

all

which

into

and cook

the time to

all

fire

Add

that runs through.

been

has

stirred

the

two or three minutes, stirring


prevent burning.
Season and serve at
for

once.

MOCK TURTLE
The
of

basis of this soup

quarts of soup.

six

soup

of a

the

to

make

at

is

This,

calf's-head,

one head making

may seem

a large

one time, but

head cannot be bought, so


full

SOUP,

it

will

it

is

keep

necessary to

quantity.

One calfs head


Six pounds of the shin of veal.

Eight quarts of water

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls of chopped carrot.


table-spoonfuls of chopped turnip.

Four table-spoonfuls

of butter.

Six table-spoonfuls of arrow-root.

Three table-spoonfuls of ketchup.


Three stalks of celery.^
One-half blade of mace.

Ten cloves.
Twenty pepper-corns.
One bay-leaf.

quantity

well.

Half

make

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

86

Two
One
One

Have

lemons.
glass of sherry.

small piece of cinnamon.

the butcher split

and scrape the head and saw

Wash

the bone of the veal into several pieces.

all

care-

pan and soak it for tVvO


then take it
hours, keeping it covered with cold water
out, drain thoroughly, remove the brains, place the head
fully.

Place the head

in a large

and shin of veal in the soup-kettle with the water, heat


slowly, and keep at the boiling point for three hours.
At the expiration of this time skim out the shin of veal,
and also remove the head, being careful not to break it.
Strain the stock, and place all but two quarts aside to
cool.
Return the two quarts to the kettle with the shin
of veal, add the spices, cover tightly, and permit the
whole to simmer slowly. Fry the vegetables gently in
the butter for twenty minutes, browning them at the last
and, adding them to the veal, simmer four hours.
In the morning
Strain the stock, and set it away to cool.
remove the fat, and place the two quantities of stock
together on the fire with the ketchup, salt and pepper
and when all boils up, add the lemon-juice, the wine and
Thin slices of
the face of the calf's head, cut in strips.
;

lemon

cut

in

should be put
if

quarters,

egg-balls

in the tureen

one would serve

it

or

force-meat

before the soup

is

balls

turned

in,

correctly.

OX-TAIL SOUP.

This

is

an inexpensive soup, as the

be purchased for a very small sum.

Two

ox-tails.

Four quarts

of water.

tails

can generally

SOUPS.

87

One soup bunch.


One onion (sliced).

Two
One

carrots.

stalk of celery.

Two

sprigs of parsley.

One

slice of pork.

Three cloves.
Salt and pepper

Wash and
possible.

place

it

tails,

and crack the bones, if


mincing the pork,
When hot, add the onion

Slice the uegetables, and,

stew-pan to heat.

in a

to brown.

unjoint the

to suit.

Fry the

tails also in

this fat for a short time,

and place them in the soup-kettle with the water. Simmer four hours, add the other vegetables, and when
these are very tender, the soup has cooked sufficiently.
Now strain the soup, and, having chosen a number of
the joints, one for each plate, trim them nicely and set
The next day remove the fat from the
ihe whole away.
soup, season with

salt,

pepper, and ketchup or Worcester-

and return the joints saved


Heat when needed for the table.

shire sauce, as preferred,

the purpose.

for

MULLIGATAWNY SOUP.
This

is

an Indian soup, and

and restaurants.

It

is

may be made

served

at

many

hotels

with either veal, calf's

head, chicken or rabbit, or with two or more of these in

combination.

It

is

highly seasoned with

onions,

curry

powder and sour apples, lemons or some other strong


acid fruit.
The best portions of the meat are removed as
soon

as tender and served with the soup.

should always
rately

Boiled rice

accompany Mulligatawny, served

sepa-

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

88

Four pounds

of veal.

One-half pound of ham.

Four quarts

One

Two
One

of water.

carrot.

onions.
turnip.

Four cloves.
Four pepper-corns.
Six apples (sliced)
of curry powder.

Three table-spoonfuls

Have

One

tea-spoonful of sugar.

Salt

and pepper

bone

the

to taste.

of the veal well broken,

veal in the soup-kettle with the

brown

the onions

ham and

in a little butter,

and place the

Fry
and put them with the
the water.

meat, adding at the same time the sliced apples, vegetables,

cloves, pepper-corns,

powder mixed

to a

and the sugar and curry

paste with a

little

water.

Simmer

gently for five hours, then strain and set away to cool.

Remove any

that forms,

fat

and

return

to

the

range,

placing in the soup at the same time a piece of the veal


for

each

plate.

season with

salt

When the whole is thoroughly heated,


and pepper and serve.
TURKEY-BONE SOUP.

Never throw away the carcass


for

it

will

make

of a turkey or chicken,

a delicious soup.

There

are

always

portions of the meat adhering to the bones, the neck

is

and the " drumsticks," or the ends of the


wings often remain and all these can go to form a soup

generally

left,

for the next day's dinner, or for luncheon.

Scrape the

meat from the bones and lay aside any nice pieces.
Remove the filling separately, break the bones, pack

SOUPS.

them

three hours.

the

and cover with cold water, adding a


Cover closely and simmer very gently for
Then strain and remove the fat, and return

a kettle,

in

small onion.

to

89

fire.

For every quart of stock add one cup-

meat and three-quarters of a cupful of


simmer half an hour,
and serve.
If there should be rnore of the meat left
This soup
over, it can be used for making an entree.
may be greatly improved by boiling in it three minutes
before serving ten oysters to each quart of soup made.
ful

of

the cold

the filling, after which let the soup

WHITE SOUP-STOCK

made from

veal or chicken and seasoned with onion,


and white pepper, everything being avoided
that will add color to it.
It may be thickened with rice,
arrow-root, corn-starch or the white meat of the chicken,
chopped fine and is often made even richer by the

is

celery salt

addition of milk or cream.

WHITE SOUP, (from


Four pounds
Three quarts

One
One

VEAL.)

of knuckle of veal.
of water.

table-spooiifui of salt.

table-spoonful of butter.

Two
One

table-spoonfuls of corn-starch.
pint of milk.

Six pepper-corns.

Two
Two

stalks of celery.

One

salt-spoonful of celery salt.

small onions.

One-half salt-spoonful of white pepper.

Cut the veal

into

kettle with the water.

small pieces, and place

it

in

the

Heat slowly and skim, and then

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

90
add the

pepper-corns, onions and celery.

salt,

simmer

stock

remove the

for

five

hours,

cold

may have formed then place the


and when it is bubbling hot, thicken

fat that

stock over the

Let the

when

and

strain,

fire,

with the corn-starch,

wetting the starch with a

first

little

Season with the butter, salt and


the last turn in the milk, heated to
This should make
a farina-kettle.

cold stock or water.

pepper, and

at

boiling point

but

two

boiled

added

in

quarts

down

provided,

soup,

of

to a

pint

and

and the
a-half

of course, the

should

be

the milk

is

stock

before

stock exceeds that quan-

tity.

SOUP WITHOUT STOCK.

To make
ence of

this

the housewife need have

her own, provided

carefully.

therefore,

Most soup without stock

commends

itself

little

experi-

she follows the directions


is

highly to

quickly
the

made

and,

cook who

is

pressed for time.

TOMATO SOUP.
For

this

take equal parts of

tomato and water. If


upon

fresh tomatoes are available, pour boiling hot water

them

to loosen the skins,

and having removed these by

plunging the tomatoes quickly into cold water after they

have stood one minute

in the hot water, cut the

toma-

more accurately measure them, and allow


as above.
Cook the water and tomato rather slowly for
half an hour, and strain through a fine wire sieve, such
as is commonly used for sifting flour, pulping through all
the soft part of the vegetable and leaving only the seeds
in the sieve.
Return to the fire, and season with butter,
toes in slices to

sorps.
salt

ful

Thicken the soup with a

and pepper.

some

starch wet in

91
Uttie corn-

of the soup, allowing one table-spoon-

of starch to every three pints of soup.

macaroni or vermicelli

may be added,

Boiled

rice,

with good effect.

MOCK-BISQUE SOUP.
One
One
One
One

pint of tomato.

quart of milk.
large table-spoonful of butter.

large table-spoonful of corn-starch.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of soda.

One

tea-spoonful of sugar.

Salt

and pepper

the tomatoes

Boil

seasoning and soda.

to taste.

an

hour, adding

alone

half

When

the tomatoes are

soft,

the

pulp

them through a fine sieve as directed in the preceding


Heat the milk in a farina-kettle, or in a tin
pail set in a kettle of water, and when it is scalding
recipe.

thicken

it

with the corn-starch wet with a

little

cold milk.

add the boiling milk to the tomatoes,


stir and dish at once.
This soup must not go on the fire
after the milk and tomatoes are put together or the milk
will curdle.
If the soup is made before it is needed, let
the tomato and milk remain in separate vessels, and mix
them JList before sending to table.
If

ready

to

serve,

CRAB AND TOMATO BISQUE

made like the above, except that a pint of crab meat is


added to the milk, and after the milk is thickened and
cooked three minutes, the whole is turned into the tomais

toes.

Canned crab meat may be used when

not available.

the fresh

is

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

92

BEAN SOUP.
One

The

pint of beans.

Two

quarts of water.

One

table-spoonful of butter.

Salt

and pepper

to taste.

" scarlet runners " are the best beans for

soup.

Soak the beans over night in three quarts of cold water,


and next morning drain and add two quarts of water.

Cook the
quently
fine

beans slowly for three hours, stirring fresoft, pulp them through a
.

and when they are

wire

longer,

leaving only

sieve,

Return to the

kettle,

and serve.

the

skins

the

in

sieve.

add the seasoning,' cook ten minutes


Dish with toasted or fried bread.

CORN SOUP.
\

One can of corn, or


One pint cut fresh from

the cob.

Two

and a-half pints of milk.


Three table-spoonfuls of butter.

Two

table-spoonfuls of flour,

One

table-spoonful of chopped onion,

Two
Salt

Mash
minutes
boiler.

eggs (the yolks only).

and pepper to

taste.

the corn as fine as possible and cook


in

one quart of the milk placed

Cook the onion

in

it

fifteen

a double

in the butter in a frying-pan for

ten minutes, then add the flour, and cook until the mixture

becomes
into

ten

frothy, being careful not to

the corn

and milk, add

brown

it.

Stir this

and pepper, and cook

At the end of this time rub the


and return it to the fire. Beat
the eggs well, add to them the half pint of

minutes longer.

soup through a
the yolks of

salt

fine sieve

SOUPS.
milk remaining, and

When

fresh corn

is

enough water

to

all

time,

the

boil

at

them

thirty

minutes

cover them, and they add this water

There should

the corn while cooking in the milk.

to

and serve

many cooks break

hand,

at

and

the cobs into small pieces


in

Cook

the liquid into the soup.

stir

one minute longer, stirring


once.

93

in

no instance be more than a pint of this liquid for the


above quantity, and three table-spoonfuls of flour will be

added instead

of two, to give the

soup the desired con-

sistence.

CELERY SOUP.
One head of celery.
One pint of water.
One pint of milk.
One table-spoonful of chopped
One table-spoonful of butter.
One table-spoonful of flour.
Salt

This
that

good way

is

are

and pepper to

it

as

minuteis in the
the

to utilize the portions of

and boil

it

much

as

milk

in a

Rub

celery.

return to the
flour, stir

taste.

fire

the water until soft,

Cook

then

make

NOODLE SOUP.
Three pints of milk.
Three table-spoonfuls

of flour.

Noodles.

slice of onion.

bit of

ten

fine

sieve,

and

a paste of the butter and

into the boiling soup, season

One

the onion

double boiler, and add both to

whole through a

the
;

in

it

possible.

celery

Cut the celery

not presentable for the table.

into half-inch lengths,

mashing

onion.

mace.

Salt and pepper to taste.

and

serve.

THE PA rTERN COOK-BOOK.

94
Pal

all

but a

cupful of the milk on the stove in

double boiler, placing the onion and mace

Mix

the flour

stir this

and cold milk together

paste into the boiling milk/

until

in

smooth, and

Next add the

soning and cook for fifteen minutes, then

the milk.

sea-

put in the

noodles, and cook five minutes more.

NOODLES FOR SOUP.


Beat with one egg a half-cupful of flour and one-fourth

Work this dough with the hands


smooth and like putty
then roll it
Let
as thin as a wafer on a well floured mouldmg-board.
this sheet of dough lie for five minutes, after which
roll it up loosely, and with a sharp knife cut it from the
end into very thin slices, forming little wheels or curls.
Spread these pieces on the board to dry for half an hour
even longer will do no harm. Next cook them
twenty-five minutes in boiling salted water, and drain
thoroughly in a colander, when they are ready for use in

of a tea-spoonful of salt.
until

it

becomes

soup.

OYSTER SOUP.
One quart

of oysters.

Three pints
Butter, salt

of milk.

and pepper

to taste.

Place the oysters on the fire in their own liquor, and let
ruffle."
At the
them gently simmer until their edges
same time put the milk on to heat in a double boiler,
and when it is at the scalding point, turn it over the
oysters.
Let the soup stand one minute, skim well with
If a richer
a fine skimmer, season and serve at once.
soup be desired, allow equal quantities of milk and
*'

SOUPS.
oysters.

Many

95

cooks place a blade of mace

before scalding, but this

is

in

the milk

a matter of taste.

CL4M SOUP.
One-half peck of clams,

Two
One

pint of milk.

Butter, pepper

Wash
them

in the shells.

eggs.

and

salt to suit the taste.

the shells thoroughly, using a fine brush to rid

of all the

sand

hot oven in a pan,

in the

when

seams, and place them in a

the shells will quickly

open

Heat the
clam liquor, adding whatever may be in the pan and
when it is at the boiling point, add the chopped
clams.
Heat again, remove all the scum that will arise,
and add the butter and pepper and a little salt. Heat
then extract the meat and chop

it

rather finely.

the milk in a double boiler, reserving half a cupful of

Now

it.

beat the eggs well, turn them into th6 cold milk,

mix thoroughly, stir the whole into the boiling milk, and
pour at once into the tureen. Next turn in the boiled
clams, which should have been cooking slowly not more
than five minutes. The milk and clams should never be
put over the

fire

together, or the milk will curdle.

FISH.
"

How many
To

things by season, seasoned are

their right praise

and true perfection."

Shakspere.

Fish being abundant, cheap and wholesome, is invaluIt is a delicious adjunct to any dinner

able as food.

and

table,
itself
is

but

in
it

many

more unappetizing than a piece

deed, no food requires so


dressing, for

good dinner by
Nothing
underdone fish; in-

families suffices for a

requires nice and careful cooking.

if it is

much

of

delicacy in handling and

not perfectly fresh, perfectly cleaned

and thoroughly cooked, it is not fit to appear on the table.


Salmon is the richest of fish, being even richer and
Red-blooded fish, like
more nutritious than meat.
salmon, mackerel and blue-fish, have the oil distributed
through the body. They are too rich for invalids, and
should be eaten sparingly by people

White fish has the


quently more digestible.

strong.

oil

TO CLEAN A

in

who

the liver,

are

not very

and

is

conse-

FISH,

remove the scales before opening, and scrape with a


tail to head, holding the knife fiat and

sharp knife from


slanting,

and scraping slowly.


96

Split

the fish open,

if

FISH.

97

from the gills half-way down the lower part of


remove the entrails, and scrape and clean the
removing all the blood from the back-bone. If

large one,

the

body

inside,

the fish has been

scaled and cleaned by the dealer,

should always be scraped again about the head and


for scales are sure to be found on these parts.

it

tail,

The

blood and dark substance found on the back-bone should


also be scraped

If the fish is to

off.

be boiled or baked,

and head are left on, and the fins removed. The
fish should be washed carefully in cold water, and dried
Fish that have a strong flavor, like
before cooking.
the

tail

sturgeon, catfish or sword-fish, should be soaked a few

hours

in

strongly salted water.

work

is

the fish,

Use

as

little

water as

and the more expeditious the


done at this point the better will be the flavor of
since water draws out the juices of most fish if

possible in cleansing fish

they are permitted to soak in

Frozen

fish

fore using.

it.

should be well thawed out

Salt fish should be

the skin side upward, to

soaked

draw out the

in

cold water be-

in fresh
salt.

water with

Fish should

not be placed in the ice-chest near milk or butter, as these


articles are very easily tainted.

TO SKIN A
cut a thin strip

down

FISH,

the back, taking

open the lower part half-way down.

ofif

Then

the fin

and

slip the knife

under and up through the bony part of the gills, and,


holding this bony part between the thumb and finger,
Treat the other side in
strip the skin off toward the tail.
Catfish and eels are always skinned
the same way.
before they are eaten.
7

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

98

FILLETS OF FISH
are the

jfiesh

separated from the bone and served in

fillets

dif-

In flounders, chicken halibut and bass the

ferent ways.

They may be
may be

on each side are divided lengthwise.

served in the form in which they are cut, or they

and fastened with a small skewer.


that are long and slender are served on long,
Boiled and fried fish are often brought
slender platters.
the latter is folded the length and
to table on a napkin
width of the fish, and placed on the serving dish, the fish
being laid upon it. When the dish is large enough, a
sauce is poured around the fish, no napkin being used in
this case
and the head and tail are garnished with
rolled

Fish

parsley.

When

arranged

rolled, are

in

in

the center.

not rolled, they are .heaped in a pyramid in the

center of the dish

one

when

Fillets of fish,

on the dish, the sauce being poured

circle

fillet

or they

may be arranged in a circle,


The center is then filled

overlapping another.

with sauce.
FISH, BOILED.

To

boil fish properly, a fish

sable (see " Kitchen Utensils

kettle
"),

almost indispen-

is

as the fish can then

easily lifted out without risk of breaking

no

fish kettle,

wrap the

fish well in a

way

can be nicely

it

is

to

arrange the

lifted

if

when

there

be
is

care be exer-

out by the cloth.

fish in a circle

napkin around the whole

If

good-sized piece of

cheese-cloth, pinning the lap securely


cised,

it.

Another
tie a

on a plate, and

the fish

is

boiled,

lift

it

out by the napjcin.

Fish

to

boil

should be rubbed with a

little

vinegar

FISH.

99

before being placed in the water

be salted, and

made

and

the water should

acid by the addition of lemon juice

This whitens the fish and makes the flakes


and also imparts a very delicate flavoring to it.

or vinegar.
firm,

Fish that

is

to

be served with the skin on should not be

put in cold water to

will be drawn
and yet many kinds of
fish have such a delicate skin, that it contracts and breaks
if put in hot water, thus greatly detracting from the appetizing appearance of the fish.
The best method is to put
boil, else

the juices

out and the fish rendered insipid

into the fish kettle half as

place the fish in


until the fish

it,

much

cold water as

is

required,

and then gradually add boiling water

covered, care being taken not to pour the

is

hot water directly upon the

In this

fish.

slowly and does not break.

way

the

skin

Mackerel,

trout,

striped bass, etc., should always be treated in this

man-

contracts

Fish that have a thick, tough skin can be put into

ner.

"water

that

is

the

at

boiling

point, but

Halibut, sturgeon or any fish that


skin

on should be placed

is

into boiling water.

should, never boil rapidly, for

if

it

dry

the fibres

cooked

the

until

"Cook's Time-Table"
to boil.)
fish,

will

for

the

The water

Too much cooking

and woolly, but

flakes

bubbling.

does, the fish will be

broken and thus rendered unsightly.

makes

not

not served with the

fish

separate

should be
(See

easily.

proper length

of

time

sauce should always be served with boiled

otherwise

it

tractive course.

will prove a decidedly tame and unat(See " Sauces for Fish.")

c
TO BOIL AU COURT BOUILLON.
This

is

a favorite

have an English

title

way
that

of

boiling

fish^

would suggest the

and

should

really easy

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

lOO

manner

of

name.

It

the work, instead of


is

Fry in a little butter one onion, one


and three sprigs of parsley. Then add

with vegetables.
stalk of

elaborate French

this

simply boiling the fish in water, flavored

celery

the following

Two

table-spoonfuls of

salt.

Six pepper-corns.

One

bay-leaf.

Three cloves.

Two

quarts of boiling water.

One

pint of vinegar or sour wine.

and boil the fish


lemon juice and

Boil for fifteen minutes, skim well, strain,


First rub the fish with

in the liquid.
salt,

then place

bouillon,

and

in a kettle,

it

boil

with a sauce, the same as


court bouillon

is

and cover

with the court

it

Serve the

slowly until done.

it

if

it

were plainly boiled.

easily preserved

fish

This

and may be used several

times.
FISH,

Cod,
white

haddock,

fish, trout

cusk,

BAKED.

blue-fish,

and baked whole.

Instead

of

red-snappers,

shad,

and many other kinds

of fish are stuffed

the wire rack used for

roasting meat, have a thick sheet of

tin,

with rings at the

ends for handles, and large enough to fit into the drippingpan.
A simple sheet of tin may be used, without handles.

By

this

means the

fish

into the serving dish.

can be easily
If

lifted

a sheet of tin

out and slipped


is

not at hand,

put two broad strips of cotton cloth across the pan before
laying the fish in

it,

and when the

latter is

done

lift it

out

by means of the cloth. Rub the sheet well with fat pork
to keep the fish from sticking to it, and also place pieces

FISH.
of the pork under the fish
of stuffing will be found

10

The

itself.

following varieties

satisfactory for filling fish for

baking.

CRACKER STUFFING.
One

cupful of cracker-crumVjs.

Two-thirds cupful of water or milk.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One tea-spoonful of chopped parsley.


One tea-spoonful of chopped onion.
One table-spoonful of capers.

Two
One

Rub

table-spoonfuls of butter.

table-spoonful of lemon juice.

butter into the cracker-crumbs, add

the

and then stir


makes a crumbly stuffing.
seasoning,

in

the

water or milk.

all

the

This

STALE BREAD STUFFING.


One and

one-half cupful of grated bread-crumbs.

One-half cupful of milk.

One
One
One

table-spoonful of chopped onion.

table-spoonful of butter.
tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-fourth tea-spoonful of pepper.

Add
in the

the seasoning

milk

than the

last.

and butter

This stuffing

crumbs, and beat


more commonly made

to the

is

last.

OYSTER STUFFING.
One
One

pint of oysters.

cupful of powdered cracker-crumbs.

One-half table-spoonful of chopped onion.

One

table-spoonful of butter.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One
One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

tea-spoonful of

chopped

parsley.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

102
CIiop

the

oysters

ingredients, mixing

Fish

and add

to

them the other

bake more evenly and may be more easily


every way, if placed upright in the pan

will

managed

fine,

well.

in

Each

instead of on their sides.

fish

may be propped up

with pared potatoes or a cut of stale bread placed on

each side. Fish, however, that are long and narrow may
be readily tied into the shape of the letter S, thus Having threaded a long needle with twine, tie the end of the
:

twine around the head of the fish, fastening it tightly;


then pass the needle through the center part of the body,
draw the string tight, and fasten it around the tail. Fish
thus tied will retain the shape after they are baked.

fish

that

is

to

be baked should be rubbed with

both outside and inside

salt,

then stufT and fasten the rent or

opening together wdth a skewer or with a needle and thread.


Rub soft butter all over the fish, dredge it thickly with
flour,

and

Now

pour

the

lay

on the top narrow strips of

in the

bottom,

pan

just

fat salt pork.

enough boiling water

and bake the

fish

in

hot

to

oven.

cover
Baste

every ten minutes with the gravy in the pan and a little
and lightly dredge at each basting with salt, 'pep-

butter,

When

done, remove the


on the serving dish.
Set the pan on top of the stove, add water to the
gravy until there is a full pint in the pan, and thicken
with one table-spoonful of flour wet to a paste with a
little water
then cook the gravy three minutes, season
to taste with salt and pepper, strain through a sieve and
If the sediment in the pan seems
pour it around the fish.
at all burnt, do not use it, but make instead a brown sauce,
per

and

skewer or

flour.

strings,

the

fish

and place the

is

fish

and pour

it

around the

fish.

(See " Sauces for Fish,")

PISH.
FISH,

to3

BAKED WITH TOMATOES.

When

placing the fish in the oven put in the bottom of


pan four table-spoonfuls of chopped tomatoes, either
fresh or canned; and baste the fish with them, adding
Care should be taken that the pan does
water as usual.
the

become dry, for


The gravy is made as
not

the tomatoes

will

soon stick to

directed above, but

if

by any

it.

acci-

dent the tomatoes have become scorched, serve a made


tomato sauce with the fish. (See " Sauces for Fish.")

This

is

a very delicious

way

baked haddock.

of serving

BAKED BLUE-FISH.
This

fish

baking.

It

is

one of the most satisfactory varieties

for

should be stuffed with a bread stuffing and

served with a cream sauce.

(See " Sauces for Fish.")

BAKED SHAD.

Open the shad only far enough to remove the roe, and
follow the directions given for " Baked Fish."
Serve the
roe on a small platter, giving a portion

with the

fish.

Roe

is

cooked

in

to

each person

different ways, three of

which are given below.

BAKED ROE.

Drop
boil

the roe gently into salted boiling water, and

a buttered tin plate.

and

Drain, and lay

twenty minutes, but not rapidly.

salt,

during "which

time

it

it

on

Dredge the roe

well with pepper


and lastly dredge
the oven thirty minutes,

spread soft butter over

plentifully with flour.

let

Bake

in

it,

baste frequently

with

salt,

pepper,

water and butter, always dredging with flour after each


basting.

^-^^

104

PATTERN COOK-BOOK.
FRIED ROE.

Cook
which

the roe

Drain,

minutes

ten

table-spoonful

a
roll

it

season with

ip
salt

in

boiling salted water to

beaten egg and then

and pepper, and

been

has

vinegar

of

in

added.

cracker-crumbs

fry until

brown

in

hot

fat.

SCALLOPED ROE.
Boil

as

for fried

roe,

for Fish.")

drain,

and break the roe up

a white sauce (See " Sauces

Make

lightly with a fork.

Sprinkle a layer of roe in a baking dish

half the yolk of an ^gg^ well beaten, dropping

it

add

over the

next sprinkle lightly with finely chopped


and pepper to taste and a few drops of
lemon juice, and then add a layer of the white sauce.
Repeat the layers of roe, egg, seasoning and sauce, cover
with bread-crumbs and bits of butter, and bake until
brown. If a large dish is required, use with the roe any
top of the roe

parsley

salt

cold flaked fish


of roe

left

from a former meal.

may be prepared

the

same

HALIBUT a
Four pounds

One
One
One

One
One

shad

Various kinds
roe.

la Creola.

of fish.

cupful of water.
pint of stewed tomatoes.
slice of onion.

Three

Two

as

cloves.

table-spoonfuls of butter.

table-spoonful of flour.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

Put the tomatoes,

water,

cloves

and onion on the

FISH.
Stove

in

them

Cook

bowl.

Pour into

of half

an inch, and lay the

down

it

boils,

fish in

the black skin can be easily taken

the depth

to

for a minute, black-

it

removing the

on

and add

ten minutes, and strain into a

deep plate boiling water

the butter and flour

sauce when

into the

the salt and pepper.

skin side

Mix

a stew-pan to boil.

together, stir

105

from the water

fish
off.

Wash

the fish in

and pepper and lay it on


the baking sheet in a dripping-pan
then pour half the
tomato sauce around the fish, and bake in a hot oven
cold water, season

with salt

forty-five minutes, basting three times with the

of the

tomato sauce.

remainder

Serve with the sauce remaining

in

the bottom of the pan poured around the dish.

CARBONADE OF HALIBUT OR WHITE

Any fish from which solid


may be used for a carbonade.

FISH.

slices of flesh

The two

can be cut

varieties

men.

tioned above are delicious prepared in this way.

Two pounds
Two eggs.
One

of

fish.

pint of dried bread-crumbs.

Four table-spoonfuls

One

Two

of butter.

tea-spoonful of onion juice.

tea-spoonfuls of salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

Cut the fish into pieces about three inches square and
one inch thick. Place the butter, salt, pepper and onion
juice in a deep plate on the back of the range, and melt
the butter

put

beat the eggs until light in another plate, and

part

pieces of fish

and

of

the

first

lastly in the

in

crumbs

in

a third plate.

Dip the

the melted butter, then in the egg

crumbs, and lay them

in a

dripping-pan

THE PATTERN

I06

C0OA^-BOOA\

been buttered on the bottom, sprhikling what


remains of the egg and butter over the carbonades.
Cook in a hot oven for twelve or fifteen minutes, and
that has

serve with HoUandaise, Tartare or maitre d'hotel sauce.


(See " Sauces for Fish. ")

RAKED SALT MACKEREL.

Wash

a salt mackerel well and soak

three quarts of cold water, laying

In the morning lay the

upward.

shallow baking

over

it

tin

it

fish

on

(not too large for the

pint of milk.

over night in

with the skin side

it

back

its

fish),

Bake twenty minutes

in a

and pour
in

a hot

oven, stirring into the milk at the end of fifteen minutes

and a sprinkrubbed together into a smooth paste.


Serve with the thickened milk poured around the fish.

a table-spoonful each of flour and butter,


ling of pepper, all

This makes a very palatable breakfast dish.

FRIED FISH.
Mackerel, salmon,
never be fried.
are fried whole.

and cut

any

or

blue-fish

oily

should

fish

Smelts, perch and other small pan fish

in slices

Cod, halibut,

an

iiich thick

etc., should be skinned


and two or three inches

Flounders and bass may be cut in fillets^ if


When fish has been kept near ice or is frozen,
it
should be warmed gently before being fried, that
which is frozen being laid in cold water to thaw other-

square.

desired.

wise

the

Enough

fish

fat

would

chill

the

fat

and become greasy.

should be used to cover the

fish nicely.

frying basket should be used for smelts.

Test the

before

of

using

it

by throwing

in

crumb

The

bread;

fat
if

FTSH.

bread browns

the

half

in

107
minute,

the

fat

hot

is

enough.

To

prepare

clean and dry them, season

fish for frying,

with salt and pepper and dredge with

flour

them

fine

beaten

into

cracker-crumbs.
repeat

the

and

^gg^

If this

then dip

or

brea.d

does not cover them completely,

Smelts

process.

in

roll

open and

not split

are

cleaned, but the entrails are squeezed out carefully, so


as

not

and then

the

bruise

to

The smelts

removed.

and the heads are not


washed as quickly as possible

fish

are

no attempt being made

dried,

to scale

them.

All fried fish should be thoroughly drained before being

Another way

served.

pepper and

salt

of preparing fish for frying is to

them and

them

roll

salted

in

corn

meal.

FRIED EELS.
Skin the eels

(if

this

has not already been done by the

fishmonger), cut them into four-inch lengths, and season

with salt and pepper.

meal, and

Then

them

roll

in

salted corn

fry.

BROILED FISH.
Shad, white

many

fish,

young cod, haddock and

blue-fish,

other kinds of fish are preferred by

dry

fish

broiling.

should

be dipped

In broiling whole

entire length,

wash quickly

fish, like

in

many

broiled.

melted butter before

in

water,

shad, split

and

them the

Rub

dry.

the

bars of a double wire broiler with butter, and place the


fish in

over

it.

Dredge with

salt,

a clear but not fierce

being turned toward the

pepper and
fire,

fire

flour,

and place

the inside of

first.

Watch

it

the fish
carefully,

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

I08

and turn frequently. On taking the broiler from the fire


it rest upon a dish, loosen the fish from the wires on
both sides by slipping a knife between the fish and the
let

wires
up,

then raise the broiler with the skin side of the fish

and

over the

upon the

fish

warm

Place a
broiler,

side, leav-

down

platter upside

and turn

broiler, fish

and

Lift the broiler, leaving the fish

platter over together.


in the

on the under

fold the broiler together

ing the fish on top.

Serve with butter, squeezing

center of the platter.

few drops of lemon-juice over the fish, if desired.


Shad is sometimes served with a cream or Bechamel

sauce.

OTHER MODES OF DRESSING

FISH.

SALT CODFISH IN CREAM.

One and a-half pint


One pint of milk.
One egg.

of fish.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One

table-spoonful of flour or corn-starch.

One-third tea-spoonful of pepper.

Wash

the fish, tear

it

into bits,

soak over night.

cold water, let

it

off the water,

and place the

fish

and covering

it

with

In the morning pour

on the

fire in

pan, adding enough fresh cold water to cover

a frying-

it.

When

the water reaches the boiling point, draw the pan back

where

it

will

keep hot

which time the

fish

boiling hardens salt

too slow.

fish,

Drain the

boiler with the milk

for fifteen

or

preferred, the milk

Rapid

so the cooking can scarcely be

fish well,

can be poured over the


is

minutes, at the end of

should be cooked sufficiently.

if

and place

it

in

a double

great care be taken, the milk

fish in

the pan.

must be

If the latter

mode

stirred incessantly, or

it

FISH.

When

scorch.

will

the milk

109
boiling heat,

at

is

stir

in

rubbed together or if cornshould be first wet with a little cold

the flour

and

starch

is

used,

milk.

Cook

slowly for five minutes, season with pepper

little

salt, if

and

butter, well
it

from the heat,

needed, and, drawing the


in

stir

and serve on a hot

of

salt

whole stand two min-

Let the
platter,

FISH

Cut a pound

away

fish

the beaten egg thinned with one

table-spoonful of milk.
utes,

CHOWDER,

pork into

hot water for five minutes.

strips,

Place

and soak

layer

of

it

in

pork

in

the bottom of a large tin pail.

Cut four pounds of seabass or cod into pieces two inches square, and lay enough
of the fish upon the pork to cover it.
Follow with a
layer of raw sliced potatoes, then a thin layer of chopped
onion, a little parsley, summer savory or any herb of that
sort
and salt and pepper lightly. Next add a layer of
Boston crackers or pilot or sea biscuits, broken rather fine.
;

Then begin again with a layer


same order until all the fish
on top.

of pork,

and repeat

used, having

is

Pour over the whole enough water

in the

crackers

to cover

it,

place the cover on the pail, and set the latter in a large
kettle

of

boiling

hours, or less

and serve with

water.

Let

it

simmer slowly three

the fish and potatoes are already cooked,

if

slices of

lemon.

CODFISH BALLS.
One
One
One

Two

quart of raw sliced potatoes.


large cupful of salt

fish.

egg.

table-spoonfuls of cream or milk,

One

table-spoonful of butter.

Salt

and pepper

to taste.

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

10

the bones from the fish, shredding the latter


and slowly boil the fish and the sliced potatoes

Pick

all

finely;

together in plenty of water, until the potatoes are

soft.

and beat until fine and light; then


Mash
add the seasoning, butter and milk, and the ^gg well
both together,

mixing

beaten,

thoroughly

all

with a

Have

spoon.

plenty of very hot fat in the frying-pan, and into

Do

the mixture, a table-spoonful at a time.

it

drop

not use the

hands to form the cakes into balls, as is sometimes done,


and do not flour the cakes. Made in 'this way they
in fact, cooks
will be found very delicate and light
;

who have
old

way

method

tried this

will

never return to

the

making.

of

SALT MACKEREL.

Clean the

and the
lay

it

fish

by scraping

thin black

off

any rusty-looking part


the inside, and

membrane found on

over night in plenty of cold water, with the skin


In the morning place the fish in a frying-pan

side up.

on the
boiling

fire,

cover with fresh water, and slowly heat to the

point.

Drain

fresh water to cook the

this

off
fish,

and

water, add

just

enough

boil slowly until tender.

Lift the mackerel out carefully (a pancake shovel v\^ill be


found most convenient for such work), and place it on
the serving dish in the oven to keep hot while the gravy
is

being prepared.

the water

left in

fish, until

there

This

is

made

as follows

drain

off

the frying-pan after the removal of the


is

a half-pint remaining, and pour into

the pan a pint of milk.

When

the liquid boils, add three

table-spoonfuls of flour stirred to a paste with two table-

spoonfuls of butter, and seasoned with salt and pepper.

Let the gravy boil slowly three or four minutes, stirring

FISH.
constantly; then pour

over the mackerel.

it

This sauce

should not be lumpy, but smooth as cream.

cooked

in

this

1 I

Mackerel

way makes a very acceptable breakfast

dish.

CANNED SALMON.
The

California canned salmon

is

successes achieved by the canner's

one of the greatest

art.

By always keep-

ing a few cans of this fish in the house, the housewife will

be able

at a

moment's notice

to prepare

One can

dish for breakfast or luncheon.

be sufficient for six persons.

an appetizing
of

salmon

will

Place the salmon in a small

and pour enough milk over the fish to nearly


Cover the frying-pan, and let its contents simmer slowly, being careful to keep the milk just at the bub-

frying-pan,

cover

it.

bling point.

Now

thicken the milk with a table-spoonful

of corn-starch wet with a

little

cold milk, adding a small

quantity at a time to the boiling milk, so the latter will

not

become too

thick.

Often

all

the corn-starch will not

be needed, the quantity, of course, depending on the

amount
with

salt,

make

fish

but enough thickening

the milk like cream.

Season

pepper and butter, and serve on a hot

This preparation
bread,

on the

of milk used

should be added to

platter.

sometimes served on nicely toasted

is

making a very

attractive-looking dish.

TO COOK frogs' legs.

The hind legs of frogs are the only part used


They are usually sold ready for cooking, but

for food.
in

some

places they are to be purchased just as taken from the


frogs.

In this case strip

tearing the tender flesh,

off

the skin carefully to avoid

wash the

legs in cold water,

and

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

1 1

Season with

dry them well on a towel or napkin.

pepper and lemon

For

juice.

up one egg, and season

it

with salt and pepper

cracker-crumbs, plunge them into boiling


minutes.

They can be sauteed in a


when cooked with

fat,

dip the

and

fine

fry for

frying-pan, but

are not then so nice as

plenty of

fat.

you have one.


breakfast or luncheon, and for

Use the wire frying-basket


Frogs' legs are served for

bread-crumbs or

legs into the ^^g, then into dried

five

salt,

thoroughly beat

six legs,

for them,

if

the latter they are accompanied by Tartar sauce.

"Sauces

(See

for Fish.")

FISH REMNANTS.

The "left-over " portions of cold


may be used in many ways. The

boiled or baked fish


fish

should be freed

from skin and bones and flaked.

CUSK a
One
One

la Creme.

pint of cold, flaked fish.


pint of milk.

Two

eggs (yolks only).

One
One

small slice of onion.


table-spoonful of butter.

Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

One bay-leaf.
One sprig of parsley.
One blade of mace.

A
Place

the

little salt

milk,

together on the

mace, onion,
in

fire

pail set in a kettle of

flour

together,

boiled,

and

stir

cook

and pepper.

hot water.

them
three

and bay-leaf

parsley

double boiler, or
into

the

minutes.

Rub

a tin

in

the butter

milk when

Add

the

it

and
has

beaten

FISH.

boil

been thinned with a table-spoonful of


fire and

yolks, which have

cold milk

one minute, remove from the

and pepper to taste. Arrange a layer


bottom of a baking dish, then a layer
of fish, next a layer of sauce, and so on until all the
sauce and fish have been used, placing a layer of sauce
on top. Sprinkle the top with bread-crumbs and tiny dots
Serve in
of butter, and bake in a hot oven until brown.
the dish in which it was baked.
strain,

adding

salt

of this sauce in the

FISH a la Reine.

One

pint of cold flaked

fish.

One-half pint of milk or cream.

One table-spoonful of butter.


One table-spoonful of flour.
One table-spoonful of chopped
One egg (yolk only).
Three chopped mushrooms,
Salt and pepper to taste.

Put the butter


the

flour;

oughly.

if

parsley.

you have them.

in the frying-pan,

and when

then gradually add the

As soon

milk,

it

melts add

stirring

thor-

as the milk boils turn in the fish, mush-

rooms, salt and pepper, and cook the wdiole very slowly

thoroughly heated. Beat the yolk of egg


add a table-spoonful of milk to thin it, and add
the parsley and ^^^ to the fish, stirring the mixture well
until the fish is

lightly,

together for a minute,

when

it is

ready to serve.

FISH CROQUETTES.

One
One
One

pint of cold, flaked fish.


pint of hot

mashed

potatoes.

table-spoonful of butter.

One-half cupful of hot milk-

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

14

One

egg, well beaten.

One-third tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

tea-spoonful of salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of chopped parsley.

Mix the

fish

with the potatoes, and afterward add

all

the other ingredients, putting the butter into the hot potatoes to melt.

When
and

cold,

roll

Mix

all

shape into

in

thoroughly, and set away to cool.

them

balls, dip

into beaten

egg,

cracker-crumbs or fine bread-crumbs.

before serving time, place

croquettes

the

basket, and plunge them in boiling

fat.

minutes, drain well, and serve at once.


are wanted for breakfast,

may be done

all

in

Cook

If the

Just
frying

for

two

croquettes

the work, except the frying,

the previous day.

FISH Rechauffe.

One

pint of cold fish.

(See " Sauces for Fish.")

One-half pint of egg sauce.

One
One

table-spoonful of butter.

Salt

and pepper to

quart of mashed potatoes.

taste.

Place one-half of the potato

season

in

baking dish

the fish well with salt and pepper, lay

the potato, add the

sauce to the top of

then

upon
the fish, and
it

spread the other half of the potato on top of the mass.

Cover the potato with a

thin

layer of butter,

for twenty minutes in a hot oven.

The sauce

is

and bake
very sim-

ple.

SPICED MACKEREL.

When
than
dish

cooking

enough

may be

for

salt

mackerel,

immediate

arranged.

it

is

well to prepare

more

use, so that this really fine

By some

this is called

" Salma-

FISH.

gundi," on account of the mixture of spices used.


the mackerel, and, having soaked

Clean

over night in cold

it

water with the inside down, drain, and boil slowly until

Then

tender in fresh water.

and place

it

in a

fish into four

lift

the fish out, drain well,

rather deep dish.

pieces after

it

is

It

is

best to cut the

cooked, as

can thus be

it

more easily managed. For a mackerel weighing one


pound make the following pickle and pour it over the fish
Allow

boiling hot.

One

Two
One
One
One

pint of vinegar.

bay-leaves.

table-spoonful of prepared spices.

tea-spoonful of whole mustard.


tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

slice of onion.

Place the spices

and

let

flavors.

ing

it

in

the vinegar on the

The

while the vinegar steams.

The prepared

serve in a day.

any

cured at
allspice,

cover tightly

fire,

them steep slowly for an hour, to draw out the


Strain, and pour the liquid over the fish, cover-

grocer's,

fish will

spices,

be ready to

which may be pro-

consist of a mixture of

cloves,

cinnamon and mustard.

SHELL-FISH.
OYSTERS.

The breeding season


of

May,

at

for oysters begins

which time they become

soft

about the

first

and milky and do

not return to their firm condition again until the weather


is

cold.

and

Canned

oysters, however, are

are often a blessing to the invalid

good
on

at

any time

this

account,

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

1 1

since they

may always be

upon

relied

to furnish a tempt-

ing dish.

Oysters are differently sold in different places, some


selling by measure only, while others sell both
by measure and count.
When they are sold by the

dealers

dozen,

they

"Counts"

the

largest

and are suitable

for frying,

they are, of course, the most expensive


" Selects " rank next to " counts " and in some

broiling,

kind.

generally divided into several grades.

are

are

etc.

" Straights " are oysters


markets are called " culls."
taken as they come, the large with the small.

Oysters are very dainty food and require careful hand-

The seasoning used should be of the most delicate


and the oysters should never be cooked after they
have become plump and the edges curl. Too much cooking makes them hard and indigestible and ruins their
ling.

kind,

flavor entirely.

OYSTERS, RAW.

Raw

oysters

are served either on

oyster plates or in a block of ice.


five or six oysters

and

half-shell,
to

on

each person

and also pass


graham bread.

a quarter of a lemon,

thin slices of delicately buttered


Little

the

Allow

brown

or

neck clams take the place of oysters during the

hot weather and are similarly served.

OYSTERS ON

There

is

ICE.

very attractive way of serving raw oysters.

Select a rectangular piece of clear ice, with smooth, regular surfaces.


in

With a hot brick or

flat-iron

the ice large enough to hold the oysters.

water from the melted

ice,

melt a cavity

Pour out the


wash out the cavity and dry it,

F/SH.

and put

'

117

which should be well drained

in the oysters,

in

Place a thick napkin on a platter, set the ice

colander.

and garnish the dish with parsley and sliced


bed of smilax or parsley is sometimes made
about and upon the napkin to conceal it, the lemon being
placed on this green bed. The ice is often chipped

upon

this,

lemon.

roughly to resemble a rock.

OYSTER SOUP.
This

will

be found

among

the soups.

OYSTERS, FRIED.
in a colander and season with
and pepper. Have ready a pint and a-half of dried
bread'Crumbs (see index for method of preparing bread for
crumbing), and slightly salt and pepper them. This quantity of crumbs will " bread " fifty oysters, which number
will be ample for six persons.
Thoroughly beat three
eggs.
Place a few crumbs on a plate, and roll the oysters in them, adding crumbs as needed, until all the oys-

Drain the oysters well

salt

ters

have been treated

to the

they are crumbed on

sprinkled with crumbs.


egg, one at a time,

and

crumbs.

Lay

baking board

Dip the oysters


roll

the oysters as

that

has been

into the beaten

each, as soon as dipped, in

Do

not pile them one upon


and let them stand at least an hour before frying, if you would have them in perfection.
Place a layer
of oysters in a frying-basket and plunge them into
boiling fat that is so hot that blue smoke rises from the
center.
Cook about a minute and a-half, and drain on
soft brown paper.
Oysters fried in this manner are
brown, tender, crisp and plump.
the bread-crumbs

another

again.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

OYSTERS, SAUTEED.

Drain the oysters well, season with salt and pepper,


Place
roll them in fine bread or cracker crumbs.

and

may be used if the differwhen it becomes very

clear fat in a frying-pan (butler

ence
hot
pan.

drop

in

When

fully to
is

not an object), and

in cost is

enough oysters
one side

is

brown the other

to

cover the bottom of the

browned, turn the oysters care-

The

side.

iron pancake griddle

often used for this purpose, as in this

may be cooked

at

way many

Serve very hot on

one time.

oysters

toast.

OYSTERS FRICASSEED
Twenty-five large oysters.

One
One
One

large table-spoonful of butter.


large table-spoonful of flour.
large table-spoonful of

chopped

parsley.

One-half pint of milk.

Two
Salt

eggs (yolks only).

and pepper

to taste.

own

liquor, and drain.


Place
and when it has melted, add
Now pour in the
the flour, rubbing to a smooth paste.
then add the oysters, half a
milk, and stir it until it boils
cupful of the liquor and the salt and pepper, 'and stir
At this point remove the
again until the liquid boils.
pan from the fire, stir in the eggs, well beaten, and also
the parsley, and serve at once.

Boil the oysters in their

the butter in a frying-pan,

OYSTERS ON TOAST.
One
One
One

pint of oysters.

table-spoonful of butter.
table-spoonful of flour.

Salt and pepper to taste.

FISH.

119

own liquor, and when boiling,


add the butter and flour rubbed to a cream,
and season with salt and pepper then let the whole
cook about two minutes, to make certain the flour is
Have ready some nicely toasted bread and if
done.
the oysters do not seem rich in liquor, wet the edges of the
toast carefully with a little salted water, pouring it on
Heat

the oysters in their

skim them

much then turn


Should there be plenty of

with a tea-spoon so as not to add too


the oysters over the toast.

liquor to moisten the toast properly, the water, of course,

need not be used.

This

is

a particularly delicate and

appetizing dish for an invalid or a convalescent.


prefer the liquor without thickening,

and the

Many

flour is then

omitted, with quite as good results.

OYSTERS BAKED IN THE SHELLS.

Use only

large oysters for

this purpose.

Wash

the

and scrub them with a brush then place them in a


baking pan, with the round sides down to hold the juice,
and bake in a hot oven until the shells open. Remove
the upper shells, season each oyster (which should be
slightly loosened from the lower shell) with butter, salt
shells

and pepper, and serve at once in the shells. Oysters


baked in this way are sometimes removed from the shells
and served in a hot dish. There is no way of cooking the
oyster in which the natural flavor is so fully developed.
Another method of baking oysters in the shell is as follows Open the oysters, and season them highly with
butter, salt and pepper and a drop of Worcestershire
sauce or a little catsup, and bake a few minutes in a very
hot oven. Gentlemen who are fond of condiments gen:

erally prefer oysters roasted in this way.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

120

OYSTERS, BROILED.

Use the

oyster-broiler for

this

(See " Kitchen

work.

Only the largest oysters are suitable

Utensils.")

for broil-

Drain the oysters, season with salt and pepper, dip


them one by one in melted butter, and roll them in flour.
Then lay them on the broiler, and cook over clear
ing.

These are served


may be used

coals until they turn a delicate brown.

on

Fine cracker-crumbs

slices of thin toast.

instead of flour,

preferred.

if

OYSTERS, SCALLOPED.

in

Drain the oysters, and place a generous layer of them


a baking dish, seasoning with salt and pepper and

dots

of

butter,

half

table-spoonful

of

butter

being

Spread a thick layer of- cracker-crumbs


over the oysters, and repeat the layers of oysters, seasoning and crumbs until all the oysters have been used,
placing a layer of cracker-crumbs at the top and sprinkling them lightly with salt, pepper and dots of butter.

none too much.

Add an equal quantity of milk to the


mix well
is, as much milk as liquor

oyster liquor
together,

the liquid over the oysters, etc., helping

bottom

of

at least

as possible.

and serve

in the

Bake twenty minutes, not too


There should be

baking-dish.

a tea-cupful of the liquid to a quart baking-dishand if there is not half a tea-cupful of the
add enough more milk to make up the difference.

ful of oysters

liquor,

through to the.

the dish at the sides, but disturbing the oys-

ters as little

rapidly,

it

that

and pour

Oysters are often scalloped in their shells, using three


oysters to each shell
are used, which

is

or individual silver scallop dishes

the daintiest

way

of serving.

FISH.

OYSTER CHOWDER.
One

quart of oysters.

Six potatoes.

One and
Three

a-half pint of milk.

pilot^or sea biscuits.

One
One
One

table-spoonful of flour.

Salt

and pepper

table-spoonful of butter.
onion.
to taste.

Drain the oysters, and run each through the fingers to


Strain the liquor through
particles of shell.

remove any

Thinly

a fine wire sieve.

and

Wet

boil

them very gently

slice

the potatoes and onion,

in the oyster liquor until tender.

and

it

into the

scalding milk (which should have been heated by

itself in

the flour in

little

of the milk,

stir

and pepper.
Cook about a minute, put in the oysters, and boil two
Then turn into the milk the potatoes and
minutes.
onion, and the liquor in which they have been boiled.
a double boiler), adding also the butter, salt

Place the crackers or sea biscuits in the tureen, pour the

chowder over them, and serve

at once.

CLAMS.
"

There are two varieties of this shell-fish, the " long


clam, which has a thin shell, and the " round " clam, the
" Little-neck " clams are the tiny,shell of which is thick.
" round " variety.
" Long " clams are boiled or baked in
They
the oven, and the tough mouth end is not eaten.
also

make very

delicate fritters.

CLAM FRITTERS.

Wash

the clams well, using a thin, narrow brush

to

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

122
bring out
pan.

all

the sand

When

the

and place them

shells

open, take

keeping

it

To

separate.

the

have accumulated

strain the liquor that will

oven

in the

out

in a

meat,

and

the

pan,

in

a pint of meat allow

Three eggs.
One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-fourth tea-spoonful of pepper.

Two
Two

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

cupfuls of liquor, or add milk to

make

that amount.

Flour to thicken.

This

may be

is

sufficient for a large quantity of fritters.

They

by dropping the mixture, a spoonful at a


time, in hot fat, like fried cakes
or they may be cooked
very satisfactorily on a pan-cake griddle.
The former
fried

way, however,

is

generally preferred.

CLAMS, BAKED IN THE OVEN.

Round clams

are

more

variety, but the thin-shelled

dish

when dressed

in this

baked than the long


by no means a poor
When round clams are

often

clam

way.

is

to be baked, those of medium-size are best, although the

small ones

are

still

very luscious

cooked

in

this

way.

They should be scrubbed well and placed in a baking


pan, and when the shells open they have cooked sufficiently.
Serve on a platter just as they come from the
oven, covering with a napkin to keep them hot

CLAM CHOWDER.

Many

so-called

chowders are nothing more nor less


This chowder
it.

than soup with potatoes and onion in


is

of quite, another ki.nd, being served

on a

platter in-

X
FISH.
Stead of in a soup

nowadays; and

it

tureen,

is

as

eaten with

clams are the kind used for

many
a

"

fork.

this purpose,

be opened and chopped rather

tom

123

finely.

chowders

"

are

Large, round

and they should

Put into the bot-

and then add a


chopped clam's. Place on this a layer of thinly
sliced raw potatoes, and next a layer of such vegetables
celery, tomatoes, sliced onion, parsley,
as may be liked
etc., with a few slices of lemon and pepper sprinkled
over all. Then add a layer of broken Boston crackers or
Begin again with the pork, and follow it up
pilot biscuit.
with clams, potatoes, seasoning and crackers, until all the
clams prepared are utilized. Pour the clam juice over
all, adding a little water to moisten the whole chowder.
Place the cover on the pail, put the pail in a kettle of
boiling water, and boil three hours.
Jf only a small
quantity of chowder is desired, the double boiler may be
of a tin pail small pieces of salt pork,

layer of

used for the cooking.

cooked by

If the potatoes are not sufficiently

this time, the

chowder may be turned

into a

must be stirred constantly to keep


it
from burning. It is seldom necessary, however, to
turn it out.
Remove the pail at the end of the first hour
kettle to finish, but

it

see if there is moisture enough to cook all well, and


add a little water if necessary. The chowder need not
be stirred at all while cooking, unless it has to be turned
into a kettle.
Sortietimes one is unfortunate in selecting
to

clams, for
tender.

if

they are too salt the potatoes will not cook

This seldom occurs, however.


CLAMS, ROASTED.

Round clams
directly

are cooked in this way, by placing them


upon the coals when the shells open, the clams
;

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

24

cooked enough. Take them from the coals with a


and send to the table the same as baked
clams.
Season when eating with butter, salt and pepper,
and a taste of Worcestershire sauce.
are

pair of tongs,

CLAM SOUP.
This

be found among the soups.

will

LOBSTERS.
If possible, always boil lobsters at

home.

If a lobster

cooked when purchased, see that the tail is stiff and


elastic, so that when it is bent out it springs quickly back
Choose the
otherwise the lobster was dead when boiled.
is

small lobster that

Those with hard,


found

lobster

is

many

convenient

proportion to

in

size.

its

thin-shelled

lobster

is vyatery.

preferred for eatuig, and the female

The female has a broad


Canned lobster

and soups.

for sauces

not so

The

of meat.

full

The male

heavy

is

solid shells streaked with black will be

tail

and

is

very

claws as the male.

in case of

emergency

for

making

salad.

TO BOIL A LOBSTER.
Fill

a kettle nearly full of boiling water, and add a large

spoonful

of

Wind

salt.

a string around the lobster to

secure the claws to the body, and plunge

into the kettle.


half

an hour;

it

head

first

medium-sized lobster should boil

large

much cooking toughens

one

in

forty-five minutes.

in

Too

the meat.

TO OPEN A LOBSTER.
Let the lobster cool after boiling, and wipe the
perfectly dry.

Break

off all

the claws,

shell

and separate the

FISH.
tail

from the body and the body from

the stomach or " lady," as

leaving

shell,

its

The

called, in the shell.

found directly under the head.


which may be knovi^n by its greenish

"lady"
liver,

is

it

is

25

Save

the

color,

and

coral, which is used in


sauces and salad.
body through the center, and pick the meat from
the cells, cutting the under side of the tail shell open
also, and taking out the meat in one solid piece.
Split
this piece open, and there will be uncovered a little vein

also

the

Split the

running

its

This

entire length.

and must be removed.

It is

being black, red or even white

Break

the intestinal canal

is

not always the same color,


;

but

it

is

not

joints, as they are liable to

drop

are too woolly to be palatable.

off

The

intestines are the parts not eaten.

with the meat and


gills,

stomach and

When

the shells of

down

the large claws are thin, cut off a strip

edge, and remove the meat whole

the sharp

as the

The claws should never be pounded


meat

is

may be

or the shell

broken, when too thick to be cut, by hammering


edge.

to eat.

fit

before picking the meat from the

off all the gills

thus crushed and often

filled

it

in the

on the

middle,

with pieces of

shell.

TO SERVE LOBSTER PLAIN.


Arrange the meat
with

the

a dish,

and garnish

small claws, sprigs of parsley or

hard-boiled

in the center

o'^

Each person at
and vinegar or oil.

eggs cut into quarters.


suit with pepper, salt

table seasons to

LOBSTER CHOPS.
.

These are

at

present a very fashionable dish, being

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

26

served at teas, luncheons and evening parties.

They

are

very dainty.

Two
Two

cupfuls of boiled lobster.

One

cupful of cream or milk.

eggs (yolks only).

Three table-spoonfuls of

One

flour.

table-spoonful of butter.

One-eighth of a nutmeg.
Salt

Put the butter


the flour.

in

Cook

and pepper

to taste.

a stew-pan, and

when

it

bubbles,

stir in

this paste, slowly stirring all the time

then pour in the cream, and add the lobster, cut into
small dice.

and when

Stir until scalding hot,

slightly cooled, stir in

take from the

fire,

the yolks of the eggs,

nutmeg, and the salt and pepper.


and cook two minutes, stirring all
the time.
Butter a platter, and on it spread the mixture
half an inch deep.
When cold, form in the shape of
chops, pointed at one end roll the chops in beaten ^gg^
then in bread or cracker-crumbs, place them in the frying
basket and plunge them in boiling-hot fat until of a
The frying should not take longer
nice brown color.
Drain well, and stick the end of a
than three minutes.
Serve on
small claw in each chop to represent the bone.
well beaten, the grated

Return

to

the

fire

a napkin, placing the chops so they overlap each other,

and garnish with parsley.


LOBSTER FARCI. (STUFFED.)

Two

cupfuls of lobster meat.

Three hard-boiled eggs

(yolks).

One-half pint of milk.

One-fourth of a nutmeg, grated.

FISH.

One tabk-spoonful
One table-spoonful

of

127
chopped parsley.

of butter.

Two

table-spoonfuls of bread-crumbs.

One

table-spoonful of flour.

Salt and pepper to taste.

Cut the lobster into small pieces. Two lobsters will be


Put the milk on to boil in the

required for this quantity.

boiler,, and when hot, stir into it the butter and


rubbed well together. Stir until smooth, and cook
then remove from the fire, and add the
three minutes
lobster, salt and pepper, and the yolks of
parsley,
crumbs,

double
flour,

Mix all well together. In


the eggs mashed very fine.
opening the lobster for the stuffing, be careful not to break
Wash them and wipe dry, and
the body or tail shells.
with a pair of scissors cut off the under part of the
shells,

using the

ends of the

tails of

tail shells to

both lobsters.

the

body

shell,

with the ends of

the tails out, thus forming a boat-shaped shell.


stuffing into this boat,

Put the

brush over the top with beaten egg,

and bake

sprinkle lightly with bread-crumbs,

oven for

tail

Join the large

in

a quick

fifteen minutes.

STEWED LOBSTER.
Cut the meat
milk enough

fine

to

and put

thicken to a cream with a

seasoning with

it

nearly cover

salt,

bread laid on a hot

little

in a
it

small frying-pan with

when

the

milk

boils,

corn starch wet with milk,

pepper and butter.

Serve on toasted

platter.

DEVILED LOBSTER.
This

is

made

fuls of finely

the same as deviled crab, using two cup.


chopped lobster where tw^elve crabs are used

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

28
the

in

This

recipe.

will

require

Avo

small

lobsters.

Serve in the lobster shells.

CRABS.
These shell-fish are found near the coast of the Southand Middle states, and in Maryland special attenThey are generally
tion is paid to their propagation.
As they are
expensive and are sold alive or boiled.
ern

easily boiled,

it is

better not to trust to the fishmonger's

Like lobsters they should be heavy for their

boiling.
size.

SOFT-SHELL CRABS.
Crabs, as well as lobsters, shed their shells annually.

When

crabs are minus their shells they are

soft-shell

cures.

In three days after the old shell

one begins

crabs

always sold

is

lost the

as

epi-

new

harden, when the crab ceases to be the

to

choice tid-bit he
soft-shell

known

and are most highly esteemed by

crabs

w^as.
is

This

is

the reason the supply of

always short.

They

are,

of course,

alive.

TO CLEAN SOFT-SHELL CRABS.

To
if

prepare these crabs for cooking

the following directions are

will

not be

difficult,

carefully followed.

The

back of the crab is of a greenish color and is like thin,


Take
stiff rubber, and at each end it tapers to a point.
one of these points between the thumb and fore-finger of
the left hand, and, keeping the crab on its face all the
time, press the back with the second finger, bending the
There will thus be exposed
shell back about half-way.
a spongy substance which must be scraped or, if neces-

FISH.
sary, cut

of

Repeat the operation

away.

of the back.

The

" apron,"

which

is

at the

29

other point

a small, loose sort

running to a point in the middle of the under shell

tail,

and closely lapping

it,

should be pulled

Wash

off.

the

crabs in cold water, and drain well, wiping them gently


with a cloth.

They

are then ready for cooking.

FRIED SOFT-SHELL CRABS.

Dip the crabs


with a

little

salt

in

beaten egg that has been seasoned

and pepper, and

cracker crumbs, also seasoned

roll

them

with salt

in

bread or

and

pepper.

when necessary.
Place a cover over the pan when frying. The crabs
should fry slowly for twenty minutes, at least, and will be
of a deep-red shade when done.
Drain a moment on soft
brown paper, and serve hot.
Fry in a frying-pan

in hot butter, turning

BAKED SOFT-SHELL CRABS.


Season the crabs with
melted butter, and
cracker crumbs.

and pepper, dip them

salt

Put them in a baking-pan, and bake

a very hot oven for ten or twelve minutes.


to a platter, place the

the range, and add a

spoonful of flour wet to a smooth paste.

has boiled a minute, season with salt

pour

it

lumpy.

When

in

tender,

pan they were baked


little water and a

remove
top

of

in

sprinkle thickly with dry bread or

in

on

table-

When the gravy


and pepper and

around the crabs. Strain the gravy, if at all


This is a very delicious way of cooking these

delicate shell-fish.

HARD-SHELL CRABS.
Plunge the crabs into boiling water, and cook

fifteen

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

30

minutes

then remove the outside shells and the shaggy

Rinse

substance.

and arrange on a

in hot water,

platter.

are to be eaten from the shell.

They

DEVILED CRAB.
This has become a very fashionable dish.
at

almost

teas,

all

used for

shell crabs are

and

receptions

Twelve heavy

It is

served

Only hard-

parties.

this dish.

crabs.

One-half pint of cream.

One

table-spoonful of flour.

Four table-spoonfuls

One table-spoonful
One table-spoonful

of butter.

of
of

chopped parsley.
lemon juice.

One-quarter of a nutmeg, grated.

One tea-spoonful of mustard.


One and a-half pint of grated bread-crumbs.
One-quarter of a tea-spoonful of pepper.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of

salt.

Boil the crabs for thirty minutes.


off

claws and separate

the

the

spongy fingers and the stomach, which

Heat

shells.

mix the

removing

the

found under the

all the meat,


and wash and wipe the
cream in a small saucepan thoroughly
and mustard and two table-spoonfuls of the

flour

and

the

stir

the mixture into the boiling cream.

two minutes, remove from

meat and seasoning.


the crab-shells.

Mix

Cook

the
well,

fire,

Boil

and add the crab

and put the mixture

in

Sprinkle with the crumbs, and place the

remainder of the butter, cut


crumbs.
first

is

Pick out

head.

butter,

Drain them, break

shells,

in a

in

small pieces, on top of the

hot oven until the crumbs are brown,

placing the grate of the oven under the pan, so the

FISH.

131

heat will not be too great at the bottom.


of parsley, arranging the claws

CRAW

on

Serve on a bed

it.

FISH.

These resemble the lobster and are found in most of


They are boiled and served the
same as crabs, or used as a garnish for boiled fish.
our brooks and rivers.

SHRIMPS.

Shrimps belong
smallest of that

to the
ilk.

lobster species, being the very

They

are of two kinds, the

gulf

shrimps or prawns being the larger.

Shrimps are sold by


some places are vended already cooked.

the quart, and in

They

are served the same as crabs,


and are also used as a garnish.

in

salads and sauces,

SCALLOPS.

These

shell-fish

The muscle which

have

round,

deeply grooved

unites the shells

is

shells.

the only part used

for food.

Scallops have a sweet flavor and are in season

during the

fall

latter

and winter.

way being much

the

They are stewed or


more satisfactory.

fried, the

FRIED SCALLOPS.

Wash
Season
the

the
fine

scallops

fry in hot

scallops, drain

in

fat.

rolled in flour

them and dry thoroughly.

cracker-crumbs with

salt

and pepper, dip

beaten ^gg, then in the crumbs, and


Or they may be simply seasoned and

and then

fried.

MUSSELS.

They
'^^pen

For stewing,
meat allow

are fried like oysters or are stewed.

the mussels, and to a quart of

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

132

Two

tables-poonfuls of

One

table-spoonful of flour.

l)uLter.

Six whole pepper-corns.

One-half cupful of cream.

Two
Salt

eggs (yolks only).

and pepper

Stew the mussels

five

to taste.

minutes

in their

own

liquor,

and

then add the flour rubbed well into the butter, and the

Stew ten minutes, and pour

pepper-corns.

Set back on the range, and

cream.

in the

stir in

heated

the yolks of

the eggs, which will have been thinned with a table-spoonful of

Season with

water or milk.

salt

and pepper, and

serve.

TERRAPIN.
This

served at

is

many

fashionable dinners and late

Terrapins belong to the turtle family and are

suppers.

found from Rhode Island to the Gulf of Mexico. They


vary considerably in size and quality in different localities.

The

finest in winter are very expensive,

costing from twenty-five to

fifty

sometimes

dollars a dozen in the

Northern markets, although they are often to be had for


In the South they are comparatively

one-fourth that cost.

cheap and are larger than those found

There are two ways of

killing terrapin.

in

the North.

In the North,

if

same as a lobster;
but in the South the head is cut off and the terrapin
placed in cold water for half an hour, to draw out the
the terrapin

blood,

after

varies

with

cook

in

is

small,

which
the age

it

it

is

is

boiled the

boiled.

The

of the terrapin.

time of boiling
If young,

it

will

half an hour, but old ones require to boil fully

two hours before they are tender.

FISH.

133

COOKING AND CLEANING TERRAPIN.


If the large

Southern variety

is

used, cut off the head

and let the terrapin lie in cold water half an hour, then
drop it into boiling water and cook for ten minutes.
Pour off the water, and cover the terrapin with cold water,
then
letting it stand until cool enough to handle easily
black
skin
rub
the
nails
and
towel
with
a
take it up, and
;

from the

Wash

legs.

the terrapin carefully, place

it

in a

stew-pan with enough boiling water to cover, and cook


until the flesh

the legs

is

tender, which will be

Remove from

shell will separate easily.

after

it

has cooled a

with the head

under

when

the joints of

can be broken with a slight pressure, and the

shell.

little,

the water, and

place the terrapin on

its

back,

away from you, and loosen and remove the


The liver, gall, bladder and sand-bag will

be found near the head end, the gall being attached to


Take out the gall as you.
the left side of the liver.

would that of a chicken, being very careful not to break


If such an accident occur, the entire terrapin will be
it.
ruined, so there should be extra care at this point of the
work. All that remains is used for food. Take out the
eggs, if there are any, remove the slight membrane that
Cut all
is around them, and drop them into cold water.
the meat very fine (the intestines finer than any part),

and save any water that may


terrapin

ways.

is

It is

collect in the shells.

now ready to use in


most commonly served

stewed.

STEWED TERRAPIN.
Two

terrapins.

Three table-spoonfuls

One

pint of cream.

of butter.

The

stew or in other

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

34

One-half pint of sherry or Maderia.

One-half cupful of water.


Six eggs (yolks).

Two

tea-spoonfuls of salt.

One-fifth of a tea-spoonful of pepper.

One-tenth of a tea-spoonful of mace.

One-tenth of a tea-spoonful of allspice.


One-half of a lemon.

Put the finely cut terrapin

in a

stew-pan with the water

and butter, the juices that have collected in the shells


and the salt, pepper and spices, and let all simmer
minutes.

gently for fifteen

Boil

the

six

eggs

fifteen

remove the yolks, mash them very fine, and


Add this mixture to
gradually mix the cream with them.
the stew, and also the sherry, the eggs of the terrapin,
and the lemon thinly sliced. Let the stew stand where it
will become well heated, but do not let it boil, or the
minutes,

cream

Serve while hot.

will break.

Silver-plated saucepans holding

of

terrapin, the

and a

half a pint each are

One kind

used for serving this rare dish.

is

in the

shape

other round, v/ith a straight handle

tightly fitting cover.

SAUCES FOR

FISH.

The French undoubtedly understand the making of


sauces better than any other nation. The English make
a drawn-butter sauce and use it as a foundation for many
kinds.

By

the

addition

pickle, lobster, oysters, etc.,

of

and the other kinds of sauces.


is

simple, yet

taste

is

capers,

shrimps,

chopped

one has caper, shrimp, lobster

The drawn-butter sauce

often improperly made, being insipid in

and lumpy and unappetizing in appearance through


The French white sauce differs

msufficient cooking.

from that of the English, since

niateriail}'

it

made

is

with

strong white stock prepared from veal or chicken, or both,

and with some vegetables' for a

One

basis.

shrinks from

using a receipt for sauce that requires stock

and man)-

simple receipts are here given which do not call for thai
as an ingredient.

In thickening sauces,

it

be remembered that

should

butter and flour should be well cooked together before


the liquid is added, to prevent the flour from tasting
uncooked; and the butter should be, very hot before the
flour is added to it.
In butter sauces, however, only
enough butter should be used at first to cook the flour,

and added

the remainder being cut in pieces

sauce

is

taken from the

after the

In this w^ay the flavor

fire.

is

preserved.

mistake that

cooked together,

frequently

is

of any sauce that


is

made

in

the preparation

thickened with butter and flour

is

that the liquid

added

is

to the thick-

ening before the flour and butter have at

The stew-pan

in

which the butter and

cooled.

cooked
the range and the

should be drawn to a cool part of


mixture stirred until

all

flour are

partially cooled before putting in

the liquid, which should be cold and be added gradually.

The length of time for


be remembered that if

a sauce to cook varies.


the sauce

is

ten minutes, the butter will separate

where
If

can be skimmed

it

cooked

rate.

less

off

It

must

boiled longer than

and come

to the top,

this leaves a clear sauce.

than this time the butter does not sepa-

Long cooking makes

the sauce greasy, unless

it

be continued long enough to make the separation of oil


and ingredients complete. In common sauces the quick

method

is

generally preferred,

and

if

by mistake the

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

136

sauce becomes
the

may be added and


when it will be

cold water

oily, a little

sauce stirred until

begins

it

to boil,

found perfectly smooth and satisfactory.

DRAWN-BUTTER SAUCE.
One-half cupful of butter (scant).

One

pint of boiling water.

Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

Put half the butter into the stew-pan, and when it


sprinkle in the flour, and stir well for two

bubbles,

Draw back on

minutes.

the range, and

cooled add the boihng water, a


the time until the liquid

is

sauce boil up once, stirring

thick

it

before using.

preferred

slightly

and smooth.

slightly

all

Let the

then put back

of the butter, cut in pieces,

When
if it

is

carefully

made

this

not entirely smooth,

Drawn-butter sauce

acid, in

when

a time, stirring

constantly

it

and add the remainder


and also the salt and pepper.
sauce will be like cream but

again,

strain

little at

is

sometimes

which case a few drops of

strong vinegar or of lemon juice are added just before

BROWN SAUCE.
Three table-spoonfuls

of butter.

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

One
One
One
One
One

table-spoonful of chopped carrot.

table-spoonfuls of

table-spoonful of

chopped onion.

lemon

juice.

pint of stock or water.


clove.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

FISH.

Cook

137

the vegetables in the butter very slowly for half

an hour; then place them on a hot part of the range

and cook
that als6

Add

going on.

is

brown.

is

browned, stirring

slightly

until

the browning

Draw

the

all

the flour, and

the

whole

is

well

mixed,

stir until

pan back, and when

contents are slightly cooled, add the stock and

adding the clove,

Set the pan back where the sauce

pepper.

time

the

salt

will

its

until

stir

and

gently

simmer for tv/enty minutes. Strain, skim off the 'fat that
comes to the top, add the lemon juice, and serve. Pork
"drippings," or fat that
butter, with

good

is

results,

may

clear

take the place of

two table-spoonfuls being used

instead of three.

WHITE SAUCE.
Three table-spoonfuls of butter.
One table-spoonful of chopped onion.
Two table-spoonfuls of chopped celery.
One table-spoonful of chopped carrot.

Three table-spoonfuls

One

of flour.

pint of stock.

One-half cupful of cream or milk.


Salt

Simmer

and pepper

to taste.

the vegetables in the butter very gently for ten

Then add the


and stir until smooth and frothy. Cool slightly,
and add the stock. When all is smooth, add the salt and
pepper, and boil for five minutes
then put in the cream.

minutes, being careful not to brown them.


flour,

Let the sauce boil


sauce

in

up once, and

which to heat cold

strain.

fish.

CREAM SAUCE.
Three table-spoonfuls

Two

of butter.

table-spoonfuls of flour.

This

is

a fine

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

38

One
One

pint of milk.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

tea-spoonful of chopped parsley.

Place the butter in a small stew-pan, and when it is hot,


add the tiour. Stir well until smooth and frothy. Draw
Place it again
the pan back, and gradually add the milk.
on the hot part of the range, and when the sauce boils,

add the
add the
will

salt

Simmer

and pepper.
and serve.

parsley,

improve the

flavor,

onion

if

for three

minutes,

few drops of onion juice


is

liked.

TOMATO SAUCE.
One
One
One
One
One
One
One

pint of tomato.

Salt

and pepper

table-spoonful of butter.

table-spoonful of flour.

small onion.
bay-leaf.

sprig of parsley.

blade of mace.
to taste.

Place the tomato, onion, bay-leaf, parsley and mace in


a stew-pan together,

and simmer gently

for ten

minutes

then strain through a wire sieve, pulping through

tomato but the skin and seeds.

and when

it

ter is hot,

add the

is

dry put in the butter.


flour,

this the strained tomato,


all

is

range

well mixed, place


;

boil

As soon

is

pouring

it

in gradually.

Add to
When

the sauce on a hot part of the

up once, add the

one

the

as the but-

and cook two minutes.

salt

and pepper, and

HOLLANDAISE SAUCE.
This

all

Rinse out the stew-pan,

of the best sauces for fish.

serve.

FISH.

139

One-half cupful of butter.


One-half cupful of boiling water.
One-half lemon (juice only).

One-quarter salt-spoonful of pepper.

One

salt-spoonful of

Three eggs (yolks

salt.

only).

Beat the butter to a cream with a silver spoon, add the


yolks of the eggs, one at a time, and beat well
the

lemon

juice,

and pepper.

salt

About

before serving, add the boiling water, a

Place the bowl

stirring well.

water,

and

stir

in

then add

five

little

minutes

at a time,

a sauce-pan of boiling

rapidly until the sauce thickens like boiled

custard.

SAUCE TARTARE (a COLD SAUCE).


One-half pint of mayonnaise dressing.

Three olives.
One cucumber

One

Chop
them

(See " Salads.")

pickle.

table-spoonful of parsley.

the olives, pickle and parsley very fine, and add

This sauce

to the dressing.

MAITRE

will

d'HOTEL

keep a long time.

SAUCE.

Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

One
One

table-spoonful of chopped parsley.

table-spoonful of lemon juice.

Three-quarter cupful of butter.

One

Two
Salt

pint of boiling water.

eggs (yolks only).

and pepper

to taste.

Prepare the same as drawn-butter sauce (see receipt),


and when finished add the lemon juice and chopped
parsley.
Let it cool slightly, and add the beaten yolks of
the eggs.

Return

to

the range, and

but not to the boiling point,

it is

when

ready to use.

well heated,

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

I40

BECHAMEL SAUCE.
One-half pint of veal stock.
One-half pint of cream.

Two
Two

eggs (yolks only).

One

table-spoonful of flour.

Salt

and pepper

table-spoonfuls of butter.

to taste.

Heat the butter, and when bubbling, stir in the flour


mix until smooth, taking care it does not brown. Add
the stock and cream gradually, and stir until the liquid
boils.
Take from the fire, and add the salt and pepper
and the well beaten 3^olks. Let it stand in a warm place
on the range two minutes, but do not let it boil after the
;

eggs are added.

EGG SAUCE.

Make
of

a cream sauce (see receipt),

and add the whites


two hard-boiled eggs, chopping them very fine then
;

press the yolks through a wire sieve, and add them also.
The wire potato-masher (see " Kitchen Utensils ") is just
the thing to use for this purpose.

OYSTER SAUCE (fOR BOILED


One

FLSh).

pint of small oysters.

One-third cupful of butter.

Three table-spoonfuls of

Heat

One

cupful of milk.

Salt

and pepper

the oysters in

Remove them from

their

flour.

to taste.

own

liquor to boiling point.

the fire after they have boiled half a

minute, skim them, and drain off the liquor into another
stew-pan.

Rub

the butter and the flour to a cream.

Add

FISH.

141

and when heated to boihng


creamed butter and flour. Let the
liquid boil up once, season with salt and pepper, add the
oysters, and serve as soon as the latter are heated
the milk to the oyster liquor,

point,

stir

the

in

through.

LOBSTER SAUCE (fOR BOILED


One

FISH).

lobster.

One-half pint of drawn-butter sauce (see receipt).


Salt

and pepper

to taste.

Break up the coral of the lobster, and put


mortar, and sprinkle

Chop

serve.

on a paper

over the

it

the lobster meat, not too fine, and add

the sauce, also


salt

it

Then pound it in a
boiled fish when ready to

slow oven for thirty minutes.

in a

it

to

putting in a pinch of the coral and the

and pepper.

The effect is spoiled


The sauce should be like

if

the lobster

is

cut too

fine.

a creamy bed for the lobster.

MUSTARD CREAM.
This

is

served with baked crabs or roast clams and

is

a dainty addition to those dishes.

One
One

cupful of milk.
tea-spoonful of mustard.

Three table-spoonfuls

One

of butter.

table-spoonful of flour.

Salt and pepper to taste.

Heat the milk


and mustard

flour

a double

to

a cream, and gradually pour upon

this creahi the boiling

well

Beat the butter,

in

mixed, return

boiler.

hot milk, a

all

to

pepper, boil three minutes,

little at

the boiler,

and

serve.

a time.

add the

When
salt

and

MEATS.
"

With baked and

And

fried

We

boiled and stewed and toasted,


and broiled and smoked and roasted,

treat the town."

Salmagundi.

BEEF.

For

the best cuts of beef see the chapter on " Market-

Directions

ing."

given in

full in

for roasting, broiling, etc.,

have been

the chapter entitled " Plain Directions,"

ROAST BEEF, WITH YORKSHIRE PUDDING.

rib

or sirloin roast should be prepared as directed

for roasting.

When

within three-quarters of an hour of

being done, have the pudding ready to put in with the


Butter a pan like that in which the meat is being
meat.
Put the rack upon
cooked, and pour in the pudding.
which the meat has been roasted across the pan, not in
Place the meat on the rack again, return it to the
it.
oven and cook forty-five minutes. If there should be but

one roasting pan, take up the meat, pour


saving

it

in a separate dish

to prepare

off

the gravy,

a gravy for the

and put the pudding in the roasting pan. 'Cut it in


squares when done, and garnish the beef with these.
Another method is to use a pan that has squares stamped

beef,

142

MEATS.
in

143

This produces even squares, with

it.

crusT:

on

all

the

by baking in a flat pan.


heat and oil the iron gem-pans
them to cook, basting with the

edges, which cannot be obtained

another way

Still

is

to

and pour the batter into


dripping from the roast.
baking, there

is

When

this utensil

is

used for

no necessity for cutting into the pudding,

which always tends

make

to

it

Serve each person

heavy.

one of the gems with their meat.

YORKSHIRE PUDDING.
One

pint of milk.

Two-thirds of a cupful of

flour.

Three eggs.

One scanty
Beat the eggs very

tea-spoonful of

light,

salt.

add the

and milk, and

salt

then pour about half the mixture upon the


this is perfectly

smooth,

FILLET OF BEEF, WITH

MUSHROOM

One sees this dish at almost


Many order it already cooked from
his

price

persons.
dollar

when
is

SAUCE.

dinner party.

every
the

7-eshiiiratetir,

but

being usually ten dollars for ten

is

heavy,

It

may be bought from

the butcher for one

a pound, and three pounds are quite sufficient


this dish is to

be served as one course.

the under side of the loin of beef

skin

When

flour.

arid the rest of the liquid.

and

fat

The

the tenderloin.

fillet

The

should be removed with a sharp knife, and

also every shred of muscle

and ligament.

not then of a good, round shape, skewer

If the fillet is
it

until

it

is so^

Lard the upper surface (see "Larding.") Dredge well


with salt, pepper and flour, and place it without water
in a small pan.
Put in a hot oven for thirty min-

PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

^'-^^

144
utes, leaving*

it

the

first

ten minutes on the lower part of

the oven, and then placing

This

mainder of the time.

it

is

on the grate for the

re-

served with the following

sauce.

MUSHROOM

SAUCE.

French mushrooms.

One

forty-cent can of

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

cupfuls of stock.

Four table-spoonfuls of butter.


Salt and pepper to taste.

Heat

and when

the butter,

until very

pan back out of the


are well stirred

hot,

add the

When

fierce heat.

together, boil

may

for

and

stir

these ingredients

up once, add the liquor

from the mushrooms, and also the

simmer gently

flour

Gradually add the stock, setting the

brown.

salt

and pepper, and

Skim off any oil


mushrooms, simmer for

twenty minutes.

rise to the top,

add the

that
five

minutes more, pour the sauce over the beef, and serve

at

once.

BRAISED BEEF.
This mode of cooking

is

particularly well adapted to

the cheaper pieces of meat, or those that are lacking in


flavor

and are tough.

Braising

is

properly done

when

vegetables and herbs are used for seasoning meat and


gravy,

although these are sometimes omitted

and the

meat still said to be braised. This receipt calls for six


pounds of beef. Spread in the braising-pan one-fourth of
a pound of salt pork, cut in slices, and over this spread
two table-spoonfuls each of chopped onion, carrot, turnip
and celery. Lay the meat on this bed, and dredge well

MEATS.

f45

pepper and flour. Cover, and put in a moderoven for half an hour. At the end of this time
add a pint and a-half of water, or if you have it, of soupstock, basting the meat with some of the liquid, and again
dredging with salt, pepper and flour. Cook for four
At the end of
hours, basting every quarter of an hour.
two hours add another pint of stock or water also mix
with

salt,

ately hot

two table-spoonfuls of corn-starch with half a cupful of


cold water, and

Cook

the pan.
cover, as

it

soning
It

it

meat

hour without a

for the last half

Place

should be of a delicate brown.

the serving-dish

of

the

bottom of

into the juices in the

stir this

then strain the gravy

with salt and pepper

if

in

it

in

pan, sea-

the

necessary, and pour part

on and around the beef, serving the rest

in

a sepa-

rate dish.

A POT ROAST.

A
this

tough piece of meat

mode

may be made

Wipe

of cooking.

the

very tender by

meat with a damp

cloth,

and pepper and put it into an iron pot.


Place the latter over a moderate heat, and brown the

season with

salt

meat slowly, turning

it

about twenty minutes.

frequently

When

this will usually take

the roast

is

well browned,

put in half a pint of boiling water, cover closely, and set

meat

the pot back where the

water steams away add a

little

will

cook slowly.

more, half a pint

As

the

at a time.

Allow about fifteen minutes to each pound for a piece of


meat that is not tough, but a very tough roast will require
twice that time.
Take up the meat, and add a small
quantity of water to the juices in
the gravy with
10

little

flour stirred

the kettle.
to

Thicken

a thin paste with

THE PA TTERN CO OK -B O OK.

46

water,

little

and serve

in a separate dish.

Boiled rice

is

generally eaten with a pot roast.

STUFFED BEEFSTEAK.

Use

the round for this dish, having

Lay

thick.
it

it

cut half an inch

meat board, spread over


and sprinkle with salt and

the steak flat on the

with a thin layer of butter,

pepper.

Take

for the stuffing

One and

a-half pint of bread-crumbs.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One
One

large tea-spoonful of

small onion.
salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

Milk

to moisten.

Grate the crumbs

and rub
it

crumbs.

to the

ful to

fine,

in the butter

season with the salt and pepper,

then chop the onion

Moisten

being care-

put only enough in to soften the crumbs a

Spread

this stuffing

and add

fine,

slightly with milk,

little.

over the steak, placing tiny bits of

butter on top of

it.
Roll the steak up tightly, rolling
away from rather than towards you, and keeping the

stuffing in at the

cord or

ends as the beef

common wrapping

plenty of

it,

and winding

is

rolled

up.

twine around the


it

round and round

roll,

Wrap
using

until the

meat is tightly compressed. Place the roll in an iron pot


and roast the same as a pot roast. Remove the strings
after laying the beef on the serving dish, pour the gravy
around and over the meat, and serve hot. This stuffed
steak is sometimes baked, and in that case a little water
should be added to the pan together with any pieces of
suet that have been trimmed off the meat.

MEATS.

147

BEEFSTEAK AND ONIONS.


For
or the

named

cut may be a porterhouse, a sirloin


when expense is to be considered, the last

this dish the

round

cut will be found both economical and palatable.

make it more tender.


and place the steak in
at all.
Cook until the meat is either
rare or well done, as may be preferred.
If the finer cuts
are used, care must be taken that the meat is not cooked
too long, but the round will need to be fairly well cooked
to make it juicy and tender.
Remove the steak to
the serving dish.
Slice the onions thin, and turn them
into the pan in which the steak was cooked.
Cover the
pan, and cook the onions slowly in the juices from the
steak until they are tender then lift them out and place
them on top of the steak. Add a little water to the juices
It

should be pounded slightly to

Heat a frying-pan
it, adding
no fat

until quite hot,

in the

pan,

and thicken the gravy with a

corn-starch wet in a

little

water.

little

Season with

pepper, and pour over the onions and steak.

flour or
salt

and

This gravy

should be a fine brown.


Onions cooked this way will
not be as greasy as the dish that is often served under
this

name.

HAMBURG
Have

STEAK.

the butcher chop very fine two pounds of the

round of beef.

Press

it

into a flat steak

about three-

pepper and
and broil the same as
beefsteak.
Spread with butter and serv-e on a hot dish.
This steak is sometimes shaped into small, thin, flat
cakes and fried in a frying-pan, a little pork, fat or butter
being used to keep the meat from sticking to the pan.
quarters of an inch thick, sprinkle with

flour, lay

it

in a fine wire broiler,

salt,

THE PA TTERN CO OK-B O OK.

48

gravy

little

is then made by thickening the juices in the pan,


water being added before the thickening." The

gravy should be poured over the meat.

CORNED BEEF.
Put the beef into the pot with enough cold water to
it, and when it boils set it back on the range to boil

cover

Fast boiling of salted meats renders

very moderately.

them very hard, yet the water must not cease bubIn England carrots are boiled
Skim often.
bling.
and served with this dish, and they much improve the
flavor of

the beef.

They

not put in the pot until

are

three-quarters of an hour before serving time, and they


are arranged about the

cabbage

is

used, one or two


beef,

meat on the

little

When

this is

red peppers, also boiled with the

When

improve the quality of the dish.

serve, after taking out the meat,

the saucepan, using a

In America

platter.

generally boiled with the beef.

skimmer

for

ready to

cabbage from
Drain
the purpose.

lift

the

the cabbage well in a colander, pressing out all the water.

Serve

it

around the beef or

in

a separate dish, as

may be

liked.

BEEF-HEART, STEWED.

The heart of the ox is very inexpensive, yet it


makes a most delicious dish. Wash the heart well, remove the muscles from the inside, and take out every
particle of blood.

One
One
One
One
Salt

Make

a stuffing of

cupful of bread-crumbs.

table-spoonful of chopped oniontable-spoonful of chopped celery.


table-spoonful of butter.

and pepper

to taste.

ME A TS.
Mix

149

these ingredients well together, and stuff the cavity

of the heart with them.

Tie the heart about with twine,

a cloth, sewing the ends together to keep

the stuffing in.

Place in a small stew-pan, with the point

and wrap

it

down, and nearly cover with water boiling


Place the lid on the pan, and simmer gently for
hot.
When done, there should be about a pint
three hours.
Remove the cloth and place the
of water in the pan.
Add a little water to the pan, thicken
heart on a platter.
of the heart

the juices with a small quantity of flour or corn-starch,


in a little water, and season with salt and pepper.
Pour the gravy over and around the heart.

wet

BAKED HEART.
This

is

prepared the same as the stew.

When

done,

removed and the heart placed in a pan in a


very hot oven and browned.
Serve with the gravy the
same as the preceding.
the cloth

is

CREAMED DRIED

BEEF.

This makes a very satisfactory breakfast dish.

The

beef should be shaved thin by the butcher.


One-half pound of beef.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One
One

cupful of milk.
tea-spoonful of flour.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of pepper.

Place the butter in a stew-pan, and


the beef.

Stir until

the milk.

When

when melted add

the slices begin to curl

then add

wet with
two table-spoonfuls of milk. Season with the pepper,
and serve on toast or plainly, as preferred.
this boils up, stir in the flour

.THE

150

PATTERN COOK-BOOK.
BEEF

a la Mode.

Two pounds of beef.


Two table-spoonfuls of

beef or pork drippings.

One onion, sliced thin.


One bay-leaf.
One lemon, cut in slices.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of ground allspice.


One-quaiter tea-spoonful of cloves.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of mace.

The meat used

may

be from the round


Cut it into pieces of
about three ounces weight, and dredge well with flour.
Put the beef drippings and the sliced onion in a large
stew-pan, and when hot, put in the meat and stir conDredge in more flour until the
stantly for ten minutes.
mixture is well thickened, adding the ba3Meaf, which
should be broken, and sprinkling in the spices, which
should be well mixed together
add also the salt and
pepper and sliced lemon. When these have been well
stirred together, pour in gradually, still stirring, enough
Place the cover on the stewwater to cover the meat.
for this

any other part that

or

purpose

lean.

is

pan, and simmer gently for four hours.

USES FOR COOKED BEEF.


There

As

is

good-sized book written on this subject.

about two hundred ways of utilizing cold


can never be any excuse for wasting a parti-

there are

beef, there
cle.

BEEF BALLS.
One
One

large pint of

chopped

scanty pint of

fine

beef.

bread-crumbs.

ME A TS.
One and

151

a-half tea-spoonfuls of salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

One
One
One
One
One
One
Milk

The seasoning

tea-spoonful of sage.
table-spoonful of butter.
egg.

small stalk of celery.


sprig of parsley.
table-spoonful of chopped onion.
to

moisten the whole.

venient; but the onion


perfectly tasteless

The

may be made

of these balls

with what

the celery, parsley or sage being used

available,

butter

is

Add

is

con-

a necessity, for the balls are

without some seasoning of this

not used

on the beef.

is

if

sort.

an equal quantity of fat


the seasoning to the bread-crumbs
if

there

is

then chop the onion, celery and parsley fine, and

when

they are well mixed, put them with the chopped meat.

Add

the beaten egg, mixing

stir in

give.

so

it

into
ing.

the milk.

The

all

well together

exact quantity of milk

and
is

lastly

hard to

There should be enough to nicely moisten the mass


Form the mixture
into smooth cakes.
cakes with the hands, and flour each side before fryThey should be cooked for five minutes in very hot

may be made

fat.

Lamb

may be

left

former meal, or the tough ends of steaks,

will

or mutton chops that

over from a
do nicely for

these balls.

COOKED BEEF

IN TOMATO.

Cut the beef into thin slices, if possible if this cannot


be done, have the pieces about the size of a large oyster.
;

Place them in a frying-pan, and add a few spoonfuls of


canned tomato, nearly covering the meat. Add butter

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

152
salt

and pepper, and stew slowly, with the cover on the


Serve on a platter.

pan, for half an hour.

BEEF ON TOAST.
Finely chop the beef, which

may be

the ends of steaks

Season with

or the remnants of a roast.

salt

and pepper.

For each pint of meat stir in a table-spoonful of flour,


mixing thoroughly. Place the meat in a small stew-pan,
and pour in enough milk to nearly cover. Simmer gently
It is
for ten minutes, and add a table-spoonful of butter.
better not to use the fat of the beef when chopping it up,
for

the

whole.
platter,
It is

butter

Toast

imparts
six

slices

much

flavor

better

of bread,

to

the

arrange them on a

spread the beef upon them, and serve at once.

surprising what a really small quantity of

suffice for a breakfast

when served

shepherds'
One

in this

meat

will

way.

pie.

quart oi cold beef.

Three table-spoonfuls of

butter.

Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

One

pint of water.

Eight large potatoes".

One

cupful of hot milk.

Salt

and pepper.

Cut the meat into thin slices, and season with salt
Place the meat in an earthenware dish,
and pepper.
and over it pour a sauce made as follows Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a frying-pan, and when hot,
add the flour. Stir until brown, and pour in the water.
Season with salt and pepper, and boil for three minutes.
Pare, boil and mash the potatoes, and add to them the
:

ME A TS.
milk, the

boiling hot

and pepper to
sauce and bake
beef

"

Spread

this preparation

for this dish.

a crust as for

PIE.

pies

" Desserts

(see

rather thickly, and line a deep dish with

small pieces

in rather
it

thinly

son with

if

salt

about the

and pepper.
it

it.

size of

roll

"),

flour,

slic-

and

sea-

Place a thick layer of meat in

with small pieces of butter, add

another layer and more butter, and so continue until


the

meat

there

is

Squeeze a

used.

should

little

be any gravy

left

lemon-juice over

all.

and pour

it

In this case use less butter through the meat.

there

no gravy, add water


if

gravy

is

If

over the

meat.
is

all

from roast meat, add

a few drops of Worcestershire sauce,

height, but

it

Cut the beef

an oyster

Dredge well with

possible.

and dot

the dish,

over the

Other meats beside

for thirty minutes.

MEAT

ing

53

other spoonful of butter, and salt

taste.

may be used

Make

to the meat to half of

used, and there

is

If
its

not enough to

add as much water as needful.


Cover the top with a crust, pinching the edge of the
under crust to that of the upper the same as for any

make up

other pie.

this

quantity,

Bake

forty-five minutes.

ESCALLOPED BEEF AND MACARONI.


One-quarter pound of macaroni.

One
One
One

quart of cooked beef.


cupful of bread-crumbs.
table-spoonful of flour.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One

pint of water.

Salt

and pepper.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

154

Boil the macaroni slowly until


forty minutes.

generally

about

a sauce by rubbing the butter and

and

adding

together

flour

soft

Make

pint

of

the

water the

macaroni was boiled in seasoning with salt and pepper.


Place in the baking dish a layer of macaroni, and season
;

well

cover with part of the sauce, and arrange a layer of

meat seasoned with

salt

and pepper; and continue with

and meat until all the mateCover the last layer with breadServe in the same
half an hour.

the layers of macaroni, sauce


rials

have been used.

crumbs, and bake for


dish.

BAKED HASH OF RICE AND BEEF.


One
One
One
One

cupful of cooked beef.


cupful of cooked rice.

cupful of milk.
egg.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

Chop

Put the milk on the

the meat, but not too fine.

and when

add all the other ingredients, except


the Qgg.
Stir for one minute, to insure the whole
being thoroughly hot, remove from the fire, and add the
Gggj well beaten.
Turn the hash into a baking dish, and
bake twenty minutes.
Serve in the same dish.
The
hash should be very brown.

fire,

hot,

BAKED HASH OF POTATO AND BEEF.


Two

cupfuls of cooked beef.

One

cupful of cold

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls of bread-crumbs.

mashed

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One-half cupful of water.


Salt

potato.

and pepper.

ME A TS.
Chop

the meat, but not too fine,

155

add the cold mashed

potato and the other ingredients, and bake half an hour


or until well browned.

CORNED-BEEF HASH.

One
One
One

pint of

chopped

beef.

pint of potato.

table-spoonful of butter.

One-half cupful of milk or water.


Salt

Chop
fine,

and pepper.

the potato

and the meat separately and rather

seasoning each when chopped.

If the

beef

is

very-

do not add salt.


Mix beef and potatoes together
lightly.
Pour the milk in a frying-pan with half the butter, and when warm, turn in the hash, spreading it evenly,
and placing the rest of the butter, cut in pieces, on the
Cover the pan, and place it where the hash will
top.
cook slowly for half an hour. There should then be a
rich, thick crust on the bottom.
Do not stir the hash.
Fold it the same as an omelette, and place it on a warm
salt,

platter.

This slow process of heating the hash gives

flavor that cannot

it

be obtained by hurried cooking


BEEF-LIVER STEW.

One pound

of liver.

One-half lemon.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of cinnamon.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of cloves.


One-quarter tea-spoonful of nutmeg.
Salt

and pepper.

in slices, wash them well in lukewarm


and dry them on a napkin. Place some
pork drippings in a frying-pan, and when hot, fry the liver

Cut the

liver

salted water,

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

56

about three minutes.

Turn

into a small stew-pan, add


lemon cut in slices, all the
Cover the pan, and
spices and sufficient salt and pepper.
stew slowly for thirty minutes. When done stir into the
gravy in the pan a little corn-starch wet with water.
Serve on a
Taste, and add more seasoning, if necessary.
it

enough water

to cover, the

small platter.

This mode of cooking beef

liver

renders

it

tender and sweet.

BEEF KIDNEY.
Beef and sheep kidneys are often recommended for
food on account of their cheapness, and epicures are
fond of them as
is

well.

The

latest decision of physicians

that they are not suitable for food, as, " from their con-

stant use in the animal system, as organs which separate


from the blood that which would poison the system if it
remained in the blood, they are often liable to become

Kidneys may be prepared

diseased."
like

them) the same as

liver

stew,

those

(for

in

the

who

preceding

receipt.

BEEF TONGUE.

Choose a plump tongue with a smooth skin, which


denotes the age of the animal. If it has been salted and
dried, soak
of water

for twenty hours before boiling, using plenty

it

but

if

it

is

fresh from the brine,

it

will

need

to

be soaked only three or four hours.

Put the tongue


gradually warm for one hour,

and let it
cook slowly for two hours.

into cold water,

then

let

water,

it

Plunge it into cold


remove the skin. If the tongue is
put it on to cook in boiling hot water,

when done,

perfectly

fresh,

to

MEATS.
salting the water slightly

157

and cook until tender. Serve


Sandwiches made of tongue

by slicing across the tongue.


are held in high esteem.

TRIPE.

Tripe
is

is

the large stomach of a ruminating animal and

and

nutritious

easily digested.

TO PREPARE TRIPE FOR COOKING.


the

Scald

stomach with boiling water

loosen the inside coating

coating

may be

if

easily scraped

through several boiling waters

and

let it

clean.

soak over night.

Tripe

is

sufficiently to

this is properly done, the


off.
;

Wash

then put

it

the tripe well


in cold water,

Scrape again until white and

usually sold in the city markets already

cleaned.

BOILED TRIPE.

and water for half

Boil the tripe in equal parts of milk

an hour, boiling at the same time and

in the

same water

a couple of onions, which should be put in the water at


least half

an hour before the tripe

is

put in to

boil.

Skim out the onions when perfectly tender, and make


them into a sauce to pour over the tripe. The sauce is
made as follows

ONION SAUCE FOR TRIPE.


Drain the cooked onions well and chop them very
then place them in half a pint of hot milk, and

fine

season with butter, salt and pepper.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

158

VEAL.
Very young veal may be known by

its

small and tender

bones, the flesh having a bluish tinge and a

appearance.
is

two

and has a pinkish

firm

It is

When from

then

tinge,

At best veal

prime.

in its

soft,

flabby

months old the flesh


and the bones are hard.

to three

is

an indigestible

meat and contains little nutriment. It has very little


flav^or and needs to be well seasoned and thoroughly
cooked to be at all palatable. Despite the prejudice
which prevails, however, the excellent and attractive
dishes of which veal forms the basis are almost without number.
The lower part of the leg, or knuckle, and all the
used for soup. Cutlets or steaks,
and the fricandeaM or cushion are cut from the

gristly portions are

the

fillet

thickest part of the leg.

The Join

roasts, the breast for roasts

The head

soup.

is

is used for chops or


and the neck for stews or for

also used

for

stewing and pickling, and the liver in

soup, the

many

heart for

ways.

ROAST VEAL.

Wipe
place

the meat, dredge with salt, pepper

it

the pan.

pound

in a pan,

Roast from twenty

of veal.

pint of

pouring a

little

and

w^ater in the

to thirty

flour,

and

bottom

of

minutes for every

Baste every twenty minutes with half a

warm water

into

which has been melted a

tea-

spoonful of butter, using the liquid in the bottom of the

pan for basting as soon as there

is

sufficient.

Make

gravy the same as for any roast, using the liquid in the pan.

STUFFED BREAST OF VEAL.

Make

an incision between the ribs and the meat to

MEATS.
form a cavity,
will,

do

in

which

159

so.

Use

The butcher

to place the stuffing.

however, prepare the veal for

stuffing,

ordered to

if

for the stuffing

One

cupful of bread-crumbs.

One-quarter pound of

One
One
One

fat' salt

pork.

tea-spoonful of sweet marjoram.

tea-spoonful of thyme.
tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

The pork should be chopped very

fine

and

about a large table-spoonful when chopped.


be used in

place,

its

if

will

Butter

make
may

Roast the same as

preferred.

directed in the preceding receipt.

VEAL CUTLETS.

Wipe the cutlets, sprinkle them with salt and pepper,


them first in beaten ^gg and then in fine bread or
cracker-crumbs, and fry in drippings until brown. The
cutlets should be thoroughly browned on both sides.
Place them on a platter, add a little water to the gravy in
dip

the pan, and


flour

wet

in

thicken slightly wdth


a

little

water.

table-spoonful

Strain the gravy,

if

it

is

of

not

entirely smooth.

VEAL AND HAM.


These are often dressed together. Heat the fryinghot, and fry the ham, using no fat unless the meat is

pan

unusually lean.

When

the

ham

is

cooked, place

it

on the

serving dish, and cook the veal in the juices left from the

ham, frying without covering


After the veal

is

until it

done, add a

season with pepper, and pour

little
it

is

a deep

brown.

water to the gravy,

without thickening over

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

l6o

The gravy

the meat.

ham

is

will scarcely

need

salt,

unless the

rather fresh.

VEAL STEW, WITH DUMPLINGS.

The ends

neck and the knuckle may be

of the ribs, the

utilized for a stew.

Three pounds of

Two

veal.

small onions.

Five potatoes.

One
One

table-spoonful of butter.

cupful of milk.

Salt and pepper.

Cut the meat into pieces the

a tea-cup, and

size of

place them in a kettle with the onion, salt and pepper

and enough water to just cover them. Smimer gently


meat is tender, about an hour being generally
sufficient.
Strips of salt pork are sometimes cooked
Half
in with the veal and add much to the flavor.
an hour before serving add the potatoes, cut in halves,
and boil them with the meat. Use for the dumplings
until the

One

pint of flour.

One-half a large table-spoonful of lard.

One
One
Milk
Stir the
in the

tea-spoonful of

baking-powder and
a spoon

Add enough
a

too wet.

salt.

to moisten.

lard with

mixed.

make

tea-spoonful of baking-powder.

dough,

salt

milk to

to

Flour the baking-board,

plate, set the plate in a

whole

moisten

taking care not

an inch thick, and cut out as for

on a

into the flour,

until the

is

the flour,

make
roll

biscuit.

and rub

thoroughly

the

the

and

mixture

dough out

Put the pieces

steamer over the stew, and

MEATS.

When

Steam twenty minutes.

l6i

dumpHngs.are done,
skimmer lift the meat
and lay them on the platter.
the

place them on a platter, and with a

and potato from the kettle

Add

and butter

the milk

thicken with a
with water.

hngs.

flour

to

the gravy in the

stirred

stew should seem quite boiled down, the

If the

boiling water,

as

the rapid

a separate kettle of

boiling necessary for

cooking reduces the stew very much.


Another mode of cooking the dumplings
with the

stew

unless served the

homes

is

and

to

dumphngs should be steamed over

in

kettle,

a thin, smooth paste


Pour the gravy over the meat and dumplittle

is

to boil

but they are very apt to be

moment

they are done, which

in

their

them
heavy

some

The steamed dumplings

not always possible.

can always be relied upon to be

light.

VEAL LOAF.
This

may be

served cold for luncheon or tea, or hot

with the sauce given in the recipe.

Two and

a-half

pounds

of veal.

One-half pound of salt pork.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

tea-spoonful of chopped onion.

One-half cupful of cracker crumbs.

One-quarter cupful of water or stock,

One

Two

egg.

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One-half tea-spoonful of sage.

Chop

the veal and pork very fine, and add the other

ingredients,

except the butter.

with the hands.

Mix

all

well

together

Butter a small pan or deep pie-tin, and

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

l62

press the mixture into

Cook

inches high.

it

for

like a loaf,

two hours

making
in

it

about three

a rather hot oven,

basting with another half cupful of water or stock in

which the butter has been melted.


lowing sauce

Serve with the foUow-

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

One

cupful of milk.

Salt

and pepper to

table-spoonfuls of butter.

taste.

Heat the butter hot, and stir in the flour. When the
above ingredients are well browned, draw the pan back
and slowly add the milk. Boil three minutes, stirring all
the time; add salt and pepper, and set back to keep hot.
Pour into the sauce the gravy that remains in the pan
after baking the loaf, and having stirred the sauce well,
turn it over the loaf and serve.
JELLIED VEAL.

Any cheap

pieces of veal will do for this dish, which

is

very nice for luncheon or supper.


Three pounds of

One

veal.

table-spoonful of chopped onion.

One-half table-spoonful of sage or any other herbs available.


Salt

and pepper.

Cut the meat

and stew slowly in a very little


it from
the kettle and chop
fine.
Then return the meat to the kettle, with the water
it was cooked in, and add salt and pepper, the sage and
onion, and a bit of celery or parsley if it is to be had,
chopping all the vegetables very fine. Cook ten minutes,
and pour into a square tin. When cold cut into slices
water.

When

in pieces,

tender take

MEATS.
and

163

Care should be taken not too use too much

serve.

water for cooking the veal

STUFFED PEPPERS.

(A

SOUTHERN

DISH.)

most satisfactory ways of using cold


large and green and not
Carefully cut round the tops of the peppers
too thick.
about half an inch from the stem, dig out all the seeds,
This

is

one

of the

The peppers should be

veal.

and cut out the " partitions " or thick pieces inside the
Soak the peppers and tops in salted water over
peppers.
night, changing for fresh water in the morning.
Chop the
veal rather fine, and season with salt, but no pepper.

Wipe

the peppers dry, place in each, as

pared, a small piece of butter, and


veal, placing

another

bit

it

is

fill it v^^ilh

of butter

on top

being pre-

the

chopped

of the meat.

and

sew them on with coarse thread.


and sewed, place them in a kettle
with water enough to nearly cover them, adding a tablespoonful of butter to the water.
Stew slowly, turning
the peppers occasionally, until they look shiny and semitransparent.
This will take a full hour.
Take them up
very carefully with a skimmer so they will not break, lay
them on the serving dish, and carefully remove the
threads.
Thicken the gravy in the kettle with a little
flour or corn-starch wet in a little water, adding salt if
Fit

the

When

all

tops,

are stuffed

if not very rich, adding also a spoonful of


Pour this on the peppers, and serve. Should
there be any gravy left from a roast of veal, turn it into
the kettle before stewing the peppers
and in this case
use no butter.
If it should be found necessary to hurry this dish, the
peppers may be soaked on the back of the range by plac-

needed, and,

butter.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

164

ing them in cold water and changing the water as soon as

warmed

well

peppers

soak

This

by

is

and

is

of the leg.

may seem

the

edible

in

prepare, but
" fussing " that

difficult to
little

far

fricandeau of veal.

considered cut of the

choicest

the

a thick piece of lean meat cut from the top


It is

always trimmed high in the center, and

making
and braise it

thin at the outside,

really a little

Lard the

in a braising

braised

changes,

make them

of in

Ps.

veal,

frequent

and fully repays the


work of any kind.

really easy

many weary

with

sufficiently to

This dish

four hours.
it is

way,

in this

will

top,

When

beef.

mound

of meat.

pan the same as

done, dish the meat, very slightly

thicken the juices in the bottom of the pan, strain, and


turn the gravy over

X^io.

fricandeau.

calf's liver
Calf's liver

is

and bacon.

considered quite a delicacy and

is

always

bacon

as an
bacon in very thin slices,
place them in a hot frying-pan, and turn constantly until
all are crisp
then take them up and keep hot. Cut
the liver a-quarter of an inch thick, wash it in cold water,
and dry on a napkin. Place the frying-pan where the
heat will not be so great as when the bacon was cooked,
and fry the liver ten minutes, turning it frequently.

expensive.

It

rarely

is

accompaniment.

Cut

served

without

the

Place the liver

around

it

in

the center of the platter, with the bacon

as a garnish.

Stir a table-spoonful of flour into the hot

pan, and
ually

stir

until

brown.

fat

in

the

Set the pan back, and grad-

add enough boiling water

to

make

the gravy.

Sea-

MEATS.

165

salt, and pour the gravy over the


Slow cooking spoils bacon, and rapid
cooking hardens and toughens liver.

son with pepper and

liver

and bacon.

calf's liver, creamed.

Two pounds
One

of liver.

pint of milk.

Five table-spoonfuls of butter.

Three tea-spoonfuls

Cut the

One

slice of onion.

Salt

and pepper.

of flour.

small pieces, cover with cold water for

liver in

Heat

ten minutes,

and drain.

seasoning

with salt and pepper, and cook slowly eight

it

minutes, browning

it

on

all

the butter, put in ihe liver,

sides

then take up the

where it will keep warm.


the frying-pan, and cook one minute
and place

cook, constantly stirring, until

it

liver,

Place the onion

it

add the

flour,

begins to froth.

and

Draw

the pan back, gradually add the cold milk and cook one

minute, stirring

all

Place the liver

the time.

with the gravy, cover the pan,

minutes longer.

luncheon or

This

is

in

the pan

and stew very slowly

a pleasant dish

for

five

breakfast,

tea.

LIVER HASH.

Cut the

One
One
One
One
One

table-spoonful of butter.

Salt

and pepper.

pint of

cooked

liver.

cupful of cold water.

tea-spoonful of flour.

tea-spoonful of lemon- juice.

liver into pieces the size of a

ure after cutting.

Heat the

butter,

and

penny, and measstir in

the flour,

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

66

brown; then add the water


and pepper. Place the
in this sauce, and simmer very gently twenty minAdd the lemon juice, and serve very hot.

cooking and

until

stirring

gradually, and season wiih salt


liver

utes.

BAKED calf's LIVER, WITH STUFFING.

Wash

knife, enlarging the aperture


little

and

as possible, but
fro

Make

the liver well in cold, salted water.

to

where the blade enters as

moving the point

increase the size of the

with the following stuffing

One
One
One

an

a long, narrow, sharp

incision in the thickest part with

of

the knife to

cavity inside.

Fill

pint of bread-crumbs.

table-spoonful of butter.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter of a tea-spoonful of pepper.


One-half a small onion.
Sage, celery and parsley,

Chop

the onion fine,

scalding water on

when pour

it.

place

Let

it

it

if

in

using the hands

Rub
this

bowl,

and pour

away the very rank

the butter well into the crumbs,

should be done

hour before the stuffing

hand

stand only a half minute,

the water off; this takes

taste of the onion.

at

is

at least

needed, as the flavor

half

an

will

be

improved by the butter and crumbs remaining


Add a tea-spoonful of each of the
together for a time.
herbs, if they are available, and also the onion and the
This
the stuffing is then ready to use.
salt and pepper

greatly

makes
is

a delightfully crumbly stuffing, not the paste that

often called by that name.

After

filling

the

and pepper, and

liver with

flour

it.

stuffing,

Place

it

in

season
a

with salt

roasting

pan.

MEATS.
adding a
the

water,

little

and

lay strips of fat

Roast for one hour.

liver.

first

167

time with half a pint of water in which has been

and afterward with

placed a table-spoonful of butter,

When

the gravy in the pan.

the liver

any

(See " Roasting

roast

and over the

done, place

and pour

"),

it

on

it

same

as

around

liver.

calf's head,

is

the pan the

a hot platter, thicken the gravy in


for

pork over the

Baste every twenty minutes,

to clean.

head may usually be purchased from

the

butcher already cleaned, but for the benefit of those

who

calf's

or

prefer,

are

compelled, to clean

it

themselves,

the

mode of procedure is here given. Place the head


in warm water for five minutes
then lift it out and powder the hair with pulverized resin.
The resin is not indispensable, but it facilitates the operation.
Have ready
proper

and

a large kettle of scalding water,


der,

plunge the head into the

Raise

it

after

one minute, hold

fully scrape off

board, saw

take

it

all

the hair.

in halves

out the

kettle,
it

after using the

by the

Then

pow-

covering every part.


ear,

lay the

and carehead on a

lengthwise through the skull, and

eyes, brain

and tongue.

Scrape the ear,

them if they
and remove the gristle that
is
around the nose. Break the jaw-bone, remove the
gums and teeth, and lay the head in a large panful of
nasal and

throat passages

do not seem perfectly clean

well, scalding

water to soak.

Half a head

is

generally enough to serve at one time.

STEV/ED calf's HEAD, WITH BRAIN SAUCE.

Put the head

in

slightly salted

water,

and

boil

until

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

68

the

meat

is

tender

Score the top a

dredge with

pan

to

take

rub

it

up, and

it

drain well.

melted butter,

over with

and place it in the oven in a baking


browned, pour over the head the

flour,

When

brown.

following sauce

then

little,

BRAIN SAUCE.

Soak the brains

move

the

for half

membrane

an hour

in

Reand make sure

cold water.

that covers them,

they are perfectly w^hite and free of blood-filled veins


by cleansing them again and again in fresh water. Place
them in a piece of cheese-cloth, tie the ends, and stew
them half, an hour in enough water to cover.; then take
them out, remove the cloth, after draining well, and

mash them with

the

back

gradually, that the mixture

of

may

strong

Add

spoon.

not be lumpy, a small

tea-cupful of the water in which the

head was boiled

also

season with salt and pepper, a large spoonful of butter, a


pinch of sage and powdered cloves, and a tea-spoonful of

chopped parsley, if it is available. Set the sauce on the


fire to simmer gently while the head is browning.
calf's

One
One
One
One
One
One

calf's

head cheese.

head.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

tea-spoonfnl of

summer

savory.

table-spoonful of chopped parsley.

tea-spoonful of chopped onion.


tea-spoonful of sweet marjoram.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

tea-spoonful of sage.

Place the head

in

enough hot water

to cover

simmer until the meat will leave the bone.

Take

it,

and

out the

MEATS.

169

head very carefully on a skimmer, remove the bones,


chop the meat, and add the seasoning. Have ready a
small bag
tie

made

pack the mixture into it,


and hang it away to cool. When
turn the bag wrong side out off the meat.
Serve

bag

the

cold,

of cheese-cloth,

tightly,

cold for lunch or tea, cutting the cheese into thin slices.

SCALLOPED calf's BRAINS.

Two

sets of brains.

One
One
One
One

pint of bread-crumbs.
egg.

table-spoonful of vinegar.
table-spoonful- of butter.

One-half of a tea-spoonful of

flour.

One-half of a tea-spoonful of chopped parsley.


One-half of a tea-spoonful of onion juice.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter of a tea-spoonful of pepper.

Soak the brains for two hours in warm water, free


them from the skin and large fibres, and wash in cold
Tie

water.

and place

in

them loosely in a piece of thin muslin,


enough boiling water to cover, adding the
Boil thirty minutes, take out the

vinegar to the water.


brains,

drain,

a sauce thus
hot,

add the

Place the butter


flour.

Stir until

gradually add the

then

When

and plunge them into cold water.


and cut them into small pieces.

milk.

in

a frying-pan, and

smooth and

As soon

cold,

Now make

as

when

frothy,

the

and

liquid

add the parsley, onion juice and half the pepper


the other half being sprinkled on the brains.
Beat the ^gg^ and add it to the brains, mixing well.
Spread a layer of crumbs on the bottom of a baking-dish,

boils,

and

salt,

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

I/O

then half the brains, then a layer of the sauce, and finally

Again arrange a layer of brains and


Bake twenty minutes in a

a layer of crumbs.

sauce, and finish with crumbs.

moderate oven.

It

makes

strew bits

delicate,

to

crumbs.

Serve

in

of

the

dish richer, but not so

butter

on the top layer of

the dish the scallop

is

made

in.

SWEETBREADS.
Sweetbreads are two glands lying along the back of the
The lower one is round and compact,
throat and breast.

and

is

heart

"heart" sweetbread, because nearer the


upper or " throat " sweetbread is long and

called the

the

narrow and

is

The

easily divided into sections.

membrane

connect-

sometimes broken and each gland sold


as a whole sweetbread, but there should always be two.

ing

is

The sweetbreads

calves and young lambs are

of

Lamb

used for food.

sweetbreads are usually

those

left in

the

fore-quarter and are rarely cooked separately.

They

are,

however, sometimes sold by the pound or pair

like

those

of veal.

Sweetbreads are prime only so long as the animal


fed chiefly on milk; for
for only

when

the beast

is

fed on grass

is

one or two weeks before being slaughtered, the


will be dark, flabby, and tough, whereas if

sweetbreads

fed on milk they will be white, firm and tender.


spoil very quickly

and cannot be kept

long,

They

even on

ice.

Sweetbreads should be put in cold water as soon as purchased, and parboiled before being used in any other
form.
They were formerly thrown away as worthless,
but the

demand

for

them has so increased,

that

now

they

are considered a luxury and are rarely sold in the larger


cities for less

than thirty cents a pair, while

in

the winter

MEATS.
tliey

They

much

often bring as

171

as a dollar and a-half

are cheapest in the late spring and

a pair.

summer.

TO PREPARE SWEETBREADS.

Remove

pipes

the

and membranes, soak the sweetAt the end of this


slightly salted, boiling water, and

breads for one hour in cold water.


time place them in
boil

for

fifteen

always use
also

use

In

minutes.

knife

silver

peculiar phosphoric

parboiling

saucepan, and

for cutting, as

they contain a

acid

that acts

upon iron or

such a way as to entirely destroy their own


they

have boiled

water for

fi^e

dry them, and put

needed

minutes,

fifteen

minutes

sweetbreads

granite-ware

porcelain or

place them

tin

in

When

flavor.
in

cold

then take them up, drain and

the coldest place available until

in

for use.

FRIED SWEETBREADS.
Parboil as directed, and cut the sweetbreads in evensized

pieces; sprinkle with

first in

beaten

o.^^

salt

and then

in

and pepper, dip them

bread or cracker-crumbs,

and fry

in hot lard.
When well browned on both
them on a platter. Turn out part of the
which they were fried, leaving in the pan only a

sides,

place

fat in

hot fat a table-spoonful of

flour,

spoonful.

Stir into this

table-

and stir well until frothy; then set the pan back a little
and gradually add a cupful of milk, stirring all the
time.
Season with salt and pepper, and cook about two
minutes.
Strain, and pour over the sweetbreads.
Fried
sweetbreads are served

in

many

ways.

They

are often

dished with green peas, cooked rather dry and placed in


a

mound

or

little

hill

in

the center of

the platter, the

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

']2

sweetbreads being laid around." Macaroni

may be

boiled

very tender and laid on the platter and the sweetbreads

placed in the center, the pipes of the macaroni being laid

about them

like

little nest.

BAKED SWEETBREADS.
One

pair of sweetbreads.

One-third of a medium-sized onion.

Four

One
One

slices of carrot.

stalk of celery.

sprig of parsley.

Place in the bottom of a baking dish a few thin slices


of

salt,

pork,

and on these

lay the

sweetbreads, which

Over the sweetand bake for

should have been parboiled as directed.

breads sprinkle the vegetables chopped


twenty minutes
into an

fine,

Cut a large slice of bread


brown in a frying-pan, and

in a hot oven.

oval shape, fry

place the sweetbreads

it

on

it.

Serve with peas or with

tomato sauce (see index).

STEWED SWEETBREADS.
Parboil as directed, and put the sweetbreads in a very

water to stew. When tender, add for each sweetbread a tea-spoonful of chopped parsley and a-quarter
little

of a cupful of cream,

Let them simmer for

and season with

five

minutes,

salt

ered dish with the gravy.

SWEETBREAD CROQUETTES.
Two

and pepper.

when served

pairs of sweetbreads.

One-half pint of cream.

One-third tea-spoonful of pepper.


One-half tea-spoonful of parsley.

in a cov-

MEATS.
Four table-spoonfuls

of

173
mushrooms.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One
One
One

table-spoonful of lemon juice.

Two

eggs.

table-spoonful of flour.

table-spoonful of salt.

Parboil and cool the sweetbreads as directed, and chop


them rather fine then add the chopped mushrooms, and
Put the cream on the fire, and heat
also the seasoning.
Rub the flour and butter well together, and stir
slowly.
them into the cream when it boils, stirring until smooth.
Now add the sweetbread mixture, stir well, and simmer
;

mass the
and remove from the
fire at once.
Pour this mixture on a platter and set it
away to cool, allowing at least two hours for the purpose.
Shape into cylinders with the hands, roll them in beaten
itgg and then in bread or cracker-crumbs, and fry in
plenty of hot lard, using the frying basket, if you have
one.
Serve with white sauce or Bechamel sauce (see
Next put

for three minutes.

beaten

well

eggs,

into the boiling

quickly,

stir

index).

MUTTON.
In England mutton

being used and

is

is

always hung some time before

always delicious

length of time in American


unfit to eat.

fact

This

is

air,

the

but if hung the same


meat would be simply

not generally understood, but the

remains the same, nevertheless.

Mutton has a strong

many

flavor

that

is

disagreeable

to

by the oil from the wool,


which penetrates the fat. In chops the pink skin above
the fat should always be removed.
The caul or lining
;

it

is

said to be caused

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

74

membrane of the abdomen is wrapped around the leg


when offered for sale in the markets, and is often left on
Some cooks affirm
in roasting to help baste the meat.
that

it

imparts a strong flavor to the meat and, therefore,

remove

before roasting, basting with some of the kid-

it

The wisdom or consistency of this,


open to doubt. The best roasts are the leg,
Mutton is generally served
the saddle and the shoulder.
ney

necessary.

fat, if

however,

rare,

is

but this

is

a matter of taste.

BOILED LEG OF MUTTON, WITH CAPER SAUCE.


Put the mutton

in a kettle,

pour over

it

boiling water

and add a cupful of well washed rice,


which will render the mutton whiter and more tender.
When the water boils, skim it carefully, and allow it to
then set the kettle where
boil rapidly fifteen minutes
sufficient to cover,

and allow

the boiling will be gentle but constant,

minutes to each pound,

if

the

meat

is

fifteen

desired

rare.

Serve with

CAPER SAUCE.

Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

One

table-spoonful of lemon juice.

Three table-spoonfuls of capers.


One-half cupful of butter

One

pint of boiling water.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of pepper.


One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

Beat the flour and butter to a cream, and add the


ing water.

Set the mixture on the

fire,

stantly until heated to the boiling point

soning,

lemon juice and capers, and

and

stir it

then put
serve,

boil-

con-

in sea-

either by

MEATS.
pouring

over the leg of mutton or else in a separate

it

may be

dish, as

175

preferred.

Another and very superior way of finishing a leg of


mutton is to salt and pepper it after taking it from the
water, dredge well with flour, place it on a meat-rack
in a dripping-pan, and brown half an hour in a very hot
oven.
If this is done, but ten minutes to a pound will
suffice in the boiling.

BAKED LEG OF MUTTON.

Wipe
salt,

mutton with a damp

the

roasting-pan

cloth, sprinkle

it

with

and place on a meat-rack in a


add a cupful of water in the pan and

pepper and
;

flour,

roast in a hot oven, allowing fifteen minutes to a pound.

Baste every ten minutes, adding more water,

and dredging with a


pepper

each basting.

at

sprinkle of

slight

When

Place the dripping-pan upon


drain off

all

if

needed,

flour, salt

done serve on a

and

platter.

the top of the stove, and

but two table-spoonfuls of the

fat.

Add

and thicken with a small quantity of flour


wet to a paste in cold water, adding a little of the paste at
a time and stirring constantly until the gravy is of the
desired consistency.
Pour a couple of spoonfuls of the
gravy on the meat just before sending it to table, and
place the remainder in a sauce-boat.
Always serve
currant or some other tart jelly with roast mutton.
a

little

water,

MUTTON

Wash
vinegar.

dry place

a la

Venison.

mutton inside and out with cider


not wipe it, but hang up to dry in a cold,

saddle of

Do

not

in the cellar if

as the moisture of a cellar

is

it

can possibly be avoided,

disastrous to meat.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

176

on the meat, throw a clean


any possible dust. Sponge
When
in this way every other day for two weeks.
ready to cook, wipe the meat with a cloth, but do not

When

the vinegar has dried

cloth about

it

keep

to

off

Roast the mutton, basting for the first hour


with butter and water, and afterward with the gravy in
Add to the gravy just before serving half a teathe pan.
cupful of walnut, nriushroom or tomato catsup and a glass

wash

of

it.

Madeira, making the gravy the same as directed in the


Mutton prepared in this way strongly

preceding recipe.

resembles venison.

STUFFED AND ROLLED SHOULDER OF MUTTON.

Have
piece.

the butcher remove the bones from a shoulder

Wipe

the meat carefully, and dredge with flour,

after sprinkling with salt

Make

and pepper.

the follow-

ing

STUFFING.

One
One

pint of bread-crumbs.
table-spoonful of butter.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

One-half an onion.

One
One

Rub

the butter

tea-spoonful of dried herbs.


tea-spoonful of

and crumbs well

stand at least an hour.


ing water over

salt.

it,

Chop

and drain

together,

off

to the

let

them

almost immediately.

This removes the rank taste of the onion.

ped onion

and

the onion fine, pour boil-

crumbs, and also the

salt

Add

the chop-

and pepper, and

MEATS.

177

Spread the meat with this


and skewer it together, or else tie it
around with clean twine if there are no skewers. Put
half a pint of water in the bottom of the baking pan, and,
placing the meat on a rack (see " Kitchen Utensils "), roast
the same as directed for a baked leg of mutton, basting
the herbs,

dressing,

there are any.

if

roll

frequently.

it

up,

Allow about twenty minutes to a pound

baking with a

in

stuffing.

MUTTON STEW.
Three pounds of shoulder
One-half pound of

One
One

salt

of mutton.

pork.

large onion.

cupful of milk.

Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

Salt

and pepper.

The

inferior parts of the sheep will do well for this


which m^akes an economical dinner.
Trim the
mutton of every particle of fat, and cut it into pieces half

dish,

the size of a tea-cup

nearly cover with hot water, place

simmer slowly, closely covered, for


Then add the pork and onion, season to
half an hour.
taste with salt and pepper, and stew slowly until the meat
is tender.
Lift the meat out with a skimmer, and place
it on the serving dish
and add the milk to the gravy in
the kettle. When the gravy is hot, add the flour stirred to
it

on the

fire

and

let it

When these are well cooked


and add more seasoning if necthen pour it over the mutton, and serve. If green
in
season, add the grains from six ears an

a paste with a little cold milk.

together, taste the gravy,

essary

corn

IS

hour before the stew

is

done.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

178

MUTTON.

SCALLOPED
One

pint of cold,

chopped meat.

One-quarter tea-spoontul of pepper.

One
One
One
One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

table-spoonful of butter.
tea-spoonful of flour.
cupful of water.

meat rather coarsely, and add the salt and


when
the butter, and stir in the flour
browned darkly, add the water, and season the gravy
Arrange alternate
thus made with salt and pepper.
layers of meat and gravy in a baking dish, using three
layers of gravy and two of the mutton, thus ending with

Chop

the

Heat

pepper.

Cover the top with a

gravy.

light sprinkling of bread-

crumbs, and bake twenty minutes in a hot oven.


dish

may be prepared

fast,

and

the day before,

if

needed

This

for break-

set in a cold place.

FRENCH CHOPS.
These
butcher,

clean

are cut

for

quick

from the

who removes
a
fire,

little

all

ribs

distance

adding

and are trimmed by the


and scrapes the bone

the fat

salt,

from the end. Broil over


pepper and butter before

These chops may also be cooked by frying, in


which case they are first seasoned with salt and pepper
and dipped in beaten egg and then in cracker-crumbs.
French chops may be prettily served by making a mound
of mashed potatoes and laymg the chops around it, with
serving.

bone end upward and resting upon the potatoes,


These chops are generally served with peas.
the

ME A TS.

79

MUTTON CUTLETS, WITH SPANISH SAUCE.


Have

and a-half
French chops. With a sharp
two without separating the meat

the cutlets cut from the ribs, one inch

and trimmed
knife split each chop
thick,

from the bone.

like

in

Then make

the following filling for six

chops
Four table-spoonfuls

One
One
One

of

chopped mushrooms.

table-spoonful of chopped onion.


table-spoonful of flour.

table-spoonful of butter.

Three table-spoonful of water or stock.

One
One

tea-spoonful of parsley.
tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-fifth of a tea-spoonful of pepper.

Cook

the butter and onion together for five minutes,

add the mushrooms and seasoning, and cook for five minutes longer.
Add the flour, and stir well then put in
;

and cook three minutes. Turn the filling out


on a plate and when cool, spread it inside the chops, presthe water,

sing

them

lightly together.

Broil for eight minutes over a clear

warm

platter,

fire,

arrange on a

and pour over them the


SPANISH SAUCE.

One and a-quarter pints


One ounce of lean ham.
One bay-leaf.

of stock.

Three table-spoonfuls of gelatine.


Four table-spoonfuls of flour.
Four table-spoonfuls of butter.
Two table-spoonfuls of chopped onion.
One table-spoonful of chopped carrot.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

l8o

One
One

sprig of parsley.

Two

cloves.

table-spoonful of chopped celery.

bit of

Salt

mace.

and pepper.

Soak the gelatine an hour in a little of the stock


cook the butter and the vegetables together for ten
minutes, being careful to avoid burning; then add the
flour, and when brown, draw the pan back, gradually add
the stock, and boil three minutes, stirring all the time.
Add the herbs and spice, and place the vessel where
Add the gelatine at
the sauce will simmer for two hours.
Skim the
the end of that time, and cook fifteen minutes.
also

fat off

and

when

strain,

it

is

ready to pour on the cutlets.

way are considered one


for company dinners^

Cutlets prepared in this

most fashionable

entrees

MUTTON CROQUETTES (an


One
One

pint of

of the

Entree).

chopped meat.

cupful of milk or cream.

Two eggs.
One

table-spoonful of lemon juice.

One-half of a table-spoonful of

Two
Two

salt.

table-spoonfuls of butter.
table-spoonfuls of flour.

One-half of a tea-spoonful of pepper.

Chop

the meat rather fine, and add the salt, lemonand pepper. Put the milk in a small frying-pan.
Stir the butter and flour to a cream, and when the milk
boils, stir in the mixture slowly.
Cook one minute, stirring all the time
then add the chopped meat, and let all
boil together three minutes.
Beat the eggs, add them,

juice

MEATS.

l8l

and remove from the fire at once


upon a platter to cool. Sprinkle a
and when the mixture is cool,
with crumbs

stirring thoroughly,

turn out the whole

board

lightly

take a spoonful in the hands, shape

until all

roll

it

roll

each one

each

in

if

lightly

in the

crumbs.

beaten ^g'g and again

ing-basket.

cooked

ket

may

a cylindrical

to

it

upon the board. Continue thus


the croquettes have been formed, being careful to

form, and

The

in this

in

When

all

are done, dip

crumbs, and fry

in a fry-

croquettes should brown in two minutes

way.

Those who have not

a frying-bas-

use a frying-pan, cooking the croquettes until

brown

The

must be very
should be
desired for breakfast, the croquettes may be shaped the
day before and kept in a cool place, being dipped in the
egg and the second covering of crumbs in the morning.
they are a

nice

color.

hot or the croquettes will break.

If

onion

is

liked,

fat

If this dish

a tea-spoonful of onion juice

may be

added with the other seasoning.

MUTTON AND OYSTER SAUSAGES.


One pound of rare cooked
One table-spoonful of salt.

meat.

One- half tea-spoonful of pepper.


One-third pound of beef suet.

One

pint of oysters.

One-half a pint (scant) of bread-crumbs.

Two

eggs.

One
One

onion.

table-spoonful of herbs.

Chop the meat very fine, and add the seasoning, which
may be more than that given above, a bit of celery, parsley and any herbs available being proper.
Chop the suet

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

l82
very

and

fine,

oysters

the

also

together,

form into small

anchovies

may be added

mix

then

and

balls,

fry.

well

all

couple of

to the seasoning.

LAMB.

Lamb

best roasts are the fore and hind quarters.

The

keep

not

will

mutton, and

like

should be used not

it

Like veal,

longer than three days after killing.

it

should

be thoroughly cooked.

ROAST LAMB, WITH MINT SAUCE.


roast

the

If

from the breast, make a

is

stuffing as

directed for a rolled shoulder of mutton on page 176, and


fill

made

the place

dredge with
water

salt,

the

for

stuffing.

pepper and

in the roasting-pan,

flour,

Wipe
place

meat,

the

a cupful

of

and roast the meat on a rack,

basting often and allowing fifteen minutes to a pound.

Accompanying the

Serve hot on a platter.

roast

in a

separate dish will be the

MINT SAUCE.
Pick the leaves from the mint stalks until there
a pint.

Wash

the

leaves,

is

half

drain well, and place them

bowl.
Then, using a knife and
them mto very small pieces. Do not use a
wooden bowl, for half of the mint oil will be absorbed by

in

an earthenware

fork, cut

When

the wood.

the

table-spoonful of sugar,
a pint of

hot vinegar.

three minutes.

taste.

is

well chopped,

stir

in

mix thoroughly, and pour in half


Cover tightly, and serve after

Some cooks pour

and serve the same


a matter of

mint

after

it

the vinegar on

has stood one hour.

cold,

This

is

MEATS.

183

LAMB CHOPS.
These are broiled the same
intended to be served

at a

as

French chops.

luncheon as an

entree,

Wlxen
they are

manner: Mold
and cut sheets of thick white writing-paper, so that when
opened they will be heart-s,haped, making each sheet
nine by four and a-half inches in size.
Dip the cases in
broiled in paper cases, in the following

olive oil or melted butter, being careful that

mains unoiled.

Have

no part

re-

the chops cut from the ribs and

prepared the same as French chops.

Season with salt


and pepper, and dip them in melted butter.
Place
each chop on one side of a paper, with the bone toward
the center, fold the paper together, and roll the edges to
keep them closed. Broil eight minutes over a moderate
fire.
Serve on a hot dish in the papers in which they
were broiled. The success of paper broiling lies in getting every part of the paper well oiled.
The broiler
should be turned almost constantly while the chops are
cooking.

BROILED BREAST OF LAMB.


This

a very delicious dish, but

is

be done carefully.

The

fire

the broiling must

should not be too bright

will soon scorch.


Lay the inside of the
meat toward the fire first and broil very moderately,
turning the meat often.
When done, butter slightly, and

or the meat

season with salt and pepper.


in

The

breast of lamb

most markets with the fore-leg attached

this

be cut
in

to

is

sold

should

off before the piece is broiled, for, being so thick


comparison with the rest of the piece, it is difficult
cook it sufficiently. A stew may be made of the leg

piece, or

it

may go

with other pieces to

make

soup.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

84

PORK.
This

is

an unwholesome meat, and

is

very undesirable

and people with weak digestions. It should


never be seen on the table, except in cold weather, unless,
of course, in the form of smoked meat (ham or bacon).
Salt pork, bacon and ham are less objectionable than
fresh pork in fact, salt pork and bacon should always be
for children

kept

at

hand

in the

kitchen to use in cooking other meats.

In the country remote from the markets


possible even in

summer

it is

next to im-

the housekeeper to

for

pro-

vide for the table without a generous supply of bacon,

ham and salt pork but the danger is less in these


homes, for the animals are fed on corn, and generally are
;

so cared for that diseased meat

is

almost an impossi-

bility.

There

is

no part of the pig that

quently to the poor

man he

is

is

not used

conse-

a very profitable animal.

Pork requires a great deal of cooking, for when underdone the danger from eating it is very much increased.
ROAST LITTLE

The

pig should

be

about

butcher draws and scrapes

it,

PIG.

three

weeks

old.

The

but the cook must clean

it.

Cover the point of a wooden skewer with a piece of soft


cloth, and work the skewer into the ears to clean them.
Cleanse the nostrils in the same way, and also the vent
near the tail.
Scrape the tongue, lips and gums with a
sharp knife, wipe them with a soft cloth, and take out the
Wash the pig well with cold water, wipe dry, and
eyes.
rub a table-spoonful of salt on the inside of the pig.

Make

the following

MEATS.

185

STUFFING FOR ROAST

PIG.

Three pints of bread-crumbs.


Three tea-spoonfuls of salt.
One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

table-spoonful of powdered sage.

Three table-spoonfuls
One chopped onion.

Mix

well together,

first

of butter.

rubbing the butter into the

crumbs, and then adding the seasoning; and

the body

fill

Press the fore-feet forward and the

with the stuffing.

hind-feet backward, and skewer

position.

the

of

the

them to
mouth open, and place a small block
Butter two

teeth.

about the ears.

sheets of

paper and pin them

Sprinkle the pig with

salt,

a-half,

and cook

at least

rub

it all

Then

with soft butter, and dredge with flour.


in the roasting-pan,

Force

wood between
over

place

it

and

three hours

basting every fifteen or twenty minutes with butter

and sprinkling lightly with salt and flour after


Water should not be used, if the surface
the meat is desired crisp.
Remove the paper from the

or salad

oil,

each basting.
of

When

ears during the last half hour.

move

small ear of corn or a small lemon.

with this dish.


off

ready to serve,

the block from the mouth, inserting in

first,

the

meat

split

down

is

re-

place a

Serve apple sauce

In carving a roast pig, the head


the back, the

shoulders taken off and the ribs separated.


the stuffing

its

is

cut

hams and
portion of

served to each person.

ROAST LEG OF PORK.

The

pieces

used for roasting are the spare-rib, the

chine or loin, the leg and the shoulder.

be roasted, score the skin

in

If the

leg

is

to

squares, or in parallel lines

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

86

running from side

to side.

Put very

little

water

in

the

pan under the meat, sprinkle the latter with salt and pepper, dredge lightly with flour, and roast twenty-five minPour off all but two table-spoonfuls of
utes to a pound.
the

when

Place the pan on top of the stove, and

fat.

two table-spoonfuls of

hot, stir in

flour.

Cook one

min-

and add a pint of hot water, stirring constantly. Let


the gravy cook three minutes, and season with salt and
pepper. Those who do not object to a hint of onion in

ute,

flavoring will find

onion

it

a great addition to

the pan while the

in

meat

is

place a

roasting.

small

This, of

removed before the gravy is made but it takes


extreme " pig " flavor that is so disagreeable and

course,

is

off the

noticeable in old pork.

ROAST LOIN OR SHOULDER.

The
leg,

and the shoulder are roasted the same as the

loin

twenty minutes to a pound being allowed for the loin

and twenty-five minutes

for the shoulder.

ROAST SPARE-RIB.

Trim
dle,

off the ends neatly, crack the ribs across the midand sprinkle with salt and pt ^oer. Whei- the meat

is first

half

In

put

done
ten

in
;

to roast

it

with greased paper until


flour.

once with butler and afterward


minutes with the gravy. This is a necessity,

minutes baste

every fifteen

for the spare-rib

the

cover

then remove the paper and dredge with

pork from

is

a very dry piece.

the oven, strew

its

Just before taking


surface with

bread-

crumbs seasoned with a little powdered sage, salt and pepCook


per, and a bit of onion minced as fine as possible.
Make the gravy as
five minutes, and baste once more.

ME A TS.

directed for a roast leg of pork; strain,

the meat or serve in a gravy dish, as


Spare-ribs

may be

and pour

may be

it

87

over

preferred.

with the stuffing given for a roast

filled

The

ribs

are cracked crosswise the entire length in two places,

and

little pig,

the

half the quantity specified being used.

stuffing

placed in the center and the two ends

is

folded over and tied.

BROILED PORK STEAK.

When pork

is

be broiled,

to

it

should be cut very thin

and salted and peppered.


greased paper around the meat.

Many

indeed,

The

broiling of pork

cooks wTap

a delicate operation, since the

is

meat must be so thoroughly cooked.


FRIED PORK CHOPS.
Place

table-spoonful

Dust the chops with


until of a fine

brown.

directed for the roasts,

of

drippings in a frying-pan.

pepper and

flour, and fry slowly


Thicken the gravy in the pan as
and pour it over the meat.

salt,

PORK TENDERLOINS.
These are the choicest cuts

They

of the

pork and correspond

and although
would at first
appear, since there is no bone or waste of any kind.
They are split lengthwise and fried the same as pork
to the fillet of beef.

are solid meat,

rather high-priced, are not as expensive as

chops.

FRIED SALT PORK, WITH CREAM GRAVY.


Cut the
After

slices

they have

thin,

and place them

soaked an hour,

in

cold water.

drain well

and dry

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

88

Heat

them on a napkin.
half a cupful of flour
of

meat

in

spoonfuls
flour

into

it,

the frying-pan very hot.

on a

plate, and, dipping

Drain

fry until crisp.

of

the

that

and

fat

remaining

stir

but two table-

two table-spoonfuls

the

in

off all

Place

each piece

pan.

Cook

of

for two

then draw the pan back on the


When the gravy
pint of milk.
add
a
and
slowly
range,
cook only a minis smooth and well mixed together,
Turn the
ute, and add pepper, and salt also if needed.
gravy over the meat, and serve. This is the most delicious way of preparing salt pork and makes a very satisminutes, stirring well

factory breakfast dish.

SOUSE,

OR

pigs' feet.

Clean the feet carefully, and pour over them hot water
sufficient to cover.

rate

from the bones

Boil slowly until the


;

skimmer, and place them


largest bones.

used

meat

will sepa-

then take them up carefully on a


in

a stone jar, taking out the

Set the water aside in a cool place to be

later.

Allow a quart of strong vinegar to four good-sized


feet and uppers (which are always sold with the feet).
Place the vinegar on the fire, adding
Four bay-leaves.

One
One

table-spoonful of whole cloves.


table-spoonful of broken cinnamon.

One-quarter of a tea-cupful of

Two

One-half an onion, cut

One blade
Steep
utes,

all

salt.

tea-spoonfuls of pepper.
in

eighths.

of mace.

these slowly in the vinegar for forty-five min-

being careful that the vinegar does not boil rapidly

MEATS.
Remove from

any time.

at

in

purposes.

the

all

the latter

unless

the water in which the feet

which by this time will have


a cake on the top, and save it for cooking
Place a quart of the water in the vinegar,

were boiled

formed

189

is

fat,

not very strong, in which case less

water must be added, so that the vinegar will not become


too

much

jar,

spice, etc.,

helping

until

Strain the liquid through a sieve to

diluted.

remove the

it

and pour

the whole

thoroughly mixed together.

is

jar in a cold place for

ready for use.

over the meat

it

the

in

through the meat with a knife and fork,


Set the

two days, when the souse

This preparation

will

be

particularly nice for a

is

home luncheon or tea and should be a


mass when properly prepared.

thick, jelly-like

pigs' feet, fried.


Split the feet

them

separate

through the middle lengthwise, and boil

tender, but not so

until

from

the

bones.

much

After

that the

draining

meat

will

well,

dip

^^g and then in rolled crackercrumbs seasoned with salt and pepper, and fry in a hot

each piece

in

beaten

frying-pan, using plenty of

oughly so there
dish

when

will

fat.

Drain each piece thor-

not be a drop of fat on the serving

sent to table.

head-cheese.
This

is

generally

but the head alone

meat very

made of
may be

the head, ears and tongue,


used,

if

desired.

Clean the

work being most particular and not to be hurried.


Boil the meat and bones
in salted water until the former is very tender.
Skim out
the head, place it in a colander to drain, and remove all
carefully, this part of the

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

190
the bones

with a knife.

Cut the ears rather fine, and


Season the whole with

place them with the head meat.


salt,

pepper, sage, sweet marjoram and any other herbs

that

may be

Mix

the

available,

adding a

little

powdered

cloves.

mass well together, taste to see if properly


seasoned, and pack it tightly in a bowl, interspersing the
Press
layers of meat with slices of the boiled tongue.
the meat into a compact shape, and cov4r it with a plate
upon which is placed a sufficiently heavy weight. The
head-cheese will be ready to use in two or three days.
Cut it in thin slices, and serve with vinegar, and mustard
if liked
or it may be cut in slices and fried th'e same as
;

pig's feet, being first

The

latter

mode

dipped

in

egg and cracker-crumbs.

of preparing produces a very

pleasant

breakfast dish.

SCRAPPLE.

Many
lar dish

country have some particuwhich they are noted, and. that peculiar to

cities or parts of the

for

Philadelphia

market

in

made

is

known

as "scrapple," w^hich

is

brought

large quantities and sold most reasonably.

way

to
It

and thoroughly clean a


hog's head then split it, and take out the eyes and
brain.
The butcher will, of course, do this when
directed.
Clean the ears also, and scrape and scald them
well.
Put all on to boil in plenty of cold water, and simmer gently for four hours, or until the bones will easily
slip from the meat.
Lift out the meat and bones into a
colander, remove the bones, and chop the meat fine.
Skim off every particle of grease from the water in which
the meat was boiled, and return the chopped meat to the
kettle and water.
Season highly with pepper and salt
is

in

this

Scrape

MEATS.

191

and such powdered herbs as may be preferred. Now


take a large wooden spoon or paddle and stir constantly,
meanwhile adding enough corn meal and buckwheat flour,
in

make

equal quantities, to

Cook slowly

mush.

a soft

one hour, stirring frequently, as the mush will scorch


Pour the mixture into dishes and keep it in a cool
easily.
slicing

place,

buckwheat

as

it

wheat middlings

is

needed.

used

Sometimes part or

and again corn meal

flour,

of

all

place of the corn meal and

in

or

buckwheat

flour alone is used.

TO COOK SCRAPPLE.
Cut

and

it

into rather thin slices, dip each slice in flour,

fry until a flne

brown.

Drain well before serving.

PORK SAUSAGE.
Six pounds of lean fresh pork.
Three pounds of fat fresh pork.
Twelve tea-spoonfuls of powdered sage.

Six tea-spoonfuls of black pepper.


Six tea-spoonfuls of

Two
Two

salt.

tea-spoonfuls of

powdered mace.

tea-spoonfuls of powdered cloves.

One grated nutmeg.

Grind the meat


mills of

Mix

this

is

for

sausage
will

Most butchers have

mill.

do the work

at small

cost.

the seasoning thoroughly with the meat, using the

hands for mixing.


liked

in a

kind find

The

spices need not be added,

but they help to preserve the meat.

immediate use, they

may be

omitted.

If the

each pound the following

not

safe rule

to follow in seasoning a small quantity of sausage


to allow to

if

sausage

meat

is

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

192

One
One

table-spoonful of

salt.

tea-spoonful of sifted sage.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

There are many ways of putting away sausage meat.


it is to be kept a long time, pack it in a stone jar, and
pour melted lard on top the meat will keep a very long
If

time

sealed in this way,

if

preserving

from

thus

it

The meat may

summer.

many country housekeepers


autumn

the

until

be kept

also

following

cotton bags.

in

making each one a yard


Dip them in strong salt and
them dry before filling. Crowd the meat

Use strong cotton

for the bags,

long and four inches wide.


water,

and

let

closely into the bags, pressing

When wanted

potato masher.
the

bag back, cut


Sausage

brown.

made from

off the
is

meat

ordinarily

it

with a pestle or a

in

end of
and fry
"casings"

for use, turn the

in

half-inch slices,

put

away

in

the intestines.

TO CLEAN THE "CASINGS."

them inside out and wash thorthem soak in salted water for two days.
Wash them again, cut into convenient lengths, and scrape
them on a board with a blunt knife, first on one side,
When well scraped, wash them again,
then on the other.
tie up one end of each length, insert a quill in the other
end, and fill them with air by blowing through the quills.
If white and clear, they are clean, but if any thick spots

Empty them,

oughly

then

turn

let

appear, they must be scraped again.

Throw

the casings

into cold, salted water until wanted.

TO COOK SAUSAGE.

When

cooking sausage

in casings, prick the skins

a sharp steel fork to prevent their bursting.

If

with

cooking

MEATS.
in

it

bulk, shape the sausage into balls with the hands.

Place

no

193

it

in a

hot frying-pan, and fry until brown, adding

as there will generally be plenty in the meat.

Readd a tablespoonful of dry flour to the fat in the pan, and cook one
then gradually add a cupminute, stirring all the time
When the gravy is boiling and
ful of milk, still stirring.
is of a creamy consistency, add salt and pepper to taste,
pour the gravy over the sausage, and serve.
fat,

move

the sausage,

when done,

to a platter,

TO SALT DOWN OR PICKLE PORK.

The hams,

and middlings are the


This should be done as
the meat is cold, and should not be

shoulders, chines

parts of the pig usually pickled.

soon as possible after

delayed more than twenty-four hours at the very longest.

The following
pounds

of

is

the proportion of pickle allowed to

Two
Two

and a-half pounds of brown sugar.


ounces of saltpetre.

Nine gallons
Salt to

Mix

fifty

pork

make

of water.

a brine.

the sugar and saltpetre with the water, and gradadd Liverpool salt until the brine will float an egg.
Boil for ten minutes, skim off all the scum that rises, and
set aside to cool.
Cover the bottom of the packing barrel with coarse salt, and pack the pork closely in it, with
the rind next to the sides of the barrel, and covering each
layer with salt.
When all the pork has been packed,
pour the cold brine over it, place a round board cut a little smaller than the barrel on top of the meat, and upon
it lay a heavy weight to keep it beneath the surface.
If
ually

13

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

194

at any time the brine froths or looks reel, it should be


turned oH, scalded again and more salt added as soon
as cold it should be returned to the meat.
;

TO CURE HAMS.

The hams may be


above directed

pickled with the rest of the pork, as

and

remaining

after

in the brine sixteen

days, should be removed and washed clean of salt.


They are then ready to be smoked. Another method of

ham

curing

is

to allow to fifty

Two pounds
One ounce

Two

pounds

of

meat

of fine salt.

of

powdered

saltpetre.

ounces of brown sugar.

Place the meat on a board or table in the cellar, with

Mix

the skin side down.


well together,

ture, putting a

Rub

bone.

of

little

until the

it

meat

there be any of the mixture

end

of a week,

main

the

rubbing

it

over with this mix-

all

end around the

the hock

in
will

absorb no more.

left,

use

it

in as before.

this condition for sixteen

in

sugar and saltpetre

salt,

and rub each ham

Should

on the meat

at the

Let the hams

days,

when they

re-

are

ready to be smoked.

TO SMOKE HAMS.

Wet

the

hams with clean

water,

and dip them, while

wet, in dry bran, forming as thick a coat as possible over

the meat.
to

Sawdust

form a crust that


juices.

Hang

is

The

be preferred.

the

hock end down.

sometimes used, but bran

is

much

object of thus using the bran

will

prevent

hams in
Keep up

the

is

to

evaporation of

the

smoke-house, with

the

the

a good

smoke

continually,

MEATS.
smothering the

with sawdust, and taking care that

fire

house does

the

195

become hot

not

allowed to hang as long as that.

warm

keep the hams until

Should

much

edly

an

in a cool

better to encase

They

them

seldom

be desired

to

many ways

are sometimes

place, but

protection against

effectual

it

is

it

weather, there are

which they may be put away.

in

simply hung on hooks

Meat

any time.

at

should be smoked at least four weeks, but

undoubt-

it is

these are

in covers, as

Dust cayenne

insects.

pepper around the bones, and wrap the hams closely

in

brown paper and then with coarse muslin shaped to fit


them exactly, stitching the muslin tightly to position.
Whitewash the muslin cloth, and hang the hams in a cool,
dark, dry place.

TO BOIL A HAM.

Wash
fifteen

ham

in

ham

the

night in

well, and,

water.

clear

if

where the
in this

soak

salt,

weight,

its

minutes of cooking to every pound.


large kettle on the stove, cover

and when the water

water,

very

Ascertain

ham

way

for

will

set

boils,

W^hen

gently simmer.

one hour, turn

the

off the

over

it

and allow
Place the

it

kettle
it

cold

with

back

has boiled

water and add fresh

By thus changing the water the rank


smoke is destroyed. For every ten pounds

boiling water.
taste of the

meat add half a cupful of sugar to the second w^ater,


and then boil the remainder of the time required. WHien

of

done, remove the ham, but do not skin


cut
it is

it

until

to

it

it

until cold,

nor

has been cooked twenty-four hours, unless

be eaten hot

in that

case

soon as taken from the water, and


discolored portions

removed.

it

should be skinned as

all

the black rind

In cooking

half

and

a ham,

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

96

one that has been cut, the juices will be better


retamed if the cut side is kept upward in the kettle.
This may be easily done by propping up the meat with
or

a clean stone placed on each side.

to

There are many ways of finishing boiled hams that are


be served whole. The method most commonly pur-

sued

is

to sprinkle grated

brown them

to brush the

ham

ham and
Another desirable mode is

bread-crumbs over the

in a quick oven.

with beaten egg, cover

with bread-

it

crumbs and brown nicely; or the ham,


skinned, may be dusted with black pepper

after

being

sifted

on

in

The latter plan produces an attractive looking


dish.
One thing must, however, be borne in mind that
no matter how well a ham is cooked, it will prove an utter
circles.

failure

if

not cut

in thin slices for serving.

FRIED HAM, WITH CREAlVf GRAVY.


Properly cured
should the

ham be

ham

not

will

too salt, place

need freshening
it

in a frying-pan,

but

cover

with cold water, and set the pan on the range in a mild

when

the steam commences to rise, pour off


and add more cold w^ater. As soon as this
water steams lift out the slice of meat and drain it well
Two waters should always be sufficient to
before frying.
Heat the pan for frying,
freshen the saltest piece of ham.
and when very hot, cook the meat without the- addition

heat; and

the water,

of

fat,

unless

the

ham

is

exceptionally lean,

spoonful of pork drippings should be used.

ham

is

nicely browned, place

it

the

on a platter, and add a

cupful of milk to the fat in the pan.

When

this boils,

cream with a table-spoonful of flour wet


a smooth paste in a little milk, adding pepper to sea-

thicken
to

when

When

it

to a

MEATS.
son

gravy
in

197

and turn the gravy over the ham. A more simple


is made by adding a little hot water to the fat, etc.,

and pouring

the pan

this

over the meat.

HAM SANDWICHES.
Chop
juice

and a

olive

of

little

pound

half

fine

table-spoonful

of

oil,

ham, and season with a


table-spoonful of lemon

pepper and made mustard.

bread on the loaf before cutting

it

and spread the ham between them.


cut very
laid

thin,

spread with a

between thin

Butter the

cut the slices thinly,

Or

the

ham may be

coat of mustard and

light

slices of buttered bread.

PORK AND BEANS,


OR BOSTON BAKED BEANS, NO.

Much

of the

I.

excellence of this dish depends upon the

kind of bean-pot used.

It should be of earthenware, with


narrow mouth and bulging sides. Soak a quart of
pea beans in cold water over night in the morning place
them in fresh water, and simmer gently until soft enough

to

pierce

boil

long

may be
them

with a pin, being careful that they

enough

to

break.

If desired, a

boiled with the beans.

into a colander,

place them,

when

When

cut

part fat and part


it

in

half-inch

they are

onion

soft, turn

pour cold water through them, and

well drained, in

boiling water over a-quarter of a


is

do not

small

lean.
strips,

Pour

the bean-pot.

pound

of salt pork

that

Scrape the rind until white,

and bury the meat

in

the

Mix together

beans, leaving only

the

tea-spoonful of

a tea-spoonful of dry mustard and

salt,

rind

exposed.

a-fourth of a cupful of molasses.


fill

Place these

the cup with hot water, stir until well mixed,

in a cup,

and pour

THE PA TTERN CO OK-B O OK.

98

beans and pork. Add enough water


and bake eight hours, adding water
to keep them covered, until the last hour, when the pork
should be raised to the surface to crisp.
more salt must
If pork is disliked, it may be omitted
the liquid over
to

tlie

the beans,

cover

then be used, together with a third of a cupful of butter


or half a pound of fat and lean corned beef may be
substituted.

BOSTON BAKED BEANS, NO.

2.

This recipe has been used most successfully for many


years,

Do

and the work

is

quickly done.

not soak the beans over

pea beans over the

fire,

night.

Place a quart of

cover them with cold

water,

and slowly bring the water to a boil then set the kettle
where the beans will just bubble, but will at no time boil
When they have cooked in this way for fifteen
hard.
minutes, add a four-inch square of salt pork to the kettle,
and simmer gently with the beans until they may be
then turn
pierced with a pin, but are not at all broken
the beans into a colander to drain.
Place together in a
;

coffee-cup two large table-spoonfuls of

molasses, a tea-

spoonful of salt and a-fourth of a tea-spoonful of pepper,

and fill the cup \yith some of the hot water in which the
Place the. beans in the bean-pot, turn
beans were boiled.

them the cupful of seasoning, and stir well until


Cut the rind of the pork in small
squares, sink the meat in the beans, leaving only the rind
exposed add more bean water until the rind is covered,
and bake two hours, raising the pork during the last threeMore
quarters of an hour, to brown and crisp the top.
baking may be allowed if there is time for it before servover

thoroughly mixed.

ME A TS.
ing

but excellent baked beans have for

many

99

years been

way in the writer's household, and never


hours' baking.
than
two
with more
prepared

in

this

BACON.
This

is

it

may be

is

also

cured the same as ham. It may be boiled


cut in thin slices and fried or broiled crisp.

cooked with

or

It

liver.

LARD.

Housekeepers who would have really fine lard should


it
at home, as that purchased at the stores is
almost invariably close and tough and good results cannot be expected from its use.
Particularly in making

prepare

pie-crust

poor lard assert

will

never be flaky
small

pieces,

enough water
the

fat.

will all

if

the lard

removing
in

is

all

itself,

tough.
flesh

for the crust can

Cut the lard-fat into


and membrane. Put

a kettle to cover the bottom, and lay in

The water will prevent the lard burning and


have evaporated by the time the lard has melted.

Boil gently until the " scraps" settle, stirring often.

The

" leaf " produces the finest lard,

be put in with the inferior

The
fit

for

fat

and should never

fat.

from the small intestines and the pieces not

salting

should be

laid

in

lukewarm water

twenty-four hours and should be melted by

away to freeze, and the strong


These minute directions are,

itself.

for

Set

it

flavor will

soon be gone.

course,

more especially

of

intended for the benefit of country housewives.

POULTRY AND GAME.


The

flesh of poultry

the flesh of

and game has less red blood than


is drver and not marbled with

animals and

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

200

Game

fat.

has a strong odor and flavor that

is mistaken
be an indication that the meat is tainted.
Whitefleshed game should be well cooked, while that
which has dark flesh should be served rare.

by many

to

TO CHOOSE POULTRY AND GAME.

The

best chickens have soft, yellow feet, short, thick


smooth skin and a plump breast, the cartilage on
the end of the breast-bone being soft and easy to bend.
This is sometimes broken in old fowls to deceive purchasers, but this fact may easily be detected.
Pinfeathers, as the short, young feathers are called, always
legs,

indicate a

young bird

while long hairs invariably belong

to the older ones.

The bodies
in

of

capons are very plump and are larger

and the
Old fowls have long, thin necks,
have sharp scales, and the flesh is of a purplish hue.

proportion than those of fowls or chickens

meat

is

the feet

The

of fine flavor.

best turkeys have smooth, black legs, soft spurs

and white flesh.


Geese and ducks should not be more than a year old
they should have soft, yellow feet and tender wings and
be thick and hard on the breast, and the wind-pipe should
break easily when pressed with thumb and finger. Wild
;

ducks have feet of a reddish hue.


Young pigeons have light-red

flesh on the breast and


Old pigeons are thin and very
dark on the breast. Wild pigeons are cheap, but are apt
to be very dry.
Squabs are the young of the tame

full,

flesh-colored legs.

pigeon.

Grouse, partridge and quail


breasts, dark bills

and yellowish

should have
legs.

full,

heavy

MEATS,
Young

2oi

smooth, sharp claws, tender ears

rabbits have

and paws and short necks.


Venison should be dark-red, with some white

fat.

TO DRESS POULTRY.

some markets poultry

In
others

it

is

may be bought

places the poultry

quickest

sold

is

ready dressed,

picked but not drawn, while

way

of killing poultry

but some cut the head entirely

is

in

still

The

alive.

in

other

best and

by cutting the throat,


In either case, the

off.

hung by the feet, as death then


more quickly and the body is more perfectly

fowl should at once be


follows

emptied of blood.

Do

not

country

make

Begin at once

to strip off the feathers.

the mistake of scalding any bird.

women knew

twenty-five per cent,

that

receive

called), the reckless

is

If all

at least

for " dry picked " poultry (as

more

that picked unscalded

they would

and

indis-

criminate use of hot water for this purpose would cease.

Young chickens
boiled
in

are completely spoiled by being thus par-

and while the injury

older birds, the flavor

is

take a few feathers in the


jerk toward the

Do

tail.

to the

meat

is

much changed.

not so great
In picking,

hand and give them a quick

not pull the feathers toward the

by drawing
and pin feathers have been removed, singe the bird by holding the
head and passing the body backward and forward over a
blazing paper, turning both sides to the blaze, and taking
head, as the skin

them

is

much more

in this direction.

When

all

easily torn

feathers

care not to scorch the skin.

TO CLEAN POULTRY.
Cut

off the

the skin

head, and

tiie

feet at the first joint.

on the back of the neck the entire length

Cut
of the

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

202

body; turn the skin over on the breast, stripping it from


and cut off the neck-bone close to the body.
the neck
No good cook will roast poultry without first removing
the bony neck, for it is an unsightly piece, and there is
;

little if

anything on

to eat.

it

when stewing chicken, but

it

It

may, however, be used

should never be served

at

table.

Carefully remove the crop from the breast.


thin

membrane

often so thin and

hardly perceptible, so that special care

and remove

When

it.

the forefinger

the crop

the throat,

is

all

is
it

a
is

required to find

is

taken out, insert

and break the ligaments

that

Make an

Iiold the internal organs to the breast-bone.

cision near the vent,

This

fact, that

soft, in

in-

and work the hand slowly around,

not through, the organs, keeping the fingers close to the

breast-bone until they can reach no farther, and loosen-

on each side down toward the back.


left side, and if the fingers
be kept up and everything loosened before drawing out,
Gently draw out
there will be no danger of its breaking.
It may be that the lights and a
all the organs at once.

ing

the organs

The

gall-bladder lies on the

piece of the wind-pipe will not

The

lights will

come out with

be found embedded

a soft, spongy, pinkish substance.

the wind-pipe.
tail.

One

Remove

of the best

in

the rest.

the ribs, being of

Look

in the throat for

the oil-sac from the top of the

authorities says

it

is

best not to

wash a bird of any kind, either outside or inside, unless


some accident has happened in removing the entrails;
Other
should be wiped with a very damp cloth.
it
authorities, equally good, advise washing very quickly,
not allowing the bird to remain in the water a moment.
All the best cooks agree that vi^ater ruins the sweetness

ME A TS.

203

and detracts much from the flavor of poultry and game


and, if needed at all, should be used very sparingly.
Cut the liver away from the gall-bag, taking care not to
break the gall. Cut open the heart to remove the blood,
Cut carefully in one
or else pinch it gently to empty it.
of the thick

and not into

ends of the gizzard, cutting only

Draw

it.

sand unbroken.

that contains the


set

them away

off the gizzard,

to the lining

leaving the lining

Wash

these pieces and

for use.

Turkeys, geese, ducks, pigeons, pheasants and

same way.
drawn, have a bad odor, wash
are cleaned in

the

all

birds

Should the fowl, when


it in cold water in which

has been dissolved half a tea-spoonful of soda.

This

will

help to restore the meat, but such birds are never satisfactory.

Poultry

when bought undrawn

have a strong smell.

If

very sure to

is

housekeepers everywhere would

maintain a crusade against the sale of undrawn poultry in


the markets or by farmers, they would work a most
wholesome hygienic reform. It is a vicious practice an
abuse, in fact, that people have endured, like many other
abuses, because there is no remedy except in concerted
action.
It is impossible to keep undrawn poultry even a

few hours without putrefaction setting

taking place

in,

from the effect of the gases arising from the undigested


food in the crop and intestines.
the

more

of the poison goes

The longer

into the flesh

it

is

and

kept,
in

the

majority of cases poultry that reaches the kitchen from


the

market

is

actually unfit

for

food.

Housekeepers

could well afford to pay a larger price to have the poultry

being killed, since much is


thrown away, besides having left a
mass of poisoned flesh. It is urged that some people

dressed immediately upon

now paid

for that

is

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

204

prefer the flavor of undressed poultry, but that fact only

makes the matter the more alarming since it


that we are cultivating a taste for putrid meat.

indicates

ROAST TURKEY, WITH GIBLET GRAVY.

Make any

Singe and clean as directed.


the recipes of which

Work

the

of the stuffings,

are given on pages 205

hand gently under the skin on

and 206.

the breast, to

the skin from the flesh, working through the cut

lift

made by

taking out the neck, and taking care not to break the skin.

Put a thin layer of dressing between the skin and

flesh

and place the

body,

rest

the stuffing lightly in the

of

being careful not to pack

it

at

all.

When

the breast

is

draw the skin of the neck over on the back and


fasten it to the back with a skewer.
Turn the tips of
the wings under the back, and fasten them in that position with a skewer, running it through the wings and
Make an incision in the skin near the opening
body.
where the entrails have beeit taken out, and insert the
" drum-sticks " in the holes, tying them together after
Sew up the vent where the stuffing
they are so placed.
was put in. Moisten the skin of the bird with a little
The
water, and sprinkle it with salt, pepper and flour.
moisture helps to retain the seasoning on the meat.
stuffed,

Place the turkey in a dripping-pan in the oven, adding a


very

little

water to the pan, and roast, allowing twenty

minutes to a pound.

After

minutes, baste with the


baste

'every

fifteen

P'requent basting
If the

basting

too often, but

is
it

is

oil

it

has roasted

and water

minutes

until

in

twenty-five

the pan, and

baked

enough.

the secret of success in roasting fowl.

done every ten minutes,

should be done every

it

will

fifteen

be none

minutes at

ME A TS.
the longest.
legs

Some cooks

advise rubbing butter on the


must be a very thin turkey that reas there is usually quite enough fat given off

and breast, but

quires this,

it

When

for use in basting.

a platter,

205

remove the

the turkey

done, place

is

it

and skewers, and place


being prepared.

strings

the oven while the gravy

is

it

on
in

TO MAKE GIBLET GRAVY.


Place the giblets (the

neck that has been cut

Simmer

with cold water.

move
in

heart and gizzard) and the

liver,

off, in

a sauce-pan, and cover

re-

the neck and chop the giblets fine, saving the water

which they were cooked.

from the pan, pour

off all

of the oil, place the

When

the

turkey

is

pan on the top

two minutes and add the water


cooked, pouring
too much.

If

it

in

of the stove,

and when

in

Put

Cook

which the giblets were

gradually so as not to thin the gravy

the gravy seems too thick, add

hot water.

lifted

but three small table-spoonfuls

the gravy boils, stir in two table-spoonfuls of flour.

little

theiTi

and when tender

slowly,

in

chopped

lastly the

season to taste with salt and pepper.

also

giblets,

and

Serve in a gravy

dish.

STUFFING FOR TURKEY


Three cupfuls

NO.

I.

of grated stale bread.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One

table-spoonful of chopped parsley.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

Rub

least

tea-spoonful of chopped onion.

the butter into the crumbs,

and

let

them stand

an hour, when the rest of the seasoning

added.

This makes a crumby

stuffing.

may

at

be

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

2o6

STUFFING FOR TURKEY


One
One
One
One

quart of grated bread.


tea-spoonful of chopped parsley.

tea-spoonful of chopped onion.

table-spoonful of

summer

savory.

salt.

Three table-spoonfuls

Two

2.

cupful of milk.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One

NO.

of butter.

eggs.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.


One-half tea-spoonful of thyme.

Pour the milk on the crumbs, and cover tightly for an


then add the rest of the ingredients, omitting the

hour

onion,

if

objectionable.

OYSTER STUFFING.

Two

cupfuls of bread-crumbs.

One
One

table-spoonful of butter.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of

table-spoonful of chopped parsley.


salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.


Twenty-five oysters.

Rub

the butter into the crumbs,

put in the oysters

last,

add the seasoning, and

leaving them whole.

CRANBERRY SAUCE, FOR ROAST TURKEY.


One
One
One

quart of cranberries.
pint of water.

pint of sugar.

Pick over and wash the berries, place them in a stewpan with the water and sugar, and cook slowly for twenty
minutes.
Rinse a mould with cold water, pour in the

stewed berries,

and

set

them away

to

cool.

When

ME A TS.

207

wanted for serving, turn out upon a


and send to the table.

flat

dish, cut

off

thick slice

ROAST TURKEY, WITH CHESTNUT STUFFING.

Draw and

clean

turkey

the

previously

as

directed.

French chestnuts, and boil


water enough to cover. Drain off

Shell and blanch fifty large

them half an hour in


and add to the nuts three table-spoonfuls of
butter, a table-spoonful of salt, and half a tea-spoonful
Mix well, and place them in the turkey.
of pepper.
Truss and roast the fowl as directed in the preceding
the water,

recipe.

When

done, serve with

CHESTNUT SAUCE.
Thirty French chestnuts.

One
One

pint of water.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One
One
Shell

table-spoonful of butter.
table-spoonful of flour.

and blanch the nuts, boil until tender, drain


mash them wdth a potato masher. Add

thoroughly, and
the water a
sieve,

rub the mixture through a

at a time,

little

and cook gently

in a

sauce-pan for half an hour.

Place the butter in a frying-pan, and when hot, add the


flour.

Cook

until the

stirring constantly

flour is

of

a dark-brown

color,

then add the chestnut mixture, cook

for three or four minutes,

and serve

in a gravy-boat.

BOILED TURKEY, WITH CELERY SAUCE.


If
will

a turkey dressed in this

be quite

tasteless.

It

way

is

not well

managed

it

should be well trussed and

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

208

or the legs and wings will be sadly disarranged durWhen the turkey has been

tied,

ing the process of boiling.


cleaned, stuff

it

with the following

CELERY STUFFING.
One-half head of celery.

One quart

Two
Two
Two

of bread-crumbs.

eggs.

table-spoonfuls of salt.
table-spoonfuls of butter.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

Chop
after

the

the celery fine,

and add the other ingredients

rubbing the butter into the crumbs

same as directed

fill

the turkey

for a roast turkey, putting a little of

the stuffing in the breast also

and sew

it

up very

se-

Wring
and dredge the cloth thickly with flour. Pin the
turkey in this cloth, and plunge it in boiling water.
Allow twenty minutes boiling to a pound boil rapidly
the first fifteen minutes, and then moderate the boiling
somewhat, but never stop it entirely. Place the turkey,
when done, on a platter, remove the cloth and skewers,

curely.

a large square of cotton cloth out of cold

water,

drain well, and serve with

CELERY SAUCE.
One head of celery.
One pint of milk.
Salt and pepper to taste.

Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

Four table-spoonfuls

of butter.

Cut the celery fine, and place it in a sauce-pan with just


enough water to cover. Cover the pan, and simmer

MEA TS.

209

When

gently.

fiour together,

the milk, salt

it has boiled an hour, mix the butter and


and add them to the celery, also adding
and pepper. Boil two minutes, stirring all

and serve

the time,

in a gravy-boat.

BRAISED TURKEY.
This
that
for

is

is

a very satisfactory

way

of cooking an old turkey

unfit for roasting or boiling.

roast turkey,

the

stuiif

Spread thin slices of

salt

body and

Make

a stuffing as

breast,

and

pork over the breast and

truss.
legs,

and cover the turkey with a strong sheet of buttered


paper, fastening the paper on by passing a string around
the body.

Spread

in a

the turkey the following

braising-pan large enough to hold


:

One-quarter pound of salt pork, sliced.

One-quarter pint of chopped celery.


One-quarter pint of chopped carrot.

One-quarter pint of chopped onion.

One-quarter pint of chopped turnip.

Lay the turkey on

this

mixture, with the breast up,

cover the pan tightly, and

At the end of
stock,

if

at

thirty

in a moderate oven.
add a quart of water, or

place

minutes

hand, and baste the turkey every fifteen min-

make, sprinkling once with


and pepper. Allow twenty-five minutes to the pound.
During the last half-hour take the cover from the pan, re-

utes with the gravy this will


salt

move

and pork from the turkey, and thus permeat to brown slightly. When done, lift the
turkey from the pan, untruss it, and lay it on a large platter.
Strain off the gravy, and use it for the
the paper

mit the

14

THE FA TTERN CO OK-B O OK.

MUSHROOM
One
I
(

SAUCE.

pint of strained gravy.

One-quarter pound of fresh mushrooms, oi


Three-quarters can of canned mushrooms.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of j^epper.


One-half of a baked sour apple.

Three table-spoonfuls of butter.


Two and a-half table-spoonfuls of
One-half table-spoonful of

flour.

salt.

nutmeg.

slight grating of

stew-pan, and when hot and


and stir well until of a darkbrown. Draw the pan back to a cool place, and stir the
butter until slightly cooled then add the gravy, and stir
Now add the seasoning, the baked apple
until it boils.
and half the mushrooms, and set the sauce where it will
At the end of this time skim
gently bubble for an hour.
off the oil that will have arisen to the top, and strain the

Place the butler

browning, add the

in

flour,

sauce

into

another pan, adding the

mushrooms and
left

remainder of the

more of the gravy


fresh mushrooms are
small pieces, and sim-

three table-spoonfuls

from braising the turkey.

If

used, they should be pared, cut in

mered ten minutes in the sauce before serving. When


canned mushrooms are used, they should be cooked
whole and simmered but five minutes.
TO

"

WARM OVER

"

TURKEY.

and wings from the body, and take


Also use any
the meat remaining on the breast.

Cut the drum-sticks


off all

pieces that

turkey was

may have remained on


first

carved.

the rump, splitting


])iece in two,

it

the platter

when

the

Disjoint the back piece, called

down

the back

and cutting each

thus making four pieces of the back.

Place

MEA TS.
all

the roast.

and any gravy that may have been

Add

and

the kettle tightly,

Cook

at least forty-five

and adding more water


there should be just

if

enough

from sticking to the kettle.

and

turn on a platter,

from

it

thoroughly warmed, and

should seem

large

in a

moder-

necessary

keep the meat


Season with salt and pepper,
a mistake to cut the

It is
is

very unsatisfactory.

so slowly that

it

it

at the last to

serve.

The turkey should stew

set

minutes, stirring often,

meat from the bones, as the result

The

left

water to half the height of the turkey in

the kettle, cover

bones.

pieces in a kettle, add three table-spoonfuls of

these

the stuffing

ate heat.

should

body part

in

it

no case

of the turkey

will

only be

fall

from the

is

never used,

except for soup.

A FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN.

Draw and

singe the chicken as directed, and cut

it

into

done as follows Cut through the loose


skin between the legs and the body, bend the legs over,
and cut them oft" at the joint also cut the upper leg from
Cut off the neck and
the lower leg at their joining.
wings where they join the body, always cutting at the
joints.
Lay the chicken on its breast, with the tail
Cut a slice off the breast reaching into the
toward you.
large bone of the body, thus cutting out the " happy
Cut to the back through the inthought " or wish-bone.
cision made in taking out the entrails, and disjoint the
back, cutting this piece, which contains the rump, again
Cut the ribs
across the back, making two pieces of it.
pieces.

This

is

through the entire length of the piece that will be


also cut the length of the bird
tieck

to the

end

of the

left;

on the other side from the

breast-bone, and cut these large

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

pieces again into two parts.


of the kind to

meat

or any

joints as far as possible,

crushes

In cutting a bird or rabbit

be fricasseed, divide

it

at the

and never chop a bone, as that

it.

Place

chicken in a kettle, cover

the

it

with

boiling

and gently simmer until tender. An old fowl will


need to be cooked at least two hours, but a tender one
Remove the cover during
will be done in half that time.
water,

the last half hour, so that the gravy in the kettle

may

re-

duce somewhat. There should be about a pint and


and if it is already reduced to this
a-half when done
measurement at the beginning of the last half hour, keep
;

Seait may not boil away any more.


and pepper, and add a little butter also if
the chicken was lacking in fat; this, however, will rarely
Have ready some nicely toasted bread
be necessary.
and lay it on a platter. Lift the chicken from the kettle
Set
with a long-handled skimmer and lay it on the toast.
the gravy back where it will not boil, and with a spoon
the cover on that

son with

dip off

salt

all

Then add
heat.

the fat that can be


a cupful of milk,

When

fuls of flour

it

and

skimmed from
set the

the top.

gravy again to

two and a-half table-spoonsmooth paste with a little cold milk,

boils, stir in

wet

to a

and boil two minutes, stirring constantly; season with


more salt and pepper if necessary. The gravy should be
It
as thick as cream and if it is not, stir in more flour.
is always difficult to give the precise amount of thickening
;

needed w]ien the exact quantity to be thickened is not


known. Pour the gravy over the chicken and toast, and
This is a very satisfactory way of cooking
serve at once.
indeed, there is no other, unless, perold, tough fowl
;

haps,

it

be that contained

in

the following recipe.

MEATS.

213

BRAISED CHICKEN.
Prepare the same as for braised turkey, leaving out the
mushrooms, and thickening the gravy poured from the

braising pan.
in this

tender chicken

is

rarely

if

ever dressed

way, only old fowls being used.

BROWN FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN.


Cut

in

pieces

as directed for

fricassee

of

chicken.

Place a quarter of a pound of salt pork or two ounces of


butter in a frying-pan,

and when

hot, put in the chicken,

leaving plenty of room to turn the meat

eadi piece
fuls

of

is

and cook until


brown tint. Add two table-spoonwell, and when it has cooked two

flour,

stir

minutes, add a pint of boiling water.

smooth

is

of a rich

and

season

boiling,

When

the gravy

with salt and pepper,

cover the pan, and simmer gently until the chicken is


tender; then add a tea-spoonful of onion juice, if not

and dish

objectionable,

at

once.

The

gravy, will

be

found thick enough, and if the pan has a tight cover


will not be diminished even after a long cooking.

it

WHITE FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN.


Cut the chicken
ing water in

in

pieces as directed, cover with boil-

the kettle,

and simmer slowly

until tender,

leaving the cover half off to reduce the gravy.

should be only just enough


the
lift

meat from burning.

There
keep

in the kettle at the last to

Season with

salt

and pepper,

out the chicken, and place on a platter upon toasted

bread.

Make

the following sauce or gravy, and pour

over the chicken and toast

it

THE PA TTEKN CO OK-B O OK.

One

table-spoonful of butter.

Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

Salt

and pepper

One

pint of milk.

Two

to taste.

eggs (yolks only).

Heat the butter in a frying-pan, stir in the flour, and


cook slowly two or three minutes, stirring constantly, but
taking care not to burn the flour.
Draw the pan away
from the heat, and gradually add the milk. When well
mixed in, turn all into the kettle from which the chicken

was taken, and


pepper,

set in a hot place to boil,

needed.

if

utes,

remove

pour

it

it

from the

fire,

ful of finely

salt

and

add the beaten yolks, and

once over the chicken.

at

adding

Let the gravy boil two or three minSprinkle a tjable-spoon-

chopped parsley over the top

of the chicken

just before serving.

ROAST CHICKEN, WITH GIBLET SAUCE.


Prepare
the

this

amount

of

the

same as roast turkey, using but half


and allowing but fifteen minutes

stuffing,

cooking to a pound.
Baste well every ten minutes, else the chicken will be

dry and

disappointing.

Chickens may be

filled

with

chestnut stuffing the same as turkeys.


-

FRIED SPRING CHICKEN (SOUTHERN STYLE).

The colored cooks

of the

South have perhaps, discov-

ered the most delicious way of cooking young chickens,

and the method is very simple.


Cut the small chickens in four or
piece hastily in cold water, then

pepper, and

roll

six pieces, dip

each

sprinkle with salt and

the pieces in plent}''^f flour.

Have some

MEATS.

215

sweet lard heated very hot in a frying-pan, and fry "the


chicken until each piece is of a rich brown hue on both

and arrange the pieces on a


hot place to keep the
meat from cooling while the gravy is being made. Pour
out of the pan all but a table-spoonful of.the oil, and stir
When the liquid is hot and
into the pan a cupful of milk.
well stirred, thicken to a rich cream with a table-spoonful
of flour rubbed smooth in a table-spoonful of butter.
Boil two or three minutes, stirring constantly, season with
salt and pepper, and pour the gravy over the chicken.
Butlittle chopped parsley is often added to the gravy.
ter, if here used in place of lard, is difficult to manage, as

Take

sides.

warm

up, drain well,

platter, setting the dish in a

it

burns so easily; lard

this purpose.

Dominion and

is

decidedly to be preferred for

Fried chicken
is

is

a standard dish in the

nowhere prepared

in

FRIED CHICKEN, NO.

Old

such perfection.
2.

Cut the chicken in pieces, and season with salt and


Dip each piece in beaten egg, then in crackercrumbs, and fry brown in hot lard. Throw a few sprigs
of parsley into the fat when all the chicken has been

pepper.

'

fried,

and

let

them remain

crisp but not too dry.

in

lon^ enough to become

Strew them over the chicken, and

serve.

SMOTHERED CHICKEN.
This

is

chickens.

one of the most delicious ways of cooking


Clean, take off the neck, and split the chicken

Season
the back, wiping it with a damp towel.
and out with salt and pepper, and dredge on all
sides with flour.
Lay the chicken, wth the inside down,

down

inside

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

in a

small baking

should be but

tin,

little

The pan

adding a cupful of water.

larger than the chicken

otherwise the

be too quickly evaporated. Cook slowly for


one hour, basting every ten minutes after the first twenty
Should the chicken be decidedly lackminutes cooking.
gravy

will

There
fat, add a small table-spoonful of butter.
be plenty of gravy in the pan with which to baste if
When done, place the chicken on a hot
the pan is small.
platter, and thicken the gravy in the pan with a little flour,

ing in
will

Should the
adding another half cupful of water.
of
table-spoonful
chicken be quite fat, remove all but a
Season
gravy.
the
making
pan
before
the oil from the
after

with salt and pepper to taste, pour the gravy

over the

chicken, and serve at once.

Any

small birds

most satisfactory

may be dressed

in

this

way, with the

results, the secret of success in this

of roasting lying in very frequent

basting

and

in

kind
not

having too hot an oven.

BROILED CHICKEN.

Only tender chickens or those


made tender are ever cooked by

that

may

broiling.

singe the chickens as directed, picking out

all

surely be

Clean and
pin-feathers.

Split each chicken down the back, and wipe with a damp
Even when you are quite certain the chickens are
towel.
This is
tender, it is wise to steam them before broiling.

done thus
fill

it

Set the dripping-pan in the oven, and nearly


Place two sticks across the

with boiling water.

pan, extending them from side to side, and upon them lay
Invert a tin pan over it, and, shutting
the chicken.
the oven door let the chicken steam for thirty minutes.

MEA TS.

217

This process relaxes the muscles and renders the joints


supple, besides preserving the juices that would be lost in
Transfer the chicken from this vapor bath to

parboiling.

and turn the inside of the chicken to the


Cover the broiler with a tin pan, and broil until
the fowl is tender and brown, turning it frequently and

a wire broiler,
fire first.

being careful the


ish

cooking

spread

it

fire is

in half

Lay

will fin-

on a warmed platter,

it

with butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and

Some good cooks season

serve.

The chicken

not too hot.

an hour.

before broiling, and

this case the chicken, after

being sprinkled with

pepper, should be dusted

over with

draw out the

juices,

all

fiour.

salt

The

salt will

but the flour will unite with them,

forming a paste that keeps the remaining juices well


the chicken.

in

and

This plan

may be

followed for

in

broiling

beefsteak.

BAKED CHICKEN (CAMPING PARTY STYLE).

Do

not remove the feathers from the chicken.

out the entrails


possible
stuffing

Take

and crop, making as small incisions as

and cut out the vent.

with

Stuff

directed for roast turkey, or

if

this is

half

the

not con-

sew up the body securely without stuffing at


Cover the chicken with wet clay, spreading it
Bury the chicken
half an inch or even one inch thick.
in a bed of hot ashes, place coals on the top, and
bake an hour and a-quarter, if the bird weighs two

venient,
all.

pounds.
clay
is

is

The

feathers

will

removed, leaving the

peel

off

flesh

as

quite

ihe

cake of

clean.

This

an especially delicious dish for a hungry camping

party.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

BOILED CHICKEN.

Chickens are boiled the same as turkeys. In winter


is no better way than to boil them whole and pour

there

over them

a strong

caper

when

sauce

The

serving.

chickens

should

in a w'et

cloth that has been generously sprinkled with

flour;

they

be

plunged

then

are

should not

cease

boiling

sewed,

well

stuffed,

boiling

in

the

until

and

pinned

water, which

chicken

done.

is

Allow twenty minutes cooking to a pound.


A large,
tough chicken may be made very palatable prepared in
this way.

BONED CHICKEN.
This makes an exceedingly nice course for dinner and
is

not difficult to manage.

and cut

off the

head and

a sharp penknife

slit

Pick and singe the chicken

feet,

but do not draw

the chicken

down

With

it.

the back

then,

keeping the knife close to the bones, scrape down the


sides and the bones will come out.
Leave the drumsticks

and

vising

bones

in,

Stuff the chicken with

soned

but break them at the

chopped

cold,

joints.

cooked lamb,

sea-

and pepper, and a tea-spoonful of


summer savory and the juice of one lemon and add
two table-spoonfuls of chopped salt pork. In stuffwith

salt

ing, give the chicken, as far as possible, its original shape,

and sew it up securely. Turn the ends of the wdngs


under the back, tie or skewer them firmly, and tie the
legs

down

close to the body, so that the top will present

a plump surface

to

carve

in

slices across.

chicken with two rows on the top.

Bake

Lard the
until

done,

basting often, and adding water to the pan as needed.

Allow

fifteen

minutes to a pound

in baking.

ME A TS.

219

PRESSED CHICKEN.
Clean and singe the chicken, and cut
Place

a fricassee.

it

it

in pieces as for

a kettle with a very

in

little

water,

cover closely, and boil very gently until the meat will

from the bones.

fall

the meat from the kettle with a

Lift

skimmer, and, separating the white meat from the dark,


scrape

meat from the bones, leaving out the skin

the

all

Season with salt and pepper. Place the meat in


the dish it is to be pressed in, laying the white and dark
pieces.

meat

in

alternate

from time
moisten

and

plate,

little

set

top of

away

of the broth from the kettle, to

When

well.

all

lay a plate on

and adding

layers, as far as possible,

time a

to

it,

all

meat

the

in a cool

in

the dish

This makes a pretty

place.

meat being

dish for luncheon, the

is

place a heavy weight upon the

sliced for serving

and

garnished with parsley.


.

TO COOK CHICKEN FOR TRAVELLING LUNCH.

Use only

young

back, and wipe dry.


sprinkle on

little

fowl.

Clean,

flour.

Add

bake one hour, basting frequently.


even
in

if

the chicken should

the meat

is

split

Do

seem

has to be eaten from the fingers.

when

Cut

CREAMED CHICKEN.
One-half pint of cream or milk.
pint of

the

not use any butter,

be lean, for the

to

intensely disagreeable

cooked chicken.

One-half tea-spoonful of

down

salt

for the lunch.

One

it

and pepper, and


water to the pan, and

Season with

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of p^^iper.

the

oil

latter

in small pieces

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

220

One-half table-spoonful of butter.

One
One

table-spoonful of flour.

Two

eggs (yolks).

table-spoonful of chopped parsley.

Place the milk

the butter and flour to a cream.

Rub

in a double boiler or in a small tin pail set in a kettle


of hot water, and when scalding, add the flour and
Add the
Stir well, and cook three minutes.
butter.

parsley

and chicken, and cook

two

table-spoonfuls of milk

chicken.
potato.

serving

formed.

the milk

until

Beat the yolks

oughly hot again.

and pour

thor-

is

adding to them

well,

them

into

the

Cook ten minutes and serve in a border of


Mash the potatoes and heap them around the
dish, placing

the

The chicken

is

chicken

the

in

hollow thus

sometimes served in a border of

boiled rice.

CHICKEN CROQUETTES.
One

pint of milk or cream.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

Four table-spoonfuls

One

tea-spoonful of

of flour.

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

One
Stir the butter

boiling,

and

stir

tea-spoonful of celery

and

flour to a paste.

the

in

is

ready, take

One

it

Heat

from the

all

the

fire,

time.

and add

egg.

Two-thirds of a pint of chicken.

One

the milk to

paste; add the seasoning, and

cook three minutes, stirring


sauce

salt.

tea-spoonful of lemon juice.

few drops of onion

juice.

When

this

'

MEATS.
Chop

the chicken quite fine, and

before mixing these ingredients

been well

When

beat the egg well

When

in.

the whole has

spread the mixture on a platter to cool.

stirred,

cold enough to handle, form

a spoonful

221

hand

in the

it

into rolls

by taking

a time and shaping

at

it

roll

each croquette in fine bredd-crumbs or cracker dust, dip


e^gg, then in the dust again, and fry one
smoking hot fat, using a frying-basket if you
Drain well and serve hot. Many cooks prehave one.
fer to cut the chicken meat in dice size and not chop

beaten

in

it

minute

it

in

this is done,

if

use less of the sauce, else the cro-

Mushrooms, boiled

quettes will be difficult to shape.


or veal

may be mixed

with the chicken meat.

any kind of croquettes,

if

any uncooked material,


the dried

make

the mixture

is

too soft to handle

cracker dust to stiffen

easily, stir in fine

like flour or

bread-crumbs used

the croquettes too

in

rice

In rolling

it,

but never add

corn starch, nor even

rolling,

as these

will

stiff.

CHICKEN

NO.

PIE,

I.

Clean, singe and cut up two small chickens, the same


as for a fricassee.

Place them

water enough to cover.


stew slowly until the

more
crust

water,

chicken

is

Take

needed.

if

in

and add hot


kettle, and
tender, adding a little
a kettle,

Put the cover on the

the following

One
One
One

quart of

flour.

large table-spoonful of lard.

tea-spoonful of salt.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

Milk

to moisten.

for

the

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

222

the salt and baking powder thoroughly into the


add the lard, rubbing it well into the flour, and use
Flour the bakmg-board,
milk enough to make a dough.
and roll out the crust a quarter of an inch thick. Line
put in part of
the sides of a deep baking dish with crust
then add
the chicken, and season with salt and pepper
Put
the rest of the chicken, and season the same v/ay.
in the dish
two cupfuls of the broth in which the
chicken was boiled, and cover the top with crust, making
in the center of the crust a hole large enough to admit
Most chicken
of adding more of the broth, if necessary.
Stir

flour,

pie

is

too

dry,

therefore

the

Bake one hour.

plentifully.

add enough

flour

to

thicken

be added
Heat what broth remains,
broth

it,

should

wetting the flour to a

paste with milk, and season with salt and pepper.


to

the

table

in

a gravy

dish,

to

PIE,

NO.

be serv^ed

Send

with the

pie.

CHICKEN

2.

For a dish holding three quarts there will be required


two chickens that together will weigh eight pounds. Cut
the chickens each in two parts, splitting

back and

simmer

front.

until

Cover them

tender.

If

the

them down the


and

with boiling water,

chickens are a year old,

allow at least an hour and a-half of gentle boiling.

Let

the chickens cool in the water in which they were boiled,

remove the
serving.

skin,

Place

and cut them into pieces suitable for


meat in the pie dish, and sprinkle

the

with salt and pepper.

Make

a sauce as follows

Four table-spoonfuls
Four table-spoonfuls

Two

slices of carrot.

of butter.
of flour.

MEATS.

223

One-half an onion.
Three pints of the chicken broth.

One
One
One

bay-leaf.

Salt

and pepper

sprig of parsley.

mace.

bit of

to taste.

'Put the butler and flour in a sauce-pan,


soft

Add

and creamy.

and beat until


and herbs
should have been

the vegetables, spice

and the broth, from which all the oil


removed
and heat slowly to boiling point.
When
boiling, set it where it will simmer slowly for fifteen
minutes, add salt and pepper, and strain the sauce over
Next make the crust for the pie, using
the chicken.
;

One

pint of flour.

One-half table-spoonful of sugar.


One-half table-spoonTul of lemon juice.

One

cupful of butter.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One

salt.

egg.

One-quarter of a cupful of

ice water.

Place the flour, sugar, salt and

butter in a chopping

and chop the butter into the flour until reduced to


lumps the size of a walnut. Mix together the beaten

tray,

lemon juice and water, and add the mixture, a little


and butter, chopping all the time.
When all the mixture is used, sprinkle a moulding board
with flour, and turn the paste upon it.
Roll the dough
out and fold it as for puff paste.
Do this three or
four times and then set it on the ice to chill before

egg,

at a time, to the flour

using.

Roll out

this

paste,

than the top of the pie dish.


of

making
Cut a

the crust to allow the steam

to

it

little

larger

slash in the center

escape, and

lay

the

^^^ ^^ fTEKN COOK-BOOK.

224

the edge of

chicken, turning

over the

crust

the

Bake in a moderately hot oven


hour and a-quarter, and serve hot.
into

CHICKEN SALAD.

crust
for an

the dish.

(See Salads.)

CHICKEN SANDWICHES.
One
One

cupful of cold chicken.


table-spoonful of melted butter.

Two

eggs (yolks only).

One
One

tea-spoonful of rich stock.

Salt

and pepper.

tea-spoonful of lemon juice.

Boil the eggs fifteen minutes, cool them, take out the
yolks,

and mash them as fine as possible. Add to these


and lemon juice, the chicken chopped

the melted butter

very

fine,

and

salt,

pepper and the stock.

If the

stock

cannot be conveniently procured, use a tea-spoonful


Leibig's Extract of Beef, which

Mix

all

well together.

sort of paste will

may be made

and with

this

company

late supper,

may always be
be the

of

bought.
result,

very delicate sandwiches for a

card party,

etc.

CHICKEN DISHES.
One

is fairly

bewildered

at the

hundreds of dishes that

are prepared from shredded cooked chicken or from any


left-over pieces.

Most

of

the chicken

entrees are pre-

pared from the breasts alone, and these are called

One

fillers.

dainty preparation of cold roast or boiled chicken

called

is

MEATS.
CHICKEN a V
One
One
One

225

Italienne.

pint of chicken meat.

table-spoonful of butter.
table-spoonful of flour.

Twelve drops of onion juice.


Three hard-boiled eggs.
One-half pint of cream or milk.
Salt and pepper to taste.

Cut the meat into dice to measure. Heat the butter


and stir in the flour then cook for two minutes, stirring
constantly, and taking care the flour does not brown.
;

Add

the milk or cream, and

stir

until boiling.

fire,

carefully,

and place the sauce-pan

another containing

in

When

hot water, or else use a milk boiler.


is

thoroughly heated, remove

Boil

Remove
Mix

and add the chicken and seasoning.

from the

the mixture

from the fire and dish.


the eggs ten minutes, and lay them in cold water to
it

be ready to use when the chicken

is

done.

Separate the

and press them through the potato-masher or


they may be worked through a fine sieve, the latter

yolks,

being,

however, very slow work.

Sprinkle

the

yolks

powdered over the top of the chicken, and serve.


This makes a very attractive-looking dish and forms a
palatable entre'e for dinner.
Another dish of this kind is
thus

BOUDIN a
One
One

pint of chicken meat.

table-spoonful of butter.

Two table-spoonsfuls
One

la Reine.

of dried bread-crumbs.

table-spoonful of chopped parsley.

One-half cupful of stock or water.

One-quarter of a nutmeg.
Salt

15

and pepper to

taste.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

226

Heat the
move from

and add the crumbs and stock. Rechopped fine,


the parsley, the nutmeg grated, salt and pepper, and
lastly the eggs slightly beaten.
Mix all thoroughly, and
butter,

the hre, and add the chicken

place the mixture in tea or custard cups,


two-thirds

full.

Half

fill

filling

the cups

a baking pan with boiling water,

set the cups in the water, and bake twenty minutes in a


moderate oven. When done, turn the contents of each
cup out upon a heated dish, and pour around them a
cream sauce. Remnants of cold roasted or boiled turkey

may be used

in the

same way.

GEESE.
These fowls live to be very old, and for that reason
great care is needed in selecting them.
They are not
good after they are three years old, and they are in perfection when from six months to a year old.
A young
goose has down on its legs, and the legs are soft and yellow.
Like a turkey, as it grows old its legs change to a
reddish color.

ROAST GOOSE, WITH POTATO STUFFING.


Clean the goose as directed for any poultry, cutting off
the neck and arranging the breast for stuffing, the same
as for roast turkey.

always

filled

Geese, when properly dressed, are

with potato stuffing.

POTATO STUFFING,
Six potatoes.

One
One
One

tea-spoonful of pepper.

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

tea-spoonful of sage.

table-spoonful of

salt.

table-spoonfuls of onion juice.

MEATS.

227

Pare and boil the potatoes, and mash them

and

Add

fine.

and body with the


Sew and truss the same as
stuffing, laying it in lightly.
directed for turkey, sprinkle with salt, pepper and flour,
and cover the breast with slices of fat salt pork. The
goose is not a favorite on account of the quantity of oil it
contains and the disagreeable taste of the oil.
The pork
fat is quickly drawn out by the heat, flows over the goose
and aids in drawing out the oil. When the goose has
the seasoning,

fill

the

breast

roasted forty-five minutes, take

it

from the oven, remove

the pork, baste well with the oil in the pan,

some

of the oil

if

and pour

there should be a large quantity.

off

Baste

every fifteen minutes after the goose has roasted twentyfive

same as for turkey. Boil


and make the gravy as directed on page 205.

or thirty minutes, the

giblets,

the oil

gravy,

is

so

make

much

disliked that

the following gravy

it
:

a frying-pan, and

the
If

cannot be used for the


Place two table-spoon-

when

two
cooked
brown, add gradually the water in which the giblets were
boiled, and lastly the chopped giblets, adding hot water
also if the gravy should seem too thick.
Season with
salt and pepper.
Apple sauce should always be served
fuls of butter in

table-spoonfuls

of

with roast goose.

flour.

After the

Goslings

may be

hot, stir in

flour

has

roasted in the

same

way, allowing, however, but fifteen minutes to a pound for


cooking.

DEVILED GOOSE.
After cleaning the goose and w^iping

damp
boil

cloth,

plunge

it

moderately for one hour.

drain well, and wipe

it

it

well

with

into a kettle of boiling water,

dry.

and

Take it from the kettle,


body and neck with

Fill the

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

228

stuffing described in the preceding recipe,


and sew up the same as directed for roast turkey,
and roast in a very hot oven, allowing fifteen minutes to
Then mix together
a pound.

the

potato

truss

Four table-spoonfuls

Two
Two
Pour

this

of vinegar.

table-spoonfuls of pepper.
table-spoonfuls of

over the goose as

made mustard.
put in the oven, and

it is

baste frequently with the liquid at the bottom of the pan.


Boil the giblets,

turkey.

and make the gravy as directed

This way of dressing

who do not

those

is

for roast

nice for

particularly

An

care for the flavor of the goose.

old goose that can be cooked in no other

way may be

so

dressed, two hours being allowed for the boiling instead


of one.

DUCKS.
ROAST DUCK.
Epicures prefer ducks cooked rare, and when so pre-

Should

pared they are not

stuffed.

use the potato

on page 226, putting


consider that ducks have

Many who

hot.

filling

stuffing

be preferred,
it

in

very

strong

them cored and


and are removed before the duck is sent to the table. Celery and
onion are also placed inside the duck to season it and improve the flavor, two table-spoonfuls of chopped onion
being used to every cupful of chopped celery, which may

flavor

lay apples

quartered.

The

in

the

apples

body, having

absorb

this

consist of the green stalks that are


table.
it is

This stuffing

is

sent to the table.

also

flavor

not desired for the

removed from the fowl before

Truss the duck, sprinkle

it

with

MEATS.

229

pepper and flour, and roast thirty minutes, provided


duck is young and is desired rare. Full-grown domestic ducks should be roasted at least an hour and
salt,

the

basted every ten minutes.

Make

the giblet gravy,

and send apple sauce or grape


Green peas

or currant jelly to the table with the ducks.

should be served with roast duck.

WILD DUCKS.
Nearly

wild ducks are apt to have a fishy flavor,

all

and when dressed by an inexperienced cook are often


This flav^or may be much lessened by placunfit to eat.

duck a small peeled carrot, plunging the fowls


and boiling them ten minutes before

ing in each
boilino-

in

water

The

roasting.

An

onion

used

will

carrot will absorb the unpleasant taste.

have the same

there

is

an objection

should be

but unless onion

effect,

be preferred.

in the stuffing, the carrot is to

to parboiling

when very young ducks

is

When

(which there always

are to

be cooked), rub
and put three

the ducks lightly with an onion cut in two,

or four

uncooked cranberries

in

each before cooking.

ROAST WILD DUCK.


Clean the same as turkey, wiping both inside and out

damp

with a
berries,

legs

towel.

After parboiling or using the cran-

and truss the


Dust the fowls with salt,

as directed, tuck back the wings

down

close to the body.

pepper and

flour,

put a piece of butter the size of a wal-

nut in each, place them in a baking pan, and add a cupful of

water.

Bake from

forty-five

minutes to an hour

liked well done, or thirty minutes

frequently

with

the

gravy

in

the

if

if

liked rare, basting

pan.

When

done,

The pattern

230

thicken the gravy.

cook-booj^.

Wild ducks are seldom

stuffed

when

roasted.

TO COOK THE MALLARD WILD DUCK.

These ducks, which are shot


ered very dry
they are

when roasted

stuffed with

sewed up and
in

large

and a

little

They

shape.

with

the West, are consid-

common bread

the

tied in

kettle

in

In Kansas

in the usual way.

couple

are

of

stuffing well

then

slices

of

placed

onion

thyme, and a small quantity of water

is

They are cooked slowly for one hour, being


turned frequently. The water should be replenished, but
added.

only enough should be added to keep the ducks from

burning.

gravy

is

made from

the juices in the kettle

by adding a cupful of water to them and thickening with


This gravy is poured over the ducks when served.
flour.
Dressed in this way all parts are equally as good as the
breast, and the gravy is not the least delicious part of the
whole.

GUINEA FOWLS.

Young guinea
them, and

cut

fowls

them

Place some slices of

make

fat

a delicious fricassee.

pieces

in

bacon

the

same

as

in a frying-pan,

these have fried long enough to extract

some

Clean

chickens.

and when
of the

oil,

and brown them well. To every


add
two fowls add to the pan two table-spoonfuls of flour, stir
until thoroughly mixed, and then add a pint of hot water,
the pieces of fowl

a tea-spoonful of salt and a quarter of a tea-spoonful of

pepper, stirring until the

simmer

in

gravy

generally in an hour and a-half.

Cover

boils.

a gentle heat until the meat

is

well,

and

tender, which

is

Serve with the gravy

ME A TS.

231

from' the bottom of the pan, adding


if

more

salt

and pepper,

needed^

PEA FOWLS.

The peacock and

the peahen are cooked the

same

as

turkeys.

PHEASANTS, PARTRIDGES, QUAIL AND GROUSE.


The real pheasant is not sold in America. The bird
known by that name in the South is called a partridge in
the North, but

properly speaking, the ruffled grouse.

is,

The f^orthern quail is the English and Southern partridge.


The wild fowls brought so plentifully from the
West to Eastern cities and called prairie fowls are a
species of grouse.
The methods of cooking all these
birds are substantially the same.
They should never be
washed, but simply wiped with a
being carefully picked out of the

towel,

flesh with

all

shot

sharp-

Partridges are cooked in forty minutes

pointed knife.

and quail

damp

in ten.

ROASTED.
Clean, truss and stuff the birds the same as turkey, and

bake

until

brown, basting often with butter and water.

Thicken the gravy, and pour

it

over the birds.

BROILED.

Clean

the

birds

and

split

them down

the

back.

Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dust with flour to keep in


the juices, and broil
to the fire first.

butter

in

When

them on both

a wire broiler, laying the inside

warm

dish,

During the

broil-

done, lay them on a

sides,

and

serve.

THE PA TTERN CO OK-B O OK.

232

the breasts are quite thick, cover the broiler with


Broiled
a pan, and see that the fire is not too fierce.
quail are considered very nourishing food for invalids.
ino-, if

PANNED.

Dip them
Clean, and split the birds down the back.
quickly in cold water, and sprinkle with salt, pepper and
The water causes the seasoning to adhere more
flour.
Place the birds

thickly to the meat.


dish, with

a small baking-

in

each upward

of

inside

the

a small

place

piece of butter in each bird, add a cupful of water, and


roast in the oven, basting every five minutes after the

Thicken the gravy, add salt and pepper,


necessary, and pour the gravy over the birds.

first fifteen.

SMALL
Nearly

all

BIRDS.

small birds are served with their heads on,

these being skinned


is

when the

a difference of opinion

ing of these birds,

epicures as to the draw-

many cooking them undrawn.

the least delicious part of the bird

housekeepers copy them


ever, that in time the
of barbarism)

heads

and

will

There

birds are cleaned.

among

English do not draw woodcock, regarding the

their

if

in

and some American


It seems, how-

of eating entrails (a relic

of serving birds without first

become

The
as not

respect.

this

custom

trail

removing

obsolete.

SNIPE, ROASTED.

Clean and
them in rows

truss,

but do not

baking-pan

in

stuff
;

baste well with butter and water.

the birds,

sprinkle with

When

and
salt,

lay

and

they begin to

brown, which should be in ten minutes, cut as

many

slices

MEATS.

233

bread as there are birds, round the

of

them

crusts, toast

the

Slip a slice of toast

hot.

pan, and bake the

with melted butter.

birds

with

the

toast

may be

there

and pour
will

under each bird

remaining

under them
in

five

lightly while

in the baking-

minutes, basting the

Place them on the platter,


;

then

thicken

the pan, adding a

little

The

over the snipe and toast.

it

cutting olf

slices,

and butter

quickly,

what gravy
water to

not require more than twenty minutes cooking,

oven

is

it

largest snipe
if

the

hot enough.
SNIPE, FRIED.

Clean the birds, and wipe them dry;


to the

tie

the legs close

body, skin the head, after picking the feathers

off

head as possible, and tie the beak of each


bird under one of its wings, tying also a thin slice of
bacon around each breast. Place the birds in a fryingbasket, and fry in plenty of hot fat until of a delicate
as near the

This should not take over

brown.
fat

is

hot as

as

it

five

minutes

if

the

Season, and serve on

should be.

toast.

WOODCOCK.
This

is

the most delicious of the small birds and

may

be roasted, panned or broiled the same as pheasants.

Among

epicures a favorite dish

is

known

as

BARDED WOODCOCK.

Remove

the crop, skin the head, and take out the eyes

scald the feet


first

joint.

and

Draw

legs,

and skin them

the bird or not, as

Sprinkle well with

salt,

and,

as

high as the

may be

preferred.

drawing the head down

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

234
to the feet,

pork
and

wrap the bird

in

run a skewer through

feet in

position,

on each skewer.

a thin slice of

Rub

soft

butter

covered by the pork, and dredge


toasted

clear salt

keep the pork, head


and run from three to six birds
to

bread under each bird

over

all

in

the

parts

with flour.

not

Place

the baking-pan,

as

described for roasted snipe, rest the ends of the skewers

on the edges of the pan, place the latter in a very


hot oven, and cook ten minutes fifteen, if the oven
is not extra hot.
On removing the pan from the oven,
draw out the skewer gently, slip each bird on its slice of
toast, and serve very hot, pouring the gravy from the
pan over all. Any small birds may be cooked in this

way.

SMALL BIRDS, ROASTED IN POTATOES.


Halve sweet potatoes lengthwise, and scrape out the
making a place large enough in each half to hold
half the bird.
Clean and draw the birds, cutting off
heads and legs, the same as directed for turkey. Place
a piece of butter in each bird, season with salt and pepper, spread them with butter, and place them in the potato shells, tying a string around each potato to hold
the pieces together.
Roast in a baking-pan, and serve in
inside,

the potatoes.

PIGEONS.

These are drawn, singed and roasted


same as chickens.

or broiled the

SQUABS.

Squabs are broiled or roasted whole the same as woodcock, and are very delicious

when

carefully prepared.

Meats.

235

RABBITS.
The tame

rabbit

hare" of the South

rarely

the

ever

if

same

The

eafefi.

" old

as the rabbit of the North,

and tender, may be made into a variety of


America is almost equal in
the English hare and may be dressed in the

and when

fat

The

dishes.

is

is

flavor to

wild rabbit of

same way.

JUGGED RABBIT.

Have

the rabbit skinned by the butcher,

wash quickly.

Cut

it

and

into pieces

roll

draw

it,

and

each piece

in

Heat half a cupful of butter in a frying-pan, and


put in the meat to brown well on all sides.
Then remove
the meat, and place it in a sauce-pan.
Put in the fat in
flour.

the

frying-pan

brown, add

two table-spoonfuls of

three cupfuls

water,

of

and pour the gravy over the meat


add

flour,

stir

until

cook ten minutes

in the stew-pan.

Now

and a small onion, uncut.


Cover closely, simm.er an hour and a-half, and add a
table-spoonful of lemon-juice, a table-spoonful of mushroom ketchup (or any other kind that may be at hand)
and four table-spoonfuls of sherry wine. Serve at once,
and send with it to the table a dish of boiled rice. The
wine may be omitted, but it adds greatly to the flavor.
salt,

pepper, a

little

spice

FRICASSEED RABBIT.
This

is

prepared the same as fricasseed chicken, either

white or brown.

FRIED RABBITS.

Cut the rabbits

in pieces,

as

beaten ^gg and then


brown in plenty of hot fat.
piece

in

for fricassee, dip each


in

cracker dust, and fry

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

2:? 6

SQUIRRELS.

The
but

is

large gray squirrel

much

is

seldom eaten

at the North,

liked in the Southern States.

Squirrels are

cooked the same as rabbits, or are made into the popular


dish

known

as

BRUNSWICK STEW.
This
ite

named from

is

a county in Virginia and

is

a favor-

dish in that section of the country.

Two

large squirrels.

One quart of tomato, peeled and sliced.


One pint of butter beans or hmas.
One and one-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of white sugar.

One

onion,

minced

small.

Six potatoes.

Six ears of corn, cut from the cob.

One-half pound of butter.


One-half pound of salt pork.
,

One

table-spoonful of

salt.

Four quarts of water.

Cut the squirrels


the salt to the water,

in

pieces, as

and

for

a fricassee.

boil five minutes.

Put

Add
in the

onion, beans, corn, pork, potato, pepper and the squirrels.

Cover closely, and stew two hour.s then add the sugar
and tomato, and stew one hour more. Ten minutes be;

removing the stew from the

fire, add the butter, cut


and rolled in flour. Boil
up again, adding more salt and pepper if needed, and
turn into a tureen.
This is to be eaten from soup plates.

fore

into pieces the size of a walnut

MEATS.

237

VENISON.
The

meat

taste for this

but there

much

is

to

is

acquired one,

certainly an

recommend

the cultivation of

it,

one of the most easily digested of meats.


The meat should be of fine grain and nicely covered with
If the venison is young, the hoof will be but slightly
fat.
opened if old, the hoof will be wide open. Venison,
since venison

is

game,

like all

not usually fat enough, and

is

always

is

enriched by larding, or by placing slices of fat salt pork


or bacon over
in

The

it.

fat

and juices are sometimes kept


Venison should al-

by a thick layer of flour paste.

ways be well wiped before cooking, as the hairs are often


found clinging to the meat.

roast'leg of venison.

Wipe

carefully,

and draw

lean side of the leg


butter, rub

and

flour.

it

off the

dry skin.

over the meat, and dredge with

Lay

the

Lard the

then soften a quarter of a cupful of

pepper

salt,

leg on the rack in the baking-pan,

sprinkle the bottom of the

pan with

flour,

place

it.

in

very hot oven, and watch carefully until the flour in the

pan

is

browned, which should be

in five

minutes.

Add

bottom of the pan, and after


roasting fifteen minutes, baste the venison well, and repeat the basting every fifteen minutes until the meat is
done, renewing the water in the pan as often as neces-

boiling water to cover the

sary.

Should the meat be liked very

rare, allow for a

ten-pound roast, an hour and a-quarter of cooking; but

most tastes require


that.

at

least

Serve with a gravy

fifteen

minutes longer than

made from

the juices in the

bottom of the pan, the same as that for roast beef, send-

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

238

ing the gravy to

table in a gravy-boat.

currant jelly with venison.


the

and

half-hour,

first

after

Always serve

The oven must be very hot


that the heat may be lessened

somewhat.

THE SADDLE OF VENISON.

The saddle
venison and

is

is,

perhaps, the most distinguished cut of

roasted the same as the leg.

VENISON STEAKS.

These

are broiled rare the

same

as beefsteak.

VENISON, ROLLED.

This

is

made

the

same as

stuffed beefsteak.

Game should not be kept too long.


Venison may be hung three weeks in cold weather, but
If
birds should rarely be hung longer than one week.
birds are to be kept many days, draw but do not pick
them, place a piece of charcoal in the body, and sift
powdered charcoal

into the feathers.

VEGETABLES.
" Cheerful looks

makes every dish a

feast."

We

Massinger.

need a large variety of vegetables in our food to


Vegetables are rich in saline

promote perfect health.

substances, which counteract the evil effect of too

much

and those that contain starch and albumen


and can be stored for use during the winter months are
Peas, beans, squashes,
considered the most valuable.
beets and turnips, which contain sugar, should be slightly
animal food

sweetened, as
the

much

of the natural

sweetness

Those that contain potash

cooking.

tion,

they

may

often be eaten safely

if

lost

in

as cab-

When

bage and lettuce, need an acid condiment.


beans and other vegetables are found

is

salts,

peas,

difficult

of diges-

made

the form

in

of a puree.

All

green

washed well

be freshly gathered,
and cooked in freshly boiled

should

vegetables
in cold water,

water until tender, but no longer.


After water

has boiled for a time,

gases and becomes hard

cooked in soft water.


dried beans

and

it

parts with

its

and most vegetables are better

It is well

lentils will

known

not boil soft

that split peas,


in

hard water.

In some cases, however, the solvent power of pure soft

239

THE PA TTERiV COOK-BOOK.

240
water

is

skin of

so great that

some

destroys the firmness, color and

it

of the green vegetables, so that their juices

This

pass out into the water.

peas and beans


than

soft.

and

is

especially true of green

such cases hard water

in

tea-spoonful of

four quarts of water hardens

common
it

salt

is

added

better

to every

at once, while half a tea-

spoonful of bi-carbonate of soda placed in the same quan-

water renders

tity of

French cooks recommend

soft.

it

ammonia

half a tea-spooonful of

for the

latter purpose.

Young, green vegetables, therefore, should be cooked in


boiling salted water.
Onions, if boiled in soft water, are
almost tasteless, and no

after

salting

can

restore

the

sweet saline taste and aroma which they possess when


boiled in hard (salted) water.
wilted, soak
salt,

as

it

them

for an

hardens the

hour

If

green vegetables are

in cold water.

Do

not add

tissues.

Peas, beans and lentils are the most nutritious of vegetable

substances.

They

are

said

to

contain

as

much

carbon (heat-giving food) as wheat, and almost double


the amount of nitrogen (muscle-forming food).
are almost

mans,

unknown

who use

in

them

this country,

for

soup,

Lentils

except to the Ger-

which,

though made

most nutritious. Lentils afford


the most concentrated form of vegetable diet, and in
olden times their value was fully appreciated.
Esau sold
his birthright, we are told, for a mess of lentil pottage,
and w^e read that the pyramids were built by men who
lived on lentils, garlic and water.
In the time of Pharaoh lentils were considered a dish to be served to persons of distinction.
It is much to be deplored that we,
as a people, do not use this vegetable freely.
Vegetables that have been stored in the autumn for
entirely without meat,

is

VEGETABLES.
winter use

become much

24

wilted as the season advances.

and cabbage that were


and delicate at first get strong-flavored as well as
These should stand several hours
withered and dried.
being cooked and should then be
water
before
cold
in
Cooking in
boiled in four times their quantity of water.
insufficient water will make them dark and give them a
Carrots, turnips, potatoes, onions

crisp

very unpleasant flavor.

Lettuce that has become wilted will brighten

Celery that

in ice-water.

made
warm

quite fresh again

unfit

by being

if

weather

the

thoroughly cold
Celery that
a knot

is

the

is

will

so wilted that

has been

if

it

be crisp

may

laid

may be

pan of luke-

upon the

most

revived

use

ice, or out-

When

gradually cool.

cold, to

celery

for

laid in a

water, which will then be set

doors,

in

seems

and

fresh.

actually be tied

effectually

by

this

method.
Rice,

hominy and macaroni

bles during the winter

are wisely used as vegeta-

and early spring.

PROPER VEGETABLES TO SERVE WITH MEATS.


Housekeepers are often perplexed about the choice of
accompany various kinds of meat and fish.

a vegetable to

In America'n families of moderate means the dinner


seldom consists of more than three courses, and in very

many

cases there are but two, the meat and vegetables

and the dessert.


tables

courses

may be

only one

etables should
fish.

16

In such a dinner several kinds of vegeused,


or,

whereas
at

the

in

dinner of several

most, two

kinds of veg-

be provided with each dish of meat or

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

242

FISH.

With
form
fish

rice

is

fish

may be served

potatoes and tomatoes in any

onions and green peas.

also cucumbers,

the

If

prepared with curry sauce as an accompaniment,

should also be

served

if

dressed

a cream

with

sauce, any kind of potatoes, except fried, will be appropriate.

Fish

nounced

flavor should never be served with

so

is

onions should be

delicate

made

that

vegetable
it.

pro-

of

Therefore

as dainty as possible by being

of water, which should be


changed several times they may then be drained and a
cream sauce added. It used to be the fashion to serve

boiled in a large

quantity
;

nothing with

fish,

but bread,

form, and green peas are

potatoes

in

some dainty

now always provided

with

it.

ROAST BEEF AND BEEFSTEAK.

These

are the only meats that have

not some really

distinctive vegetable to

accompany them.

may be

served with them.

son any variety

CORNED

For

this

rea-

BEEF.

There are some vegetables which appear almost indispensable with corned beef, such as potatoes, turnips,
cabbage, beets and carrots. There are, however, several
substitutes for cabbage, among them being spinach, beet
and
greens, Brussels-sprouts, dandelions and lettuce
Parsnips and
Kohl-rabi may take the place of turnips.
;

sweet potatoes are also good with corned beef.

MUTTON AND LAMB.


There may be about as great a variety of vegetables
served with these meats as with beef, but roast lamb is

VEGETABLES.

243

more frequently eaten with green peas and lettuce than


with anything else.

PORK.

With roast pork may be provided white or sweet potatomatoes,


rabi,

onions,

squash,

toes,

spinach,
rice or

salsify,

turnips,

carrots,

okra,

parsnips,

Kohl-

Brussels-sprouts,

cauliflower,

Always serve a dish

hominy.

of

apple sauce with pork.

VEAL.

Roast or braised veal


nied by

young

is

most appropriately accompa-

Among

carrots, white turnips or spinach.

other vegetables that are also often served with this

meat

are fresh peas, beans, asparagus, okra, tomatoes, dandelion, lettuce,

parsnips,

creamed cabbage, young beets or

beet greens.

POULTRY AND GAME.


With boiled or roasted turkey or chicken should be
eaten potatoes, cauliflower, turnips, stewed celery, onions,

Game

macaroni or parsnips.

cooked and served that

its

of all kinds should

be so

natural flavor will be in no

way disguised. For this reason the sauces and vegetables should combine in a pleasing way with the game
Celery

flavor.

plain,

is

always excellent and

stewed, with a white

dressing.
to serve

At

a dinner of

with the

game

many

courses

a sauce, a salad

it

served

mayonnaise
is customary

almost always an

and bread. Among the vegetables


good with any kind of game are green peas,

uncooked vegetable
that are

may be

sauce or with

French beans, sweet potatoes, tomatoes either

stuffed,

^^ TTEKN COOK-BOOK.

^^^^

244

or in a salad, white potatoes

broiled

as croquettes or

cooked au gratin, and


and some care for stuffed olives as an

puffs or fried in balls, cauliflower

spinach a la creme

accompaniment
used, olives

Unless an olive sauce

of wild duck.

may be

is

served with this game, but they must

For roast goose the


Onions and potatoes are
considered necessary, and so is apple sauce. Sweet potatoes, squash, rice, turnips and beans are also appropriate
be omitted

if

the sauce

provided.

is

vegetables are not numerous.

with roast goose.

In arranging a

bill

of fare, avoid

more or

that are

may be

less alike

Cabbage, chicory, spinach,

1.

lion, cauliflower,

placing two similar

The common

vegetables in the same course.

vegetables

classified as follows
lettuce, endive,

dande-

beet greens, Brussels-sprouts.

Turnips, salsify, Kohl-rabi.

2.
3.

Squash, sweet potatoes.

4.

Shelled peas and beans.

5.

Rice, hominy, macaroni, white potatoes.

Thus,
appear
salsify

if

in

squash be served, sweet potatoes should not


the

same course

or

if

turnips

be served,

should not.

POTATOES.
The

potato

vegetable.
is

It

is

more

contains but

composed three-fourths

sisting largely of starch.

grow

at

the

than any other


muscle-forming food and

generally used
little

of water, the other fourth con-

In the spring sprouts begin to

expense of the starch, and if allowed to


all there is of good in the po-

remain, they soon exhaust


tato

hence they should be removed as soon as they


The majority of housekeepers do not understand

appear.

VEGETABLES.

245

the characteristics of this vegetable.

It

may

be soaked

more hours before being cooked


and will be improved rather than injured by the process,
but let it stand in but little moisture after it is cooked
in water for twelve

and

it

or

The

soon be spoiled.

will

starch

the raw

in

potato does not unite with moisture, but as soon as

cooked
will

be

it

absorbs water like a sponge.

light

and mealy when boiled or baked, but

cooking be continued too long, the potato

it

is

good potato
will

if

the

become

and strong-flavored. If potatoes are desired


warming over or for a salad, they should not be very

dark, heavy
for

mealy.

New

potatoes, being rather moist, are to be pre-

ferred for these two purposes

but potatoes that are to

be used in either of these two ways, and that are usually

mealy when boiled, may be greatly improved by taking


them from the water when a little underdone.
BOILED POTATOES.

There are so many ways


really difficult

to

of boiling potatoes that

satisfy one's

mind which

is

it is

the best,

each mode being good, provided it is properly followed.


The French hold that by using too much water the flavor
of the potatoes becomes seriously impaired, but American
cooks always cover them well with water during the boilof uniform size, wash and scrub
and pare them or not, as may be desired.
Potatoes that are not prime and have any indication of
worm holes or decay should always be pared and these
blemishes removed. Let the potatoes soak an hour in
cold water, place them in a kettle, and cover with boiling
water, adding a table-spoonful of salt to every eight
potatoes after they have been boiling fifteen minutes.

ing.

Select potatoes

them

well,

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

246

They should boil only moderately, else the outside will


be broken before the center is cooked, which never happens except when the boiling has been too strong. PotaWhen tender,
toes should be- done in thirty-five minutes.
pour off all the water, and set the kettle on the back part
of

the

escape.

cover half

range, with the

Serve very hot.

If

off to let the

steam

the potatoes are to be kept

any length of time, cover the kettle with a folded towel


after pouring off the water.

MASHED POTATOES.
Pare the potatoes carefully, and boil as above directed.
very mealy when done, drain the water from

If they are

them and mash at once. If they do not seem mealy, set


them for a moment with the cover off the kettle, and they
Mash them well,
will, soon be ready for the mashing.
and to every quart of potatoes add
One
One

table-spoonful of butter.

table-spoonful of

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

Hot milk

Mash

the potatoes

or

in

cream

to moisten.

the kettle in which they were

them with a fork or spoon until light and


creamy and turn out lightly in the warmed serving dish.
Do not smooth the potatoes, as that will make them com
By using the masher illustrated on
pact and heavy.

boiled, beat

page 32, potatoes may be made very

light.

BAKED POTATOES.

As

the potato contains potash, which

constituent of the blood and

is

is

an important

freely given off in the

VEGETABLES,

247

are much more wholesome


when baked. Wash them well, place them in a bakingpan, and bake in a quick oven for from thirty to forty-five
minutes.
As all ovens do not bake alike, it is impossible
Shake the pan
to give the exact length of time required.
potatoes.
at the end of twenty minutes to turn the
When they may be mashed in the hands they are done.
Do not pierce them with a fork, as that allows the escape
and serve as
of the steam and makes the potato heavy
soon as baked for the same reason.

water in boiling, potatoes

PRINCESS POTATOES.
One
One
One

pint of

mashed

egg, well beaten.

Cut the potato

into strips two inches long,

wide and half an inch thick

may be made
the

^gg^

pan.

and

or,

if

lay

Cook

one inch

hurried, the potatoes

into flat balls half an inch thick.

strips or balls first into

tin

potatoes.

table-spoonful of melted butter.

Dip the

the melted butter and then into

them with a knife in a lightly buttered


a hot oven for twelve minutes, and

in

serve.

POTATO FRITTERS.
Five cold boiled potatoes.
Five table-spoonfuls of

Two

flour.

eggs.

One-half cupful of milk.

One
One

tea-spoonful of baking powder.


tea-spoonful of salt.

Mix the flour, baking powder and


and add the potato, mixing as lightly
Add the milk, and the eggs, well beaten.

Grate the potatoes.


salt well

together,

as possible.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK,

248

Have ready a kettle containing boiling lard to the


depth of three inches. Drop in the mixture by spoonDrain well, and serve. The
fuls, and fry eight minutes.
fat should be so hot that blue smoke rises from the
center of tne kettle.

CREAM Et) Potato, with parsley.


One
One
One

quart of potatoes.
tea-spoonful of flour.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One pint of milk.


One table-spoonful of butter.
One tea-spoonful of chopped parsley.

Use

for

this

purpose cold boiled potatoes, chopped


Put them

rather coarsely and measured after chopping.


in a stew-pan with the

the whole
in

is

flour, salt

and pepper, and when

well mixed, add the milk.

Set the stew-pan

another containing boiling water, and cook until the

Then add
from the
Take
stew-pan
parsley.
the
and
the butter
water, and set it where the potatoes will boil up once
then add more salt and pepper, if needed, and serve.
mixture

is

boiling hot, usually fifteen minutes.

OMELET OF POTATO.
Nine potatoes

of

medium

size.

One-third tea-spoonful of pepper.

One-half a cupful of hot milk.

Three table-spoonfuls of

One

table-spoonful of

butter.

salt.

Pare the potatoes, boil and mash them until fine and
and add salt, pepper, two table-spoonfuls of the

light,

butter,

and

gradually

the

hot milk,

beating

all

the

VEGETABLES.
time.

Put the remaining spoonful of butter

249
in a large

and when it is hot, turn in the potatoes,


Cover the pan and set it
spreading them smoothly.
When
will
brown
slowly and evenly.
contents
where its
frying-pan,

done (generally in about ten minutes), fold the potatoes


same as an omelet, turn them out upon a hot dish,

the

and serve.

POTATOES au Gratin.
One

quart of cold potatoes.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One
One
One

table-spoonful of flour.
pint of milk.

tea-spoonful of chopped parsley.

Salt and pepper to taste.

Heat the butter, and add the flour. When the mixture
smooth and frothy, draw the pan to a cooler part of the
range, and add the milk gradually and then the salt and
Butter a granite-ware or stone-china platter, and
pepper.
is

spread upon

it

the cold potato cut into cubes.

Season

and pepper, and sprinkle with the parsley.


Cover the potatoes with the cream sauce, and bake in the
oven for twelve minutes. The cubes should be slightly
with

salt

browned when served.

POTATO BALLS.
These are generally served with fish. With a vegetable
scoop, cut two quarts of balls out of raw potatoes, boil
them twelve minutes, and drain. Add to them
One

tea-spoonful of lemon juice.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One
One

salt.

quarter tea-spoonful of pepper


table-spoonful of parsley.

Three table-spoonfuls

of butter.

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

250

Chop
balls,

the parsley fine,

and serve

stir

the seasoning into the

all

at once.

POTATOES ROASTED WITH MEAT.


This

a favorite

is

pork or beef

way

cooking potatoes when

of

They should

be roasted.

veal,

howbe dry, hard and pale-colored, but soft and well


browned. The potatoes should not be small, else they
will bake dry and crusty.
Pare the potatoes, boil them
to

is

not,

ever,

fifteen minutes,

and drain

Then

well.

place them in the

baking-pan with the roast, and cook for forty-five minutes,


turning them often and basting with the gravy from the
roast.

Serve them arranged about the

Some

meat.

cooks do not parboil the potatoes before putting them


the pan, but the result

when beef

is

roasting,

is

in

not so successful, especially

which requires so much

less time

for cooking than either veal, pork or mutton.

STUFFED POTATOES.

Bake potatoes of equal size, and when they are done


and still hot, cut a small piece from one end of each and
carefully scoop out the inside, leaving the skin unbroken.

Mash
salt

the potato well, seasoning

and pepper

then return

it

it

with plenty of butter,

with a small spoon to the

skins, leaving the potato protruding about an inch

it

little

beyond

Set the potato on the opposite end, crushing

the skin.

to

make

it

stand firmly.

When enough

skins

are filled roughen the potato that projects above the skin

with a knife or a fork, and place the potatoes in a very

brown the top. They should look


baked potatoes burst open.

hot oven to lightly

when done

like

VE GE TA BLES.

25

SARATOGA CHIPS.
plane or vegetable cutter to slice
cooked in this way. Ripe, new
be
potatoes intended to
they can be obtained.
if
preferred
to
be
are
potatoes
Pare the potatoes, and shave them with the cutter into
Place the slices immediately
slices thinner than a wafer.
It requires a

little

in ice water, cutting

them over a bowl

of ice water,

if

it

can be done conveniently, so the slices will reach the


Let them soak ten minutes,
water without any delay.

and dry them well with a

take out a few slices at a time,


soft

towel.

Have ready

a kettle

of

boiling

hot

lard,

throw in the slices, a few at a time, and stir them with a


skimmer or spoon, to keep them separated. The potatoes must color quickly, but the fat must not be so hot as
to give

When

them a dark appearance.

of a light-brown,

take them out, and place them on a piece of soft brown


salt and set them in the
open oven to keep warm while the rest of the chips are
Turn the first lot from the colander into a hot
frying.

paper in a colander; dredge with

dish,

skim out the second frying and place them

colander

and so continue

toes fried in this

may be served

way

cold

will

if

convenient dish for a

until all are fried.

make

in

Two

the

pota-

a large dishful, and they

desired.

Saratoga Chips make a

company

dinner, as they

may be

must be kept in a dry


They
place that the slices may remain crisp and nice.
also make a pretty garnish around game or meat of any
kind.
In the large cities they are sold by the pound,
already fried and put up in neat boxes.

made

early in the day; but they

FRENCH FRIED POTATOES.


These potatoes must be served the moment they are

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

252

They

ready.

are sliced rather thin or else cut with a

spoon or into blocks or rhomboidal shapes.

vegetable

Let the pieces stand one hour

Have

cold water.

in

ready a frying-pan of very hot lard, dry the slices of po-

and drop them into the


skimmer when done, and

tato quickly on a towel,

Take them

out with a

them in a colander set on a


keep warm while the rest

When
When

all

tin plate in the

of

the

open oven,

potatoes

are done, sprinkle with salt,

are

fish,

to

frying.

and serve very

intended to garnish boiled or baked

hot.

the pota-

and then formed

toes are cut in rather thick slices

lard.

place

into

pretty shapes with the vegetable cutter.

FRIED POTATOES.

Cut cold boiled potatoes

into slices a quarter of an

inch thick, and fry them in a frying-pan in a very


lard,

browning both sides of the

as needed,

slices.

and season the potatoes with

Add more
salt

little

lard

and pepper

after frying.

POTATO PUFF.

Mash

Two
Two

cupfuls of cold

Salt

and pepper

mashed

potato.

eggs.
to taste.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One

tea-cupful of milk.

when melted.
and add the eggs beaten very
Beat all
lightly, and then the milk and the seasoning.
well together, and bake in a deep dish until nicely
browned. The potatoes should come from the oven light
and puffy.
Stir

the potato well, and add the butter

to a white cream,

VEGETABLES.

253

LYONNAISE POTATOES.
One
One
One
One
Salt

pint of cold potatoes.

table-spoonful of butter.

table-spoonful of minced onion.


table-spoonful of chopped parsley.

and pepper

to taste.

The potatoes should be rather underdone to produce


Cut them into dice, and season with
the best results.
and pepper. Fry the onion in the butter until yellow,
add the potato, and stir with a fork until both are of a
A
nice brown, being careful not to break the potatoes,
salt

little

so

more butter may be required, as no vegetables absorb

much

top,

When

butter as potatoes.

upon a hot

toes out

and serve

hot.

NEW

TO COOK SMALL
It

that

is

often a question

are

very

done, turn the pota-

dish, sprinkle the parsley over the

small.

what

They

to

are

POTATOES.

do with new potatoes


delicious cooked as

described below, and for this purpose the smaller they


are the better.

Soak them one hour

in cold

water

then

rub off the skin with a coarse cloth, put them on the
to boil,

and when tender remove them from the

drain well.

Then add

to the

nearly cover them, and heat


is

hot, stir in

it

fire

and

potatoes enough milk to

to boiling.

one table-spoonful

cream with one table-spoonful

fire

When

of butter

of flour.

the milk

rubbed

to

Stir well to pre-

vent the potatoes sticking to the stew-pan, being careful


not to break them; and add salt and pepper,
butter,

if

desired.

Serve hot

in a

deep

dish.

and more

The milk

should be a thick cream and will prove a fine accompani-

ment for the potatoes.

If

preferred, the milk

mav be

^^^ PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

2 54

heated

and thickened while the potatoes

in a farina kettle

are draining, adding the latter

None

when

the gravy

is

ready.

of the potatoes should be larger than a small egg.

SWEET POTATOES.
These may be baked, boiled or
white variety, but they are
It

is

when

well

known

much

fried the

same

as the

be preferred baked.

to

that sweet potatoes are

much

richer

twice cooked, and in the South they are more

fre-

quently cooked

twice

their "jackets,"

and when nearly done, are drained and

peeled and are laid


ter is then

They

once.

small baking-tin

in a

are

boiled

in

a piece of but-

spread on each potato and a tea-spoonful of

sugar scattered over

brown

than

color.

The

it,

and

all

potatoes

are

baked

may be

until of a rich

cut in two pieces

if

Sweet potatoes are roasted with meat the


same as white potatoes and in the South they are often
mashed, placed in a baking dish and browned in the
very large.

oven.

ESCALLOPED SWEET POTATOES.


This dish makes a nice

entre'e for

dinner and

is

also

appropriate for breakfast.


Three pints of cold boiled sweet potatoes.
One-third cupful of butter.

One-quarter cupful of boiling water.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

Three tea-spoonfuls
Slice the potato,

of sugar.

and sprinkle with the

salt

and pepper.

Butter a large, shallow dish, and spread the potato in

making a layer not more than an inch

thick.

it,

Melt the

VEGETABLES.
butter in the water,

255

and add the sugar.

Sprinkle

one

quarter of this liquid over the potato, and set the latter
in a

of

hot oven.

the liquid

more
ling,

In ten minutes sprinkle another quarter


over the potatoes, and repeat this twice
After the

at intervals of ten minutes.

bake ten minutes (making

forty in

all),

last sprink-

and serve

hot.

ARTICHOKE.
The artichoke has in the past been very little used in
America and its value has not been understood but it is
now becoming more popular. It belongs to the thistle
In Engfamily, the flower being picked before it opens.
land and France artichokes may be purchased for three
or four cents each, but in the Northern markets of the
United States they range in price from twenty to forty
cents apiece in the South they are somewhat cheaper.
Artichokes when bought should be green and crisp, for if
the leaves are brown and dry it is a sign that the vegetaThe small green heads are to be
ble is old and stale.
preferred to the large ones that have leaves with dark
and broken edges. When small and tender, the artichoke
may be served raw as a salad. It consists of three parts,
the bottom, leaves and choke.
The choke is not eaten
and may be removed or not, as preferred. If it is to be
then with the
removed, cut out the stem and save it
point of a sharp knife cut around the base of the choke
and draw the latter out. Cut across the top of the artichoke to trim it.
Then wash it and soak it for half
an hour in salted water, using one table-spoonful of
;

salt to

cook.

two quarts of water.

It will

then be ready to

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

256

BOILED ARTICHOKE.
the choke

After removing

and soaking as

directed,

press the stem back into the head, lay the whole in a ket-

and cover with boiling water, adding one tea-spoonful


and two of lemon juice for every two quarts of
Boil gently for half an hour, if the vegetable is
water.
young ten minutes longer, if old. Then take the artichoke from the water and drain. Serve hot with Bechamel sauce or sauce Hollandaise (see "Sauces"), pouring
the sauce around the artichoke or serving it separately.
When eating this vegetable, break the leaves off with the
fingers and dip the base or fleshy end in the sauce.
tle

of salt

When

the heads are small, one

son at table

may each be

is

provided for each per-

but when they are large or expensive, they


cut in two.

ASPARAGUS, STEWED.

Break the stalks


ends that are not

and wash

fit

all well.

in

inch lengths, placing the tough

to

serve on a plate by themselves

Tie the tough pieces in a piece of

and lay them with the tender asparagus in


enough slightly salted water to just cover.
Close the kettle, and stew slowly until the asparagus is
the water should be ditender, usually thirty minutes
minished by this time to a quantity just sufficient to keep
Remove the cheese-cloth
the asparagus from burning.
season the remaining
and throw away its contents
asparagus with butter, salt and pepper, and serve at

cheese-cloth,

a kettle, with

once.

The tough

stalks,

which are usually thrown away,

be found to impart considerable sweetness

will

to the juices

VEGETABLES.
in the kettle

and by tying them

in

257

may

the cloth, they

be readily taken out when no longer required.

CREAMED ASPARAGUS.
Cook as directed in the preceding recipe, boiling the
down until not more than a cupful remains. To
this add one cupful of cream or milk, and thicken with a
water

table-spoonful

flour

of

Add

cold milk.

rubbed

butter,

salt

to

with a

a paste

and pepper

little

to taste,

and

serve at once.

ASPARAGUS ON TOAST.
Tie the

and

stalks

in

bundle,

keeping the heads

the tough

length

stalks,

and

all

tying

one

making those

in

it

way

two places,

then

that remain

cut

ofT

of uniform

boil the latter slowly until tender in slightly

While they are

salted water.
slices of toast.

boiling, prepare

Lift the asparagus

some

thin

from the water with

lifting it by the strings, and lay it on a platDip the toast very quickly in the water the asparagus was boiled in, butter it lightly, and lay it on the serv-

two forks,
ter.

Distribute the asparagus evenly over the toast,

ing dish.

heaping

it

Butter generously, season with salt

neatly.

and pepper, and serve.


over the whole, and

sauce

may be made

is

sometimes poured

as follows

One-half pint of asparagus water.

in,

Heat
and
17

One
One

table-spoonful of flour.

Salt

and pepper

table-spoonful of butter.
to taste.

half a pint of the water the asparagus


stir

into

it,

when

boiling, the

flour

was boiled
and butter

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

258

rubbed

to a cream.

Add

and pepper, and pour the

salt

sauce over the toast and vegetable.


sauce Hollandaise on the asparagus.

Some cooks

serve

(See page 138.)

ASPARAGUS IN AMBUSH.
One
Nine

quart of asparagus tops.


stale breakfast rolls.

Salt

and pepper

One

pint of milk.

Four eggs

One

Wash

to taste.

(yolks).

table-spoonful of butter.

boil them fifteen minutes in slightly


and drain. Cut the tops off the rolls, take
out the crumb, and set them in the oven to crisp, la)ing
each top by the roll from which it was cut. Heat the
milk in a double boiler, and when boiling, add the beaten

the tops,

salted water,

yolks,

which have been thinned with two table-spoonfuls

of milk or water.
like

Stir

two minutes

cream, add the butter,

salt

and

until the liquid

is

pepper and the

cooked asparagus, and remove at once from the fire.


Take the rolls from the oven, and fill them with this mixture, put on the tops, and serve hot.
The asparagus
should not be cold when put in the preparation should
be so timed that the rolls and asparagus will be ready at
the same time.
;

LIMA BEANS.
green beans are used, put one pint of them into
enough boiling salted water to cover, and boil slowly

If the

just

This will take about an hour, if they are


cooked slowly enough. Drain off the water, and add
one cupful of milk or cream, a small |:iec:e of butter and
salt and pepper to taste.
Let the beans simmer a mountil tender.

VEGETABLES.
ment

in the milk,

and

259

If dried

serve.

should be soaked twelve hours

in

limas are used, they

plenty of cold water

and when boiled, half a tea-spoonful


added to the water.

of

soda should be

CREAMED LIMA BEANS.


well

It is

beans

is lost in

follows

much

that

the water that

This flavor

boiling.

pail

known

will all

Place the beans

set

in

in

of the sweetness
is

of lima

drained from them after

be saved by cooking them as


a double boiler, or in a tin

Cover them with milk,


and boil the

a kettle of water.

close tightly the vessel containing the beans,

water

in the

under vessel for one hour.

The milk

found deliciously strong of the bean flavoring.


with

butter and pepper, and serve.

salt,

tightly covered, the milk will not

If

will

be

Season

the boiler

is

be too much reduced.

STRING BEANS.

from each end of the pods to remove


the strings, break the pods into inch lengths, and place
them in a kettle with just enough water to cover. Add
half a dozen strips of salt pork, cover the kettle, and
cook slowly for one hour. The water by this time should
Break

off a little

be near-ly

all

evaporated.

Season with a

little

salt

and

pepper, and serve, the strips of pork being also placed


in

the dish.

Serve a piece of the pork with the beans to

each person at table.

STRING BEANS IN MILK.


After removing the strings, boil the beans in plenty of
salted

water for one hour.

cover them, and heat.

When

Drain, add milk to nearly


boiling, stir into the milk

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

26o
a

little

made

flour

with a small quantity of

into a paste

cold milk, using enough flour to

make

the milk creamy.

Boil two minutes, stirring all of the time

and pepper

to taste,

and serve

BAKED BEANS.

add butter,

salt

hot.

(See pages 197, 198.)

BEAN SOUP.

(See page 92.)

BEETS.

Wash

beets carefully, but do not cut or scrape

the

them nor remove any


If the

are

skin

is

of

the

small roots at the bottom.

broken before cooking the flavor and color

much impaired by

the water.

Some cooks even

ommend

boiling them without being washed at

this pl-an

may be

extreme.

followed by those

who

all,

rec-

and

care to go to that

Boil the beets in plenty of water.

Young beets

one hour, but through the winter


will
be found none too long. When
months four hours
tender, throw the beets into a pan of cold water, and

will

cook tender

in

quickly rub off the skin wilh the hands

then slice them,

and pepper and plenty of butter, and serve hot.


Should the beets be tough and withered, soak them for

add

salt

twenty-four hours in plenty of cold water before trying to

cook them

then boil them four or six hours very slowly.

In the late winter

when

old beets are alone to be had,

be the only way in which they can be boiled


The cold beets
tender, and even this will sometimes fail.
left over may be covered with vinegar and used as pickles.
this will

BRUSSELS-SPROUTS.
Pick off the dead leaves from the sprouts, soak the
latter in cold

water for half an hour, wash them, and put

VEGETABLES.
them on the

fire in

26

plenty of slightly salted boiling water.

Boil until tender, thirty

minutes being usually long enough.

Drain off the water, and place the sprouts

in a frying-pan,

adding for every quart of them when uncooked,


Three table-spoonfuls ^of

One
One
One

table-spoonful of

butter.

salt.

tea-spoonful of sugar.
tea-spoonful of flour.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

Shake the pan over the


slightly colored

fire

until

may

also be

become

the sprouts

then turn them into a

Brussels sprouts

serve.

same

warm

cooked

dish,

and

milk the

in

(See page 259.)

as string beans.

CABBAGE WITH CORNED BEEF.


Cut the cabbage, if large, into quarters, and soak it
one hour in cold water. Add it to the boiling corned
beef an hour and a quarter before serving-time, and let

When

both boil very slowly.

tender,

lift

with a skimmer into

stump

and with a knife

of the cabbage,

Add

leaves.
salt.

pepper, and salt also

Press out

all

out the cabbage

colander, to drain; remove the

if

slightly

the beef

chop the
is

not too

the water possible from the cabbage,

and serve on a w^arm dish or around the corned beef, as


may be desired.

CABBAGE IN MILK.

Chop

the cabbage fine, having soaked

before chopping.

Boil until tender in

usually forty-five minutes


well,

if

the boiling

it

for

one hour

plenty of water,
is

slow.

Drain

cover with milk, and when hot, thicken to a cream

THE FA TTERN COOK- BOOK.

262
with a

little

rubbed

flour

smooth paste with a small

to a

Boil one minute, stirring well; add

spoonful of butter.
salt

and pepper, and

way

of

This

serve.

is

the most delicate

cooking cabbage.

CABBAGE HOT SLAW.

Chop the cabbage


water; and place
gar.

Cover the

it

fine, after

soaking

it

one hour

in

cold

an iron kettle with a cupful of vine-

in

kettle

and

set

it

where the cabbage

will

slowly stew for two hours, stirring often, and adding a


little

more vinegar

as that in the kettle evaporates, but

in the kettle to keep the


Should the vinegar be very
cabbage from burning.
When the cabbage
strong, weaken it with a little water.
is tender, add a little butter, salt and pepper, and serve
The slaw, when cooked, should be of a delicate pinkhot.

keeping only enough moisture

ish shade.

It

requires constant attention while cooking.

CABBAGE SALAD.

(See Salads.)

CARROTS.
Scrape and wash the carrots, and cut them
Boil

them one hour

in

in

slices.

plenty of water; then drain off

all

but half a cupful of the water, and add to the carrots one
tea-spoonful of sugar, and one of

the water

is all

evaporated.

salt.

Boil rapidly until

Cover the carrots with

milk,

and thicken this to a cream with a little flour wet to a


smooth paste with cold milk. Add butter, salt and pepper to taste, and serve hot.
Carrots may also be cooked the same as beets, adding
butter, salt and pepper after draining off the water, and
serving

them

after

heating thoroughly.

Or they may

VEGETABLES.

26^

be boiled whole with corned beef, and served as a garnish

around the meat.

improves their appearance to cut

It

them into half-inch

and then shape them with

slices

the tin cutters.

BOILED CAULIFLOWER.

Remove

the outer green leaves, cut off the stem close

and wash well. Put the cauliflower head


downward in cold water, and let it soak for an hour, to
draw out any insects that may be there and to freshen the
flowers.
Unless very large, do not cut it but if it must
the flower,

to

be cut, quarter

Tie

neatly.

it

in

it

a piece of coarse

tarleton or cheese-cloth to prevent breaking,


in

stew-pan or a

a granite-ware

with plenty of slightly salted, boiling water.

simmer

half

When

an

hour,

if

the

and place

it

porcelain-lined kettle,

vegetable

is

Cover, and
of

moderate

remove any scum that may have


arisen, lift the cauliflower carefully from the water, drain
well, take it from the cloth, and place it stem downward
in the serving dish.
Pour over it a sauce made of
size.

done,

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One

table-spoonful of flour.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One scanty

salt.

phit of milk.

Beat the butter and flour to a cream, and pour over them
I

Add

he boiling milk.

stirring
salt

all

the

time.

the

salt,

and

boil for five minutes,

Sprinkle half a tea-spoonful of

over the cauliflower before pouring on the sauce.

BAKED CAULIFLOWER.
Boil the vegetable tender as directed in the preceding
recipe, drain well,

remove

it

from the cloth, and tear the

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

264

clusters or flowers from the stem.


clusters in a

Heat the
and

froths

a sauce

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One
One

table-spoonful of flour.
pint of milk.

Salt

and pepper to

butter,

add the

made

of

taste.

flour,

add

smooth,

is

Place a layer of these

Have ready

baking dish.

the

and when the mixture


milk and seasoning.

Moisten the layer of cauliflower in the baking-dish with a


few spoonfuls of this sauce, and sprinkle ove'r it some grated

Then arrange

cheese, using the latter according to taste.

another layer of the cauliflower, add the rest of the sauce,

and

sprinkle

The

thickly

and bread crumbs.

with cheese

dish will require about half a pint of crumbs and two

table-spoonfuls of cheese, or more,

a strong flavor

if

Bake twenty minutes, and serve

desired.

in

is

same

the

dish.

CORN.
GREEN CORN, BOILED.
to cook corn varies with its age and
Tender corn should cook in fifteen minutes,
merely simmering for that length of time but old corn
Corn may be boiled either
often requires half an hour.

The time needed

freshness.

with or without the husk.


all

of this outer

If

without the husk, strip

off

covering, and remove every particle of

husk is to be left on, strip off the outer


back the innermost covering of two or three
leaves, pick off all the silk, and re-cover the ear with the
the

silk.

If the

leaves, turn

leaves
thread.

turned back, tying


Place the corn

in

it

at the

top with

a stew-pan,

and cover

bit
it

of

with

VEGETABLES.
do not add

265

would harden the


from the fire, spread a napkin on a flat dish, and lay the corn upon it, drawing the
ends of the napkin up so as to cover the corn serve at
boiling water, but

corn.

When

once.

When

done, remove

salt, as this

it

boiled

in

the husk, drain the

corn

before serving, and break each cob from the stem

HOW TO EAT GREEN

CORN.

Score every row of kernel with a sharp knife

corn

well

send

napkin, but do not remove the husks.

to the table in the

butter the

lightly,

dust

it

with

salt,

then

and with the

teeth press out the center of the grains, leaving the hulls

on the cob.

It

usually considered

is

corn from the cob, but this method

is

inelegant to eat
the least trouble-

some.

GREEN CORN, STEWED.


This
that

will

is

be found a satisfactory way of cooking corn

little

past

its

prime or

boil the

corn for ten minutes.

enough

to handle,

is

withered.

As soon

as

it

Husk, and
has cooled

draw a sharp knife dowai each row


from the hulls with the back
in a stew-pan, and to every pint add

kernels, press the pulp


the knife, place

it

One-half tea-spoonful of

of

of

salt.
*

One-half tea-spoonful of sugar.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

table-spoonful of butter.

Three-quarters cupful of cream or milk.

Let the whole simmer for ten minutes, and serve very
hot.

Any

corn that

may be

left

over from "some other

meal may be cut from the cob and cooked

in this

way.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

266

CANNED CORN.
Place a pint of corn

in

Simmer

omitting the butter.

and

and add seasoning

a stew-pan,

and milk the same as given

in

the

preceding recipe,

ten minutes, add the butter,

serve.

CORN PUDDING.
One dozen

large ears of corn.

Four eggs.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One
One
One

pint of milk.

table-spoonful of butter.
table-spoonful of sugar.

Grate the corn from the cob.


of the eggs separately

the melted
lastly the

butter,

Beat the whites and yolks

add the yolks

then

to

the

the milk, sugar and

beaten whites, stirring continually.

corn, then
salt,

and

Bake very

slowly for an hour and a-half, covering the dish until the

twenty minutes, when the cover should be removed


and the pudding browned nicely. Serve with roast meat
This can also be made of canned corn,
of any kind.
which must be chopped very fine before using.
last

SUCCOTASH.
This

is

made

of green

string or butter beans


fully

from the cob, and


One

corn and Lima beans, although

may be
to

pint of

used.

Cut the corn care-

each pint allow


Lima

beans.

One-half pint of cream or milk.

One

table-spoonful of butter.

Salt

and pepper

to taste.

VEGETABLES,

267

Cover the beans with boiling water, and cook for thirty
Drain off the water, add the corn and the milk
or cream, and stew slowly for fifteen minutes, or longer,
minutes.

if

the corn

In winter,

old

is

then add the seasoning, and serve.

dried corn and beans are used, soak both

if

In the morning cover the beans

separately over night.

with fresh water, and boil them very gently for two hours.

Do

not drain the water from the corn, but set the pan

containing

on the back of the range where

it

warmed without

well

When

the

the corn

beans

are

will

and add them

tender, drain

some

Cook

be
to

slowly for twenty minutes, and

of the water until there

two-thirds of a cupful left

Succotash

ing.

it

beans are cooking.

both should then have only water enough to

about cover them.


drain off

boiling, while the

may

is

not more than

then add the milk and season-

made

also be

of

canned corn and

beans.

CORN AND TOMATOES, STEWED.


Take equal
and

quantities of green corn cut from the cob

of sliced, peeled tomatoes,

hour.

Season with pepper,

and stew them for half an


and butter, stew fifteen

salt

minutes longer, and serve hot.

CORN AND TOMATOES, BAKED.


Use equal quantities

cut from the cob,


adding to a pint of

of cooked corn

and raw tomatoes peeled and

sliced,

each

One

table-spoonful of

salt.

Three table-spoonfuls of

butter.

One-half pint of bread-crumbs.


One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

tea-spoonful of sugar.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

268

Mix
all

the seasoning with the corn and tomatoes, and pour

into a baking dish.

Spread the crumbs over the

dot them with the butter, and bake half an hour.


is

way

a satisfactory

of utilizing corn that has

top,

This

been

left

over from dinner.

CORN SALAD OR
This

is

prepared

FetticUS.

used as a salad, being very delicate when so


or it may be washed and cooked the same as

spinach, which

it

much

resembles.

CORN FRITTERS, NO.


One
One

I.

pint of grated corn.


egg.

One-half cupful of milk.

One

tea-spoonful of melted butter.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

Salt

and pepper

to taste.

Flour to thicken.

Grate the corn from the cob. Beat the egg well, and
add it to the corn, and also the milk, melted butter, salt
and pepper. Stir the baking powder into a little of the
flour, and add it to the corn, stirring in enough flour to
make a rather thick batter. The fritters are fried upon a
griddle like batter-cakes, a table-spoonful of the batter

being used for each

when
fine,

the fresh

is

Canned corn may be used


Chop this corn very

fritter.

not to be had.

and add two-thirds of a cupful

of milk to

each pint

used, the quantity of milk being thus slightly increased,

because the canned corn

The above-mentioned
persons.

Corn

is

not so moist as

quantities

are

the

sufficient

fresh.

for

six

fritters are very nice served for luncheon.

VEGETABLES.

269

CORN FRITTERS, NO.


One can

2.

of corn.

One-half cupful of milk.

One table-spoonful of sugar.


One table-spoonful of melted

Two
Two

butter.

table-spoonfuls of flour.
eggs.

Salt to taste.

Chop

the corn as fine as pulp,

ingredients to

much more

it.

flour

and add the

of the

rest

Should there be but one egg at hand,


should be used to make the batter stiff

Fry as griddle-cakes, and serve hot.

enough.

CELERY.
Wash and
that

which

scrape the stalks, and only use for the table

Cut

white or but slightly green.

is

off the

grow
Lay the celery in cold water for one
hour before serving, and send it to table on a low, flat

green

retaining

leaves,

the

blanched ones

that

nearest the heart.

dish, the high celery glasses

method

on

vegetables
table

may be

page 239.

For the

being out of date.

of freshening celery, see

the general remarks on

The

parts not used on the

served as a salad or

may be

cooked.

STEWED CELERY.

Wash

the stalks clean, cut

and soak an hour


the celery in

and

let

time

the

not quite
milk,

it

in

cold

them

a stew-pan, with

simmer

slowly

inch-long pieces,

into

boiling

half

an

water to cover

half

cupful.
liquid

as

to

Add

a cupful of

boils,

thicken

it

which
measure

by

hour,

water should be so reduced

and when the

and place

Drain,

water.

cream or
cream

to a

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

270
with a

flour

little

Add

butter.

salt

rubbed smooth
and pepper, and

in

a table-spoonful of

serve.

STEWED CELERY WITH BROWN SAUCE.


the

Boil

preceding recipe.

celery as directed in the

Heat a table-spoonful of butter in a frying-pan, and


when of a dark brown add a table-spoonful of flour.
Then
Stir until the paste is smooth and quite dark.
drain the celery, and add to the butter and flour half a
When the
pint of the water in which it was boiled.
sauce

boils,

season

with salt and pepper, pour over

it

the celery, and serve.

CUCUMBERS.
CUCUMBERS, RAW.
Pare the cucumbers neatly from end

them

in ice-water for

towel, and

ing each
oil

slice

person

an hour

thinly.

to

to end,

and

lay

then wipe them dry on

Serve

plainly

season to taste with

a"

table, allow-

at

salt,

pepper,

Or each cucumber may be cut in four


from end to end, and these may be served upon a

and vinegar.

pieces

long dish with cracked

When

ice.

prepared

in this

way,

they are dipped in salt and pepper and eaten from the
fingers.

STEWED CUCUMBERS.
Pare and quarter the cucumbers and remove the seeds.
Place
a

table-spoonful of butter in

frying-pan,

small onion cut in slices, and fry until brown

put in the

brown.

cucumbers,

and

fry

Remove them from

gravy a table-spoonful

of

the

flour,

them

until

of

pan, and add

mixing

until

add
then

a light
to

the

smooth.

VEGETABLES.

2/1

Pour in half a pint of stock or water, stirring continually,


Now return the
and add salt and pepper to taste.
cucumbers to the pan and stew gently for twenty minServe on toasted bread.

utes.

FRIED CUCUMBERS.
Pare

the vegetables,

and

lay

them

in

ice-water half

Cut them into lengthwise slices nearly half


an inch thick, and lay them in ice-water fifteen minutes
Wipe each piece dry, sprinkle with salt and
longer.
an hour.

with flour, and fry to a delicate

pepper, dredge
in

lard or sw^eet drippings.

only wholesome

method

Many

of preparing

STUFFED CUCUMBERS.

brown

declare this to be the

cucumbers.

(aN

Eutf'ee.)

Six good-sized cucumbers.

One-half cupful of chopped veal.

Four table-spoonfuls of milk.


Three table-spoonful of bread-crumbs.

One

egg.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of pepper.


One-eighth tea-spoonful of thyme.
One-quarter tea-spoonful of onion

One tea-spoonful of butter.


One and a-half pint of chicken
Pare the cucumbers

lightly, cut

juice.

or veal stock.

off the

ends, and cut

two pieces crosswise. Remove the


seeds with an apple corer, lay the cucumbers in slightly

each

cucumber

salted water,

veal fine.

pan, and

paste

is

in

and

set

them

in

a cool

place.

Place the milk and bread-crumbs

cook slowly ten minutes, or

formed.

Add

until

Chop
in

the

a sauce-

smooth

to this the rest of the ingredients.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

2^2

and mix well with tlie veal. Take the cucumbers from
the water, wipe them dry, and fill them with the mixture,
packing it solidly. Lay them in a stew-pan, and pour
over them the chicken or veal stock, or the same quantity
of water if there is no stock, adding a table-spoonful of
Add a bay-leaf also, and
butter in case water is used.
let
the cucumbers simmer
salt and* pepper to taste, and
forty-five minutes.

When

cucumbers on thin

strips of

sauce

made

it

time to serve, place the

is

toast,

and pour over them a

of the following ingredients

Three table-spoonfuls of

One
One
One

butter.

table-spoonful of flour.
table-spoonful of lemon juice.

cupful of veal or chicken stock.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One
One
One
One
One

A
Simmer

all

lemon-juice

slice of carrot.

slice of onion.

sprig of parsley.
clove.
bay-leaf.

grating of nutmeg.

these together twenty minutes, adding the


the sauce,

Strain

last.

cucumbers, and serve.


place the liquid in

there

If

is

pour

it

over

no stock, use

in

the
its

which the cucumbers were boiled.

DANDELIONS.

These are not

fit

to eat

after

they blossom, as they

Cut off the


and wash them well

then become bitter and stringy.


the greens over carefully,

waters.

Place

them

in

kettle,

roots, pick
in

several

cover with boiling,

VEGETABLES.
salted water,

and

2/3

boil slowl)^ for an hour.

When

done,

them to drain out all


then add a table-spoonthe water, and chop coarsely
ful of butter, and salt and pepper to taste, and serve.
Dandelions are sometimes boiled with corned beef, the
same as cabbage. They are eaten with a little vinegar
them

lift

into a colander, press


;

sprinkled on each dishful.

EGG-PLANT.

Cut the egg-plant


Pare the

slices,

placing a plate

and

let

in

a-quarter of an inch thick.

slices

and lay them in very strong


on top to keep them under

them soak thus

wipe each slice dry, dip

at
it

hot lard until well done

water,

the

brine

two hours.

least

salt

and pepper, and

and nicely browned.

which contain a bitter

juice,

more or

in

fry in

Egg-plant

belongs to the same family as potatoes and tobacco,


of

Drain,

beaten egg and then

in

cracker-crumbs seasoned with

salt

all

poisonous.

less

This should be soaked out of the plant before using, or


it

will

be a decided

the preparation of

failure.

There

which the cook

is

is

no vegetable

in

less certain of suc-

cess than egg-plant, for often after every precaution has

been taken

way

of

it

this bitterness is to

water on the slices and


before

looking

frying.

Another

be too bitter to be eaten.

will

removing

let

Egg-plants

when purchased,

chance of their success

pour boiling salted

them remain

in

it

an hour

should be fresh and glossy-

else there can be no possible


in

whatever way they

may be

cooked.

STUFFED EGG-PLANT.
Cut the plant

in

two parts lengthwise, and scoop out

the meat, leaving the rind about half an inch


i8

thick, that

^^ TTERN COOK-BOOK.

^^^^

2/4
the shape

may be

Chop

firm.

the pulp fine, season

it

with salt and pepper and a table-spoonful of butter, and

cook

in a frying-pan

for ten minutes, stirring well

add a scanty half-cupful

of water

and

then

a cupful of bread-

Sprinkle the interior of the shells with salt and

crumbs.

fill them with the mixture.


Spread a cupful
crumbs on the surface of the mixture, place the two
pieces of plant in a baking-dish or deep pan, and pour
enough hot water into the pan to come half-way up the
Bake an hour, and serve hot on a
sides of the plant.

pepper, and

of

The

napkin.
it

may be

egg-plant will be found very delicate, and

served either as a vegetable or an

entree.

ENDIVE.

This vegetable
ally

is

used as a winter salad and

is

gener-

dressed with celery or boiled beets, and garnished

with hard boiled eggs and a salad dressing poured over


all.

may

It

also be

cooked as

in the

following recipe.

CREAMED ENDIVE.

Wash

the endive carefully, and pick off the outer green

leaves, leaving

only the white

drain well, return

When

milk.

it

to

Boil until tender,

part.

the kettle, and

the milk boils, thicken

stirred to a paste with a

small

it

nearly cover with


with a

quantity of

little

flour

milk,

cold

season with butter, salt and pepper, and serve.


KALE.

This

is

may be

cooked and served the same


tied

in

bundle,

boiled

as spinach

like

served on toast with a generous allowance of butter.

may

also be boiled in a bundle

or

it

asparagus and

and drained

It

well, after

VEGETABLES.
which milk
a

little

will

2/5

be added and thickened to a cream with


whole being seasoned with butter, salt

flour, the

and pepper.

LENTILS, FRIED,

Wash and soak

over night a pint of

In

lentils.

the

morning drain, cover them with warm water in which has


been placed half a tea-spoonful of soda, and bring them
quickly to a boil.

Boil gently for an hour, drain, cover

them again with fresh boiling

water, and boil gently

soft

tender, this generally requiring an

until

longer.

Test by mashing a

crushes

quickly,

drained

in

they

a colander.

are

done,

hour and a-half

now and

lentil

then

if

it

and should then be

Place two table spoonfuls of but-

and when it
with salt and pepper to season
for fifteen minutes, and serve.
ter in a frying-pan,

is
;

melted, add the

lentils,

them over the

stir

fire

MACARONI AND SPAGHETTI.


Macaroni

is

very valuable as an article of food, for

contains a larger proportion of glutin than bread


it is

is

the bread of the Italian laborer.

not

much used by

reason, since

it is

In this country

not expensive and

is

most

ish tint is to

is

it

in fact,

the working classes, but for no

In selecting macaroni that which

pared.

it

good

easily pre-

of a yellow-

be preferred to the white.

BAKED .MACARONI, WITH CHEESE,

Do

not wash the macaroni.

Break

and throw

it

prevent

settling to the bottom,

it

into boiling, salted water.

aroni does not nearlv

reach

its

and
full

it

into inch-lengths.
Stir frequently to

Macwhen boiled

boil slowly.
size

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

2/6

rapidly; hence forty-five

allow for

its

and drain
bottom

some

it

is

none too long

when done

Arrange a layer of macaroni in the


upon it strew some rich cheese
generally used), and scatter over this

well.

is

of

bits

butter.

Add

sprinkling

of

salt

pepper, then another layer of macaroni and cheese


fill

to

into a colander,

of a pudding-dish,

Parmesan

(the

minutes

Turn

cooking.

and
and

the dish in this order, having macaroni at the top,

buttered well, but without the cheese.

Add

a few spoon-

and bake slowly until of a golden-brown hue,


half an hour being usually sufficient.
Serve in the dish
in which it was baked.

fuls of milk,

STEWED MACARONI.
Boil the

macaroni

until

soft,

throw

it

into

a colander,

and drain well then return it to the kettle, nearly cover


with milk, and season with butter, salt and pepper to
taste.
Let all boil together for three minutes, and serve.
;

MACARONI AND TOMATOES.


One-quarter pound of spaghetti.
One-half pint of stewed tomatoes.

One
One

table-spoonful of flour.
table-spoonful of butter.

Salt and pepper to taste.

Take

a handful of the long sticks, put the ends into

boiling, salted water,

them

the

in

and as they

water

without

briskly until done, drain in

colander

in

a pan

hot,

bend and
Boil

colander,

and stand

Place the butter

add the

flour

and mix

coil

rather

of cold water for fifteen minutes.

blanches the spaghetti.

and when

soften,

breaking.

the

This

in a frying-pan,

until

smooth.

VEGETABLES.
Then pour

in

tlie

277.

strained tomatoes, and

when they

up once, and serve without

add the spaghetti, boil

boil,

cutting.

MUSHROOMS.
During the Summer and Autumn, and more especially
in

September and October, mushrooms abound in the


and the wild mushin many parts of the country

fields

rooms are decidedly superior to the cultivated variety.


It is highly important to be able to distinguish those which
Those which may
are edible from the poisonous ones'
open, sunny place
clear,
appear
in
in
a
eaten
old
sod
be
and spring up after low-lying fogs and heavy dews. Low,
damp and shady spots and around the stumps of decayed
trees are the places to shun in gathering mushrooms.

They

are at

foot-stalk;

at

very small and supported on a short


this stage are called

Their growth

rooms.

room

first

and

spreads

like

is

an

rapid.

"button" mush-

In an hour the mush-

umbrella and shows

the

underneath, which should be of a pale salmon color.

another hour

The

brown.
it

has

pretty

this

edible

gills

In

color has changed to a dark

mushroom may be

easily pulled,

and

an agreeable smell, while the poisonous variety

invariably has a putrid, rank

odor and has yellow or

when
mushrooms that have even one poisonous
fungus among them.
To prepare mushrooms for cooking cut off the stalks

white

gills.

used to

It

is

said that

silver will turn black

stir

and throw them away, unless they are very solid and
tender, when they may be cooked.
Pare the cups and
drop them into a bowl of water, into which has been
squeezed the juice of half a lemon this will keep the
mushrooms from darkening.
;

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

278

STEWED MUSHROOMS.
One

quart of cleaned mushrooms.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One
One

table-spoonful of flour.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.


One-half cupful of water.

Rub the flour to a smooth paste in the water. Put the


mushrooms, flour and seasoning together in a stew-pan,
and boil gently for five minutes, stirring constantly.
Serve very hot. When milk or cream is preferred in the
cooking, use but half the quantity of water, adding a cupful

of

above.

milk; and
If

cream

after
is

mushrooms

butter, as the

minutes, serve

boiling five

as

used, allow but half the quantity of


are very rich.

SIMPLE STEV/ OF MUSHROOMS.


Clean a pint of mushrooms, cut them

in rather small

and put them in a stew-pan with a table-spoonful of butter and a little salt and pepper
let them simmer ten minutes, and serve. Wild mushrooms are depieces,

licious

cooked

in this

way.

BAKED MUSHROOMS.
Choose the large mushrooms, but
ton "

mushrooms

ferred.

if

the round " but-

are obtainable, they are

much

to

be pre-

Peel them, cut off the stalks close to the top,

and do not wash them unless they are soiled. Place


them upside down on a pie-dish, sprinkle with salt
and jDepper, and put a tiny bit of butter in each upturned
Bake fifteen minutes in a quick oven, basting twice
cup.

VEGETABLES.
with a

little

melted butter

279

and serve

pouring over

hot,

them whatever juice may be on the dish.

ROASTED MUSHROOMS.
Place the mushrooms in the

tin,

as directed in the pre-

ceding recipe, using only those that have not at

all lost

plumpness and erectness and are truly little cups.


Set the pan on the top of the stove, and cook for five minThe cups will be filled with
utes in a moderate heat.
their own liquor and the gravy from the seasoning.
their

Serve while very hot.

TO STEW CANNED MUSHROOMS.


In preparing canned

mushrooms do not

boil them, as

they are already cooked and the second cooking toughens

To

them.

a can of

mushrooms allow

One egg

(yolk only).

One-half pint of milk.

One
One

table-spoonful of butter.

Salt

and pepper

Put the butter


flour,

mix

until

table-spoonful of flour.

in the stew-pan,

and when

hot,

smooth, and add the milk.

ually until the liquid boils

and pepper, and


fire,

to taste.

stir

then add the mushrooms, salt

Take from

until well heated.

add the beaten yolk,

add the

Stir contin-

stir

it

well

in,

and

the

serve.

OKRA.

The pods
needed

to

of okra are so sticky that especial care

avoid

breaking

them

They should be well washed before

while
the

is

cleaning.

stems are

re-

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

280

moved

then place them

to cover,

and

in boiling salted

slowly, as rapid boiling will break

quires an hour or

more

to

water sufficient

They should

boil until tender.

cook

them

boil very

in pieces.

It re-

When

this vegetable.

and when drained,


Heat together two table-spoonfuls of
butter, a table-spoonful of vinegar and a little salt and
pepper; mix v^ell, and pour the sauce over the okra in
the dish.
Okra is also boiled with strips of salt pork, the
same as string beans or it may be stewed vi^ith tomatoes,
the same as macaroni.
tender, throw the okra into a colander,

lay

in a dish.

it

ONIONS.
BAKED ONIONS,

The

NO.

I.

clean, trim the

hour

in

desired
time,

and more

large Spanish onions are far milder

Wash

cate than the usual winter varieties.

bottoms but do not

and

peel,

deli-

the onions

If

very mild, change

twice during

replenishing

the water

with more

boiling

an

boil for

the onions are

slightly salted, boiling water.

water.

the

Having

drained them well, take each onion separately, wipe


dry and

roll

in

it

square of tissue or buttered paper,

twisting the paper at the top to keep

Place

closed.

it

the onions in a baking-pan, and bake an hour in a slow

oven.

When

done, remove the papers, peel the onions

and place them

in

the serving dish

over them, dust with

salt

PAKED ONIONS, NO.


Boil

peeling,

as

directed

in

pour melted butter

and pepper, and serve.

the

2.

preceding

recipe,

without

and bake an hour without enclosing them

papers, but basting frequently with butter.

When

in

done,

VEGETABLES.
take

them up

carefully,

peel,

and

28
lay

them

serving dish, which should be placed where

the

in

will

keep

Set the pan upon the top of the stove, add to

warm.

when

cupful of milk, and,

wet with a

ful of flour
is

it

creamy, add

little

cold milk.

When

and pepper, and more

salt

it

this boils, stir in a table-spoon-

the whole

butter,

if

de-

pour the sauce over the onions, and serve.

sired;

CREAMED ONIONS.
Peel the onions, and boil for an hour in plenty of salted

Drain well and cut each onion into four, six or


any desired number of pieces, over which pour a cream
water.

sauce

made

Rub

of

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One
One

table-spoonful of flour.
pint of milk.

Salt

and pepper

to taste.

and flour to a cream heat the milk,


add the butter and flour.
Stir the
creamy consistency, and flavor with salt

the butter

and when

it

boils,

sauce until of a

and pepper.

STEWED ONIONS.
Boil the

onions

as directed in the preceding recipe,

take them up carefully and drain, keeping them as nearly

whole as possible.
of

Pour over them two table-spoonfuls


melted butter, dust with a little salt and pepper, and

serve very hot.

FRIED PARSNIPS.
Scrape the parsnips, and boil them gently until tender,
an hour.
Drain, and when cold, cut them in

usuallv

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

282

long, thin slices about a-tliird of an inch thick,

son each

slice

and

sea-

with salt and pepper; dip the slices

in

melted butter and then in flour, and fry in hot lard until
Drain well, and
both sides are thoroughly browned.
serve.

BOILED PARSNIPS.
Scrape the parsnips, and boil them until tender. Drain
Place these in the kettle
in small pieces.

and cut them

parsnips were boiled, add


and when the milk boils, thicken
it slightly with a little flour wet to a smooth paste with
cold milk. When the liquid is like cream, add butter,
salt and pepper, and serve hot.

or

stew-pan

enough milk

in

which the

to cover,

PARSNIP FRITTERS.
Three large parsnips.
Three table-spoonfuls of

One

Boil

the

flour.

table-spoonful of butter (melted).

Two

eggs.

One
One

cupful of milk.
tea-spoonful of salt.

parsnips

until

tender,

grate

fine

or

mash

and pick out all the fibrous parts. Beat the


eggs light, and stir them into the parsnips, beating hard
Then add the butter,
until the whole is well mixed.
which should be measured after it is melted, and then
Fry like doughnuts or on a
the milk, salt and flour.

them

well,

griddle.

GREEN
Peas are fresh

when

PEAS.

the pods are green

and

crisp;

and, like corn, they lose their sweetness almost as soon

VEGETABLES.
as picked.

stale

If

or

283

wilted, they

freshened by being thrown

may be somewhat

into cold water as

soon as

and allowed to remain in it at least an hour


and when boiling, a tea-spoonful of
before cooking
sugar may be added to the water to restore their sweetshelled

Fresh peas should not be shelled

ness.

until just before

Look them over carefully


after shelling, taking out any tendrils that may have gotplace them in a kettle with just suffiten in with them
they are needed for cooking.

cient boiling salted water to cover,

Young peas

tender.

those that are

cook

will

in

and

boil slowly until

twenty minutes, but

more mature require twice

The
when done; if

that time.

water should not be drained from them

when the cooking is


enough to serve with the peas. Add butter,
and pepper, and serve hot.

nicely apportioned, there will be,


finished, only
salt

FRENCH

Empty
cold

PEAS.

a can of French peas into a colander, and pour

w^ater

Then

through them.

rather large-bottomed stew-pan,

One

table-spoonful of butter.

Four table-spoonfuls

One
One

Cook
have

tea-spoonful of

may

of stock or water.

salt.

tea-spoonful of sugar.

rapidly, with

absorbed

place the peas in a

and add

all

the pan
the

uncovered, until

liquid

and

serve

the peas
at

once.

be finished in this way after they


have been boiled and drained.
All canned peas should have the liquor drained from
them and fresh water added before being placed over the
Fresh peas

also

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

284
fire,

as there

is

disagreeable taste 'about the

a peculiarl}'

peas when cooked with the juices in the can.

PEA FRITTERS.
One
One
One

pint of green peas.

tea-spoonful of butter.
tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

Two
One

eggs.

cupful of milk.

One-half cupful of

Two

flour.

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

mash them, and


and pepper. When
cold, add the beaten eggs, the milk, and the flour with
the baking powder stirred into it.
Stir all well, and fry
like griddle-cakes.
These fritters are delicious for breakfast.
The peas may be cooked and seasoned the day
before
or those left from a previous dinner may be
boiled until a little more tender and utilized as above.
Cook

while

the peas until tender, drain and

hot add the butter, salt

still

BOILED RICE.

Wash

thoroughly a cupful of

ite-ware stew-pan or kettle,


of

put

it

into a gran-

and pour over

it

three quarts

boiling water, adding a


Boil

water.

rice,

tea-spoonful of

without covering

the

kettle

salt

to

the

the time of

boiling varies with the kind of rice, but fifteen minutes


is

generally sufficient.

Test the

grains between the fingers


sufficiently

drain,

if

and may then be turned

being shaken to remove

Toss the

rice

soft,

all

by pressing a few

the rice has cooked


into

the

rice with a fork to the sides of

colander to

water possible.
the

colander

to

VEGETABLES.
colander on a

facilitate tlie drying, set the

plate,

and stand

Or

door open.

it

be

should dry

warm

in

to

may be

place,

white and dry.

To be

gravy the same as potatoes.


rice

many housekeepers do

(which

placed on the back

the oven

if

tin dish or pie-

dry, leaving the oven-

in use.

is

The

twenty minutes, and every grain should

tender,

separate,

oven

the colander

of the range in a
rice

in the

285

It

is

eaten with

a success, boiled

not prepare properly)

should be taken from the water when

it
is just cooked
and not be allowed one minute's boiling after it has
reached that point.
If boiled too long, it simply cannot
be dried off and is a mushy, soggy and most unappetizing

mess.

BAKED

RICE.

Some housekeepers bake rice, when it is to be served as


Wash a cupful of rice, place it in a bak-

a vegetable.

ing-dish with a quart of water

and a tea-spoonful

and bake very slowly from an hour and a half

of salt,

to nearly

Serve in the same dish, and eat with meat

two hours.

gravy poured over the

when

ularly nice

These

rice.

there

is

rice dishes are partic-

a roast

that furnishes a rich

gravy, such as beef or veal.

CURRY OF
This dish
that has

is

RICE.

appropriate with any kind of

been prepared with a sauce.

persons, allow

One

cupful of rice.

Two
Two
Two

and

a-half cupfuls of boiling water.

table-spoonfuls of butter.
tea-spoonfuls of

salt,

fish

or meat

For a family

of six

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

286

Two

tea-spoonfuls of curry powder.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

Wash

tea-spoonful of minced onion.

the rice well, and soak

pan, and cook


rice,

and

Draw

stir

it

for

two hours

fresh

in

Place the butter and onion in a stew-

water; then drain.

them

onion

until the

is

yellow

add the

the whole over a hot hre for five minutes.

the pan out of the heat, season with the powder,

and pepper, stir well, and pour in the boiling water.


Cover the stew-pan, and boil rapidly for ten minutes,
after which set it in a very slow heat, to cook for forty
salt

minutes, when the curry


SALSIFY,

Wash
kettle

is

plenty

of

to serve.

OR OYSTER PLANT.

the salsify with

with

ready

rough cloth, place

boiling,

salted

water,

in

it

and

slowly until nearly done, which will be an hour.

boil

Drain,

and when cool enough to handle, scrape off the dark


Cut the vegetable in slices, return
skin on the outside.
it to the kettle, add hot water, iind let it simmer fifteen
Drain again, add milk to nearly cover, and
minutes.
thicken the milk to a cream with a little flour stirred
Add butter, salt and pepper
to a paste with cold milk.
to taste,

and

Salsify prepared in this

serve.

turn dark, and

it

is

much more

way

will

not

easily scraped after being

boiled than before.

FRIED SALSIFY.
Boil, scrape off the skin, cut in slices,

and

fry like pars-

nips.

Salsify fritters are

made

the

same

as parsnip fritters.

VEGETABLES.

287

SPINACH.

Spinach requires very careful washing to


sand with which the leaves are so often

rid

filled.

of the

it

Pick the

spinach apart, throwing out the decayed portions, and


place

it

in a large

panful of water.

Wash

the spinach

and lay it in a second pan of water wash again


and lay it back in the first pan, which has been refilled
Continue washing thus until all trace
with clear water.
well,

of

sand has disappeared.

Then

boil the spinach half an

hour in two cupfuls of boiling, salted water, turn

and press out all the water possible.


knife chop the spinach rather coarsely, leaving

it

colander for this cutting.

Now

return

it

into a

With a

colander,

it

in

the

to the kettle in

boiled, add a table-spoonful of butter, and


it was
and pepper to taste, and stir until very hot turn at
once into the serving dish, shape the spinach into around

which
salt

mound, and lay on the top

hard boiled eggs.

slices of

Serve while hot.

SPINACH, WITH CREAM.


Boil, drain

and

make

and chop the spinach

the following sauce

as

directed

above

Three table-spoonfuls

of butter.

Two

table-spoonfuls of flour.

One

cupful of cream or milk.

Salt

and pepper

to taste.

add the flour, and stir until the mixthe chopped spinach, and cook for
Next put in the cream,
four minutes, stirring constantly.
salt and pepper, cook three minutes, and serve on nicely

Heat the

ture

is

butter,

frothy.

toasted bread.

Add

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

288

SUMMER SQUASH, STEAMED.


There are many
squash

varieties of this vegetable.

very tender, pare

is

thinly, cutting

it

Unless the

away

little

and if the seeds are


young and small, do not remove them if at all large,
however, take them out, lay the squash on a plate, set it
in a steamer over a kettle of boiling water, and steam until
tender, usually from thirty to forty minutes.
Take it
from the steamer, drain off any water that may be upon
Cut

but the outer rind.

it

in slices,

it,

place

a stew-pan, and

in

it

and pepper

salt

to taste,

and

mash

well.

set the stew-pan

Add

butter,

on the back

of the range for fifteen minutes, uncovered, for the squash


to

much

dry as

may

as

possible, stirring

Re-heat, and serve.

meanwhile.

it

once or twice

This kind of squash

and served in the same way, but


when boiled than when steamed.

also be boiled

rather more wet

it is

FRIED SQUASH.

Summer
of

its

cooked
it

squash, which

in

often disappointing because

is

be found very satisfactory when

sogginess, will

the following

way

Peel the squash thinly, cut

into slices a-quarter of an inch thick, sprinkle each slice

with salt and pepper, dip

it

in

beaten egg and then

in

cracker-crumbs, and fry in a frying-pan until crisp and

brown.

Drain

well,

and

serve.

WINTER SQUASH.

When

the shell

is

hard, split the squash, remove the

seeds, and steam or boil until soft.

part

of

the

squash,

and

spoonful of butter, half a

Scrape out the

soft

add a tabletea-spoonful of sugar, and salt


to

every

pint

VEGETABLES.
and pepper

289

Winter squashes are also baked

to taste.

the shell after the seeds have been removed.


part

is

The

in

soft

then scraped out, mashed', seasoned as directed

above, and served hot.

STEWED TOMATOES.
Pour boiling water on fresh tomatoes, and after they
them from this
water and plunge them into cold water. With a knife remove the skins and the hard stem ends, and cut the tomahave remained covered a minute, take

Stew

toes in pieces.
kettle for thirty

in a granite-ware or porcelain-lined

minutes

then add to every quart a table-

spoonful of butter, a tea-spoonful of salt and a-quarter of

Stew

a tea-spoonful of pepper.
ness,

and

Some

serve.

until of the desired thick-

prefer to add bread-crumbs or

cracker-crumbs for thickening, and to boil but thirty minutes.

Canned tomatoes may be

treated the

same

as fresh^

but they do not require to be boiled so long.

ITALIAN TOMATO.
Half can or a pint of tomatoes.
One-third package of macaroni.

Two

table-spoonfuls of grated cheese.

little

Three

small pinch of cinnamon.

Salt

Cook
cover

it

until the

milk.

slices of bacon.

and pepper.

the macaroni until tender, drain well, and nearly

with milk

cheese

pan, pour off

all

is

then add the cheese, and boil slowly


dissolved.

the tomatoes to the pan,


19

Fry the bacon

in a frying-

but a large table-spoonful of the

and cook

fat,

until they are soft.

add
Sea-

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

290
son with
Place

and pepper

salt

the

taste,

and the

and bake
sometimes served wdthout baking.

tomato over the macaroni


is

to

bit of spice.

two dishes thus made together, pouring the


;

until

brown.

This

SPANISH TOMATO.

One
One
One

small onion.
small green pepper.
table-spoonful of butter.

Six fresh tomatoes.

Three crackers.
Salt to taste.

Chop

the onion and the pepper very fine, peel

the tomatoes, and roll the crackers.


in a

baking dish, sprinkle

pepper, add

all

ov'er

and

slice

Place the tomatoes

them the

salt,

onion and

the rolled cracker in one layer, and dot

the top with the butter, cut in

pieces.

Bake slowly

ai]

hour.

BAKED TOMATOES.
Peel the tomatoes and cut them in slices a-quarter of

an inch thick.

Place a layer of tomatoes

and sprinkle over them a

dish,

Make

little

salt

a pudding
and pepper.

in

a stuffing of

One
One
One

cupful of bread-crumbs.
table-spoonful of butter.
tea-spoonful of salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

Rub
per

and add the salt, pepSpread the mixture thickly upon the

the butter into the crumbs,

and sugar.

all of it, and add another layer of tomaDot the top with pieces of butter, dust with pepper

tomatoes, using
toes.

tea-spoonful of sugar.

VEGETABLES.
and a

little

and bake covand bake un-

sugar, strew with dry crumbs,

ered for half an hour


til

29

then remove the

lid.

brown.
TURNIPS, MASHED.
Peel the turnips, cut them in

cold water for half an hour

and

slices,

lay

them

in

then place them in a stew-

pan, pour boiling water over them, and boil slowly until
tender, at least forty-five minutes being required.
well,

and mash the turnips

in the

stew-pan

Drain

stand the pan

ten minutes uncovered on the back of the range to dry the


turnips well, stirring
ter, salt

them frequently.

Season with but-

Turnips require more pepper than

and pepper.

any other vegetable.

TURNIPS IN CREAM.
Peel the turnips, cut them
until tender.

in

small pieces, and boil

Drain, add milk to nearly cover, and

the milk boils, thicken


stirred to a paste with

it

to a

cream with a

Add

cold milk.

little

when
flour,

butter, salt

and

pepper, boil two minutes, and serve.

STEWED TURNIPS.
Peel and

slice

the turnips and cut them into cubes.

until tender, drain, and for three pints


measured before cooking, allow

Boil

One

Two

of

turnips

table-spoonful of sugar.

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One-half pint of stock.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea spoonful of pepper.

Cook

rapidly until the stock has almost boiled awa}-,

then serve.

SALADS.
" Mingle, mingle,

You

that mingle

mingle

may."

Shakspere.

Green

vegetables that are eaten raw and dressed with

and pepper are classed as salads. Potabeets, asparagus and many other
vegetables which have been cooked are eaten cold with a
Lobster, salmon and other kinds of
salad dressing.
cooked fish, eggs, chicken and delicate meats are combined with lettuce, cresses or celery and salad dressing,
and furnish many appetizing dishes.
oils, acids, salt

toes,

string

beans,

Frenchman thinks he cannot

eat his dinner without

Americans had the


same appreciation of this wholesome, refreshing and, at
the same time, economical dish.
There are two kinds of dressing which are in very genEpieral use, the mayonnaise and the French dressing.
cures prefer the simple French dressing for salads served
without fish or fowl and for chicken and fish salads and
for some kinds of vegetables, such as tomatoes and caulia salad, and

it

would be well

if

all

flowers, they use the

dressings

is

mayonnaise sauce.

almost universal

in

America we use the mayonnaise on


292

This choice of

London and
all

Paris.

salads,

which

In
is

SALADS.
really

be

to

dressing

deplored.

after

is,

all,

the

293

A simple salad with French


most satisfactory when one has

been served with a heavy dinner before


In giving recipes for salad-dressing

it.

it

almost impos-

is

mention exact quantities, especially when we conDelmonico, it is said, used


sider the diversity of tastes.
but one yolk as a foundation for a quart of oil, with salt
sible to

and cayenne
silver or

In preparing dressing, use a

for seasoning.

wooden

which should
and strong vinegar. A com-

fork, a large soup-plate,

be very cold, the best

oil

mon question is, "What can we use in


Cream and melted butter may be used,
means take

the place of the

place of oil?"

but they by no

Green vegetables

oil.

that

should be crisp but have become wilted can be freshened

by being
using,

laid

in

ice-water for at least an

and then dried carefully on a

being taken

not to bruise them.

The

never be mixed with any salad until

hour before

soft

it is

towel, care

dressing should

needed

to serve,

and both salad and dressing should be served on as cold


a dish as possible.

SIMPLE FRENCH DRESSING.


Three table-spoonfuls

One

of olive

oil.

table-spoonful of vinegar.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter of a tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

Mix

the

tea-spoonful of onion, scraped

pepper and

salt

together,

onion, and then pour in the vinegar.

and pour the dressing over the salad.

fine.

add the
Mingle

oil
all

and
well,

^-^^

294

^^ TTERN COOK-BOOK.

MAYONNAISE DRESSING, NO.

To make

a pint

I.

dressing (which should be

of

suffi-

cient for twelve persons) use

Two

eggs (yolks).

One

tea-spoonful of mustard.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of cayenne.

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls of lemon juice.


table-spoonfuls of vinegar.

Twelve table-spoonfuls
In order to
to

have

all

make

of olive oil.

this dressing properly,

the materials cold.

The

is

it

necessary

should stand

oil

in

the refrigerator for at least an hour before being used.

Place

the

yolks

minute with a
mustard.
the

When

soup-plate,

few drops

the mixture

at

and

then add the

Stir these well together,

oil,

in

silver fork

beat

salt,

them a

pepper and

and commence

time, stirring

to

add

continuously.

becomes thick and ropy,

the oil

may

be added more freely and when the liquid is at this


stage, the vinegar should be added, half a tea-spoonful at
;

After the dressing has become very thick, the

a time.

may be added,

a table-spoonful at a time.

When

all

oil

the

is added, commence to add the lemon juice in


same way, and stir continually until all the oil and
lemon juice are added. Set the dressing on the ice for

vinegar
the

half an

hour before using.

If the taste of the oil

of thick

the dressing at the last


oil.

the

is

not liked, four table-spoonfuls

may be
down the

sweet cream, well whipped,


;

this

tones

Thick whipped cream may be used


oil, if

the latter

is

in

stirred into
taste of the

place of half

very disagreeable to those served.

SALADS.

warm weather

In

this

making

the time by

it

dressing
in a

295

may be prepared

bowl set

in a

half

in

pan of cracked

and having both eggs and oil as cold as possible.


Should the dressing break or curdle, stir into it at once
the well beaten yolk of an egg, which will render all
ice

smooth again.

MAYONNAISE DRESSING, NO.


One
One

2.

egg-yolk (raw).
egg-yolk (cooked).

One-half cupful of

Vinegar to

oil.

thin.

One-half tea-spoonful of

made mustard.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.


One-half tea-spoonful of sugar.
Six drops of Worcestershire sauce.

egg ten minutes, and when

Boil an

the yolk, place

back of a
which
yolk

is

silver

like

is

it

like

in

a bowl, and

spoon or with a
diminutive

cold,

take out

mash finely with the


wooden salad masher,

potato

masher.

When

the

powder, add the yolk of the raw egg, and

stir

is smooth; then put in the sugar, salt,


and sauce. When the whole is well
mixed, add the oil by degrees, stirring continually, and as

until the

mixture

pepper, mustard

soon

as

make

the dressing the desired consistency.

all

is

used, stir in sufficient strong vinegar to

the ice for an hour at least before using.


is

Place

If the

it

on

vinegar

not strong, the dressing will be too thin before

it

is

acid enough.

TO COLOR MAYONNAISE.

Green.

Boil

a double handful of spinach until ten-

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

296

der; then drain, cool

mash

and squeeze

it

Pound

dry.

or

the spinach well, adding a spoonful of the mayonfine sieve, and mix it
Green peas, boiled and mashed, are
purpose, but the color is not so deep as

Pass the whole through a

naise.

with the dressing.


also used for this

the other.
'

Red.

Pound

fine sieve,

the coral of a lobster, pass

and add

colored in this

it

way when needed

it

through a

Dressing

to the dressing.

is

often

for lobster or fish salad.

POTATO MAYONNAISE DRESSING.


Two-thirds cupful of mashed potato.

One egg

(yolk only).

Four table-spoonfuls

One

of oil.

table-spoonful of vinegar.

made mustard.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One

tea-spoonful of salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

Four drops

Mash

of Worcestershire sauce.

the potato very smooth,

and when

it is

cold,

add

the beaten yolk of the ^gg^ beating both together until


light

When
the

oil

then put in the mustard,

salt,

pepper and sauce.

these are thoroughly mixed with the potato, add


a few drops at a time, until

spoonful has been used

balance of the

oil.

all

but one table-

then add the vinegar and the

This dressing

will

keep a week

cool place.

COOKED CREAM SALAD DRESSING.


Three eggs

One
One
One

(yolks).

table-spoonful of thick, sweet cream.

table-spoonful of butter.
table-spoonful of lemon juice.

in a

SALADS.
One

297

salt-spoonful of celery salt.

One-eighth salt-spoonful of pepper.

One
One

tea-spoonful of

made mustard.

tea-spoonful of sugar.

add the cream, the butter, melted


and the rest of the ingredients, stirring all the time, and beating well after each addition.
Set the bowl containing the dressing in a saucepan of hot
water, and stir rapidly until the dressing thickens.
Set
it on the ice to cool thoroughly before using.
Beat the eggs

(but not to an

lightly,

oil),

CREAM SALAD DRESSING.


Two

eggs (yolks), hard-boiled.

One-half dessert-spoonful of

One

Vinegar to

One

made mustard.

table-spoonful of melted butter.


thin.

salt-spoonful of salt.

One-eighth salt-spoonful of pepper.


Five drops of Worcestershire sauce.
One-half tea-cupful of rich, sweet cream.

them and take out the yolks.


powder in a bowl, and add the salt,
Stir after each addipepper, mustard, sauce and butter.
then pour in gradtion until the whole is well mixed
ually the cream, and when the mixture is thick, add
Boil the eggs hard, cool

Mash

the latter to a

vinegar to thin to the desired consistency.

Set the dress-

ing on the ice one hour before using.

SALAD DRESSING WITHOUT CREAM OR

Two
One

eggs (whites and yolks).


tea-spoonful of dry mustard.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One

salt.

large table-spoonful of butter.

OIL.

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

298

One
One

tea-spooniul of sugar.

tea-spoonful of corn-starch.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

tea-cupful of vinegar.

Beat the whites and the yolks separately and then

and add salt, sugar and the mustard. Rub


butter and the corn-starch to a cream, and put them

gether,

mixture into a sauce-pan of hot water, and


gradually pour in the vinegar, stirring

this

quantity

all

too strong, dilute with a


of

stir

Remove from

until the dressing thickens.

is

in,

Place the bowl containing the

stirring all well together.

the vinegar

t(

the

fire,

and

the time.

If

little

allows for only

dressing

constantly

the

water, but

a cupful

of

liquid.

COOKED SALAD DRESSING.


Two table-spoonfuls of dry mustard.
Two eggs.
Two table-spoonfuls of oil or melted
One

tea-spoonful of

butter.

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of sugar.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of pepper.

Twelve table-spoonfuls of vinegar.

Beat the yolks and the whites of the eggs separately and
then

together

stirring

then

constantly.

add the
Set

rest

the bowl

of

ture in a sauce-pan of boiling water,


liquid thickens, stirring

on the

ice,

all

ingredients,

and cook

the time.

and use when perfectly

the

containing the mixuntil the

Set the dressing

cold.

CHICKEN SALAD.

let

Use only tender chickens


them cool in the water

for salad.
in

Boil

them, and

which thev were boiled.

SALADS.

When

remove the skin and cut the meat

perfectly cold,
If

in dice.

299

the salad

is

to

be particularly nice, use only

dark for croquettes. When


meat has been cut in pieces, set it in a cold place
Wash and cut the fine parts of celery into
until needed.
half-inch lengths, throw the pieces into a bowl of cold
the white meat, saving the

the

and leave them

water,
to

at

least an

serve, dry the celery, and mix

hour.
it

When

ready

with the chicken,

meat two-thirds of a pint of


and season the whole with celery salt. Line
a bowl with lettuce leaves, lay the chicken and celery on the leaves, and pour over them the cream or
the mayonnaise salad-dressing, allowing a cupful of
Garnish with French
dressing to every pint of chicken.
allowing for every pint of

celery

capers and slices of cold boiled eggs, or with white celery


lips.

Chicken for salad


This

is

done by

is

often marinated h^iox^ being used.

stirring into the cut

meat a mixture con-

sisting of

Three table-spoonfuls

of vinegar.

One
One

oil.

table-spoonful of

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

This quantity will marinate a quart of chicken, which


then set on the ice for an hour; the chicken

time have absorbed the mixture,

Chicken salad

is

and be

will

by

is

thai

finely seasoned.

as often served without the lettuce as

Veal cut in cubes is


it, this being a matter of taste.
sometimes used to increase the quantity of chicken when

with

a large
pose.

amount of
The white

salad

is

required for any special pur-

part of roast pork

is

also

sometimes

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

300
used for

deception which,

this purpose, but tliis is a

per-

haps, should not be encouraged.

LOBSTER SALAD.
In taking the meat from the lobster, the coral,

by

if

there

Cut the meat


or ii
into dice, and set it in a cool place until wanted
may be put in a marinade of vinegar, oil and seasoning,
the same as chicken salad, and be much improved by the
is

any, should be carefully laid

itself.

extra

To

seasoning.

a pint

meat

of

be required

will

two heads of lettuce and half a pint of mayonnaise

Wash

ing.

the lettuce well,

least an hour.

into the lobster

and

At serving time
;

lay

in ice

it

dress-

water for

at

part of the dressing

stir

then dry the lettuce well, and place two

leaves together in the form of a shell

or

the leaves

if

are small,
dish.

make

a nest of them, arranging them on a

Put a table-spoonful of lobster

in

tea-spoonful of dressing on top of the

each

shell,

flat

and

Garnish

lobster.

the top of the dressing with capers,


coral over

all,

and

sift

placing the claws of the

the pounded
\

lobster at the

outer edge of the dish.

Another very

attractive

way

of serving lobster salad

is
^

as follows.

When removing

the

meat from the

shells, be
j

careful not to break the

body or

tail

shells.

Clean

the

two lobsters are required to make any


reasonable quantity of salad), and also one of the body

two

tail shells (for

shells

in

washing them well and drying

cold water,

then with a pair of scissors remove the thin shell from


the under-side of the

tails.

the shape of a boat, the

Join the shells together

body

and place the boat on a flat


the Mayonnaise, well mixed,

shell being in the


dish.

in

Put the lobster and

in the boat,

mash

center;

the coral

'

SALADS.
and sprinkle

ine

it

is

eggs cut in slices and

not

required

may be used

lobster

for salad;

and

opened some time before using, that the

unell

with

lobster

served in this way.

Canned
f

Lettuce

together.

inked

Garnish with a

over the whole.

:hain of the whites of hard-boiled

;alad

301

it is

better

close, airless

may pass away.


FISH SALAD.

The remains of almost any cold fish may be used in


way very satisfactorily, but salad is more successful
.vhen made of fish that will flake nicely, such as salmon,
Flake the fish coarsely, and mix it
:od or haddock.
The potato mayonnaise is espeightly with dressing.
:ially nice with
fish.
Lay the fish on a bed of lethis

uce,

pour the remainder of the salad dressing on

Canned salmon maybe used

jerve at once.

"ew slices of cold


;ion to

and

it,

for salad.

boiled potatoes form a palatable addi-

a fish salad.

VEGETABLE SALADS.

Any remains
!.izingly
;er

than others.

:ate flavor
I

small

)hould

cooked vegetables may be most appe-

of

served as a salad, but certain kinds combine betIn thus uniting vegetables, those of deli-

should form the body of the salad, while only

proportion

be used.

sparingly.

salad

)f

of

those that

are

strong-flavored

being sweet, should be used


vegetables

may be made

very

Each vegetable should


cut up and seasoned with salt and pepper.
Any kind
dressing may be used, the French being most fre-

utractive or quite
3e

of

Beets,

;iuently

chosen.

the reverse.

Strew the vegetables

in the salad bowl,

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

302
each kind
padrida

in

" or

separate

mix

quart

making an "
and sprinkle each layer

layer (not

of them),

vegetables will

of

require

olla-

with

the

dressing.

full

quantity of dressing given in the recipe for French

the

dressing.

TOMATO SALAD.
Mayonnaise dressing is invariably used for this salad,
and it should be made thicker, or, rather, less vinegar
should be used, for two reasons the tomato itself, being
:

so largely acid, does not require the dressing to be so


piquant, and the tomato gives off so

dressing

much thinned by

is

should be quite thick.

The

it.

When

this

much

juice that the

dressing, therefore,

salad

is

to be served

as a separate course, choose tomatoes that are not too

and peel them carefully with a sharp knife, takto preserve the round shape of the fruit.
Set them on the ice for an hour; then take them up, and
with a corer take out a neat piece from the stem portion

large,

care

ing

of each.
knife.

ing

it

This

Fill

up

as

may

also be

the cavity thus

much

done with a sharp-pointed

made

as possible.

with mayonnaise, heap-

Set the tomatoes on three

or four crisp lettuce leaves laid with their points outward,

and serve a tomato to each person at table. There are


many other ways of preparing this salad. A simple plan
is to peel the tomatoes, lay them on the ice to thoroughly
chill, cut them in rather thick slices, lay the slices in a
salad bowl or on a flat dish, and pour the mayonnaise
over

all,

one

at

using no lettuce at
table.

all.

The tomatoes

Serve a

may

also

slice

be

to each

peeled,

halves and set in a nest of lettuce leaves,


the dressing being poured over them and one-half servea

chilled, cut in

SALADS.

303

The last method is very convenient


to each person.
when the tomatoes are too large to serve one to each person.

POTATO SALAD.
There

is

no salad

which there

in

is

such an opportunity

New

for a variety of combinations as in this.

or the
ripe,

German

mealy potato breaks into crumbs and

When new

German

spoils the dish.

potatoes are not obtainable, do not

potatoes quite so long as for other purposes, thus

boil the

leaving

or

potatoes

potatoes are the best for the purpose

them underdone

they can then be cut in any de-

sired shape.

The simplest potato

salad

is

made by

slicing the pota-

toes rather thinly, arranging a layer in the salad dish

any dressing preferred

covering lightly with

and

arrange

another layer of potatoes and dressing, and so continue


until

all

the

potatoes are used

then

and beets are often used together.

and season with

dice or in thin slices,

Rub

serve.

Cut them
salt

Potatoes

in half-inch

and pepper.

the yolk of a hard-boiled egg through a sieve, and

chop some parsley rather coarsely.

Arrange

in

the salad

bowl alternate layers of potatoes, beets, &gg, parsley and


dressing, until
quite a

all

the

ingredients

are

used,

reserving

goodly portion of the dressing for the top

layer,

and placing egg and parsley on top of the dressing.

Or place the potatoes, parsley and egg in the center of


the dish and a circle of beets and lettuce around the
edge and pour the salad dressing over the whole.
Onions, thinly sliced and sparingly used are often
;

Many

arranged

in alternate

fessional

cooks prefer to mix a potato salad while the po-

layers with the potato.

pro-

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

304
tatoes are

as

hot,

and has

longer

looks more appetizing, will

it

less of

when made with cold

keep

soggy taste than

peculiar

the

potatoes.

LETTUCE SALAD.

Choose

for this the crisp part of the lettuce, lay

it

in

and arrange it in a
salad bowl.
Pour over the center of the dish any of the
dressings given mayonnaise is most generally used, but
after a heavy dinner the French dressing is much to be
an hour, dry

cold water for

well,

preferred to any other.

The

following vegetables

may be used

the

same

as

lettuce
Endive.

Water-cress.

Sorrel.

Pepper-grass.

Nasturtium Blossoms.

Dandelion.

CREAM CABBAGE SALAD.

Chop
cream

the cabbage

One

A
A

egg, well beaten.

saucepan enough
and add to it

in a

table-spoonful of vinegar.

little salt.

constantly until the milk thickens, remove from

Stir
fire,

mixing

and when
it

well

fore serving.

with

Put

pinch of red pepper or mustard.

One

the

fine.

to nearly cover the cabbage,

enough.

in.

If

cool,

pour the liquid over the cabbage,

Let the salad stand


there

is

no cream

at

an hour be-

hand, use milk,

generous spoonful of butter to make

it

rich

SALADS.

305

CABBAGE SALAD.

Two

table-spoonfuls of vinegar.

One egg (yolk only).


One and a-half pint of chopped cabbage.
One tea-spoonful of corn-starch.
One-half cupful of milk.
Salt

Chop

and pepper

the cabbage fine, and season with salt and pep-

using none

per,

soak

wilted,

stir

in

Heat

it,

with water.

it

the

dressing.

all

vinegar

the vinegar, and

Add

well together.

boiled two minutes, take

cabbage while
;

serve

still

hot,

is

very strong,

this

and put

in

then

the egg,

gently to the boiling

When

become

the dressing

has

it from the fire, pour it over the


and set the salad away in a cool

If desired, the dressing

may be

being poured over the cabbage.

This

when

cooled before
salad

if

the mixture will not curdle, but will

creamy dressing when done.

place

cabbage

Beat the yolk of the ^gg well

the corn-starch into the milk,

beating

the

If

cold water for an hour

ice-water or

in

it

before chopping
dilute

to taste.

cold.

very delicious.

is

CHEESE SALAD.
One-half pound of old cheese, grated.

One hard-boiled egg.


One table-spoonful of
One table-spoonful of

vinegar.

salad

oil.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.

One
One
One

Rub
20

oil

tea-spoonful of

powder the yolk

to a

add the

tea-spoonful of salt.

tea-spoonful of sugar.

after

made mustard.
of the egg,

and when

cold,

these are well mixed, put in in the

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

3o6
order

named

Work

all

Serve

in

the

wfell

salt,

pepper, sugar, mustard and cheese.

together before pouring in the vinegar.

a crab shell,

if

one

is

closely resembles deviled crab


at

tea or luncheon.

and

It

obtainable.

This salad

and makes a good

should be eaten with

relish

crackers

butter.

SALAD SANDWICHES.

These are very delicious for picnics or for traveling.


a small quantity of mayonnaise dressing with finely
chopped lobster or chicken. Cover a small slice of bread
with lettuce, then spread a layer of salad, and cover with
Wrap the sandwich in tinfoil or oiled
lettuce and bread.

Mix

paper.

VEGETABLES FOR SALADS.


1.

Lettuce alone.

2.

Lettuce and water-cress or pepper-grass, with small radishes for a

3.

Lettuce and chives, with olives for a garnish.

4.

Lettuce and celery, the latter being cut into inch pieces.

garnish.

5.

Lettuce and sorrel.

6.

Lettuce and anchovies, the latter being cut into thin strips

Endive alone.
Endive and water-cress.
the endive being
9. Endive and celery, beets and hard-boiled eggs
placed in the center, then a row of eggs and next a row of beets,
with an edge of fringed celery.
10. Water-cress and beets, garnished with olives, the beets being cut
7.

8.

in dice.
11.

Sliced cucumbers and sliced

12.

Dandelions.

new

onions.

SALAD NOTES.

Condensed milk may be used

in

place of

cream

in

SALADS.
making dressings requiring cream, but the

307
latter

is,

of

course, to be preferred.

good Tartar sauce is made by beating into half a


of mayonnaise dressing half a table-spoonful of
chopped pickles, olives and capers. A salad made of
pint

several kinds of vegetables

is

called a salade macedome.

CHEESE DISHES.
"

He

hath never fed of the dainties that are bred in a book."

Shakspere.

In England, and

at

almost every well-appointed table

It may be regarded as our most concentrated food, since it contains


twice as much nutriment as any other known substance.

in

America, cheese

Being

difficult of

is

a positive necessity.

digestion

Cooked
more wholesome than when

small

quantities.

ing of cheese
in fact,

it is

Among

is

best

eaten only

melted cheese

in a

raw

state,

singularly neglected

practically an

the

should be

it

or

unknown

is

in

much

but the cook-

in this

country

art.

English cheeses

are

the

Stilton

and Cheshire, and the best French varieties are the


Neufchatel, Brie and Roquefort, the last named being one of the most popular kinds of cheese known.
it
The Gruyere, a Swiss cheese, is also well liked
of new milk and flavored with a powdered
is made
;

pepper and salt are passed


when this cheese is served. The Roquefort
Parmesan
cheese is made of goats' and sheep's milk.
cheese, an Italian variety, is made of skimmed milk and

French mustard,

herb.

at table

is

high flavored and very hard

until

it is

six

months old and


308

it

is

is

never sent

to

market

often kept three or four

CHEESE DISHES.
years.

It is

used extensively

309

grated form for cooking,

in

and can be purchased already grated.


American cheeses are exported in large quantities to
One of the
England, where they are held in high favor.
best of

these

makes

New

Otsego County,

and

is

The

the

York.

made

" English Dairy,"


It is

and highly

very rich

equally well-flavored
Co., N. Y.

is

cheese,

flavored.
is

Stilton cheese,

in

of a dark-yellow color,

milder,

but

made at Milan, Cayuga


made in the latter county,

can scarcely be distinguished from the English article of


the

same name.

In serving this cheese, the top should

be cut off to form a cover, and the cheese should be

When removed

neatly encircled with a napkin.


table, the

Cheese

is

cut into

When

cheese-dish.
it

from the

cover should be replaced.


little

squares and passed in a glass

forming a separate course

should come just before the dessert.

It

is

at dinner,

an English

fashion to serve celery or cucumbers with cheese.

milk

crackers

moment

to

or wafer

make them

biscuit,
crisp,

placed

Thin

the oven

in

should be served with the

cheese, and butter for spreading the crackers should also

be passed, this

being the only time

it

customarily

is

allowed for dinner.

Macaroni with cheese, Welsh rarebit and cheese omeThe Welsh rarebit
are good for a cheese course.
makes an especially pretty course. It is served on little
silver chafing dishes about four inches square, one of

let

which, standing in a plate,


table.

The

platter holds the slice of


hot.

is

served to each person at

reservoir contains boiling water,

Welsh

rarebit,

and the

which

is

Uttle

thus kept

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

3IO

WELSH RAREBIT.
This

is

a favorite dish for gentlemen's suppers and for

Cut bread into thin slices, shape these into


diamonds or squares, toast them, and while hot, butter
lightly.
With a tea-spoon dip boiling water upon the toast

luncheons.

to moisten

Place each

each person

wetting only the

slightly,
slice

on a separate hot

at table

unbuttered side.

plate, allowing

sprinkle with a

little salt,

one

for

pour over

the toast enough melted cheese to cover, and serve the mo-

ment

this is

done, since otherwise the cheese will harden,

the toast will cool, and the dish will be altogether spoiled.

Rich,
it

new cheese should be chosen for this purpose, as


The cheese should be put in a cup

melts more easily.

be melted.

to

If

the rarebit

cheese has not been sufficiently

This simple recipe


are

many

little

different

is

ways

of

is

rich.

a decidedly

making the

mustard over the

and tough, the

stringy

good one, but there


dish.

toast, others

Some

add

spread

ale to the

cheese, or dip the toast in ale instead of using hot water.

Another method is to serve a poached ^%% on each slice of


toast and cheese, and another to mix the yolks of eggs
with the melted cheese.

WELSH RAREBIT, WITH


One cupful of grated
One egg (yolk only).

EGGS.

cheese.

One-quarter of a cupful of milk.


Salt

and pepper

to taste.

Prepare the toast the same as in the preceding recipe.


Place the milk in a porcelain-lined stew-pan, and when
hot, put in the cheese,

and

stir

continually until the latter

CHEESE DISHES.
is

melted.

Add

the salt, pepper

3II

and the beaten

yolk, stir

but a moment, and pour the liquid over the toast.

WELSH RAREBIT, WITH


This

the

is

way

a rarebit

is

ALE.

generally prepared in Eng-

land.

One pound

of cheese.

One-half table-spoonful of butter.

One

wine-glassful of ale.

Put the butter and ale in a porcelain-lined stew-pan,


and when hot, stir in the cheese cut into dice. Stir and
cook until all are blended to a smooth paste. Prepare
the toast as above, pour this mixture over it, and serve
Single Gloucester cheese can always be relied

very hot.

upon

in

preparing rarebits

in this

way.

CHEESE SOUFFLE.

Two

and a-half table-spoonfuls of flour.


Three eggs.
One and a-half pint (scant) of milk.
One-quarter pound of grated Parmesan cheese.

Beat the yolks of the eggs well, thin them with a

little

and add the grated cheese. Rub the flour


to a paste with a little more of the milk.
Heat in a
porcelain-lined stew-pan the remainder of the milk, and
when it boils, stir in the flour paste. Stir until the whole
is smooth
and creamy, and add the other mixture of
cheese and yolks. Boil the liquid about a minute, or until
the cheese is fully melted, and remove from the fire.
of the milk,

Whip

the whites of the eggs to a

into the mixture.


tion,

bake

fifteen

Fill

stiff

froth,

some paper cases with

minutes

in

a hot oven,

and

stir

them

this prepara-

and serve

at

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

once.
Cases for baking the souffle may be purchased
from a confectioner, or they may be made with very little
trouble.

Silver scollop shells are also used for the pur-

pose, and are, of course, more elegant.

RAMEKINS.

Two

table-spoonfuls of grated cheese.

One

table-spoonful of butter.

Two

table-spoonfuls of bread-crumbs.

Four table-spoonfuls

of milk.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of mustard.


One-quarter tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of pepper.

One
Boil the
ter,

^g'

egg.

crumbs

mustard,

When

salt,
all

in the

milk until

soft,

and add the

but-

pepper and cheese and the yolk of the


are well mixed, stir in the white of the

Put the mixture in paper


6gg, beaten to a stiff froth.
cases, filling each case but three-quarters full, and bake

The ramekins should be

five or six minutes.

above the

edge of the paper,

immediately, else they will

puffed high

and should be served

fall.

They

au

gratifi.

will

make

a pretty

cheese course for dinner.

CHEESE
Four

One

eggs.

cupful of grated cheese.

One-half cupful of milk.


One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper


Six tea-spoonfuls of bread-crumbs.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

Butter a suitable

number

of

individual dishes.

Beat

CHEESE DISHES.
the whites of the eggs to a

the yolks and seasoning.

Pour

and then the milk.


dishes, sprinkle
for eight

and add to them


and add the cheese

froth,

stiff

Mix

313

well,

mixture into

this

the

little

each lightly with the crumb, and bake

minutes in a moderate oven.

CHEESE PUFFS.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

Four table-spoonfuls
Four table-spoonfuls

Two
One

of flour.
of grated cheese.

eggs.

cupful of water.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-fifth tea-spoonful of pepper.

Wet

the flour in a

little

of the water until

it

forms a

and add the cheese, salt and pepper.


Place the rest of the water and the butter in a saucepan,
and when boiling, add the flour mixture. Cook three
minutes, stirring all the time
remove the mixture from
the fire, and set it away to cool.
When cold, add the
eggs unbeaten, one at a time, and beat the batter at
least ten minutes.
Butter a baking-pan lightly, and drop
smooth paste,

it, using a heaping tea-spoonful for each


and leaving considerable space between them, as
they increase threefold in size.
Bake twenty minutes,
and serve hot. Sometimes a plain cream sauce or a
brown sauce is served with these puffs.

the mixture into


puff",

CHEESE STRAWS.
Three table-spoonfuls
Three table-spoonfuls

One
One

of flour.

of

Parmesan cheese.

table-spoonful of butter.
table-spoonful of milk.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

One-half salt-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter salt-spoonful of pepper.


One-eighth salt-spoonful of nutmeg.

One egg

Mix

(yolk only).

the dry ingredients,

Mix

butter, softened.

all

add the

and the
and when

milk, the yolk

well with a spoon,

Roll these
divide the dough into two parts.
very thin, cut them into narrow strips three inches long,

smooth,

and bake

in

a slow oven fifteen minutes.

may be served hot

They may be arranged

with lettuce in the salad course.

bunches of
narrow ribbon

six or eight,

in

These straws

or cold, either as a cheese course or

or they

each bundle being tied with

may be

piled

on a plate

in log-

cabin style.

COTTAGE CHEESE, NO.

I.

For making this cheese the milk should not be too


Place
as soon as it gets thick it is ready to use.
the pan of milk over a kettle of hot water and heat almost
When it has been in the heat six or
to the boiling point.
sour

and turn the milk over


by spoonfuls, bringing the hot part on top. When the
whey has become so hot that it cannot be touched by the

eight minutes, take a large spoon

finger, turn all into a

whey, add
desired.

colander to drain.

generously, and

butter

When

This cheese

is

much improved by

few spoonfuls of cream

it

as

into

the addi-

at the time of seasoning.

COTTAGE CHEESE, NO.


Four
Four
Four
Four

free of

and pepper

Press the mixture into a dish, or shape

small balls.
tion of a

salt

2.

quarts of thick sour milk.


tea-spoonfuls of butter.
salt-spoonfuls of salt.

table-spoonfuls of cream.

CHEESE DISHES,

Place the milk in a pan on the back of the range, and

and whey are separated. Spread


and pour in the milk lift
the edges of the cloth, draw them together, drain and
wring quite dry. Put the curds in a small bowl, add the
If too soft to handle,
seasoning, and shape into balls.
place the cheese in a cool place for an hour, when it
scald

it

until the curds

a strainer cloth over a bowl,

may be conveniently shaped.


curds become hard and

If

scalded too long, the

brittle.

TOASTED CHEESE.
Cut the cheese

in

slices

a-quarter of an inch thick,

place these in an oyster broiler,

hot

coals,

browned.
salt.

and

broil

them over very

turning frequently, until each side

is

lightly

Serve with bread, and eat with mustard and

This makes a very nice luncheon dish.

EGGS.
"

The vulgar

boil

the learned roast, an egg.


Pope.

poor economy to limit the family in respect to


are most nutritious, and even at a high
price, are cheaper than meat.
They should be used
It

is

They

eggs.

freely

them.

by all, except those who know they cannot digest


But by this we do not mean their extravagant

use in rich cake, nor their being eaten when indigestibly


as, for instance, when hard-boiled or fried;
mean rather that they should be freely partaken
of when simply cooked.
Throughout the spring and
summer eggs should form a large part of the fare at

prepared,

but we

breakfast and luncheon, but

if

not served in a variety of

ways, they will soon become very tiresome.

methods

healthful

they are not subjected


at

which water

When

to a

boils.

boiled for

The most

of preparing eggs are those

three

Eggs should never be

cooked
boiled.

is

at

like thick

To

hard-boiled, while the other part


all.

An ^gg

The white when


cream

if

boiled.

minutes, they are called "soft-

boiled," but in reality they are not soft-boiled at

one part

by which

temperature higher than that

that

is

is

all,

since

scarcely

properly cooked

is

not

eaten should yield to pressure

taken between the fingers.

ascertain the freshness of an egg without breaking

3i6

EGGS.
hold

317

light or toward the sun; if


round and the white surrounding it
clear, the chances are the egg is good.
Another test for
eggs is to lay them in a pan of cold water the fresh ones
it,

it

before a strong

appears

the yolk

will

sink immediately, while those that float are doubtful.

The

shell of a fresh

egg looks

dull

and porous.

TO PRESERVE EGGS
It

is

This

only necessary

close

to

may be done by

the

pores

varnishing or

melted suet, and then packing them


the small

end downward.

successful

is

the shell.

of

dipping

in

bran or

them
salt,

in

with

Another method that is very


Pack the eggs in a stone jar, with
the small ends downward
make a lime-water by pouring
four quarts of boiling water over a pound of lime, and
when this is cold and has settled, pour the water carefully upon the eggs in the jar.
Lay a saucer on top of
the eggs to keep them under the water, and set the jar in
as follows

a cool, dark place.

BOILED EGGG.

Many

people do not care for eggs which are boiled so

that the whites are soft, although they


far

know

more nutritious when thus prepared.

prefer

boiled eggs, the

that they are

For those who

following directions

are given

Place the eggs in a sauce-pan of boiling water, using a


table-spoon or a frying-basket for the purpose.

minutes

steadily for three

ten minutes

if

if

manner

of cold water,

them

desired "hard-boiled."

There are two methods of cooking them


nutritious

Boil

desired "soft-boiled," and

First,,

in

the

more

place the eggs in a saucepan

and when the water

boils

the eggs are

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

done

about ten minutes.

this will take

Second, put

that will hold two quarts,

eggs

in a vessel

with

boiling water, cover

warm

place for ten minutes

it
;

fill

and stand
way the eggs

closely,
in this

six

the vessel
it

in a

will

be

cooked equally well in every part. If the eggs are desired more thoroughly done, let them stand in the hot
water ten or even twenty minutes longer, but do not
place them on the range.

Serve boiled eggs in a folded

napkin.

In preparing eggs for garnishing or for salads they

will

require to be boiled at least fifteen minutes.


If the shell

of an egg

is

cracked, pierce several small

holes in the large end, and the contents of the egg will

not burst out in boiling.

POACHED
Break the eggs, one

at a

EGGS.

time into a saucer.

Place water

and when it is simmering, drop


each ^gg lightly in, cooking but one ^gg at a time if the
saucepan is small. More may be cooked at once by using
in a

saucepan, salt

it

a large frying-pan.

well,

The water should

not be allowed to

boil while the eggs are cooking, but should be kept just
at the boiling point.

With a small spoon throw the water

carefully on the top of the egg to whiten

a poached egg

is

for the yolk to

it.

The beauty

the white, which should be just sufficiently hardened

form a

veil for the yolk.

of

be seen blushing through

When cooked

to^

enough, take out

the ^gg with a perforated ladle, trim off the ragged edges,

and

slip

all

the eggs are cooked and placed on

it

on a small, thin piece

of buttered toast.

their

When
separate

pieces of toast, place on each a bit of butter and sprinkle

with salt and pepper.

EGGS.

Some cooks
tlie

An

the

in

even shape, poaching

eggs an

rings.

muffin-rings

set

319

egg-poacher

is

water

them,

to

inside

give
the

very convenient for this work.

Poached eggs are often placed

in

beef soup, one egg

being prepared for each person at table.

They

are also

served on thin slices of boiled ham, and also in a Welsh


rarebit.

Delmonico, when

toast, sprinkles sorrel

serving

poached

eggs

on

For

six

over the lop of the &gg.

SCRAMBLED EGGS.
This dish

particularly nice for breakfast.

is

persons, allow
Five eggs.

One

table-spoonful of butter.

One-half cupful of milk.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of pepper.

Beat the eggs well, and add to them the milk,


pepper.
turn in

salt

and

Put the butter in a frying-pan, and when hot,


the eggs, and stir continually until a thick, creamy

mass is formed this will not require more than a minute


and a-half. Remove from the fire, and serve at once.
A little chopped parsley is sometimes stirred into the
eggs just before they are taken from the fire.
;

SPANISH EGGS.

These are prepared the same as directed

in the pre-

ceding recipe, but before cooking the mixture add to the


butter in the pan one large tomato, peeled
bits.

Cook

minutes being necessary

and

and cut

into

the tomato in the butter until soft, about five

finish as above.

then turn in the egg mixture,

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

120

EGGS IN TOMATO.
Six eggs.

One
One
One

pint of tomato.

small onion.
tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

Cut the onion into small pieces, place these with


tomato

in a frying-pan,

and add the


the eggs and

salt

slip

and pepper.
them on top

not to break the yolks.

cook slowly

Set the pan back, break]


of the tomato, taking care]

Return the pan to the heat, and

until the whites of the

set; then prick the yolks

tomato and whites.

the^

stew very slowly for ten minutes,

and

let

eggs are thoroughly

them mingle with

The mixture should be

the!

quite soft,;

but the red tomatoes and the white and yellow of the:
Serve at once on buttered

eggs should be quite distinct.


toast.

EGG VERMICELLI.
This makes a most attractive-looking dish for luncheon.]
Five eggs.

One

table-spoonful of corn-starch.

One-half table-spoonful of butter.


Six squares of toast.

One-half pint of milk.


Salt

and pepper to

taste.

and boil twenty]


and when cold,
remove the shells, chop the whites very fine and rub the]
yolks through a sieve, or else run them through a potatoDo notl
strainer, which will do the work very quickly.
mix the whites and yolks. Put the milk in a double]
Place

minutes.

the

eggs in

Throw them

boiling

water

into cold water,

EGGS.
boiler to

rub the butter and corn-slarch together,

boil,

and add them

to the boiling milk.

add the whites,


the

of

toast,

Stir until

pepper and batter.

salt,

yolks in

little

slices with the

while sauce, apportioning


sprinkle the strained

heaps upon the tops, and serve

on a

after sifting

the edges

and place on a warm

it

evenly to each of the six slices

it

creamy, and

Wet

lightly

butter

Cover the

dish.

321

at once,

and pepper.

little salt

DEVILED EGGS.
Twelve eggs.

Boil

Two

heaping table-spoonfuls of cold boiled ham.

One
One

table-spoonful of olive

Salt

and pepper

the

eggs

to taste.

fifteen

water for half an hour.

eggs

minutes, and lay them in cold

Remove
Rub

halves lengthwise.

in

the shells and cut the


the yolks to a smooth

and mustard, and add the ham, finely


and pepper mix thoroughly, and
Serve in a bed
the hollowed whites with the mixture.

paste with the

oil

chopped; and the


fill

oil.

tea-spoonful of mustard.

salt

of water-cress or salad.

For picnics, put the corresponding halves


together and press

them

closely

of

each ^egg

then cut white tissue

paper into pieces six inches square, fringe the opposite


ends, roll one egg into each paper, and twist the fringed

ends the same as the coverings of bonbons are often


Serve on a napkin in a pretty basket, gar-

arranged.

nished with smilax or myrtle.

BAKED EGGS, NO.


Break

I.

six or eight eggs into a well buttered earthen

21

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

322

each ^gg

pie-plate, taking care that

is

whole and does

not encroach upon the others to mix or disturb the yolks.


Sprinkle with pepper and

upon each ^gg.


well

set,

Bake

and place a

salt,

in a

usually about eight minutes.

rounds of buttered
plate in which they

bit of butter

hot oven until the whites are

Serve hot with

sending the eggs to table

toast,

in the

were baked.

BAKED EGGS, NO.

2.

Eight eggs.

One
One
One
One

cupful of milk.
table-spoonful of butter.

tea-spoonful of flour.
tea-spoonful of chopped parsley.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

frying-pan, and when


smooth and frothy, draw
When
the pan back, and gradually add the cold milk.
the mixture boils, add the seasoning, cook a minute,
stirring all the time, and turn the sauce into a deep plate
used for baking eggs, or into a deep earthen pie-plate.
Break the eggs carefully and drop them into the sauce,

Place the

butter

melted, add the flour

in
;

small

stir until

taking care not to break the yolks.

Sprinkle the parsley

over the eggs and sauce, place the dish


oven, and bake until the whites are
eight minutes.

not liked,

it

the eggs.

in

a moderate

usually six or

same dish. If parsley is


and if cheese is liked, a
grated Parmesan may be sprinkled over

Serve

in

the

may be omitted

table-spoonful of

set,

EGGS.

CREAMED

323

(fOR LENT.)

EGGS.

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls (scant) of flour.

One

pint of milk.

table-spoonfuls of butter.

Four eggs.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.


One-half of a small onion.
Six slices of toast.

eggs twenty minutes, and lay them

Boil the

in

cold

water; when cold, remove the shells, and cut each egg
into six pieces.

Cut the onion fine.


and when it is

onion in

until of a light yellow^

it

Place the butter

in

cook the
hue, taking care, how-

a small frying-pan,

hot, slowly

brown either the butter or the onion at all.


add the flour and stir until the paste
is smooth and frothy, but do not let it brown in the least.
Draw the pan back, gradually add the milk, return to the
heat, and when the sauce boils, put in the salt, pepper
and eggs. As soon as the eggs are well heated, turn all
out upon buttered toast, and serve at once.
A few drops

ever, not to

Remove

the onion,

of onion juice

may be

facilitating the

work somewhat.

used instead of the onion, thus

FRIED EGGS.

The most

way of frying eggs is to cook them


Heat the griddle almost as much
for pancakes, butter it lightly, and slip the eggs upon
breaking the eggs one by one into a saucer to make
delicate

on a pan-cake griddle.
as
it,

sure

that

all

are

fresh.

When

slightly

them carefully with a pan-cake turner


done in tw^o minutes.

browned, turn
they should be

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

324

EGG NESTS.
For

six persons, use


Six eggs.

Six slices of toast.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One and

salt.

a-half table-spoonful of butter.

Separate the whites of the eggs from the yolks, and


place the whites on a platter or large plate, leaving the

Put the

yolks in the half shells until needed.


the whites, and beat the latter to a

salt

with

Toast the

stiff froth.

bread, dip the edges in hot water, spread generously with

and place them

butter,

in

whites of the eggs on the toast,

Heap

dripping-pan.

make

the

a depression in the

center of each mound, and put a quarter of a tea-spoonful


of

each hollow.

butter and one of the whole yolks in

Place the pan in a moderate oven, and cook until the

mounds

are

lightly

ham may be
beaten white

is

browned.

spread on each
placed upon

spoonful

slice of

of

toast

chopped

before

the

it.

PICKLED EGGS.

These make a nice accompaniment

for broiled steak.

Six eggs.

One pint of vinegar.


Twenty four whole cloves.
One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of pepper.


One-half tea-spoonful of ground mustard.

Boil

water,

the

eggs fifteen minutes, throw them into cold

and when

cool,

cloves into each egg.

remove the

shells

and

Put the vinegar on to

stick four
boil,

rub

EGGS.
the

mustard,

and pepper

salt

to

spoonful of the cold vinegar, and

and

boiling,

add the paste

to

it

mixed.

Put the eggs

in

a glass

325

a paste with a table-

when

stir until

the vinegar

the whole

fruit-jar,

is

is

well

pour the boiling

vinegar over them, cover well and use after two weeks.

STUFFED EGGS, NO.


For

I.

six persons, use


Six eggs.

One

table-spoonful of flour.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One

pint of milk.

Three drops of onion


and pepper.

juice.

Salt

twenty minutes, drop them into cold


and when cool, remove the shells. Cut an even
slice from each end of each ^g^^ and cut the eggs in two.
Take out the yolks, mash them until light and smooth,
and add to them the onion juice and
Boil the eggs

water,

One

quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One

Four table-spoonfuls

Mix

all

well

shape of domes
whites on end.

salt.

table-spoonful of butter.
of milk.

together, and heap the


in

mixture in the

the halves of the whites, setting the

Place the eggs on a well buttered

tin

While
they are baking, prepare the sauce as follows
Put the
remaining table-spoonful of butter in a frying-pan, and
when it is hot, add the flour, and stir until smooth and
frothy, but not brown
then gradually add the milk.
plate or pan,

and bake

in the

oven for

six minutes.
:

THE PA TTERiV CO OA-B O OK.

326

Season with salt and pepper, boil up once, arrange the


baked eggs on a warm dish, pour the sauce around them,
garnish with parsley, and serve at once.

STUFFED EGGS, NO.


These are

2.

delicious, but rather difficult to

make.

For

six persons, allow


Six eggs.

the

Boil

remove the
take

One
One

table-spoonful of tongue or ham.

Salt

and pepper

table-spoonful of melted butter.

eggs fifteen

minutes,

yolks carefully,

butter and finely chopped

them

cool

and cut the eggs

shells,

out the

to taste.

in

water,

halves lengthwise

in

mash them

meat and also the

add the

fine,

and
smooth
paste is obtained.
Fill the whites with the mixture, and
press the corresponding halves together.
Dip the egg
pepper, and rub

first

in

all

together

salt

perfectly

beaten egg, then in bread-crumbs, again

egg and crumbs, and fry


using

until

a frying-basket.

One
One

in

the

boiling fat for two minutes,

When

pour around them a sauce

Two

in

made

all

the eggs

are cooked,

of

table-spoonfuls of butter.
table-spoonful of flour.
pint of milk.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

Rub the Hour and butter to a cream heat the milk,


and gradually add it to the butter and flour. When
smooth, return all to the pan in which the milk was
heated, and boil two minutes, stirring all the time
then
add the salt and pepper, when the sauce is ready to use.
;

OMELETS.

327

OMELETS.
Nothing

more simply made than an omelel,

is

comparatively few cooks can

make one

properly.

yet

The

eggs either stick to the pan or are overdone and tough.

Much

stress

laid in

is

many cook-books upon

the neces-

an omelet-pan, but

any smooth iron frying-pan

that ia not too small for the

number of eggs used will do


much said about the pro-

sity of

There

equally well.
fessional

manner

of tossing the omelet, shaking the pan,

that bewilders

etc.,

viodiis

also

is

the unexperienced

operandi apparently very

and renders the

We

difficult.

and

is

give here

known

a recipe for omelet that has never been

simple enough for any one to follow.

to fail,

For those

who care for a more elaborate mode of work there are


many books that will explain the difficulties to them, but
this recipe is

given for those not yet skilled in work of

this kind.

For a family of
to a stiff froth

five,

Beat the whites

allow five eggs.

on a large plate

place the yolks in a

good-sized earthenware cake bowl, and beat them well,

adding a spoonful of the. beaten whites to make them

more frothy.

Turn

the whites into the bowl containing

the yolks, adding half a tea-spoonful of salt


little

pepper, and mix

all

and a very

Place a table-

well together.

spoonful of butter in a frying-pan, or an omelet-pan


there

is

one, and

when

quite hot, so that the butter

commencing to brown, turn in


them in this heat more than
pan on the top grate
If

the

done
under

oven
in

five

the

is

at

in a hot

oven

then

not keep
set

the

to finish the cooking.

the right heat, the omelet should be

minutes.

omelet

Do

the eggs.
a minute

if

is

to

Take
loosen

the pan
it

on

out, slip
all

a knife

sides,

fold

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

328
one

side

upon the

and send

other,

once

at

to

the

table.

This

may be termed

cooks, but

it is

a baked omelet

one that

is

by professional,

certainly worthy

of note, for

and better omelets cannot be found anywhere thani


those households in which these directions have beeni

lighter
in

the rule for years in the preparation of this simple

and

delightful article of food.

OMELET SOUFFLE.
Six eggs.

Three table-spoonfuls

of pulverized sugar.

One-half tea-spoonful of orange water, vanilla or lemon.

Beat the whites of

the.

eggs to a hard froth.

Put the

yolks of three eggs in a bowl with the sugar and flavorwell.


Add the whites, mix quickly,
mass as high as possible on a well buttered
baking-dish.
Smooth the top of the mound, make a slit
down the center and at the sides, and bake fifteen minutes in a moderate oven.
At the end of this time the
ing,

and beat them

and

pile the

souffle

should be of a fine yellow shade.

powdered sugar and serve

Sprinkle with

at once.

FRIED OMELET.
is a convenient way to make an omelet where the
come irregularly to breakfast. The mixture may
stand for some time if beaten again thoroughly before

This

family

frying.
Six eggs.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of pepper.

One

cupful of milk.

OMELETS.

329

Beat the eggs until light and foamy, and add the other

Fry a spoonful at a time

ingredients.

in

a hot frying-

pan or on a pancake griddle, having the pan or griddle


When done, roll each omelet quickly like
well buttered.
a French pancake, and serve.

OTHER OMELETS.

great

many

be made from the simple,

dishes -can

plain omelet, not only for breakfast uses

Most

desserts at dinner.

the omelet just before

it

but

of the additions are

also for

made

folded and while the top

is

to
is

moist and readily receives the different ingredients

OYSTER OMELET.

Heat eighteen oysters in their own liquor, skim them


and stir in with them a table-spoonful of butter
rubbed to a cream with a table-spoonful of flour. Season
with salt and pepper, boil up once, and spread the oysters
carefully,

on the omelet before folding.

TOMATO
Boil

OINLELET.

two medium-sized tomatoes a few minutes, season

with salt and pepper, and place them on the omelet just

before

it

is

When

folded.

served the tomato should be

entirely enveloped,

GREEN PEA OMELET.


This

spoonfuls
center.

managed

the same as tomato omelet, a few


cooked green peas being placed in the
Serve the omelet with a row of peas around it.

is

of

OMELET WITH VEGETABLES.

Many

vegetables beside the two above mentioned are

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

330
used

making omelets.

in

perfectly well
fore

As]3araous and cauliiiower are

The vegetable should

often used.

folding.

done and
Arrange

first

be cooked until

omelet be-

laid rather dry in the

a border of

the vegetable used

around the omelet for serving.

HAM OMELET.
Scatter over the center of the omelet a few spoonfuls
of finely

chopped ham.

Cheese, parsley and chicken are used

in

the

same way.

SWEET OMELET (FOR DESSERT).

Add

half the

little

when ready
any kind

sugar to the eggs, using no pepper and but

quantity of

is

the

laid

plain omelet, and

two or three table-spoonfuls

marmalade or

of preserves,

After the omelet

over

Make

salt.

to fold, put

jelly

upon the

of

top.

on the serving-dish, sprinkle sugar

it.

ORANGE OMELET.
One orange

(rind).

Three eggs.
Three table-spoonfuls of orange juice.
Three tea-spoonfuls of powdered sugar.

Grate the rind from the orange.

Beat the yolks of the

and add the sugar, rind and juice.


Beat the whites stiff, stir them into the yolks, and when
both are well mixed, cook like a plain omelet.
Fold the

eggs thorougiily,

omelet, lay

it

on the serving-dish, sprinkle

powdered sugar and score


red-hot poker.

it

in

it

thickly with

diagonal lines with a clean

The burnt sugar

gives the omelet a deli-

cious flavor.

To
the

vary the recipe cut the orange into sections, remove

seeds

and touoh inner skin

cut each section into

OMELETS.

331

and mix these with the yolks before cooking

pieces,

cut the orange into small pieces, spread

the

part of

it

or

over

omelet before folding, and sprinkle the remainder

over the sugared top.

By any

of

venient dessert for an emergenc}-

these methods a con-

may be prepared

in ten

minutes.

OMELET WITH RUM.


This

is

than

in

to serve,

most delicious omelet.

the

plain

a little sugar to

omelet.

When

the

little

omelet

less salt
is

ready

sprinkle a table-spoonful of sugar over the top.

and pour over


tire to

Add

instead of the pepper, and use a

the eggs

the

it

four or five table-spoonfuls of rum.

rum and send blazing

to table.

Set

BREAD.
"

The comfort

The very

staff of life

of the husband, the pride of the wife."

The making of bread is at once the easiest and the


most difficult branch of culinary science. It should be
regarded as one of the highest accomplishments, and if a
tenth of the interest, time and thought which are devoted

and fancy cooking were spent upon this


most important article of food, the presence of good
bread upon our tables would be invariably secured. It is
deplorable indeed that in thousands of otherwise comfortable homes good bread is an unknown thing.
Good
bread makes the plainest meal acceptable and the
to cake, pastry

coarsest fare appetizing, while the most luxurious table


is

sadly wanting

stitutes

without

good bread

ions regarding anything else

bread

is

the yeast

Opinions as to what con-

it.

much

differ as
;

but

as tastes

all will

and

opin-

agree that good

free from any perceptible taste of


and as white as the grade of flour will admit.

light, sweet,

Most important among the things needful


good bread is good

to

produce

FLOUR.

Housekeepers

They

seldom

usually take

some

select
tried

332

flour

by examination.
select on the

brand, or

BREAD.
recommendation

of

planation regarding

333

their grocer;

the different

therefore, a

ex-

little

brands may be help-

ful.

The fancy names given


same

as the

flour

amount

to very little,

different " processes " refer to the several

The

brands.

to

by several dealers under various

flour is sold

methods used in converting wheat into flour, the grinding


being performed in several ways, each one claiming superiority.

One

process

is

by grinding between two horizontal

upper one revolving and grinding the grain


The ground
against the low^er one, which is stationary.

stones, the

grain

then sifted through bolting-cloth, producing fine

is

wheat

flour,

coarse wheat meal and bran.

Louis or " old process " flour and

St.

pastry

The grinding with

flour.

This
also

is

millstones

the

is

sold as

heats

the

and as it is often placed on the market without


having been properly cooled and dried, it spoils very

flour,

rapidly.

Another m.ethod

The Washburn,

is

the Minnesota or " patent process."

Pillsbury and

located

other mills

in

Minneapolis are the largest flouring mills in the world.

By

this

process

the

grain

crushed, not ground, by

is

being passed through corrugated


sifted
is

through bolting-cloth.

and

rollers,

Flour prepared

is

in this

then

way

considered one of the best grades.

The
By

third process

this

after

is

the "

which

the cleaned

knives, v/hich reduces

it

injurious effect of heating.


that

new patent

method the outer husk

made by

grain

"

or

Haxall.

wheat is removed,
cut by a system of
powder without the

of the
is

to a fine

This flour swells more than

the "old process," as

it

contains more of

^^ TTERN COOK-BOOK.

^-^^

334
the gluten

make
flour.

It

is,

same measure

the wheat, so ihal the

of

quantity

a greater

bread than the

of

therefore, cheaper in the

St.

will

Louis

end, although

it

more per barrel and it makes the whitest bread.


There have been many variations of the Haxall process,
but all are included under the term " new process
costs

flour."

Yet another method of converting wheat into flour has


been recently introduced in New York and is highly
recommended by physicians and scientists. The outer
husk of the wheat (of which only the choicest kinds are
used) is removed, and the grains are pulverized by a

compressed cold-air blast, which dashes them into atoms


with tremendous force.
This is called " whole wheat "
flour, the

name

indicating that the whole of the nutritive

part of the wheat


flour,

but

is

is

retained.

pulverized into

wheat and coarse and


even the finest

flour,

Bread made with


light

of

fine

is

not sifted like other

the varieties of crushed

granulated

contains

this

It
all

flour

that

all

is

and each

variety,

valuable as food.

has been found very sweet,

and spongy, with none

Graham

bread.

of the objectionable features


" Arlington," the " Franklin "

The

and some other brands of whole-wheat flour are highly


recommended by those familiar with them.

Good

flour should not

be pure white

creamy, yellowish shade.

If flour

and sticky and gradually forms


to sift out,

it

is

into

in color, but of a

damp, clammy
lumps that are hard

feels

not of the best quality.

Flour of high

grade holds together in a mass when squeezed

hand and

retains the impression of the fingers

much

of the indentations of the skin


flour.

Haxall

flour

has

fine

in

the

and even

longer than poor

consistency

and runs

BREAD.
through

easily

good

the sieve

335

or. fingers

like

velvety meal,

and soft. All housekeepers agree that flour is not improved by long standing
and that it should be bought in quantities corresponding
while

to the

Louis flour feels

St.

number

of

persons

oily

in the

household, that

be used within a reasonable length of time.

it

may

For a small

it is wisest to buy it in twenty-five pound sacks, or


most by the quarter-barrel. Flour should be kept in a
dry, cool place, should be well covered and should never

family
at

be used without

The

sifting.

next essential element in bread-making

is

the

YEAST.

There are three kinds of yeast in general use the dry,


and the liquid, each of which has its
;

the compressed,

Dry yeast cakes, such as the Twin


and many others, are good, if
'*

merits.

" National "

being

always

obtainable

generally liked by those


cakes,

such

perfectly

as

fresh,

and

who

Brothers*,''

fresh,

and

they

are

inexpensive,

The compressed

use them.

the "Vienna," are


excellent when
and are especially to be commended

when bread is made in large


when only a quarter

family,

quantities
of a

cake

but for a small


is

used, perhaps

twice a week, or for those living at a distance from the


grocer's, they are inconvenient, expensive

Yeast cakes have


bakers' yeast.

One

almost

entirely

taken

two-cent cake of

dissolved in a cupful of water

is

and wasteful.
the

place of

compressed yeast

equal to

cupful of

home-made yeast.
There are many varieties of home-made yeast, all of
which require some form of yeast for starting. Who
made the first yeast, and how can a young housekeeper

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

336
start her

own when

from stores or neigh-

at a distance

bors so that she can neither buy nor borrow, are ques-

The answer to the latter question is,


make a thin batter of flour and water, and let it
stand in a warm place until it ferments and is full of bub-

tions often asked.

simply

bles.

pint of this

"ferment"

is

is

equal to a cupful of

Yeast made with potatoes

old yeast in starting the new.

always satisfactory, as the potato starch

well adapted to yeast fermentation.

and

rapidly,

it

is

particularly

Potato yeast rises

keeps longer without souring than any

made with it is sweet and light,


and does not dry quickly. Porcelain or granite kettles
are best for boiling the hops and potatoes, and earthen
bowls and wooden spoons for mixing them, since iron
and tin darken the yeast. The yeast for starting should
be light in color, foaming or full of beads, effervescing
easily when shaken and emitting an odor like weak ammonia it is poor when it has an acid odor and looks

other variety; and bread

watery or has a thin film over the top.

be put away
cool

in glass jars as

place, for intense

It is a

good plan

heat or freezing will "

in a

kill "

it.

to reserve a portion of the yeast for the

next rising in a small jar by


often causes the yeast to lose

The

This yeast should

soon as made and kept

itself,

its

as opening the jar

strength.

next subject to consider in the making of bread

is

THE SPONGE.
is made with lukewarm water or milk, yeast and
The milk used should be scalded and cooled, the
The sponge
scalding keeping the sponge from souring.
is made either in the evening or in the afternoon, that

This

flour.

" set " late being light

by morning

for the

kneading of the

BREAD.
dough,

Vv'hile

337

that started in the afternoon

becomes

light

and spongy by nine o'clock and can then be kneaded and


The question whether dough
left to rise over night.
should be kneaded at night or in the morning is one
which every housekeeper can best decide for herself.
Setting the sponge in the afternoon has many advantages.

The kneading should

and should continue


to

be done

in the

at least

not be hurried or slighted

twenty minutes; when

has

it

morning, hoMrever, when most house-

holds are unusually busy, there

is

less

likelihood of

its

Another decided advantage


of setting the sponge in the afternoon is that it may be
baked and removed from the oven by ten o'clock the
next day, thus leaving the oven free for roasting or other
work attendant upon the noonday dinner, which so many
being properly performed.

housewives the country over find most convenient.

The sponge should be


spoonful of

it

stirred so thick with flour that a

run from the spoon but will drop

will not

from

it in a rather wet mess.


If the sponge will not rise
and seems watery on the top, sufficient flour has not been
stirred into it.
The sponge should not be allowed to
stand in a draught of air, but a warm, even temperature

should,

if

possible, be maintained.

clean bright pail that

is

an earthenware pitcher.

Stir the sponge in a


used for no other purpose, or in
If there is a

high shelf in the


it.

One

pail

on a

kitchen remote from the door, set the pail upon


practical housewife

used to hang her sponge

projecting hook of the kind generally used to hang bird

The hook was

nailed to a boarding above


upon which the water pipes that supplied
the upper floor were fastened, and it was out of the
draught and in a steady temperature. The sponge was

cages upon.

the water tank,

22

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

338

not looked at after being

use

and

it

The next

was always
step

set, until

it

was taken down

for

satisfactory.

is

THE KNEADING.
Kneading is tiie pressing or working of the dough in
such a manner that the water and flour may be thoroughly mixed and the yeast, so evenly distributed that the
fermentation is equal throughout the entire mass. The
kneading is often done in a mixing-bowl or bread-pan by
drawing the dough over from the sides and pressing it
down in the center, but it may be more effectually and
more easily accomplished on a bread-board. Place some
of the flour in the bread-pan, work into it whatever butter is
to be used, and turn in the sponge, rinsing out the pail or
vessel containing it so that there may be no waste.
Mix
thoroughly, being careful not to make the dough too
stiff; then flour the board, turn the dough out upon it,
and rub the pan clean with some of the dry flour, adding
what may be thus obtained to the dough on the board.

Work
Draw
the

the whole into a ball, having the


the

dough

center,

farthest from you

letting

the

ball

of

hands

well floured.

up and over toward


the hand meet the

dough; then press down firmly, giving the dough somewhat of a rolling motion, that it may not stick to the
board.
Dust the board and the hands frequently but
lightly with flour.
Use both hands in the same manner.
When enough smooth texture has been formed through
the

dough

it

ing of flour.
less than

the

can be worked for some time without a dust-

The kneading should be continued

for not

twenty minutes, as brisk and long working of

dough makes the pores

fine

and regular, while gaping

BREAD.
holes

bread are the

in

Wiien the kneading

is

round mass, and place


not

it

perature

even.

'

My

is

is

in the

it

in a

tation.

If

kneaded

tnnishing early in

kneaded

ro rise to the

set

it

is

much

air

at night, the

in

warm

place,

and that the tem-

cold arrests fermen-

bread

be ready for

will

as early as six o'clock

should be allowed

it

flat,

force in the lament,

last night," for

the morning

in the day,

kneading.

little

center of the bread-pan;

draught of

There

bread took cold

too

of

result

done, work the dough into a

cover the pan with a cloth and


taking care

339

five or six

desired lightness, after which

it

if

hours

ready for

is

THE MOULDING.

When
ize,

the bread has risen to three times

knead

it

down

in

the pan, cut

it

original

its

into equal parts,

mould

place one of these at a time upon the board, and


into a

During

perfectly smooth, oblong loaf.

it

this sec-

ond working only a dusting of flour will be required to


keep the dough from sticking to the board, if the first
kneading was sufficiently thorough. Place each loaf in a
long, four

separate pan, which should be eight inches


inches wide and four inches deep.

The

well greased.

the top of the pans,

way

loaves should reach only half

which should stand

dough reaches the

until the

The pans must be

top,

when

in

it is

warm

to

place

ready for

THE BAKING.
This

is

bread.

fully as

important as the other steps

The oven should not be

perience in baking will soon teach the novice

temperature

wavs of

is

testing:

right.

the

in

too hot, and a

making
little

when

ex-

the

For the unskilled there are many


The baker's method is to

heat.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

340

a little flour on the floor of the oven, and if it


browns quickly without taking fire, the heat is sufficient;
or if the hand can be held in the oven while one can
count twenty, the heat is strong enough. If a thermome-

throw

ter

is

used,

bake from

round mound above the top of the pan and

rise in a

should

begin

lightly

to

Bake according
bread

to

brown

after

minutes.

fifteen

the clock always, for the baking of

something that

is

The bread should


The dough should

should indicate 360.

it

forty-five to sixty minutes.

will

not take care of

It

itself.

is

an erroneous idea that anything must not be looked at

Look

while baking in the oven.

and turn
it

will

whenever

it

it

needs

When

Remove

when done.

it is

well baked,

when tapped with

emit a hollow, empty sound

fingers.

bread frequently,

at the

it.

If left in

them or

on a pine

set

table, the

bread sweats or absorbs the odor of the wood.


crust

preferred, do not

is

them where the


or cake cooler

which

to

wafer-like

when
move

of fine wire

consistency
still

is

liked

them

the cloth, as

it

in a

in

and scald

it

If

the

soft,

crust,

stone jar or a tin

taste.

the jar well

every baking-day, airing

HOP YEAST.
pint of sliced

raw

One-half pint of hops.

jiotatoes.

tender,

wrap the
cloth, and
box.
Re-

and gives the

Keep

oughly to receive the fresh bread.

One

bread

a useful article upon

absorbs moisture

bread an unpleasant odor and


covered

is

hot in several thicknesses of

cold, place

about them.

air will circulate

made

If crisp

cover the loaves, but place

place newly baked bread.

loaves while

the

the loaves immediately from the pans

it

thor-

BREAD.

One
One
One

(Jne cupful of yeast.

One
One

341

quart of water.
tea-spoonful of ginger.
yeast cake, or

table-spoonful of salt.
tea-cupful of sugar.

Boil the potatoes in a pint of the water,

and steep the

hops for twenty minutes in the other pint, using a gianiteware or porcelain-lined sauce-pan for the purpose. When
the potatoes are soft, mash them in the water in which
they were boiled, and

when

the hops are steeped, strain

from them into the potato water. Add the


When
salt, sugar and ginger, and mix all well together.
cool, add the dissolved yeast-cake or the Hquid yeast,

the water

cover the bowl, and


yeast

light

is

eral times.

sealing
well

it

securely.

before

make

let

it

stand in a

warm

and covered with foam.


Put the yeast in glass
using.

place until the

Skim and

stir sev-

jars or a stone jug,

Keep it in a cool place, and shake it


The above measurements will not

a large quantity.

LIGHTNING YEAST.
One
One
One

quart of boiled potatoes.


quart of hot water.

quart of cold water.

One-half tea-cupful of sugar.


One-quarter tea-cupful of

Two compressed
One

Mash

the sugar

and

and pour the hot water upon


salt, and stir well until the

smooth and creamy. Then pour in the cold


and when the whole is lukewarm, add the dis-

mixture
water,

pint of yeast.

the potatoes fine,

Add

them.

salt.

yeast cakes, or

is

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

342

Set the yeast in a

solved yeast-cakes or the yeast.

place, as directed in the preceding recipe,


set

it

away

in a stone jar.

skim

warm

well,

and

Shake before using.

RAW POTATO
One-quarter cupful of

YEAST.
fiour.

One-quarter cupful of sugar.

One

table-spoonful of

salt.

Three medium-sized potatoes.


One to two quarts of boiling water.
One cake of compressed yeast, or

One

cupful of liquid yeast.

Pare the potatoes, and cover them with cold water.

Mix

the flour, sugar

and

salt in

a large bowl

then grate

the potatoes as quickly as possible, not stopping to grate

every scrap, and mix them at once with the

wooden

or silver spoon that the mixture

flour,

may

using a

not be dark-

kettle,

Have a good supply of boiling water in the teaand pour about a pint of it over the grater, rinsing

off the

potato into the bowl.

ened.

Mix

the water thoroughly

with the potato and flour, then add slowly enough


boiling water to
starch.

The

make

more

the liquid the consistency of thin

exact quantity of water cannot be

given,

depends upon the quality of flour and potatoes.


not thicken, pour the mixture into a double
it
does
If
boiler or a granite pan, and bring it to the boiling point,
then strain
stirring well to keep it from sticking
through a squash strainer, and let it cool. When lukewarm, add the yeast, cover, and keep in a warm place
as

it

until light

veast

and well covered with white foam.

"o'^'^

strengtiicns

it

^^

r\'S>^^

greatly.

beat

it

well

After the

several times, as this

At night or when

it

is

well risen,

BREAD.
set

it

away

in a cool place,

543

pouring

it

into

wide-mouthed

Reserve a cupful or more


and do not open it until ready for the

earthen jars or in glass jars.

by

in a jar

itself,

Do

Shake well before using*

next yeast making.

when

take the jar into the hot kitchen

yeast

a baking, but take the measuring cup to the jar.

when empty, and cover

the jar

This

way

teen minutes being ample for the


yeast,

which

bread,

is

will

Scald

tightly.

it

a quick and very easy

is

not

used for

is

making

of

yeast,

fif-

The

the work.

first of

keep two weeks and makes delicious

whiter and more inviting-looking than that

made

with hops.

LIGHTNING YEAST BREAD.


This

is

(nO SPONGE.)

one of the easiest methods of bread-making and

The work is all done the


same day, as it is not necessary to start the sponge over
night.
For two loaves weighing a pound apiece, allow
produces excellent bread.

the lightning yeast.

a pint of

the bread-pan, sprinkle over

it

Place a quart of flour in


a

little salt,

make

a well in

and turn in the yeast. Mix until


a ball is formed, adding more flour if needed then turn
the dough out upon the bread-board and knead it twenty
minutes.
Return it to the pan, and when quite light and
the center of the flour,

fully

three times

its

original

size,

mould

bread has doubled

This

ate oven.

enough
week.

is

in

size,

bake

it

an hour

a small quantity, but

for a family of five

when bread

it

is

into

it

When

loaves, filling the tins but half full of dough.

in a

will

two
the

moder-

be quite

baked twice a

BREAD FROM DRY YEAST.

The

national yeast-cake

may always be

relied

upon

for

^^ TTERN COOK-BOOK.

"^^^

344

The following

this bread.

loaves

make

quantities will

three

One good-sized raw potato.


One pint of boiling water.
One table-spoonful of melted

lard.

One-half a dry yeast-cake.


One-half table-spoonful of

One

salt.

tea-spoonful of sugar.

Flour.

Boil the potato in a granite-ware sauce pan, drain off

the water,

mash the potato very smooth, and

the boiling water.

turn over

Stir until the liquid is like

it

cream, and

At the same time place the yeastlukewarm water. Do this


work at three o'clock p. m. At four, place the two ingredients together in a tin-pail or earthen pitcher, and stir in
enough flour to make a very thick batter. The batter
should be too thick to run from the spoon and should
be stirred and beaten until perfectly smooth and full of

set

it

aside in a bowl.

cake to soak

in half a cupful of

bubbles.

Set this to rise in an even temperature of at

and

it will be light and spongy by nine o'clock.


Put two quarts of flour in the bread-pan, rub the lard into

least 75,

the flour, make a well in the center, and turn into it the
sponge from the pail. Knead until the dough forms a
round ball, adding more flour as needed. Turn it out
upon the breadboard as soon as it has been kneaded so
that

it

will

not stick to the board, and knead

at

least

twenty minutes, adding only enough flour to keep the

dough from sticking during the work.

Return the dough


and leave it
in a warm place.
In the morning mould the dough down,
divide it into three parts, mould each part until smooth,

to the pan, cover closely with a thick cloth,

BREAD.
place

a separate pan and set

in

it

The loaves should


a-half

then

345

rise to

place

it

in a

double their size

them

oven,

the

in

in

warm

place.

an hour and

and bake an

Bread made in this way is out of the oven by ten


Milk may
o'clock in the morning and is very delicious.
hour.

be used in place of water to


should

first

set

the

scalded to prevent

be

it

sponge,

but

souring in

it

the

bread.

COMPRESSED VEAST BREAD.

To make

four large loaves, use

One

quart of boiling water.

Three large potatoes.

About seven

pints of flour.

One-third of a cake of yeast.

One

table-spoonful of

salt.

Cook potatoes for thirty minutes, and drain well


mash them, pour the boiling water over them and set
away to cool. When lukewarm, add the dissolved yeastcake and three quarts of the flour, beating the flour in
with a spoon.
Cover the bowl with a cloth and then
with a board, and let its contents rise over night.
In the
morning add the salt and half the remaining flour, the
rest of the flour

the

knead

it

for

and

being used for kneading the bread on

Turn the dough out upon the board, and

board.

twenty minutes

then return

it

to the bowl,

Shape it
and when they have
risen to double their original size, bake for an hour.
The addition of a table-spoonful of sugar and one of
lard or butter improves the bread for some tastes, and, if

cover,

let

into loaves,

it

rise to

double

its

original size.

moulding them smooth

THE PATTERA'

346

used, should be

worked

COOK-L:OOJv.

when

in with the salt

the bread

is

kneaded.

ENTIRE WHEAT BREAD.


Entire wheat

very different from Graham.

is

Graham

coarsely ground

wheat meal, while entire wheat is


made from the whole wheat, the husk being discarded.
The latter makes a brown loaf or roll, but a delicious one,
smooth and fine. For two large loaves of bread, use
is

Two

quarts of flour.

One and a-half pint of warm water.


One table-spoonful of sugar.
One table-spoonful of butter.
One-half table-spoonful of

salt.

One-half cake of compressed

j-east,

or

One-half cupful of home-made yeast.

Measure the

flour

before sifting

then

sift

it

into a

bowl, setting aside one cupful to be used in kneading the

bread

Add

later.

the yeast

water, and pour


lastly

the sugar and salt to the flour, dissolve

the compressed

(if

add the

it

and the

out the dough upon

Return the dough


bread

is

light, turn

will

little

it,

of the

bowl

Beat the dough

and

light,

some of the flour reserved, turn


and knead it for twenty minutes.

to the board,

and

set

it

to rise over

take about six or eight hours,

started in the morning.


it

in

spoon, and when smooth

sprinkle the board with

This

used)

butter, slightly softened.

vigorously with

night.

is

rest of the water into the

When

out upon the board, divide

it

the

if

dough

the
is

into two loaves,

mould them smooth, place them in well greased pans,


and set them in a warm place. When the loaves have
doubled in size, bake for an hour.

BREAD.

347

RYE BREAD.
This

is

made

same as

the

the preceding, except that

rye flour is used instead of the entire wheat.

GRAHAM BREAD.
The

quantities given below will

make two medium-sized

loaves.

One pint of water.


Wheat flour.
One yeast-cake, or
One cupful of yeast.

About nine at night dissolve the yeast-cake in the


which should be lukewarm and add enough wheat
flour to thicken it to a stiff batter.
Stir and beat the
water,

batter

thoroughly for

and
morning add

bubbles

set

it

five

in a

minutes,

warm

leaving

place to

Two

cupfuls o^ molasses.

One

tea-spoonful of soda.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of salt.

Graham
Dissolve the soda in a

it

rise.

full

of

In the

flour.

little

cold water, slightly

warm

and add to it the soda. Stir the salt into


then put
the sponge, and beat well with a strong spoon
in the molasses and soda, and when these have been
thoroughly beaten in with the sponge, add Graham flour
This is not kneaded
until a very thick mixture is formed.
the molasses,

like

with
well

other kinds of yeast bread, but should be so thick

graham
for

as to be difficult to

three

or

stir.

four minutes, turn

Beat the batter


it

into

two well

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

348
greased

tins,

and

set

it

risen to be half again

made

It is

mixed so

of

in a

wheat

warm

place

original size,

This bread

rather slow oven.


that

its

when

has

it

in a

not rise so rapidly as

" body " to carry.


dough takes the form of the
The success of graham bread

flour, as it

soft that the

will

bake an hour

has more

pans in which it is baked.


depends largely upon thorough beating.

RYE-AND-INDIAN BREAD.
Three cupfuls of rye

Two
One
One
One
One
Sift the
salt.

flour.

cupfuls of Indian meal.


cupful of molasses.
pint of water.

tea-spoonful of soda.

tea-spoonful of salt.

two kinds of meal well together, adding the

Slightly

warm

the water, dissolve the soda in

it,

add the molasses, and when these are well mixed, stir in
the meal, a little at a time.
Beat well until the whole is
thoroughly mixed. Then place the batter in a round tin,
set this in a steamer, and steam for four hours over a
kettle of boiling water.
If a crust is preferred, bake the
bread half an hour after the steaming. The batter must
be steamed immediately after it is mixed or it will be
heavy.

RAISED BROWN BREAD.


One

pint of corn meal.

One-half cupful of yeast, or one-half a cake.


One-half cupful of molasses.
One-half tea-spoonful of salt

One
One

salt-spoonful of soda.

pint of rye-meal.

BREAD.

349

Place the corn meal in a mixing-bowl, and scald


just

enough boiling water

minutes

wet

the batter

and the rye-meal.

it

over night

rise

until

it

or

cracks open.

it

with

stand ten

it

make

a soft

lukewarm, add the yeast and

is

the molasses, the soda dissolved


the salt

Let

it.

then put in cold water enough to

When

batter.

to

in

cold water,

little

Beat the mixture

well,

made in the morning,


Then stir it down, put it

if

and

let

in

it

let

rise

a but-

tered and floured tin to rise again, and sprinkle flour over
Bake in a moderate oven for two hours. This
the top.
recipe

is

very reliable.

CORN BREAD.
Two

eggs.

One and a-half cupful of milk.


One large cupful of corn meal.
One-half cupful of wheat

One and

Two

flour.

a-half table-spoonful of melted butter.

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

Beat the whites and yolks of the eggs

and then together.

Sift the flour

first

separately,

and meal well together,

and sift again. Place the milk in


add to it the beaten yolks, the salt and
sugar, and then the meal and flour.
Mix all

put in the powder,


a cake bowl,

the

very thoroughly
in

the

beaten

buttered

The

tin.

and when well beaten


Bake half an hour in a

together,

whites.

above

quantities

will

make

stir

well

one

and the bread is always good. It is


most palatable when warm, but it can be steamed and
warmed over after it is cold, so that it will be almost as

medium-sized

good as

loaf,

at first.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

350

BREAKFAST BREAD.
One-half cupful of butter.

One

cupful of sugar.

Three eggs.

One

quart of milk.

Five and a-half cupfuls of

tiour.

One-half cupful of Indian meal.

Five tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

Rub the butter and


When these

This makes quite a large quantity.

sugar to a cream, and add the beaten eggs.


are well mixed, stir in the milk gradually.

meal and baking powder together,


times to

make

sure the powder

is

Sift the

sifting

flour,

two or three

well distributed.

Stir

the flour into the mixture, beating thoroughly, and bake


half an hour in well buttered pans.

FRENCH

ROLLS.

These may be prepared with


a little larger -quantity of the

little

trouble by making

bread dough.

After knead-

ing the dough for the usual time, set aside enough for a

pan

of rolls, usually a pint.

Work

into

this

portion

and let it stand in


a moderately cool place for four hours
knead it again,
then form the
and let it stand three hours more
dough into rolls by rolling it out very lightly, cutting the
rolls out with a biscuit cutter, and folding them not quite
large table-spoonful of butter or lard,

in

the center, like turn-overs.

an hour, after which bake the

The

third rising will take

rolls half

quick oven.

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS.


For eighteen good-sized

rolls 2iS\^m

an hour

in

BREAD.

351

Two

scanty quarts of flour.

One

pint of milk.

Two
Two
Two

tea-spoonfuls of

salt.

table-spoonfuls of sugar.
table-spoonfuls of butter or lard.

One-half cupful of yeast, or

One-half a cake of compressed yeast.

and

Boil the milk,

set

it

to cool.

Sift the fiour into a

mixing-bowl, rub the butter, sugar and salt into


a well in the center,

and turn into

it

little

make

Sprinkle the

the yeast-cake dissolved in a little water.

top of the milk with a

it,

the cold milk, and

of the flour, cover the bowl,

and leave the whole on the kitchen table

morning.

until

morning mix the mass together with a spoon,


then knead the dough for twenty minutes, return it to the
When
bowl, cover, and set it to rise in a warm place.
large as at first (generally
it has become three times as
in about three hours j, turn it out on the bread-board, and
roll it to a thickness of half an inch.
Cut the dough
with a round cutter, place a round stick the size of a
In

the

slate-pencil

on a

roll

about one-third

side, press with the stick until the

half as thick as

the roll over

it

roll,

if

width from one


it is

about

was before, and fold the shorter side

repeat this process with each

tea-spoonful of butter

each

its

dough under

liked.

roll.

may be spread between


Place

cover with a cloth, and

the

rolls

in

of

Half a

the folds of

buttered

pans,

them rise an hour and ahalf


they should then be more than double their original
size.
Bake twenty minutes in a hot oven. In making
the rolls be careful not to mix the flour with the 3'east
and milk until the latter have stood several hours. Care
is needed in measuring the ingredients, as nothing should
;

let

THE PA TTERN CO OK-B O OK.

352

be added afterward.

If

the rolls are desired for the even-

ing meal begin them at eight o'clock, knead the dough


at twelve or one, set

make

it

twenty minutes of six


o'clock.

them
them

wanted

If

at seven,
;

eleven.

to rise until half-past three, then

it

into rolls, which

may rise in a cool place until


may thus be baked by six

they

for

luncheon

at

one o'clock,

set

doubling the quantity of yeast to hurry

knead the dough

at nine,

and shape into rolls at


to bake at twenty

They should then be ready

minutes of one.

WHITE MOUNTAIN ROLLS.


Two

quarts of

One and

flour.

a-half pint of milk.

Two

eggs (whites).

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

Three table-spoonfuls

of sugar.

One-half cupful of butter.


One-half cupful of yeast, or one-half a cake.

Sift the flour into

sugar.

butter to melt.

When

add the beaten whites


the

and add to it the salt and


and while it is still hot, put in the

a bowl,

Boil the milk,

mixture into the

the milk

is

of the eggs
flour,

cooled to blood heat,

and the

yeast,

and

stir

beating vigorously with a

spoon.
Knead well for twenty minutes, and set the
dough to rise over night. In the morning take pieces of
dough the size of an 'tg^, shape them into long rolls, and
place them side by side in a shallow pan that has been
well greased
when they have risen to a little more than
double their original size, bake for half an hour. The
rolls will brown quickly and should be covered with
;

paper as soon as they begin

to

brown.

READ.

353

SWEDISH ROLLS.

Make

half the quantity of

ceding recipe,

roll

it

dough directed

very thin,

sprinkle

in the

lightly

pre-

with

water or spread with butter, and then sprinkle with sugar


and cinnamon, using three table-spoonfuls of sugar and
one of cinnamon. Roll the sheet the same as jelly-roll,
and cut the roll into slices an inch thick. Put these

when double their


bake for twenty minutes. The cinnamon
may be omitted and the dough sprinkled with sugar and
a cupful of dried currants.
These rolls are much Hked
a well buttered pan, and

slices into

original

size,

with coffee.

BUNS, NO.

I.

Two cupfuls of milk.


Two table-spoonfuls of sugar.
Two eggs.
Two salt-spoonfuls of salt.
Four cupfuls

of flour,

One-half cupful of yeast, or

One-half a cake.

Scald the milk, and w'hen cool, put

both into the yeast and milk.

Lastly

beat well, and set the sponge in a

yeast and

knead

fifteen

warm place
make a

minutes, and replace

the dough

is

light

it

stir

in the flour,

stir

In the morning add flour to

night.

When

in the

Beat the eggs well, add the sugar to them, and

salt.

in the

to rise over
stiff

dough,

pan

to rise.

add

One-half cupful of butter.

One
One

cupful of currants.
salt-spoonful of

Let the dough


23

rise

cinnamon or nutmeg.

again until

light,

shape

it

into small,

'^^^

354

^^ TTERN CO OK-B O OK.

round cakes, place these close together, and when well


risen, bake them twenty or thirty minutes in a moderate
Glaze the buns with sugar and milk, or with the

oven.

white of an egg beaten

stiff,

buns are only good when

fresh.

BUNS NO.
One
One

These

with sugar added.

2.

pint of bread dough.


egg.

One-half cupful of sugar.


Butter the size of an egg.

One-half cupful of French currants.


One-half nutmeg, grated.

Mix
oughly
all

is

the butter with


;

the

dough, working

then add the sugar, spice,

dough

well mixed, roll out the

in

it

and egg.

fruit

thor-

When

half an inch thick,

round cakes with a biscuit-cutter, place these


in a well buttered tin, and leave them in a warm place to
When doubled in size, bake and while still hot,
rise.
brush over the top with syrup, to glaze.
cut

it

into

EASTER BUNS. ("HOT CROSS.")

The dough for these


Buns No. I, except that

is

made

half

the

same

cupful of

as

sugar

in
is

used instead of the quantity given, and the currants and

egg are omitted.


it

into

Roll the dough half an inch thick, cut

round cakes, and lay them

apart in a buttered baking-pan.

in

When

rows two inches


they have risen

more than double their original size, make a cross


upon each with a sharp knife, and put them at once in
the oven.
Bake twenty minutes, having the oven very
hot and glaze as above directed.
to

BREAD.

355

RUSKS.

Two

cupfuls of milk.

One
One
One

cupful of sugar.
cupful of yeast.

Two

eggs.

cupful of butter.

One-half tea-spoonful of soda.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

Flour.

At night scald the


sugar and

enough

flour to

warm

milk,

When

salt.

make

and while

it is

lukewarm, put

a thick batter

cooling add the

in the yeast,

and

then cover and set

In the morning work the butter into


and add the eggs, well beaten, and the soda,
dissolved in a little cold water.
Add flour enough to
admit of rolling the dough out with a rolling-pin. Roll it
in

place.

the dough,

half an inch thick, cut out the rusks with a biscuit-cutter,

place them in a buttered pan, and

than double the original

size,

when

bake them

risen to

thirty

more

minutes in

a moderate oven.

RAISED BISCUIT.

These are

easily

made

for

tea

when bread has been


will make two good-

made, and the following quantities


sized panfuls of biscuit.

One
One

pint of bread dough.

scanty pint of milk.

Two eggs.
Two table-spoonfuls
Four table-spoonfuls

One tea-spoonful of
One quart of flour.

of butter.

of sugar.
salt.

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

356

Mix

all

ting the

these ingredients but the flour in a bowl, cut-

dough with a knife

ing generously.

place for six


time, turn

it

then add the

flour,

Knead well, and set the dough in


hours.
Work it down at the end

out on a floured board, and

roll

it

measura

warm

of that

a-quarter

Cut the dough with a biscuit-cutter,


place half of the cakes in buttered pans, and spread a little soft butter upon each
then take fresh cakes from the
board, and put them on top of those already in the pan.
Cover the whole with a clean towel, and set in a rather
of an inch thick.

cool place, the temperature being about 65.

When

the

biscuits are double their original size (which should be in

two hours), bake

in a rather

hot oven for thirty minutes.

STALE BREAD.

Bread should never be thrown away, nor should any


burned or thrown into the garbage barrel, as is
They should be placed
often done in many households.
in a pan and dried very slowly in the oven, the door being
When dry enough to crumble between the
left open.
crusts be

bag made of strong cloth or


bag with a wooden mallet

fingers, put the crusts in a

Then pound

ticking.

until the crusts are

the

reduced

crumbs, and put them away


will

then

be

ready for

Whole

needed.

to fine
in

crumbs.

Sift these

boxes or glass jars

they

breading

purposes whenever

bread

may always be used

slices of stale

and there are many recipes here given that


require bread for the making, such as pies, puddings,
With a little management each week there
stuffings, etc.

for toast

will be no stale bread


by a wasteful cook or

crumbs.

left

to

over either to be thrown away

make an unnecessary amount

of

BREAD.

WARM OVER BREAD AND

TO

357
ROLLS.

may be made very

water to

light and fresh in the


Dip the loaf quickly in enough cold
completely submerge it. Then set it on a pie-

tin in the

oven to heat

Stale loaf

following manner:

this will require fifteen or

minutes for a loaf of ordinary

may be warmed
isfactory than

in

twenty

and biscuit
the same way and are much more sat-

when steamed.

size.

Rolls

BREAKFAST DISHES.
BISCUIT, GEMS, ETC.

Then

to breakfast, with

what appetite you have.

Shakspere.
BISCUIT.

One

quart of flour,

heaping tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

One

to moisten.

tea-spoonful of

Two even

it

is sifted

flour,

stir well,

Rub

once more.

salt.

table-spoonfuls of lard.

Place the salt in the

sift

powder.)

Two

Sweet milk

before

(baking

which should be measured


add the baking powder, and

the lard into the flour, using the

back of a spoon and when it is thoroughly mixed with


The dough should
the flour, add the milk to moisten.
be just moist enough so that it will not stick to the
board it should not be at all hard, or the biscuit will be
;

hard and dry.

dough a moment, sprinkling the board with


flour; and when it forms a smooth ball roll it out an
Cut the sheet into cakes with a small round
inch thick.
Bake thirty
these in an ungreased tin.
place
and
cutter,

Mold

minutes

the

in

a moderately quick oven.

3S8

This quantity

will

BREAKFAST DISHES.

359

make one dozen large biscuits, or eighteen if cut with a


Some cooks prefer butter to lard in making
small cutter.
biscuit, but if the lard is perfectly sweet it is much better
than butter.
BISCUIT.

in

(cream of TARTAR.)

These are made the same as the preceding, except that


place of the baking powder are used
One

tea-spoonful of soda.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of cream of tartar.

Grind the soda perfectly smooth on a plate, using a


spoon or knife, and mix it with the flour and cream of
Care is required in the use of
tartar, sifting as directed.
soda, for

if is

not perfectly pulverized, the biscuit will be

yellow and most disappointing.


BISCUIT.

Make

the

same

as the

(sour milk.)

baking-powder

biscuit, but use

one even tea-spoonful of pulverized soda instead of the

baking powder, and moisten with


sweet.

sour milk instead of

The milk should be unmistakably

sour, but

need

not be very thick, to insure success.


BISCUIT.

Make

(sour cream.)

same as the baking-powder biscuit, but omit


and substitute a tea-spoonful of soda for the
baking powder. The cream should be rich.
the

the butter,

(SWEET CREAM.)

BISCUIT.

These are made the same as the baking-powder


omitting the

butter.

should be rich.

As

in the

last

recipe, the

biscuit,

cream

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

360

MARYLAND BEATEN
One quart

BISCUIT.

of flour.

One-quarter cupful of lard.


One-half tea-spoonful

One

Rub

the lard and salt into the flour, and

the water until a


utes,

salt.

cupful of cold water.

stiff

dough

is

mix

Knead

formed.

all

with

ten min-

then beat hard with a biscuit-beater or heavy rollingthe mass over

pin, turning

blister

and looks

light

and

and over

until

it

begins to

puffy, or until, pulling off a

piece quickly will give a sharp, snapping sound.

dough is in
denly, and form

the

it

When

condition pull off small pieces sud-

this

into round biscuits

then pinch

off a

and press it
Arrange
the middle.
the pans, prick them

bit from the top of each, turn the biscuit over,

with the thumb, leaving a hollow in


the biscuit

some distance apart

in

with a fork, and bake twenty minutes in a quick oven.

They should be
at the

edges

light

and

of

even grain and should crack

like crackers.

SWEDISH BISCUIT.
One

quart of flour.

Six table-spoonfuls of sugar.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter or lard.

One

cupful of dried currants.

Three tea-spoonfuls

of

baking powder.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One
One
Place the
fuls of the

Rub

salt.

tea-spoonful of nutmeg.
pint of milk.

flour, salt,

baking powder and three spoon-

sugar in a flour-sieve, and

sift all

thoroughly.

the butter into this mixture, wet the latter with the

BREAKFAST DISHES.
milk,

and

stir

the

dough quickly

into the shape of a ball.

Sprinkle the board with flour, and


is

one-third of an inch thick.

36

roll

the

dough

until

it

Sprinkle upon this sheet of

dough the three remaining spoonfuls of sugar, sift the


nutmeg over the sugar, and spread the currants over all.
Roll up the dough, and cut it into slices about an inch
thick.
Place the slices in a well buttered baking-tin, and
bake twenty minutes.
not cared

The

currants

may

be omitted,

if

make one dozen gems

of

for.

GRAHAM GEMS.
The following
medium size.
One
One

(sOUR MILK.)

quantities will

tea-cupful of sour milk.


egg.

One-half tea-spoonful of soda.

One-half tea-spoonful of

Two

salt.

table-spoonfuls of sugar.

One and a half table-spoonfuls


Graham flour to thicken.

of melted butter.

light, and add to it the milk, sugar


and the soda dissolved in a little cold water.
Stir well, adding graham flour sufficient to make a batter
Lastly add
so thick that it will not run off the spoon.
Heat the gem pans, and
the melted butter, and stir well.

Beat the egg until

and

salt,

them well, using a little butter placed in a clean


and rubbing it over the pan when heated. Drop
enough of the mixture into each space in the pan to a
little more than half fill it, and bake twenty minutes in a

oil

cloth,

hot oven.

THE PA TtEkN

362

GRAHAM GEMS.

COOJ^-BOOJC.

(SWEET MILK.)

One

quart of graham

Two

eggs.

flour.

Butter the size of an egg.

Three tea-spoonfuls

of

One
One

salt.

tea-spoonful of

baking powder.

table-spoonful of sugar.

Milk to moisten.

Mix

the

sifting

all

powder and

by
add the eggs, well
beaten, and the melted butter.
Stir in enough sweet
milk to make a thick batter, and bake twenty minutes in
well heated and oiled gem-pans.
salt,

sugar,

through a sieve

flour well together

then

BREAD GEMS.
One pint of stale bread-crumbs.
One and a-half cupful of sifted flour.
One table-spoonful of melted butter.
One pint of milk.

Two
Two

eggs.

One

tea-spoonful of

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

Soak the crumbs

in the

salt.

milk for half an hour.

the whites and the yolks of the eggs separately

Beat

add the
yolks to the bread and milk, then the melted butter and
the salt, and mix all well together.
Stir in the flour, beat
until smooth, and stir in carefully the whites of the eggs
and the baking powder. Bake thirty minutes in heated
and oiled gem-pans.

GRAHAM GEMS, WITHOUT


One

cupful of sugar.

Three cupfuls

of sour milk.

EGGS.

BREAKFAS 7^ DISHES.

363

One

tea-spoonful of

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

salt.

One tea-spoonful of soda.


Graham flour to thicken.
Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, add the soda,
well powdered, then

thicken.

the

and

milk,

Bake twenty minutes

lastly the

in well

to

flour

heated and oiled

gem-pans.

CORN GEMS.

The

following quantities will

Two

make two dozen gems

cupfuls of corn meal.

One

cupful of flour.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

Three eggs.

One
One

cupful of cold sweet milk.

cupful 01 boiling sweet milk.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

One

tea-spoonful of salt.

Place the corn meal in a mixing-bowl, put the butter in

and pour over it the boiling milk. Stir well,


and add the cold milk, the eggs, well beaten, the salt, and
the flour, in which the baking powder has been well
Bake thirty minmixed.
Stir well to mix thoroughly.
the center,

utes in well oiled

and heated gem-pans.


TEA GEMS.

One

pint of floui.

One-half cupful (scant) of sugar.

Two
One
One

Two

eggs.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

table-spoonful of melted butter.

tea-spoonfuls of baking-powder.

Milk to make a thick

batter.

THE PA TTEKN COOK-BOOK.

364

powder, sugar and

Stir the
all

through a sieve.

beaten eggs,
to thin

oiled

it

stir

Add

salt

and sift
and the welland add enough milk
into the flour,

the melted butter

the mixture well,

Bake twenty minutes

to a thick batter.

in well

and heated gem-pans.


RICE GEMS.

Two

cupfuls of sweet milk.

One
One

cupful of sugar.
large cupful of boiled rice.

Flour to thicken.

One

egg.

Two

table-spoonfuls of melted butter.

One

tea-spoonful of salt.

Three tea-spoonfuls

Rub

the butter

of

baking powder.

and sugar

to a

cream, and add the

beaten eggs, then the milk and then the rice and
Stir

well,

little flour,

needed

to

salt.

powder with a
add it to the mixture, .nd stir in more flour as
make a rather stiff batter. Bake thirty minmixing thoroughly.

utes in heated

and

Sift

the

oiled gem-pans.

GRAHAM
One
One

egg.

Two

cupfuls of

PUFFS.

cupful of wheat flour.

graham

flour.

Two-thirds cupful of sugar.

One
One

Rub

table-spoonful of butter.
pint of sweet milk.

Three tea-spoonfuls

of

One

salt.

tea-spoonful of

the butter

and sugar

baking powder.

to a

cream, add the beaten

egg, then the salt and lastly the milk, stirring

all

well

BREAKFAST DISHES.
together.

Sift

together

365

the two kinds of flour

and the
Bake

baking powder, and add them to the mixture.


twenty minutes in heated and oiled gem-pans.

WHEAT

PUFFS.

Two

eggs.

One
One
One
One

pint of sweet milk.

table-spoonful of melted butter.

tea-spoonful of baking powder.


tea-spoonful of

salt.

Flour to thicken.

Beat the eggs, and add them to the milk.


melted butter and the

salt,

and add

Stir

in

the

flour to thicken to a

batter.
Bake twenty minutes the same as
These puffs are particularly nice with coffee, as
they contain no sugar.

rather

stiff

gems.

POP-OVERS.

Two tea-cupfuls
Two tea-cupfuls
Two eggs.

Place the

One
One

tea-spoonful of

Two

tea-spoonfuls of butter.

salt,

table-spoonful of sugar.
salt.

sugar and flour together, and rub the

butter into the mixture.


to the

of sweet milk.

of sifted flour.

Beat the eggs

dry mixture, and then

stir

in

light,

add the milk


Bake in

the eggs.

hor gem.-pans twenty minutes.

MUFFINS.
These are made very much like gems, but the batter is
thinner, and they are usually baked in muffin-rings.

left

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.'

366

The

batter should be just thhi

enough

to

pour from

spoon, but not so thin as to float the rings.

GRAHAM MUFFINS.
Two
One

cupfuls of graham flour.


cupful of sweet milk.

One-third cupful of sugar.

One
One

egg.

tea-spoonful of baking

One-half tea-spoonful of

the sugar, salt

Stir
sift

them with the

and baking powder together, and

flour

milk to the mixture, and


egg.

powder

salt.

through a flour sieve.

when

Bake twenty minutes

well stirred,

Add

the

add the beaten

in muffin-rings.

CORN MUFFINS,

NO.

I.

Three eggs.

Two

cupfuls of sweet milk.

One

cupful of flour.

Two
Two

cupfuls of Indian meal.


table-spoonfuls of butter.

Four table-spoonfuls of sugar.

One

tea-spoonful of

Three tea-spoonfuls
Stir the sugar, salt

salt.

of

baking powder.

and butter

cream, and add the

to a

beaten egg and the milk, stirring well.


flour
Stir

and powder together, and add them


well, and bake in muffln-rings.

CORN MUFFINS,

The

following ingredients will

One

NO.

Sift

the meal,

to the mixture.

2.

make

fifteen muffins

cupful of corn meal.

Five cupfuls of boiling water.

BREAKFAST DISHES.
Two

table-spoonfuls of sugar.

One
One

table-spoonful of butter.

tea-spoonful of salt.

Place the butter, sugar, meal and

it

in

together in the

salt

top vessel of a double boiler (a tin pail


ting

367

may be

used, set-

a kettle of hot water), turn the boiling water

upon the meal,


this at night,

stir until

if

smooth, and cook an hour.

the muffins are required

Do

for breakfast.

Turn the batter, when cooked, into a small mixing-bowl,


and pour over it a-quarter of a cupful of cold water;
this prevents a crust forming, and should not be stirred
in until morning.
In the morning beat the batter up soft
and smooth, an.d add
One and a-half cupful of corn meal.
One cupful of wheat flour.

Sift the

gether,

and

Two

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

One

egg.

two kinds of flour and the baking powder tostir them into the mixture, adding the egg

well beaten, at the last.

Bake

in rings or in

gem-pans.

WHEAT MUFFINS.
One

egg.

Butter the size of an egg.

One
One

table-spoonful of sugar.

cupful of milk.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

Flour to thicken.

Rub

the sugar and butter to a cream,

well beaten,

and then the milk and

powder with a

little flour, stir it

salt.

and add the ^gg,


Sift the

into the mixture,

baking

and add

THE PA TTEKN COOK-BOOK.

^68

enough

flour to

make

a batter.

Bake twenty minutes

in

well-oiled muffin-rings.

CORN AND RYE MUFFINS.


These are made the same as Corn Muffins, No.
and meal in the morning,

2,

add-

ing, instead of ihe flour

One
One
One

cupful of corn meal.


cupful of rye flour.
cupful of wheat flour.

RICE MUFFINS.

One
One
One
One

pint of flour.

table-spoonful of sugar.
table-spoonful of butter.
cupful of cold cooked rice.

Two
Two

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

One

tea-spoonful of

eggs.

salt.

One-half pint of milk.

Mix the flour, sugar, baking powder and salt in a sieve,


and rub them all through. Rub the butter into the flour
thoroughly, and beat the eggs light.
Add the milk to the
Beat again
dry mixture, and when smooth stir in the rice.
thoroughly, add ihe eggs, and bake quickly for thirty-five
minutes, either in gem-pans or muffin-rings.

WAFFLES.

waffle-iron

is

made

of

is

fitted and
Each griddle

two iron griddles

fastened together at one side with a hinge.

divided into compartments, which are usually grooved

into

etc.

(See " Kitchen Uten-

If the waffle-iron

has not been used for

diamonds, hearts, rounds,

sils,"

page 3f.)

BREAKFAST DISHES.

369

wash it thoroughly with soap and water, wipe


and rub well with dry salt. The iron should be
placed over the fire, heated on each side, and greased

some
it

time,

dry,

very hard to clean

if the cakes stick to it.


pork on a fork, or a small piece of
butter in a clean rag, and rub this all over both griddles

carefully, as

it is

Put a piece of

salt

the heat will

melt the butter and

let just

enough

of

it

through the cloth, so that this method is much better than


applying the butter with a knife. Close the griddles and
turn them that the fat

may be

distributed equally.

the waffle batter in a pitcher so that the filling

Have
may be

done quickly, and fill each compartment two-thirds full.


Cover with the other griddle, cook one minute, turn the
iron, and cook a little longer on that side.
It takes but
a little over two minutes to cook waffles.
When done,
carefully remove them from the irons, place them on a
hot dish, and serve at once.
Any kind of griddle-cake
batter, with the addition of the extra oiling to

cakes crisp,

may be cooked

not regard the extra labor

it

in

a waffle-iron,

if

make

the

one does

involves.

WHEAT WAFFLES.
Four eggs.

One quart of milk.


One large table-spoonful
Three tea-spoonfuls

of

One

salt.

tea-spoonful of

of butter.

baking powder.

Flour to thicken.

Beat the whites and yolks of the eggs separately, melt


the butter, stir

it

into the yolks,

and add the

milk and the whites of the eggs, stirring well.


quickly the flour, a
24

little

of

salt,

Beat

the
in

which should be mixed with

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

370

baking powder. The batter should be just thin


enough to pour. Bake in a waffle-iron, as previously dithe

This

rected.

is

a large recipe.

PLAIN RAISED WAFFLES.


One quart of flour.
One tea-spoonful of

salt.

Three eggs.

Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

One-half cupful of yeast, or one-half a cake of compressed yeast.

One and

a-half pint of milk.

Scald the milk and cool


flour,

and add the

salt,

Rub

it.

the

the

butter into the

cooled milk and the yeast.

Beat the mixture well for three minutes, cover, and


stand

in

warm

let

it

place until light, generally over night.

In the morning beat the whites and yolks of the eggs


separately,

add the

yolks to the

whites, stirring well.


utes,

and then cook

in

batter

and then the

Let the batter stand

fifteen

min-

a waffle-iron.

CORN-MEAL WAFFLES.
One
One

Two

cupful of flour.
cupful of corn meal.
cupfuls of sour milk.

One-half cupful of sour cream.

One-half

One
One

tea- spoonful of salt.

tea-spoonful of soda.
table-spoonful of cold water.

Two table-spoonfuls
Two eggs.

Mix
light.

the

sugar, salt,

meal and

Dissolve the soda in

into the sour

of sugar.

cream and milk.

flour.

Beat the eggs

the cold water, and stir

Pour the

liquid

it

upon the

BREAKFAST DISHES.

37

add the eggs after stirring well, and bake in


Should there be no sour cream at hand, use
two and a-hal cupfuls of sour milk and a table-spoonful
of melted butter, measured after melting.

"dry mixture,
waffle-irons.

GRIDDLE-CAKES.

soap-stone griddle

the best for this purpose as

is

does not require greasing

but

it

it

should be allowed twice

the length of time to heat through that would be required


to heat

an iron griddle.

If

an iron griddle

small piece of fat salt pork on a fork, and


dle

hot enough for the fat to

is

the pork, greasing

plentifully

it

sizzle,

rub

used, put a

is

when
it

all

Many

and evenly.

an iron griddle, because the fat used in oiling


delicate crispness to the cakes.

the grid-

over with

it

prefer

imparts a

turnip, cut in half, is

also excellent for rubbing the griddle before frying cakes,

and

is

who do not care


Take up a spoonful of

preferred by those

ness in the cakes.

pour

it

for

much

on the griddle from the end of the spoon

batter should hiss as

cakes carefully.

it

When

those

been turned the


Turn the griddle

first

first

put on are

full of

and generally when


each edge of

evenly.

SWEET MILK GRIDDLE-CAKES.


One and

the

all

the

bub-

have

are ready to take off the griddle.

often, bringing

over the hottest part of the stove, that the cakes

Two

and

Watch

touches the griddle.

bles they are ready to turn

rich-

the batter

a-half pint of milk.

eggs.

Flour to make a batter.


One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One

tea-spoonful of melted butter.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

it

in turn

may cook

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

3/2

Beat the eggs well, and stir them into the milk. Add
and baking powder, and enough flour to thicken,

the salt

and

Too much

the melted butter.

in

stir

lastly,

should not be used,

if

a light, thin cake

is

wise to bake one cake

first,

enough and the griddle

sufficiently heated.

to see

if

desired.

the batter

is

flour
It is

thick

SOUR MILK GRIDDLE-CAKES.

These are made


sour milk

is

the

same

as the preceding, except that

used instead of sweet, and a tea-spoonful of

soda dissolved

in a table-spoonful of cold

water takes the

place of the baking-powder.

BREAD GRIDDLE-CAKES.
These are especially well liked by people fond of
The following quantities will be enough

griddle-cakes.

for five persons

One pint
One and

of

sweet milk.

a-half pint of bread-crumbs.

Two eggs.
Two tea-spoonfuls
One

of baking powder.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

Flour to thicken.

crumbs are hard, soak them over night in the


they may be soaked for half an hour in the
morning. When they are soft, turn them with the milk
Add
into a colander, and mash the bread through it.
the beaten eggs, salt, powder and flour, and the batter is
ready to fry. If an iron griddle is used to cook these
The
cakes, it should be oiled a little more than usual.
cakes are very tender and should.be turned carefully;
and they require longer frying than any other kind.
If the

milk;

if

soft,

BREAKFAST DISHES.

373

RICE GRIDDLE-CAKES.

One

pint of boiled rice.

Two

pints of milk.

One and

a-half pint of flour.

Three eggs.

One
One
One
One

tea-spoonful of baking powder.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

table -spoonful of sugar.

table-spoonful of melted butter.

Put the cooked

rice

to

soak over night

in a pint of

the milk, and in the morning add the flour,

and

butter.

well beaten,

salt,

sugar

Beat the mixture well, and add the eggs,

and the other pint

baking powder has been

enough cakes

of milk, into

stirred.

This

which the

makes

quite

for six or seven persons.

CORN-MEAL GRIDDLE-CAKES.
One-half pint of corn meal.

One-half pint of

flour.

One pint of boiling water.


One and a-half cupful of sweet milk.
One tea-spoonful of baking powder.
One tea-spoonful of salt.

Two

eggs.

Put the meal, sugar and salt in a mixing-bowl, and


pour over them the boiling water. Beat thoroughly, and
add the cold milk. When the mixture is quite cool stir

and baking powder, mixing well and lastly


add the eggs, well beaten. The cakes should be small,
well browned and thoroughly cooked, and they need a
in the flour

little

longer frying than ^yheat griddle-cakes.

^-^^

374

PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

GRAHAM GRIDDLE-CAKES.
One
One
One

cupful of

graham

flour.

cupful of wheat flour.


pint of sour milk.

Two

eggs.

One

table-spoonful of sugar.

Two

table-spoonfuls of cold water.

One

large table-spoonful of melted butter.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One

Mix
and

salt.

tea-spoonful of soda.

the two kinds of flour together,

and add the sugar

Beat the whites and yolks of the eggs sepathen dissolve the soda in the water, and stir it into

salt.

rately,

the milk.

Add

the liquid to the dry mixture,

well stirred put in the beaten egg


batter

is

then ready to

and the

and when

butter.

The

fry.

BUCKWHEAT CAKES.
is more variable than
There is
buckwheat cakes. One day they may be perfectly good
and the next wholly disappointing, although there may
be no apparent cause for the difference. It should be
borne in mind that it is difficult to make them light and
dry when they are made wholly of buckwheat flour, and
that batter raised with fresh yeast will not be so good as
that raised with some of the unused batter of the previous
Following is a very reliable recipe for buckwheat
day.

nothing cooked that

cakes

One

pint of

buckwheat

flour.

One-half cupful of Indian meal.


One-half cupful of yeast, or one-half cake of compressed yeast.

One pint of warm water.


One tea-spoonful of salt.
One table-spoonful of molasses.

BREAKFAST DISHES.

375

Beat the batter thoroughly, and place it where it will


over night it should rise and fall again by morning.

rise

add a tea-spoonful

the morning

In

soda, stir well, and fry.

powdered

of finely

cakes are desired three

If the

times a week, fresh yeast will not be required after the


first

making,

if

more than

little

a pint of the batter

is

reserved each time in a cool place and used instead of


the yeast.

Always put molasses in these cakes as


brown appearance in frying.

it

helps to give them a fine

BUCKWHEAT CAKES, WITH BREAD.


Two
Two
One
One
One

cupfuls of buckwheat.

and

warm

a-half cupfuls of

water.

cupful of stale bread.

cupful of milk.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-half cake of compressed yeast.

Dissolve the yeast in half a cupful of the water, put this


with the rest of the water, and pour
wheat.

Add

the batter, and set

it

with the milk, and

let it

upon the buck-

buckwheat.

Place the bread

to rise.

In the morning mash


risen

all

the salt, beat well for ten minutes, cover

it

The

soak over night


fine

and

batter

is

FRENCH PANCAKES.

light,

and add

then ready to

(nO SODA.)

Three eggs.

One

cupful of milk.

One-half cupful of

flour.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One

in

salt.

tea-spoonful of sugar.

One-half table-spoonful of salad

a bowl

in a cool place.

oil.

it

fry.

to the

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

37^

Beat the yolks and the whites of the eggs separately,


salt and sugar to the yolks, pour one-third

add the milk,

of this mixture

Then add

on the

flour,

and

stir it to

the remainder, beat well, and

a smooth paste.

stir in

the oil and

Heat and butter a small frying-pan,


and pour into it enough of the mixture to cover the botWhen this side is brown, turn and brown the
tom.
the beaten whites.

other side.

spread

it

When done

lay

each cake on a warm

with butter and sugar or

jelly, roll

it

plate,

up, sprinkle

with powdered sugar, and serve.

HOE CAKES.

The

old colored cooks in the South used to

to perfection and bake them on


name.

One

their hoes,

make

these

whence

the

pint of corn meal.

One-half ea-spoonful of

salt.

Place the corn meal and salt in a bowl, and pour in


sufficient boiling

water to moisten

the meal.

After

it

has stood ten minutes, add cold water until the mixture
Bake the same as griddlewill drop from the spoon.
cakes on a hot griddle or a hoe. When done place a bit
of butter

on the top of each cake, and serve.

CORN DODGERS.
Two

cupfuls of corn meal.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

Boiling water.

One
One
One

Mix

table-spoonful of lard or butter.


table-spoonful of milk.
egg.

the salt and meal together dry, put the lard in the

BREAKFAST DISHES.

377

and pour on enough boiling water to wet the meal.


egg until light, add the milk, and when the
Beat the mixture
liquid has cooled stir it into the meal.
well, drop it by spoonfuls upon a greased pan, and bake
in a very hot oven for fifteen minutes.
center,

Beat

tiie

CORN-MEAL PONE.
One quart of Indian meal.
One tea-spoonful of salt.
One table-spoonful of butter or
Cold water to make a dough.

Mix

these ingredients together,

the hands

lard.

mould

into thin, oblong cakes, lay

the

dough with

these

in

well

The common way is to


mounds that are higher in the

greased pan, and bake quickly.

form the dough into oval


middle than

at the ends,

shaping them rapidly and lightly

with the hands by tossing the dough over and over.

done with great dexterity by the cooks


where a " pone " of this kind forms a part
ner; it is broken, not cut, and eaten hot.
is

This

in the South,

of every din-

FLANNEL CAKES.
One

quart of

Two
Two

eggs.

flour.

tea-spoonfuls of

Three table-spoonfuls

salt.

of yeast.

One table-spoonful of butter,


One and a- half pint of milk.
Scald the milk, and
flour

to

and

rise

yeast.

when

it

melted.

has cooled add the

Beat the mixture until

over night.

light,

and

salt,

set

it

In the morning add the melted

and the beaten eggs, and bake on a griddle.


These are the usual griddle-cakes in the South.

butter

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

378

JOHNNIE CAKE.

The

make two

following quantities will

Two

cupfuls of sour milk.

One

cupful of sifted flour.

Two

cupfuls of Indian meal.

Three table-spoonfuls

Two
One
One

of

small loaves

melted butter.

table spoonfuls of sugar.

tea-spoonful of soda.
tea-spoonful of salt.

Two

eggs.

Place the milk, salt and sugar in a mixing-bowl, and


beat the eggs until
cold

and

water,

Then add the

Dissolve the soda in a

light.

stir

flour

it

into

the

and meal,

mixture

in

together,

sifted

little

the bowl.

and the

melted butter and the eggs, stirring these ingredients


in the
tins,

order named.

and bake

Pour the batier

in

into well buttered

thirty minutes.

SHORTCAKES.

These are made either with fresh strawberries, peaches,


or with canned fruits, but the fresh fruits are much
For making the crust the baking powder
to be preferred.
biscuit dough previously mentioned is always satisfactory.
Mould the dough into a round or oblong mass, having it
and press it out thin with the
as soft as can be handled
etc.,

hands, avoiding the use of a rolling-pin.

dough

in a

tin like

Then

place the

a loaf of bread, and bake forty-five

moderate oven. When done it should be


With a long, thin knife split
first.
lay
it through the middle
in
cutting
the loaf
two parts,
the inner sides upward, spread the soft cake generously
minutes

in a

twice as thick as at

with butter, and sprinkle with a light sifting of sugar.

If

BREAKFAST DISHES.

379

Strawberries are to be used, remove the hulls and mix a


tea-cupful of sugar with each quart of berries

them

then leave

an hour, stirring them up

to season for at least

carefully three or four times during that time.

seems

crush a few of the berries, and


crust

is

again.

stir

If there

of half an hour,

When

the

buttered, divide the berries -equally between the

One

two pieces.

enough
will

end

to be very little juice at the

for the

quart of berries,

amount

good, will be quite

if

of crust given in the recipe, which

be ample for six persons.

Sprinkle the berries with

a light sifting of sugar, and either place the two pieces of

cake side by side on

a platter

or

one on top of

lay

the other, always keeping the berries uppermost.

whipped cream on

top,

and serve

Pile

or serve with a cream

made of a pint of sweet cream, sweetened to


and adding two table-spoonfuls of crushed berries.
Some cooks divide the dough into two parts, lay one

sauce
taste

half in the

baking-tin, spread

it

lightly with

then place the other half on the top

butter,

the cake

is

and
then

baked, and when taken from the oven the two portions
separate easily, thus requiring no

The

cutting.

butter

forms a very thin coat, through which the butter and


berry juice afterwards applied cannot pass

reason

many

and

for this

prefer the former method, which presents a

soft surface that receives the

seasoning admirably.

Peaches, oranges and apricots

make

delicious short-

cakes.

DOUGHNUTS.

Two
Two

(sOUR MILK.)

cupfuls of sugar.

cupfuls of sour milk.

Eight table-spoonfuls of melted butter.

THE PA TTERN CO OK-B O OK.

3 8o

Four eggs.

One

tea-spoonful of

Two
Two

salt.

tea-spoonfuls of soda.
tea-spoonfuls of cream of tartar.

Flour to thicken.

Add

the salt and sugar to the milk, and then the soda,

dissolved in a

little

cold water.

Sift

little

flour, stir

cream of tartar, and add this to the milk


then stir in the melted butter, and the eggs, well beaten.
Add only enough flour to admit of rolling out the dough.
Turn the dough on a floured bread-board, and let it stand
into

it

fifteen

the

minutes before cutting

out.

Roll

it

half an inch

and drop the cakes


into very hot fat.
When they are brown on one side turn
them with a spoon and brown them on the other side
then take them out with a skimmer. Do not pierce the
doughnuts with a fork, as that allows the steam inside to
escape and renders them heavy. When cold roll the
doughnuts in pulverized sugar.
thick, cut out with a

doughnut

cutter,

DOUGHNUTS. (sWEET MILK.)

Two

eggs.

One
One

cupful of sugar.

cupful of milk.

Flour to thicken.

One

Two
One
One

Rdb

table-spoonful of butter.

tea-spoonfuls of baking powder.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

tea-spoonful of nutmeg.

the butter and sugar together, and add the beaten

and milk. Stir the powder in a little of the


and add this to the mixture, together with the
dough and just enough more flour to admit of rolling out.
eggs, salt

flour,

BREAKFAST DISHES.
The

will

dough

the

softer

tender

made

the

lighter

be the doughnuts when cooked.

hot fat as above

them

is

38

and when the

and more
Fry in very-

cakes are

cold, roll

in sugar.

RAISED DOUGHNUTS.

The following

is

One

a very reliable recipe

pint of milk.

Two

cupfuls of sugar.

One

cupful of yeast, or one cake.

One-half cupful of lard.


One-half cupful of butter.

Three eggs.

One
One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

tea-spoonful of nutmeg.

Flour.

Soak the compressed yeast (if used ) in half a cupful


water, then add the milk, and flour enough to
make a thick batter, and set it in a warm place to rise.
When light, add the other ingredients, and knead the
same as bread, adding flour to make a dough. Set the
dough to rise, and when light roll it out half an inch
thick, cut out with a doughnut-cutter, and leave the
doughnuts in a warm place to rise. As soon as they are
perfectly light fry them in hot fat.
In making these
doughnuLS set the sponge about three o'clock in the
afternoon, knead it at night the same as bread, and
mold and cut out on the following morning. In tbi^ way
of

the time of rising does not interfere with other


is

not hurried.

before using
of its

it

is

best to scald and co

for the sponge, thus preventing a

becoming
when

ers' suirar

It

sour.
cold.

and
*

'Ik

-luuce

Roll the doughnuts in contc. lon-

THE PATTEKN COOK-BOOK.

382

CRULLERS.
Three eggs.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

Flour to thicken.

Three table-spoonfuls

of milk.

Six table-spoonfuls of melted butter.


Six table-spoonfuls of sugar.

Rub

the butter, salt and sugar together, add the beaten


and the milk and flour enough to roll out the
dough.
Roll half an inch thick, cut out and fry in hot lard

eggs

as previously directed.

FRIED CAKES.
Three eggs.
One and a-half cupful

One

of sugar.

cupful of milk.

Three table-spoonfuls

of melted butter.

Flour to thicken.

One
One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

tea-spoonful of cinnamon.

One-half tea-spoonful of nutmeg.

Three tea-spoonfuls

Place the sugar,


flour,

tle

and mix

Beat the eggs


stir

salt,

of

baking powder.

light,

powder

spice and baking

well, sifting all

in a

through a flour

and add them

to

the milk.

lit-

sieve.

Then

the two mixtures well together, and add just enough

more

flour to

Roll the dough

admit of rolling nicely.

half an inch thick, cut out with a

round

cutter,

and

fry in

hot lard.

FRITTERS.
These are
lard

fried the

same

as

they are not, however,

out, but

doughnuts

made

thick

are dropped from a spoon,

in plenty of hot

enough

to roll

being only a thick

BREAKFAST DISHES.
batter.

Fritters are

either

made

hot syrup or are seasoned with

plain and served with

fruits,

vegetables, clams

Recipes for the

or oysters stirred into the batter.

latter

be found under their respective headings.


are made by dropping the fruit into the

varieties will

Fruit fritters
plain batter

383

and then

frying.

Fritters are always served

hot.

PLAIN FRITTERS.
One

egg.

One-half pint of sweet milk.

Flour to thicken.
One-half tea-spoonful of

One
Place

all

the ingredients together, beating the ^gg well

before adding
batter.

thick

It

salt.

tea-spoonful of baking-powder.

and using enough

it,

fiour to

make

a thick

should not run from a spoon, but should be

enough

to

be dropped by the spoonful.

Serve with

hot sugar syrup or hot maple syrup.

SOUR MILK FRITTERS.


One
One

coffee-cupful -of sour milk.

egg.

Flour to thicken.

One

tea-spoonful of soda.

Two

table-spoonfuls of melted butter.

Mix together the same


and serve

as

in the

preceding recipe,

fry,

hot.

CEREALS FOR BREAKFAST.


There is scarcely a household nowadays in which
some kind of mush or porridge does not form a portion
of the morning meal.
The grain preparations are almost

384

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

many

them are crushed or steamed


cook is greatly diminished.
Many people, however, prefer wheat or oats that are
unrolled, and these require long cooking to make them
digestible.
The names of a few cereals are here given,

innumerable, and

of

so that the time required

to

together with a brief description of each.

Whole wheat grains.


Made from wheat.
Hominy Made from Indian corn, the

Cracked wheat
Farina

grain being

left

nearly whole.

Fine hominy.
Made from corn, which merely broken
number
Hulled Corn The corn soaked
remove the
Cerealine Made from corn.
Oatmeal This
made
three grades
Grits

Samp

is

into a

of pieces.

to

being

of fineness, the

in

is

coarsest

hulls.

known

as "

This

B."

whole oats minus the husks and

is

is

simply

the

the kind used by the

Scotch people.

OATMEAL MUSH.
If the

coarse meal

is

One

used, allow

cupful of oatmeal.

Four cupfuls

One
Place the meal

in

of water.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

the double boiler with the water and

it.
Cover the kettle tightly, and
keep the water in the under kettle boiling. The mush
This length of boiling is
should cook three hours.
not possible before breakfast if done in the morning
therefore, the mush should be cooked the day before it is

salt,

and do not

stir

BREAKFAST DISHES.
needed. Leave it in the
morning add half a cupful

kettle

385

over night, and in the

of boiling water, replenish the

hot water in the lower kettle, and set the whole to heat

while the remainder of the breakfast


If

steamed or rolled oats are

morning

the

in

in

is

being prepared.

liked, they can

half an hour,

be cooked

allowing a cupful of

to one quart of water and a tea-spoonful of salt.


up two or three times, and during the last five minutes remove the cover from the kettle to allow the steam

meal
Stir

to escape, so that the

mush

will

not be too moist

when

served.

WHEAT GERM MUSH.


Wheat Germs

is

the

name given

a fine

meal obtained

from the heart of the wheat. Place a quart of boilingwater in the upper portion of the double boiler, having
water boiling
sprinkle in
of salt,

and

also,

in

the

lower

stir

Gradually

portion.

cupful of the germs,

add a tea-spoonful

constantly until the mixture boils.

Cook

twenty minutes, and serve with sugar and cream or milk,


or with syrup.
This makes a pleasant change from oatmeal and cracked wheat. Any of the mush left over may
be fried like corn meal mush or hominy.

GRITS OR SMALL-HOMINY MUSH.

Buy only
hominy

the

water,

the

fine

white hominy.

in three waters, stir

add a tea-spoonful of

it

Wash

cupful

of

into a quart of boiling

salt,

and

boil

for half

an

hour.

FRIED GRITS.

Pour the hominy mush while hot into a deep dish that
has just been dipped in cold water.

When

the

mush

is

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

386
cold, cut

it

into

these with flour, and fry

slices, sprinkle

keep them from burning. This


mush requires a long time to brown, and the pan should

in

enough

just

to

fat

be covered, as the

fat spatters.

CORN MUSH.
This

is

of corn

made by

usually

gradually

meal into three pints

sprinkling a pint

of boiling

constantly, adding two tea-spoonfuls of

Keep

slowly for three hours.

water, stirring

salt,

and boiling

the kettle covered during

if
the mush becomes
and sugar. Place all the
mush that is left after the first meal in an earthenware
dish which has been previously wet with cold water, to be
One of the large baking-powder tins is
fried when cold.

the

boiling,

too

thick.

add water

and

Serve with

milk

also a very convenient receptable to use for this purpose,

as the

the

mush when

slices

wdll

should be wet before the

Another method

of

When

pint

of

mush

is

poured

and
tin

in.

cooking corn mush

Put on a quart of water


with

it

The

cold can be easily slipped out of

be round and most inviting.

to boil.

corn meal

is

Stir a pint

as follows

and a tea-spoonful

of

salt.

the water boils pour this mixture gradually into

There
being lumpy when mixed in

stirring all the time.

is

of cold milk

less likelihood of the

it,

mush

this way.

FRIED CORN MUSH.

Cut the cold mush into slices about a-quarter of an


and fry until brown and crisp in a very little
or dip
fat
or sprinkle the slices with flour, and fry
each slice first in salted beatei) egg and then in bread or
Fried mush is one of the
cracker crumbs, and fry brown.
inch thick,
;

BREAKFAST DISHES.
most delicious
pared.

The

of

fat

breakfast

dishes

when properly

387
pre-

should be very hot, so that a crust will

quickly form upon the slices preventing them from soaking up any of the grease.

"

PIES.
"

Who'll dare deny the

m pie

There's poetry

truth,
?

Longfellow.
PASTRY.

It
all

is

make

not a difficult thing to

cooks and housekeepers regard

to accomplish.

The work

is

many

rules given

in as

pound

juice,

In
as

it

hard

must

great delicacy of touch.

many books

ingredients are practically the same


to a

a feat rather

not complicated, but

be done very rapidly and with


In the

puff-paste, yet nearly


it

of flour, with differences in

the principal

pound
the way

of butter
of lemon-

eggs or sugar.

making

many

puff-paste

should be to form
and each layer should

the object

distinct layers as possible,

be as thin as a sheet of paper.

To

insure this result,

all

the materials and utensils used should be very cold, and


the

work done

in

a cool room.

Puff-paste should never

be attempted with lard or a mixture of lard and butter

and the butter used must be of good quality. The best


flour for this work is that made by the " old process,"
and commonly known as " pastry flour." In winter,
when the temperature is at freezing point, or in summer,
when a refrigerator is at hand, it is really but little more
388

PIES.

389

make

tax on time and muscle to

this paste

than to pro-

duce any other variety of crust. Hundreds of different


and Careme, the noted
dishes can be made with it
French professional, has devoted a good-sized volume to
;

As

the subject.

mode

there can be no better

of

the paste than the one he has given to the world,

sent his recipe in this connection.

may be

It

making

we

pre-

of assist-

ance to know that four cupfuls of sifted flour make a

pound
half a

in

weight, and that a cupful of lard or butter

pound

is

in weight.

careme's recipe for puff-paste.


Twelve ounces
Twelve ounces

One

of finely sifted flour.


of butter.

scant glassful of ice-water.

Two drams of salt.


Two eggs (yolks).
Having placed
in the

middle

the flour on the board,

of

it,

into

which put the

make

a small hole

salt,

the yolks of

With the

the eggs, and nearly a glassful of ice-water.

ends of the fingers gradually mix the flour with the liquid
ingredients, adding a
until the paste

than otherwise.

Then

work the paste

for

does not

more water when necessary,

in

rather

some minutes, when


in

it

appearance.

become

will

Care must

mixing the flour with the liquid that the

escape,

and that the paste be very

gathered together to prevent

would render

it

stiff

firm

lean the hand on the board and

touch and glossy

soft to the

be taken

little

of the proper consistency

is.

it

and very

latter

lightly

forming into lumps, which

difficult to

work, thus mak-

ing a failure of the paste very probable.

To

ascertain

whether the dough has been properly worked, draw

it

out

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

390
and

if

immediately recedes

it

cook may be sure

To remedy

mixed.
placj^

this, roll

h^re and there upon

each the size of a walnut

yet

it

better for

is

warm place should


paste,

hence

properly

it

the paste out carefully and

it

as before until the

The

attained.

is

soft,

not be chosen in which to

If

When

winter.

above, cut

work

for

make

stiff.

puff

of this kind

a cool place cannot be found,

paste

the

has been

summer
made as

pound

of butter

stiffer

pieces three-quarters of a

in

which has been lying

medium

be too soft than too

to

might be made up slightly

in

paste should

but of a proper

rather difficult to do

summer.

in

the paste

than

is

it

former shape, the

five or six pieces of butter,

it

nor too

stiff

its

then work

proper degree of softness


neither be too

to

has been clumsily and irregularly

it

twenty minutes

in ice-water,

been afterward well washed and pounded.

and

Squeeze and

work the butter well in a napkin to separate the water


it and at the same time to render it soft, and, above

from

even consistency

all,

of an

roll

the paste into a square on a marble slab, being par-

ticular to

make

then as quickly as possible

the ends of the

dough perfectly even,

success depends largely on folding properly.


butter in the middle, spread

it

as

Place the

over half the paste, and

immediately turn the other half over the butter to cover


it.

Then

roll

length, fold
it

as before

parts, roll

it

it
;

the

paste out to be about three feet in

so as to

then fold
to

make
it

a greater

three thicknesses, and

roll

once more into three equal


length,

fold

quickly on a plate sprinkled with flour.

it,

and place

it

Set the plate

upon ten pounds of pounded ice, cover the paste with a


second plate, and place a pound of broken ice on top of
the latter plate, which serves to keep the surface of the

PIES.

391

paste cool, and also to prevent


action of the

being softened by the

it

After two or three minutes remove

air.

the top plate and turn the paste upside down, instantly

covering

it

Thus

in

In about fifteen minutes

before.

as

paste out, and use


less

it

than half an hour

very fine puif-paste, but this

has

been

is

prepared

previously

butter frozen and the oven


the paste

is

is

it

the

made

begin to

make

pounded, the

ice

cannot be made so quickly.

It is safe to

possible to

quite hot, for otherwise

The heating

means, for

all

times requires fully an hour to bring

oven

the

only provided everything

the oven must be attended to by

perature.

roll

very expeditiously.

it

make

to the

it

of

some-

proper tem-

the paste

when

the

half heated.

PUFF-PASTE (American).

The
sional

following recipe
cooks, and

is

is

from the preceding, but


so rich as the

Careme

that used

somewhat
is

by one

of our profes-

different in

highly successful.

its

working

It

is

not

paste.

One pound

of flour.

Three-quarters of a pound of butter.


Ice-water.

Two
Two

eggs (yolks).

One

tea-spoonful of sugar.

tea-spoonfuls of

salt.

Place the flour when sifted on a board or marble slab,


and sprinkle over it the sugar and salt then beat the
yolks of the eggs, and stir into them a few spoonfuls of icecold water.
Pour the eggs slowly into the center of the
flour with the left hand, working them at the same time
;

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

392

mass with the

well into the

tips of the fingers of the right

Continue to work the mixture, turning the fingers

hand.

round and round on the board,


a rectangular

into

form, being

you have a

until

Now

worked, smooth and fine paste.

roll

well-

the paste out

particular

to

have the

edges quite straight, since, as we said before, much de-

pends upon the even folding


butter (which,

utes in very cold water) until

wiped out and


that

parts, spread

one part as

fold a second

portion
roll

this condition

it

and evenly as possible


and
it,

flatly

as

left.

before,

on half of the

butter

Roll out to the

spread

the

crust,

second

fold

and

out again, and repeat the process with the third por-

tion of

butter.

The

called " three turns,"

After the

more.

each of the
ice

soft, as in

time from right to

the

of

salt are

turn the other half over

paste,

rectangular form

same

moisture and

the

Divide the butter into three equal

paste.

the

half

the

quite supple, being careful, however,

does not become too

it

would ruin the


over

is

it

Work

the paste.

of

should be laid for some min-

at all soft,

if

paste has

and

first

it

now been given what

three turns, however, and after

last three, the paste

should be placed on the

or in a cool place for from ten

This

will

penetrate
folded,

it

to

fifteen minutes.

prevent the butter becoming soft enough


the dough.

Each

time, before the

should be turned half round so that


If it

to

dough

is

will

be

it

in this way the layers will


becomes necessary to turn the

rolled in a different direction

become more even.

is

should be given three turns

paste in order to sprinkle the board with flour,

it

may be

done in this way: hold the end of the paste to the rollingpin, and then by rolling the latter the dough will fold
after sprinkling the board with flour.
loosely around it
;

PIES.
the dough can be unrolled.

turning

on a

it

out for instant use

three

days.

puff-paste,

or, if

kept

Firm,

it

on the

thoroughly chilled

it is

it

in

then

in

roll

it

half-frozen state for two or

butler should be selected^ for

solid

winter

ice for

be not required for immediate

and a cold place should be chosen

Even

work.

may be

it

a better plan than

and place

platter, cover,

half an hour, or until

baking,

is

should be handled as Utile

it

After the paste has been folded the last

as possible.
time, put

This

with the hands, as

it

393

make

wise to

is

it

it

for

the

by an open

window.

TO BAKE PUFF-PASTE.

most important factor

having the oven


even

at

in the

making

of pufT-paste is

exactly the proper temperature, for

the very best materials have been

if

selected and

have been mixed exactly as directed, the paste


failure

The

if

placed

in

an oven that

will

be a

not rightly heated.

when put

paste should be ice cold

which should be very hot

is

into

the

(at least as high as 460

oven,

Fahren-

if a thermometer is used).
For patties the oven should have a strong underheat,
allowing them to rise to their full height before browning.
If the oven should be too hot, so that the paste begins to
brown as soon as put in, immediately reduce the temperature by opening the draughts of the stove, and placing in
the oven a small basin of ice-water.

heit,

HOW TO SHAPE
I^or Pies with Tivo Cnisis.
ter of an inch thick,

the

end

of the roll.

PUFF-PASTE.

Roll

the pasle out a-quar-

and cut a piece from


Turn the portion thus cut off on the

then

roll

it

up,

TH^-

394
side, pat

it

out

flat,

PATTERN COOK-BOO A'.


and

roll

Make

tion.

in rather

paste

is

dipped

it

the

the board, and should be fulled

When

size.

Roll some of the paste, and cut

in flour.

the

wide

it

into

then wet the under-

and place the rim on the edge.

Fill the plate v/ith

material

be used.

to

make

Roll

the upper-crust larger

a cut in the center to

baking escape, wet the rim on the

upper-crust with

its

pie,

let the steam


and put on the

edge even with the rim, having

crust slightly full in the center to allow for


in

the

cut around the edge with a sharp knife

fitted,

than the plate,


of

Keep

plate.

evenly in every direc-

than stretched to the required

strips three-quarters of an inch


crust,

the

fit

roll

slightly larger than the plate, as the paste

when taken from

shrinks

to

and

paste in a circular form,

baking; otherwise the crust, as

steam within,

will

is

it

its

this

shrinking

forced up by the

be drawn away from the edge.

Press

the rim and edge closely but lightly together to keep the
juices from boiling out.

For Pies

One Crust.

tvith

The

following directions

apply to squash, pumpkin and custard pies.


plate lightly or sprinkle

it

Butter the

with a light dusting of flour.

larger than the plate, and an-eighth


Cover the plate with this sheet, being
shut in any air between the paste and the

Roll the paste a

little

of an inch thick.

careful not to
plate

the paste should

edge of the

hang about

half an inch over the

Roll the edge up until

plate.

it

rests

on

the edge of the plate, the rolled part being underneath;

there

Pinch

will

this

then be

thick edge

all

round the

plate.

with the thumb and forefinger until a thin

scalloped " wall "

is

formed.

It is

always wise to build a

made deep enough


be made of the desired thickness.

wall like this, because plates are not


for these pies to

PIES.

For

Patties.

395

Roll the paste a-quarter of

an inch thick,

and cut it out with a circular cutter at least two inches


and a-half in diameter. With a cutter an inch and a-half
in diameter, stamp out the centers from half of the circular portions, thus leaving rings of paste half an inch

Dip the cutters

wide.

the edges of the paste-

in hot

may

water and cut quickly, that

not be pressed together or

Rub a little white of ^gg in the large


rounds near the edge, put on the rings, and press them
cut unevenly.

lightly to

make them

adhere, being very careful, however,

not to get any of the egg on the edges, as that would

prevent

the patties

Put a round piece of stale

rising.

bread cut half an inch thick

the center of each patty,


keep the paste from rising and filling the cavity.
Bake in shallow pans lined with paper, and when done,
remove the bread and the soft paste underneath. Bake
the small pieces cut from the centers on a pan by themin

to

selves, as they require less

time for baking.

In serving

place one of these pieces on top of each patty or shell, for

Any kind

a cover.

of delicate

cooked meat or

as chickens, sweetbreads, oysters or lobsters,,


in small pieces,

warmed

in thick

fish

such

may be

cut

cream sauce and served

as an entree in hot patty shells,, with a cover of the paste.

Two

or three rings

may be

put on

when a deeper

shell

is

desired.
7a7'ts.

patties,

and

For

these the paste

is

rolled thinner than for

being not more than an-eighth of an inch thick

it is

usually cut with a fluted cutter.

filled,

when

paste

is

cold, with jelly or preserves,

The
and

shaj^es are
a

cover of

not used.

Tart Wells.

Cut

the rounds of paste with three or

four cutters of different sizes.

Use

the largest jDortion

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

396

bottom

for the

the rims

cut the centers from the others, leaving


widths, and pile the

different

of

whole round, with the narrowest rim

and

fill

with

latter

at the top.

on the
Bake

jell}'.

Vol-au-vents.

Roll

the paste half

make

an inch thick, and

for a

large vol-au-vent

it

nine inches in diameter.

Mark

the outline with an oval

mold or pan, and put on

two or three

edge of each with white of

rings, wetting the

Make an oval hoop of stiff paper two inches high


and slightly larger than the vol-ati-vefit, and place it
around the latter to prevent scorching. Bake this size at
least an hour.
These cases are used in the same manner

Q^gg.

as patties.
jRisso/es.

Roll

the paste thin, and cut

four-inch fluted patty-cutter.


of cold chicken or
in the center of

egg, fold the

whatever

each round.

it

out with a

Put a generous tea-spoonful


is

to

Wet

be used

in the rissoles

the edges with white of

paste over and press the edges together.

Glaze with beaten egg, and fry

in

hot lard, or bake.

PLAIN PASTE WITH BUTTER.

The

following quantity will be sufficient for one pie

having an upper and an under crust

Two

cupfuls of sifted flour.

Two-thirds of a cupful of butter.


One-half cupful of ice-water.

One
One

As
and

in

in

puff-paste,

tea-spoonful of sugar.
tea-spoonful of

salt.

have everything as cold as possible

warm weather

place the butter and flour in the

refrigerator for several

hours before using them.

Sift

PIES.

397

measure it, and put it in a large mixing-bowl;


and sugar, and then place the butter in the
center of the flour, and with a sharp knife cut it quickly
into small pieces, at the same time mixing it with the
flour.
Now gradually add the ice-water lift with the
knife that portion of the flour which has been moistened
first, push it to one side of the bowl, wet another portion,
and so continue until all is moistened. Add the water
the flour,

add the

salt

very carefully, wetting only the dry flour and never stirring
twice in the same place.
until the mixture

can be

Then
lifted

cut and mix

all

together

from the bowl with the

Dredge the baking-board lightly with flour, and


and quickly away from you into a
long, thin sheet.
Fold first the sides and then the ends,
turn the paste around and roll it from you again then
fold it and stand it on the ice until \vanted.
In order to
knife.
roll

the paste lightly

make

this paste a perfect success the materials

should be

very cold, the mixing and rolling should be quickly done,

and

as

little

flour as possible

should be used

in finishing.

CHOPPED PUFF-PASTE.
This paste

is

made and

quickly

very satisfactory,

is

although not so light or delicate as genuine puff-paste.

Two

cupfuls of sifted flour.

One-half table-spoonful of sugar.

One
One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

cupful of butter.

One-quarter cupful of ice-water.

One

egg.

One-half table-spoonful of lemon-juice.

Beat the egg very


the lemon-juice.

light,

Chop

and add

the butter

to

it

the

and the

water and

flour together.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

398

until the butter is reduced to lumps the size of a pea


then
gradually add the ^^g and water, chopping all the time.
When all the wetting has been used, sprinkle the mold;

ing-board with flour, and turn the paste upon

and fold the same as


three or four times

when

then set the paste on the

This paste

cold, use like pufif-pasie.

without chilling, but will not be so

Roll

it.

repeating the

pufif-pasle,

process
ice,

and

may be used

light.

PLAIN PASTE WITH LARD.

Many

housekeepers always use lard for pastry instead


because it is cheaper.
It makes a crust

of butter, simply

is more brittle and also more greasy, and there is no


doubt but that it is more indigestible than the light, flaky,

that

tender crust

made

with good, sweet butter.

For one pie

with two crusts allow.

Two

cupf uls of sifted

flour.

One-half cupful of lard.

One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-half cupful (scant) of

Make and

roll

the

same

ice- water.

as directed for " Plain Paste

with Butter."

APPLE

Any

light, tart

apples

PIE.

may be used

ings are always most satisfactory.


the apples, slicing each one as

it

plate or tin in which the pie

to be

slice until the plate is

evenly

is

full.

for pies, but

is

finished into the pie-

made, continuing

of

to

In this way there will

Turn the
and for one pie of ordinary size
sugar and half a tea-spoonful of cinna-

not be more apples peeled than can be used.


sliced apple into a dish,

add a cupful

Green-

Pare, quarter and core

PIES.

399

mon. Stir the apple with a spoon until each slice seems
have its share of sugar and spice. Wipe the pie dish
dry, dust it lightly with flour, line it with good plain or
puff paste, put in the apples, and add two table-spoonfuls
Cover the top as directed in " How to Shape
of water.
Puff Paste," and bake three-quarters of an hour in a
to

quick oven.

When

the

pie

thickly with pulverized sugar,

cold

is

and

sprinkle

the

top

serve.

AN APPLE TART.
Ten

apples.

i*.

One-half a lemon (juice and rind).

One
One

cupful of sugar.
tea-spoonful of butter.

Water.

Pare the apples, and from four of the largest and firmPlace

est extract the cores without breaking the apples.

these four in a small stew-pan with half the lemon-juice,


half the grated rind

and half the sugar; nearly cover them

with water, and boil slowly until nearly done, keeping the

Cut the remaining six apples into pieces,


and place them on the fire in a separate s.tew-pan with the
remainder of the lemon-juice, rind and sugar and a little
water.
Boil them slowly to a regular apple-sauce or
marmalade, add the butter, and rub the whole through a
colander.
Line the pie-plate wdth paste, fill the bottom
wuth the marmalade, and put in the whole apples, one in
each quarter of the pie, sinking them into the marmalade
and filling the cavities between them with the sauce.

apples whole.

Place two strips of crust half an inch wide across the


thus separating the four apples
oven.

This

tart is

and bake

in

very delicate served with cream.

pie.

quick

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

400

LEMON

To make one

take

pie,

One

PIE.

large lemon.

Two

eggs.

One
One

cupful of sugar.
large cupful of water.

Grate the rind from the lemo'n, and add


juice

to the sugar.

it and the
and add the water, and
Bake with an upper and under

Stir well,

the eggs, well beaten.

crust for forty-five minutes.

The

LEMON CUSTARD

following lilling

is

PIE.

two

sufficient for

pies.

Three eggs.

One large or two small lemons.


One and a-halt cupful of sugar.
One-half cupful of water.

One and

a-half cupful of milk,

jue table-spoonful of melted butter.

C^

Separate the yolks of the eggs from the whites


the sugar and

and add the


well together, and put

the yolks to a cream,

and then the milk.


'melted butter, and

Stir all

when everything

is

rub

v.'ater

in the

ready to put the

and the grated


added in this way, the acid will not break the
milk.
Bake three-quarters of an hour. Whip the whites
to a stiff froth, add a table-spoonful of sugar, spread this
mixture on top of the pies, when baked, return them to
These pies are
the oven, and brown the whites lightly.

filling in

rind.

to

the crust add the lemon-juice

If

be eaten cold.

PIES.

LEMON

The
one

PIE

401

WITH BREAD.

is a most reliable recipe and


Only one crust is used

following

pie.

make

will

One lemon.
One large pint

of bread-crumbs.

One-table-spoonful of melted butter.

One

cupful of sugar.

Two

eggs.

Cold water.

The bread should not be

hard, the crusts not being

Put the crumbs, which should


of a nutmeg, in a quart cup, measuring a

available for this filling.

be half the size

add the lemon-juice, half the grated rind, the


and the yolks of the eggs, well beaten and turn
into the cup sufficient water to make the whole measure
Stir ^ell, and let the mixture
just a pint and a-half.
stand in the cup while the plate is being lined with paste
then stir well again, mashing the brea' fine.
If the
bread does not seem entirely soft, do not add the filling
full

pint

sugar,

to the crust,

however,

but

will

let

it

^ely

stand a few minutes longer;

be necessary.

the filling into the crust add the

bake about

thirty-five

whites of the eggs


sugar, spread

minutes

stiff,

this froth

in a

this,

Just before putting

melted butter
quick oven.

then

Beat the

add a small table-spoonful

of

on top of the pie when baked,

return the pie to the oven, and quickly

brown

it.

Serve

cold.

LEMON
This
26

is

PIE

WITH CORN-STARCH.

baked with one

cri^t.

To make one

pie,

allow

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

402

One lemon.
One table-spoonful of butter.
One and a-half table-spoonful
One cupful of water.
One egg (white only).
Sugar to

Wet

of corn-starch.

taste.

and place
and
stir into it the wet corn-starch, and
Add the butter, and
it thickens.

the corn-starch in a

little

the

of

water,

the rest of the water over the fire in a saucepan

when

a minute

boil
set

the latter boils

paste

after

mixture

the

aside to

and when the

Line a pie-plate with

cool.

has cooled

filling

add

to

it

lemon-juice, the grated rind, and sugar to sweeten.


the mixture well, turn

twenty minutes

in

into the crust,

it

very

the

Beat

and bake about

quick oven.

When

done,

spread over the top of the pie the beaten white of ^g^,
sweetened with a tea-spoonful of sugar and flavored with
a

little

lemon

Brown

extract.

the

meringue, and serve

the pie cold.

PUMPKIN
Cut the pumpkin
and seeds, pare the
Place the pumpkin

PIE.

remove the soft pulp


and cut them Into small pieces.

into long strips,


strips,

in

kettle

with a very

little

water,

and stew slowly, stirring up


frequently from the bottom and adding a little more
water, if the pumpkin seems in danger of becoming too
thick, but always remembering that the less water is used
cover

the

kettle

tightly,

the finer will be the quality of the^ pies.


least six
If

hours to stew a

the pumpkin seems

kettle

pumpkin

at all

on a hot part of

tl\^

until soft

It will

take at

enough

to use.

watery when done, set


stove,

and

stir

the

constantly

PIES.

uncovered

it

will

soon dry

403

sufficiently.

Lift the

pump-

kin from the kettle into a colander or a rather coarse


sieve,

and pulp

it

through.

It will

then be ready to use.

This part of the work should obviously be done the day


before the pies are to be made.

below

will

make

The

quantities given

three good, deep pies.

One quart of stewed pumpkin.


Three pints of milk.
Six eggs.

One table-spoonful of salt.


One and a-half table-spoonful of
One tea-spoonful of cinnamon.
One cupful of sugar.
Beat the eggs very
stir until

the mixture

ginger.

add them to the pumpkin, and


creamy then add the salt, sugar,

light,
is

cinnamon and gmger. Stir thoroughly, and when the


mass is well mixed add the milk, a little at a time.
Taste the mixture, and add more 'sugar and spice if
Line three

needed.
plates

be afraid

to

strength

its

it

all

the time

it

is

use the quantity of ginger given, for


is

reliable recipe

evaporated

and

will

in

the baking.

This

produce most delicious

SQUASH

The

among

divide the filling

pie-tins,

being poured into the


and bake half an hour in a quick oven. Do not

them, stirring

much
is

of

a very

pies.

PIE.

yellow, hard-shelled squash makes almost as good


pumpkin, and it is often obtainable when pumpnot.
Squash pie is made by the preceding recipe

pies as

kin

is

but the squash will stew sufficiently in an hour or even


a

little

less,

and care must be taken that

before being removed from the

firg.

it

is

very dry

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

404

CREAM
For one

PIE.

pie, use,

One

pint of milk.

Two
Two

even table-spoonfuls of corn-starch.


eggs.

Three table-spoonfuls

of sugar.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-half tea-spoonful of butter.


Vanilla to flavor.

and yolks of the eggs, beat the


them a little of the cold milk.

Separate the whites


yolks

light,

and add

Place the corn-starch

to

smooth.

add

in a tea-cup.

cold milk to thoroughly wet

the

just

starch,

enough of the
and stir until

Place the rest of the milk over the

fire

either in

a double boiler or in a saucepan set in another pan con-

Put the corn-starch mixture and

taining boiling water.

the egg mixture together, stir well,

and when the milk

add the mixture to it.


thickens, add the sugar, salt and

Stir

boiling

tially
tin

butter,

Remove from

or four minutes.

the

the

until

and cook three


and when par-

fire,

cold add sufficient vanilla to flavor.

Line a

quick oven.
puffing in

The
the

When

center.

and.

it

cool a

it

out upon a dinner plate

cream

little,

filling.

in a

very

holes pierced in the crust will prevent


the crust

should take ten minutes, remove


if

it

it

is

has been baked


;

then

fill

done, which

from the oven,


in

the crust

Beat the whites of the

let

tin, slip

with the

eggs to a

stifif

them a table-spoonful of sugar and a little


the flavoring, and spread them on top of the cream.

froth,

of

pie-

with paste, pierce the paste in three or four places

with a steel fork, and bake without any filling

it

is

liquid

add

to

PIES,

405

Sprinkle the top lightly with cocoanut and brown

oven.

The cocoanut may be

to the flavor of the

omitted, but

meringue.

PIE.

tea-cupful of water.

One-half tea-cupful of sugar.


One-half tea-cupful of peach

juice.

Two

table-spoonfuls of corn-starch.

One

tea-spoonful of butter.

One-half tea-spoonful of

Two

in the
le

h
adds much

Serve cold.

CANNED PEACH MERINGUE


One

it

salt.

eggs.

Canned peaches.

Wet the corn-starch with a little of the water, beat the


yolks of the eggs lightly with the sugar, and add them to
the corn-starch.

and when

Place the rest of the water on the

fire,

which
will thicken at once.
Add the butter, salt, sugar and
peach juice, cook two minutes and remove from the fire.
Line a plate with paste, cover the bottom with a layer of
canned peaches, turn in the cooked mixture, and bake.

When

it

boils stir in the corn-starch mixture,

done, spread over the top of the pie the beaten

whites of the eggs sweetened with a tea-spoonful of sugar

and brown

lightly.

Fresh peaches

same way, water being substituted

CHOCOLATE
One

may be used

for the

peach

PIE.

coffee-cupful of milk.

One-half cupful of sugar.


Vanilla to flavor.

Two

table- spoonfuls of grated chocolate.

Three eggs.
One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

in the

juice.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

406

Beat the yolks of the eggs

light,

Heat

table-spoonfuls of the milk.

them two
and the
and sugar, and

and add

rest of the milk together, put in the salt

when

to

the chocolate

scalding hot add the yolks of the eggs.

mixture cook two minutes, remove

when

partly cooled,

add the

with crust, turn in the

filling,

it

Let the

from the

flavoring.

fire,

and bake twenty minutes

Beat the whites of the eggs very

a quick oven.

and

Line a pie-plate
in

light,

sweeten with a table-spoonful of sugar, and spread them


over the pie

then brown the egg slightly, and serve

cold.

CUSTARD
For one

PIE.

thick pie allow,

Two

eggs.

One-half cupful of sugar.


Milk.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of cinnamon.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of nutmeg.

Beat the whites and the yolks of the eggs well together.
and salt into the sugar, place the sugar and

Stir the spice

eggs

in a

sugar

if

make

quart cup, and add milk sufficient to

whole measure a pint and


needed.

ture well, pour

it

a-half.

Taste, and add

Line a plate with


and bake about

in,

a moderately hot oven.

crust, stir
forty-five

the

more

the mix-

minutes in

There should not be enough

heat to cause the custard to boil, for this will make it


appear watery and very uninviting; the oven should, in
fact,

be a

little

more moderate than

for

most

pies.

At

the end of the time insert the point of a knife in the cus-

P/ES.
tard,

done.

and

if

it

If the

comes out

spice

407

clear (not milky), the pie

well stirred into the sugar,

is

be distributed evenly through the milk and


cumulate

Do

in

will

it

is

will

not ac-

an unsightly manner on top of the custard.

not cut the pie until quite cold.

CHERRY
The common red
pies.

nearly

fill

them

large table-spoonfuls of

dredge lightly with


crust,

or morella cherries are the best for

Stone the cherries, line deep pie-plates with good

plain paste,

four

PIE.

flour.

\vith

the cherries, sprinkle

sugar over each

pie, and
Cover each pie with an upper

which should be rolled as thin as possible make


and press the edges lightly together
;

a vent in the center,

so the juices will not escape during the baking.

Serve

same day they are baked, else the underr


become heavy. Sprinkle powdered sugar over

the pies the


crust will

each pie just before sending to table.

COCOANUT CUSTARD
Two

eggs.

One

pint of milk.

PIE.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of nutmeg.


One-half cupful of sugar.

One

cupful of prepared cocoanut.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of

salt.

Beat the eggs and sugar together until light


the milk, nutmeg, cocoanut

and

salt.

dish with crust, pour the mixture

bake

thirty minutes.

The above

in,

then add
pie-

stirring well,

and

quantities

one thick pie or two rather thin ones.

Line a deep
will

make

THE PA TTERN COOJC-BOOIC,

408

HUCKLEBERRY
Select the pie-tins that are

evenly with

berries,

required.

Throw

carefully,

remove

Drain

off all the

Wipe

a towel.

be used, and

to

determine how

to

them

fill

many

be

will

the berries into a pan, look them over


the stems, and

all

wash the

berries.

water from them, but do not dry them


the pie-dishes clean, dust a

the bottom of each, line


fully the

PIE.

them with

in

flour in

paste, following care-

When

given.

directions previously

little

ready for

them once more, and sift flour over


each berry becomes a little white ball, but

the berries drain

them

until

taking care to leave no surplus flour in the bottom of the

pan containing the


sugar to each

berries.

latter into the pie-plates.

crust,

Allow a scanty cupful of

the fruit, and turn the


Cover each pie with an upper

pie, stir it well into

and press the edges well together, for much

richness of the berries will be lost

the top.

while

little

BLACKBERRY

Look

will

to counteract the excessive

juice these berries are capable of giving

tin

cold,,

with sugar

Flouring the berries in this way,

wet from the washing,

enough thickening

of the

the juice escapes

Bake an hour, and serve

in baking.

sifted over
still

if

make

just

amount

of

off.

PIE.

the berries carefully over, place them in the pie-

(which has previously been

fitted with

an under-crust),

add half a cupful of sugar and a table-spoonful of water,


and place a thick dusting of flour on the top. Cover
with an upper crust and bake an hour.
Currants
mixed with blackberries also make a delicious pie,
three

times

as

many

blackberries being used as cur-

PIES.

409

Sweeten with a cupful of sugar,

rants.

if

currants are

used.

RHUBARB

PIE (pIE-PLANT).

Peel or string the rhubarb by breaking a piece

off

each

stem end and stripping down the thin skin that will be
found clinging to the broken portion. Break the rhubarb
into small pieces,
tain

and measure

the quantity needed.

flour

them

and add a cupful of


Line a pie-dish, put in the rhubarb,

until they are quite white

sugar to each pie.

with the sugar well stirred into

and bake an hour.


dered sugar on top.

crust,

following will

cover with the upper-

it,

Serve cold, sprinkling pow-

DELICATE PUFF

The

in a pie-dish to ascer-

it

Place the pieces in a pan,

make two

PIE.

pies

Five eggs.

One

cupful of sugar.

Three-quarters of a cupful of butter.


Vanilla flavoring.

Separate the whites and the yolks of the eggs, beat the
yolks and sugar together until they form a cream, beat
the butter until

it

also

is

a creamy froth, and quickly mix

the butter in with the yolks

and sugar,

adding flavoring to

Have

taste.

stirring well

with paste, turn in the mixture, and bake.


rise

very

light.

When

and

pie-plates ready lined

they are done

The

pies will

have ready the

beaten whites of the eggs, add to them two table-spoon-

and a few drops of the flavoring, and spread


them over the top of the pies then return the pies to the
oven and brown delicately. This pie should be cut while

fuls of sugar

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

410

hot and distributed on the serving plates, but

be eaten

until cold.

Strange as

it

may seem,

it
it

is

not to

will fall

if

allowed to cool before being cut.

MINCE MEAT.

Two pounds
One pound

of lean beef.

of beef suet.

pounds of apples.

P'ive

Two pounds
Two pounds

of layer raisins.
of Sultana raisins.

One-half pound of candied lemon peel.

Two pounds

of currants.

Three-quarters pound of citron.

Two and a-half pounds


Two table-spoonfuls of

of sugar.
salt.

One-half ounce of cinnamon.


One-quarter ounce of mace.

One-quarter ounce of cloves.


One-quarter ounce of allspice.

Two
Two
Two

nutmegs, grated.

One
One
One

pint of sherry.

oranges, juice and rind.

lemons, juice and rind.


pint of brandy.

quart of cider.

Free the beef of fat and skin, cover it with boiling


water and simmer gently until tender. Let the meat cool
in the water in which it was boiled, and when perfectly
cold chop

and chop

it

fine,

it

but not to a powder.

fine;

pare,

core

and

Shred the suet


chop the apples

The apples should be of a fine flavor


Wash and stone the layer raisins wash and

rather coarsely.

and

tart.

pick over the Sultanas.

died lemon peel

Shred the citron and the can

wash the currants

well,

and grate the

PIES.

41

Mix

rind from the oranges and lemons.

all

the dry in-

gredients with the meat and suet, and add the juice and

lemons and oranges. Stir all well


mass in a stone jar, pour over it the
brandy, wine and cider, cover closely, and stand the jar

gratings from

the

together, pack the

in a cool place.

Mince meat made

The above
there

is

in

this

ingredients will

way
make

keep

will

all

winter.

a large quantity.

If

an objection to brandy, use a pint and a-half

more of cider instead. Mince meat improves with keeping, and it should be made at least a fortnight before it is
Bake the pies an hour. If the meat beto be used.
comes dry before it is all used, add more cider or wine.
INEXPENSIVE MINCE MEAT.
Four pounds of beef.
Three quarts of chopped apples.

One quart of stoned raisins.


One quart of English currants.
One quart of molasses
One pint of suet.
Three pints

of sugar.

One-half cupful of

salt.

One-half cupful of cinnamon.

One

table-spoonful of cloves.

Two
Two

tr,ble-spoonfuls of allspice.

table-spoonfuls of mace.

Three nutmegs, grated.


Three quarts of cider.
One-quarter pound of citron.
Boil

and chop the beef as

Mix together

all

with the hands.

add the

cider.

in

the preceding recipe.

the ingredients, except the cider, mixing

When

the

whole

is

thoroughly stirred

Let the mince meat stand over night;

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

412
in the

morning place

it

in a porcelain kettle, heat slowly

and simmer an hour. Then turn


it into a stone jar and set it in a cool, dry place.
If desired, wine and brandy may now be stirred in, or they may
be added when the pies are made but the meat will be
good without either. This mince meat will keep three
months in ordinary jars, even if there is no wine or
brandy used.
Mince pies are always better baked several days before
they are to be served.
Heat them, and serve.
to the

boiling point,

MOCK MINCE MEAT.


Six soda crackers, rolled

Two cupfuls

fine.

of cold water.

One cupful of molasses.


One cupful of brown sugar.
One cupful of sour cider.
One and one-half cupful of melted butter.
One cupful of raisins, seeded and chopped.
One cupful of raisins, unseeded.
One cupful of currants.

Two

eggs.

One

table-spoonful of cinnamon.

One-half table-spoonful of allspice

One
One
One
One
One

Mix

all

tea-spoonful of nutmeg.

tea-spoonful of cloves.
tea-spoonful of

salt.

tea-spoonful of black pepper.


wine-glassful of brandy.

well

together, adding the

water, molasses, cider,

good mince meat for those who


too rich.

wetting last

brandy and eggs.

the

This makes a

find the ordinary variety

PUDDINGS.
"

The proof

of the

pudding

In arranging for a dinner

it is

Many housekeepers

dessert.

a luxur\', but

the light of

lies in

in

the eating."

wise to always plan for a

look upon this course in


that they surely

err.

The

majority of people, and more especially the young, should


eat plenty of food containing starch

the poor a simple dessert


is

is

provided, a greater quantity

must be eaten

and

of

to satisfy hunger.

meat

is

is light,

Even

for

meat and vegetables

When

very substantial one, a light dessert

but when the dinner

sugar.

an economy, for when none

and

is

the meal

is

most appropriate,

particularly in case cold

served, the dessert should be hearty

and served

hot.

Puddings made of milk and eggs,


rice, tapioca,

in

combination with

sago or corn-starch, are the cheapest and

most wholesome, and are highly appetizing to most


when nicely prepared and well cooked. In many
of the pudding recipes presented in the following pages,

tastes

the

number

specified.

of persons the given quantity will serve

that the dessert

is

tion of the dinner,

tion

is

These calculations are based on the premise

need be

not intended to form a large propor-

and hence that only a moderate poreach person at table. It would

allotted to

413

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

414

if housewives would discourage an undue ambition


on the part of the male members of the family when
and thus inaugurate a reform that
dessert is served

be well

is

greatly needed in

many households. A number of desmay be prepared the day before

serts are here given that

they are needed, and these


to the

will

be especially acceptable

busy housekeeper who has to prepare the Sunday

dessert on Saturday.

CHOCOLATE BLANC-MANGE.

The

following quantity

this dessert

is

is sufficient

for six persons, for

quite rich.

One quart of milk.


One table-spoonful
One table-spoonful

of vanilla.
of sugar.

Two-thirds cupful of chocolate (grated).


One-half box of gelatine.
One-half cupful of cold water.

Grate the chocolate,


latter in a

water.

stir

Cover

tightly

and

dislodge the chocolate as


milk.

Turn

and divide

it

into the milk,

double boiler, or in a pail set

it

the entire

boil
it

box

one hour,

rises

measured while

in the

water to melt, and set


for fifteen

to the surface of

very accurately in half.

minutes.

in

When

This

upon a
is

the

plate,

necessary,

cannot be properly

Place the gelatine in the

box.
it

it

hot

stirring often to

of gelatine out

as gelatine packs very solidly, and

and place the

in a kettle of

warm

place on the range

the milk and chocolate have

boiled an hour, add the dissolved gelatine and the sugar,

and cook five minutes longer, stirring two or three times.


Then remove the mixture from the fire, and Strain

PUDDINGS.
it

through a

this

An

oily

and when nearly

substance

will rise to

must be carefully skimmed

When

during the next hour.

pudding

set the

off

two or three times

the oil has ceased to rise,

a cool place over night

in

mer, set the dish

mold that
cold, add
the top, and

sieve into an earthern

fine wire

has been wet with cold water


the vanilla.

415

in the

When

ice-chest.

if

it

is

sum-

ready to server

turn the blanc-mange out on a small platter, and send to


table with a

MILK SAUCE.
One

pint of milk.

Two

table-spoonfuls of sugar.

One-half table-spoonful of vanilla.

Mix

the ingredients, stirring well to dissolve the sugar.

This pudding
is

maybe made

in the

served at night, but to insure

time, set

at

it

once on the

morning when dinner


being firm by dinner

its

Gelatine hardens quite

ice.

slowly, requiring six or eight hours to

become properly

firm.

GELATINE PUDDING.

The

quantity given below will

make enough

for five

persons.
One-half box of gelatine.
One-half pint of cold water

One-haff pint of boiling water.

One

tea-cupful of sugar.

Two
Two

eggs (whites).

Place the gelatine


water,

and

after

it

small lemons.

in a

quart cup, pour over

has stood

five

it

the cold

minutes, add the boiling

THE PA TTERN CO OK-B O OK.

water.

warm

Stir until the gelatine is dissolved, setting

place.

the gelatine

If

is

it

in a

undissolved, let

still

it

stand on the back of the range for ten minutes after add-

Remove from the range, add the


and when the mixture is lukewarm, add the juice
of the lemons
no pains need be taken to keep out the
If the mixture in the
seeds, for all has to be strained.
cup does not now measure a pint and a-half, add enough
cold water to bring it to that measurement then strain
ing the hot water.
sugar,

through a fine sieve into a large pitcher or earthernware


bowl.

Beat the whites of the eggs to a

them

stir

will

into

stiff

froth,

The

the gelatine, beating well.

and

pitcher

be found the most convenient receptacle in which to

beat the pudding.

Pour the whole

serving dish, and set


night.

The egg

into

in the ice-chest

it

will rise

and

settle

pretty glass

to

remain over

evenly upon the top of

the pudding.

Beat the yolks of the eggs a moment, add two tablespoonfuls of milk or wat^r to them, and set them in a

making the

cool place to be used the next day in

CUSTARD SAUCE.
One

pint of milk.

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls of sugar.

eggs (yolks).

One-quarter tea-spoonful of

One
One

Wet
it

the

salt.

tea-spoonful of vanilla.
tea-spoonful of corn-starch.

the corn-starch in a

beaten yolks.

little

Place the

of the milk,
rest

of

and add

to

the milk in a

double boiler to heat, and when scalding stir in the mixLet the whole boil only
ture of egg and corn-starch.

PUDDINGS.
about one minute after

Remove from

salt.

it

the

417

and add the sugar and


and when the sauce is cold

thickens,
fire,

put in the vanilla, and set on the ice until needed.


the eggs are large, the corn-starch will not be needed

yolks

three

may be used

If
;

or

for the custard, omitting the

In serving, pour a portion of

corn-starch in this case.

pudding as it is placed on each


it on top.
easily and quickly made, the pud-

the sauce around the

dessert plate, but do not pour

This dessert
ding

is

really not requiring

itself

fire

if

hot water

is

at

hand.

CHOCOLATE CORN-STARCH.
This pudding

is

to

be eaten cold, and the following

quantities will suffice for six persons.

One
One

pint of milk.

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls of sugar.

table-spoonful of corn-starch.

eggs (yolks).

One-quarter tea-spoonful of

One

salt.

tea-spoonful of vanilla.

One-half tea-spoonful of butter.

Beat the yolks of the eggs, and add to them a


the milk

of the milk,

the rest of

when

little

of

then wet the corn-starch with a small quantity

and
the

stir

milk

the two mixtures together.

on

Place

the fire in a milk-boiler,

boiling, stir in the corn-starch, eggs, etc.

and

Let the

whole cook five minutes, add the salt, sugar and butter,
and remove from the fire pour the pudding into a pudding dish, and when partly cooled, add the flavoring, stir;

ring

it

in well.

27

THE FA 7 7'A RiV CO OK-B O OK.

4 8
1

FOR THE CHOCOLATE.


One-half cupful of milk.

One-half cupful of grated chocolate.

Three table-spoonfuls of sugar.

One

table spoonful of vanilla.

Two

eggs (whites).

Place the milk and chocolate together in a small sauce-

pan

hot water, and cook until

set in another containing

the chocolate

minutes

smooth and thick

is

stirring

all

the

time.

generally

Add

about

the sugar,

live

remove

from the fire, stir until cooled and put in the vanilla.
Spread the chocolate mixture carefully, a spoonful at a
time, over the corn-starch in the
of the eggs

stiff,

or three drops of vanilla,


chocolate, and

brown

the

browned
meringue.

It

of

and two

delicately in the oven.

corn-starch, then

whites

of sugar

spread this icing on top of the

This pudding should be


first

Beat the whites

dish.

add one table-spoonful

the

in

three layers

the
eggs,

which

are

does not require sauce, and

a very dainty dessert by those

when

finished,

chocolate, and then the

who

called

will

the

be found

are fond of chocolate.

ORANGE PUDDING.
This pudding

is

to

be served cold without sauce, and

the following ingredients are sufficient for six persons.


Three oranges.
One-half a lemon

One
One
One

Two

(juice).

pint of milk.

table-spoonful of corn-starch.

cupful of sugar.
eggs.

One-quarter tea-spoonful of

salt.

PUDDINGS.
Peel the oranges, removing

and cut them

into pieces

ing

tough portion

out

oranges

the

419
the tough while skin

all

in a pudding-dish,

in

the

center.

Place

the

squeeze the lemon-juice over

them, add half a cupful of the sugar,

stir up,

whole stand while the rest of the pudding


pared.

half the size of a nutmeg, tak-

Beat the yolks of the eggs,

stir in

is

and

let

the

being pre-

two tea-spoon-

add the same quantity of milk to the


corn-starch, and beat these two mixtures together.
Heat
the rest of the milk in a milk-boiler, and when boiling,
add the eggs, corn-starch, etc. Cook five minutes, add
the salt and the rest of the sugar, remove from the fire,
and lay the mixture a spoonful at a time on top of the
of

fuls

oranges

milk,

in

the dish.

Beat the whites of the eggs

stiff,

them a table-spoonful of sugar, spread the icing


on top of the pudding, and brown it delicately in the
oven. This pudding should not be made over night, as
the oranges would in that time give off too much of their
add

to

juice.

BAKED LEMON PUDDING.


One

Two

pint of milk.
eggs.

One lemon
One cupful

(juice,

and

half the rind).

of bread-crumbs.

One-quarter cupful of butter.


One-half cupful of sugar.

Soak the bread-crumbs in the milk for half an hour.


the butter and sugar to a cream, add the beaten
yolks of the eggs, stir well, and put in the bread and
milk, the lemon-juice and half the grated rind.
Butter a
pudding-dish, turn in the mixture, and bake slowly for

Rub

THE FATTERiV COOK-BOOK.

420

twenty minutes.

stiff, add
them on top

Beat the whites

table-spoonful of sugar, spread

them one
baked

to

of the

pudding, and brown the surface delicately.

Serve cold

without sauce.

ESTELLA PUDDING.

The

following

is

sufficient

for

eight

persons,

being

served hot.
Three eggs.
Two and one-half table-spoonfuls

Two

of sugar.

table-spoonfuls of butter.

Three-quarters cupful of sweet milk.

One

cupful of raisins.

Two tea-spoonfuls

of baking powder.

One-half teaspoonful of

salt.

Flour to thicken.

Rub

the butter and sugar to a cream, add the eggs,

and put in the milk and salt.


and chop them coarsely, cutting each

well beaten, stir thoroughly,

Seed the

raisins,

raisin

only about four pieces.

in

Scatter the

baking-

powder on top of the mixture, add a little flour, stirring it


in well, and then add enough more flour to make a rather
thick batter

lastly stir in the raisins.

Butter a

tin

basin

or a pudding-mold, turn in the pudding, set the vessel in


a steamer over a kettle of boiling hot water, and steam
forty-five minutes.

of milk,

sweetened

Serve with a sauce


to taste

made

and flavored with

of

one pint

vanilla.

'

TAPIOCA PUDDING.
This

is to

sons allow

be eaten hot without sauce.

For

five per-

PUDDINGS.
One
One

42

egg.

pint of milk.

One-half cupful of pearl tapioca.


One-half cupful of sugar.

One

tea-spoonful of butter.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter teaspoonful of cinnamon.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of nutmeg.

Wash

and soak it over night in enough


the morning add the milk, and
place the tapioca on the back of the range to soak one
then add the beaten
hour, but do not let the milk boil
and
Bake an hour
spice,
salt
butter.
the
sugar,
and
egg
the tapioca,

water to cover

In

it.

in a

moderate oven.
SIMPLE CORN-STARCH BLANC-MANGE.

This

is

an especially wholesome dessert for

To make enough

dren.

One

pint of milk.

One-half tea-spoonful of

Wet

little chil-

for five persons, allow

salt.

One

tea-spoonful of vanilla.

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls of corn-starch.
table-spoonfuls of sugar.

the corn-starch in half a cupful of the milk

heat the rest of the milk in a milk-boiler, and

when

then
it is

add the ccrn-starch. Cook eight or ten minutes,


and then put in the salt, and sugar. Remove from the
Turn the
fiite, and when partly cooled, add the vanilla.
mixture into a pudding-dish, that has been previously wet
When
with cold water, and set it away in a cold place.
cold and firm, turn it out of the dish, and serve with it a

boiling,

cream sauce or

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

422

CHOCOLATE SAUCE.
One-half cupful of grated chocolate.

One-half cupful of milk.

One-half cupful of sugar.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of vanilla.

and chocolate together until they form a


them add the sugar, and lastly the vanilla
when the whole has cooled. This pudding is also delicious served alone with strawberries and sugar.
Boil the milk

smooth

paste,

COCOANUT PUDDING.
quantity given below will serve five persons.

The

pudding

is

The

eaten hot, without sauce


One-half cupful of cocoanut.

One-half cupful of bread-crumbs.

One
One
One

pint of milk.

egg.

table-spoonful of butter.

Two

table-spoonfuls of sugar.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

Soak the bread and cocoanut m the milk for three


then mash the bread fine, and add the sugar, salt
and melted butter. Beat the white and yolks of the egg
separately, and add first the yolk and then the white,

hours

stirring

vi^ell.

Bake

half an hour.

BOILED RICE PUDDING.


This

For

five

IS

very creamy pudding and

persons allow as follows

One and

is

served cold.

one-half tea-cupfuls of boiled

Two-thirds of a tea-cupful of

raisins.

rice.

PUDDINGS.

Two

423

eggs.

One-half tea-cupful of sugar.

One

pint of milk.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of cinnamon.

Separate the whites and yolks of the eggs, add to the


yolks two table-spoonfuls of the milk, and place the rest

milk on the

the

of

stone

the

raisins

desired,) put

and tender
five

them

in

usually

salt,

may be

unseeded if
the milk, and cook them until soft
they

fifteen

stir in

sugar and spice.

three minutes,

the rice, cook

the yolks of the eggs

Stir

remove from the

left

Add

minutes.

minutes longer, and then

and the

Wash and

a double boiler.

in

fire

(or

fire,

well, cook two or


and pour the pud-

ding into the serving dish.

Beat the whites of the eggs


add to them one table-spoonful of sugar, spread the
froth on top of the pudding, and brown delicately in the
light,

oven.

BAKED APPLE PUDDING.


This
quantity

is

served
will

should be quite

cold

provide

without sauce.
for

six

The following
The apples

persons.

tart.

Six good-sized apples.

Two

eggs.

One

pint of milk.

One-half cupful of water.

Twelve tea-spoonfuls of sugar.


One and one-half tea-spoonfuls
One and one-half tea-spoonfuls
One-half tea-spoonful of

One

of cinnamon.
of butter.

salt.

tea-spoonful of vanilla.

Pare the apples, carefully extract the cores from the

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

424

stem-end, and place in each cavity thus

made two

tea-

spoonfuls of sugar, a quarter of a tea-spoonful of cinnamon and the same of butter, putting the butter on the
Set the apples in a baking-dish, add the water, and

top.

bake

Do

until tender.

as that

would

not bake them until they break,

spoil the

attractiveness of

the.

pudding.

While the apples are baking, prepare the rest of the pudSeparate the whites and yolks of the eggs, add to
ding.
the yolks a table-spoonful of the cold milk, place the rest
the milk on the fire in a double-boiler,

of

boils,

add

Cook only

the yolks.

and when

it

a minute after the milk

add the salt, and sugar to taste. Remove


and when nearly cold, add the vanilla. As

boils again, then

from the

fire,

soon as the apples are done, pour this custard around


Should there seem to be an excess of juice from
baking the apples, drain off nearly all of it before adding

them.

the custard.

too

thin.

If left

Beat

in the

the

dish

whites of

it

will

make

the eggs

the custard

stiff,

add one

table-spoonful of sugar, place a table-spoonful of the white

on top

of

each apple, return to the oven, and brown

lightly.

BAKED INDIAN PUDDING


One
One

cupful of Indian meal.

cupful of molasses.

One-half cupful of raisins.


One-half tea-spoonful of

One
One

salt.

quart of milk.
egg.

One-half tea-spoonful of cinnamon.

One-half tea-spoonful of ginger.

Place the milk in a double-boiler, and when scalding


hot,

add the meal,

stirring constantly until there are

no

PUDDINGS.

425

Cook twenty

minutes, and turn into a puddingadd the rest of the ingredients, except the ^gg.
Stir well, and when cooled, add the beaten ^gg.
Bake
an hour in a rather slow oven, and serve hot.

lumps.

dish; then

SUET PUDDING.

The
for

following recipe

ten persons

makes

pudding large enough

one-half will usually be sufficient

one dessert.

The

when warmed

again.

portion

for

over will be equally good

left

should be steamed for warming

It

over.

One
One
One
One

cupful of chopped suet.


cupful of raisins.
cupful of molasses.

cupful of milk (preferably sour).

Three cupf uls of

One
One
One
One

sifted flour.

tea-spoonful of soda.
tea-spoonful of cinnamon.
tea-spoonful of cloves.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-half a nutmeg (grated).

Chop

Warm

suet fine, and add to

the

the molasses, add to

ter is dissolved, turn

it

it

the soda,

the spice and

and when the

salt.
lat-

the molasses over the dry mixture,

and put in the milk. Add the flour slowly as


be needed for flour varies so much that it
it
is always difficult to apportion it in
any recipe.
The
pudding should not be too thick when the track of the
mixing spoon, when turned quickly round in the batter,
stir

quickly,

may

not

all

disappears slowly, the batter


Butter a
in,

tin

set the

is

generally thick enough.

basin or a pudding-mold, pour the pudding

whole

in

a steamer, over a kettle of boiling

THE PA TVER AT COOK-BOOK.

426
water,

and steam

for three hours.

SNOW
One
One
One

SAUCE.

small cupful of sugar.


large table-spoonful of butter.
egg.

Three table-spoonfuls

Rub

Serve with the foUow-

of hot water.

the butter and sugar to a cream, add the yolk of

the Q^^^ and stir well.


Set the bowl containing the sauce
over the mouth of the tea-kettle, or stand it in a basin

add one table-spoonful of the hot water, stir


add another portion of the hot water, and finally

of hot water
well,

the

third

-elapse

table-spoonful,

allowing

between these additions.

about a minute

If the

sugar

is

to

not by this

time entirely dissolved, leave the bowl in the steam of the


kettle

syrup.

or in the basin until the

Then remove

it

from the

sauce
fire,

is

like a

and pour it

golden
into the

sauce boat.

Beat the white of the &gg stiff, lay it on top


The white should be stirred in
after the sauce is placed upon the table.
This recipe is

ofthe sauce, and serve.


infallible.

LEMON PUDDING.
This pudding
ily

is

eaten cold, without sauce.

For a fam-

of six allow

One

cupful of sugar.

Two
Two

table-spoonfuls

One
One

eggs.
of-

corn-starch.

pint of milk.

table-spoonful of butter.

Two lemons

(juice of both,

and rind

of one).

PUDDINGS.
Wet

the corn-starch in a

rest of the

milk on the

lire

little

427
of the

miik, place the

milk boiler, and when

in a

it

add the corn-starch. After this has boiled five minutes, add the butter, remove the corn-starch from the fire,
and set it away to cool. Beat the yolks of the eggs light,
stir in the sugar, mix very thoroughly, and add the lemonjuice and the grated rind.
Beat this mixture to a stiff
cream, and gradually stir it into the corn-starch, which
boils,

should be quite cool by this

time.

Stir well,

and when

perfectly well mixed, pour the pudding into a buttered

pudding-dish, and bake slowly for half an hour.

Beat the

them one lable-spoonful of


sugar, spread them on top of the pudding, and brown

whites of the eggs

stiff,

add

to

nicely.

PUDDING WITH LEMON.

J^ICE

One
One

Two
Two

pint of

cooked

rice.

pint of milk.

table-spoonfuls of sugar.
tea-spoonfuls of corn-starch.

One-half tea-spoonful of

Wet

salt.

One

tea-spoonful of butter.

Two

eggs (whites).

milk,

of the

the corn-starch in a table-spoonful

and the rest of the milk together in a


then add the
double-boiler, and boil them ten minutes
corn-starch, cook five minutes more, and stir in the rest of
place

the

rice

the ingredients, adding only half the sugar

whole into a pudding-dish.


stiif,

add

the

egg on top
with a

of

other
the

half

then turn the

Beat the whites of the eggs


of

the

sugar,

pudding, and brown

spread

nicely.

the

Serve

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

428

LEMON

Beat

creamy

eggs (yolks).
cupful of sugar.

One

large lemon, (juice

yolks

the
;

rind, stir
in

Two
One

well,

SATTCE.

and

add

half the grated rind).

the

sugar,

and

stir

until

then add the juice of the lemon and the grated


thoroughly, and serve.

Oranges may be used

place of the lemons, and one orange with half a lemon

will

also

make

This forms a
pudding being very white

a pleasing combination.

particularly pretty dessert, the

and the sauce a golden yellow.

CREAM TAPIOCA PUDDING.

The
sons.

following recipe will

The pudding

is

make enough

for seven per-

a most satisfactory one and

is

to

be eaten cold without sauce.


Three table-spoonfuls of pearl tapioca.
Three table-spoonfuls of prepared cocoanut.

One
One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

quart of milk.

Four eggs.

One

cupful of sugar.

Soak the tapioca over night in enough water or milk to


it.
In the morning place it in a milk boiler with
the quart of milk, and boil it half an hour.
Beat the
yolks of the eggs, the sugar and the cocoanut well
together, add this mixture to the milk, and boil ten minutes longer then put in the salt, and pour the whole into
a pudding-dish.
Beat the whites of the eggs stiff, add to
them a table-spoonful of sugar, spread them on top of the

cover

PUDDINGS.

429

pudding, sprinkle a thin layer of cocoanut over the top

and brown delicately

of the egg,

in the oven.

BAKED BATTER PUDDING.


One pint of flour
One quart of milk.
Four eggs.

One
Stir

tea-spoonful of

the

flour into

the

milk,

salt.

beat

smooth, add the beaten eggs and the


ding-dish, pour in

well,

salt.

and

when

Butter a pud-

the batter, bake one hour in a rather

hot oven, and serve immediately with

HARD SAUCE.
One-half cupful of butter.

One

cupful of powdered sugar.

Flavoring to

suit.

Beat the butter to a cream, and gradually add the


The flavoring may be of any preferred variety.

sugar.
If

ing

wine
it

is

in

chosen, use

gradually.

three table-spoonfuls of
If

lemon

preferred add a scanty tea-spoonful

or
;

vanilla

it,

beat-

extract

is

or the rind and juice

lemon may be used. As soon as the sauce is


heap it lightly and roughly on the dish in which
it is to be served, and set it in the ice chest until needed.
The pudding is sometimes spread with" butter by each
person at table individually and eaten with lemon-juice

of a fresh

finished

and sugar instead

of a sauce.

CAKE CREAM PUDDING.


Three eggs.

One

cupful of sugar.

THE FA TTEKN COOK-BOOK.

430

One and

Two

one-half cupfuls of flour

table-spoonfuls of water

One-half tea-spoonful of baking-powder.


Stir

the baking-powder into the flour

then beat the

add to them first the water and sugar and then


the flour, and bake on two buttered pie-tins.
When the
cakes are done split each with a fork, and place inside it
eggs

light,

the following cream.

CREAM.
One
One

pint of sweet milk.

tea-spoonful of vanilla.

One-half tea-spoonful of

salt.

One-quarter cupful of butter.


Three-quarters cupful of sugar.

Two

Wet
ter

table-spoonfuls of corn-starch

the corn-starch in a

to the

milk boiler to heat


corn-starch.

little

rest of the milk,

Cook

of the milk,

and place the

and when the milk

five

add the

but-

in

the

boils, stir in

the

latter

minutes, stirring frequently

then

add the sugar and salt, and as soon as these are dissolved
remove the cream from the fire. When nearly cold add
the flavoring, and use.
This dessert is delicious served
with strawberries.

BLACKBERRY PUDDING.
One
One
One
One

Warm
flour first

pint of molasses.

dessert-spoonful of soda.

quart of

flour.

quart of blackberries.

the molasses, dissolve the soda in

and then the

berries.

Butter a

it,

and add the

tin

basin or a

Pi DDINGS.
pudding-mould, pour ihe pudding

43
in, set

it

steamer

in a

over a kettle of boiling water, and steam one hour.

This pudding

with hard sauce.

convenient,

but

much

is

it

may be baked,

more

Serve
if

satisfactory

more
when

steamed as above.
SIMPLE FRUIT PUDDING.

Stew currants or any

of the

small fruits or berries,

either fresh or dried, with sugar to season.

bread into thin


a

layer

of

slices,

bread

in

and remove the crusts


a

pudding-dish,

thickly with the stewed fruit,

and

fruit,

and so continue

used, leaving

Lay a

an

then place

cover

add another layer

until

all

the

latter

rather

it

bread

of

has been

extra thick layer of fruit on the top.

and when the

plate on top of the pudding,

cool, set the

Cut bakers'
;

whole upon the

ice.

fruit is

Serve thoroughly cold

with cream and sugar.

APPLE SNOW.
Six large apples.

Two

tea-cupfuls of sugar.

One-half tea-spoonful of

One and a-half lemon


One pint of milk.

salt.

(juice of both

and rind of one).

Four eggs.

Separate the whites from the yolks of the eggs, beat the
yolks well, and add to them three table-spoonfuls of the
milk.

Place the rest of the milk on the

boiler,

and when

fire in

a double-

add the beaten yolks.

Let it
add a tea-cupful of the sugar and the
remove from the fire, and when cooled, pour the
it

boils,

boil about a minute,


salt,

custard into a glass serving-dish.

Bake

the apples quite

THE PA TTERN CO OK-B O OK.

432
whole

in a

covered dish, adding a

burning.

When

straw, take

them out

little

water to prevent

tender enough to be pierced


of the

with

oven, remove the skins, and

scrape out the pulp, being careful to avoid any pieces of

Mix

the cores.

into this pulp the remaining sugar, the

lemon-juice and the grated rind of one lemon.

whites of the eggs to a

Beat the

and add the cold pulp


the .whole is white and fine.

stiff froth,

very gradually, beating until

snow upon the custard,


and serve when thoroughly cold.

set in a very cold place,

Pile this

CURATE PUDDING.

{Hot.)

Three eggs.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of vanilla.

One

cupful of flour.

Two-thirds cupful of butter.


Two-thirds cupful of sugar.

Warm
ually

it to a cream
then gradand sugar, and beat well until the
Beat the eggs very light, and
smooth.

the butter, and beat

add the

flour

whole is perfectly
add them and the

vanilla, stirring all well.

Butter small

them a little more than half full of the


mixture, and bake in a brisk oven for about half an hour.
When done, turn the puddings out upon the serving-dish,
and pour around them the following sauce.

cups or

tins,

fill

WINE SAUCE, NO.

I.

One and one-half table-spoonful


One table-spoonful of flour.
One-half tea-spoonful of

of butter.

salt.

Two

table-spoonfuls of sherry wine.

Hot

water.

PUDDINGS.
Pour boiling water

into a small earthenware bowl, let

stand one minute, pour


hot bowl

this

it

out,

warm

will

433

and place the butter

in

it

the

Beat

the butter sufficiently.

the butter until soft, add the flour,

creamy paste

a smooth,
ing

water, stirring

and beat again until


formed. Gradually add boil-

is

time, until the whole

the

all

is

the

Pour the mixture into a stewpan, stir well, and cook three minutes, adding a little
more water if the sauce is too thick. When done, add
the salt, sugar and wine, and serve.
Taste the sauce
before serving, and add more sugar, wine or butter if not
thickness of rich cream.

sufficiently well seasoned.

FARINA PUDDING.
One

quart of milk.

Three eggs.
One lemon (half the juice and

One

Four table-spoonfuls

One
One
One

all

the rind).

cupful of sugar.
of farina.

table-spoonful of butter.
tea-spoonful of

salt.

tea-spoonful of vanilla.

One-eighth tea-spoonful of nutmeg.

Heat the milk


add the
ing

When
of

it

in

and

from the

it

when

farina,

a double-boiler, and

boil half an hour.

fire,

put

in

when

boiling,

Just before remov-

the butter, stir

it

well,

and

has melted, turn the mixture into a pudding-dish.

cooled, add the sugar and vanilla, the grated rind

the lemon, the juice and the nutmeg.

Separate the

yolks and whites of the eggs, beat them thoroughly, and

add first the yolks, stirring them well into the pudding,
and then the beaten whites, stirring them in only enough
28

THE PATTERN COOK-BOOK.

434
to

mix them

Bake

well.

tlie

pudding

half an

hour

in

Serve with the wine sauce of the preceding

quick oven.

recipe or with the following.

WINE SAUCE, NO.

2.

One

cupful of butter.

Two

cupfuls of powdered sugar.

Eight table-spoonfuls of sherry wine.


A grating of nutmeg.

Beat the butter until creamy, and gradually add the

when all the sugar has been


all the time
add the wine by spoonfuls, still stirring. Beat the
mixture until it becomes a smooth, light froth, set the bowl
Fill
in a basin of hot water, and stir for two minutes.
the sauce-boat with boiling water to heat it, and when the
sauce has cooked sufficiently, empty the boat, pour in the
sauce, grate a bit of nutmeg on the top, and serve hot.
sugar, stirring

used,

GRAHAM PUDDING.
One
One
One
One
One
One
One

Warm

cupful of

Graham

flour.

cupful of wheat flour.

cupful of molasses.

cupful of sweet milk.


egg.

tea-spoonful of soda.
cupful of raisins.

the molasses, add the soda to

two kinds of flour well sifted

it,

together

and

add the milk, then the egg well beaten, and


stoned raisins.
in a

Place the mixture

pudding-mould,

set

it

in

in a

stir in the

then gradually
lastly the

buttered basin or

a steamer over a kettle of

hot water, and steam two hours.

Serve with the following

PUDDINGS,

435

EGG SAUCE.
One

cupful of powdered sugar.

One-half cupful of butter.

Two

eggs.

Flavoring.

Beat the butter to a cream, gradually add the sugar,


stir in the beaten eggs, and any

beating well, and lastly


desired flavoring.

STRAWBERRY PUFF PUDDING.


This pudding

is

For

six

persons

and add milk,

stirring

be served hot.

to

allow

One pint

of flour.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of baking-powder.

One
One

tea-spoonful of

salt.

quart of strawberries.

Sweet milk.
Sugar.

Stir the
all

powder

into

the

flour,

the time until a rather thick batter

ready six

fuls of

formed.

well greased tea-cups, the hulled

and a cupful
cup, then

is

of sugar.

Have

strawberries

Put a spoonful of the batter in a


berries, next two tea-spoon-

a thick layer of

sugar upon the berries and finally another thin


Repeat this until all the batter has

layer of the batter.

been used when the cups should not be more than twoSet them in a steamer over a kettle of boiling
thirds full.
There should be no
water, and steam half an hour.
delay in serving as
verv quickly.

soon

Serve with a

as,

done,

for

the puffs

fall

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

436

STRAWBERRY SAUCE.
Two eggs.
One-half cupful of butter.

One
One
One

Rub

and

cupful of strawberries.

cupful of sugar.

and sugar

the butter

well beaten,

cupful of boiling milk.

stir

in

to

a cream,

add the eggs,

Set the bowl con-

the berries.

taining the sauce in a basin of hot water, gradually add

the hot milk, cook two minutes, and send to table.


berries

may be used

Other

as the strawberries are in this case.

PUDDING OF STALE CAKE.


Chocolate layer-cake
way, but any other kind

is

the best variety to use

will do.

Two

eggs (yolks).

One

pint of milk.

Make

One-half tea-spoonful of

Two

s.oft

in

this

custard of

salt.

table-spoonfuls of sugar.

Beat the yolks with a


rest of the milk,

little

and when

it

of the cold milk


boils,

add the

heat the

'

^'-

.c i.ium
two minutes, add the salt and sugar, and
Break the cake into pieces, which for this
fire.

the

quantity of custard should measure not

more than

Place the cake

in a

pudding-dish, pour over

it

a pint.

the custard,

and bake twenty minutes. Beat the whites of the eggs


stiff, add one table-spoonful of sugar, spread the egg over
Serve cold.
the top, and brown delicately in the oven.

QUEEN OF PUDDINGS.
This

may be

ties will

eaten hot or cold.

answer

for eight persons.

The

following quanti-

PUDDINGS.
Two
One

437

cupfuls of bread-crumbs.

quart of milk.

Four eggs.

One table-spoonful of butter.


One lemon (rind and juice).
One-half tea-spoonful of

One-half cupful of

One

Soak the crumbs

salt.

jelly.

cupful of sugar.

in

milk for half an hour.

the

Beat

the yolks and sugar together until light, add them to the

crumbs and milk,

stir well,

and put

the lemon.

in

Pour

the whole into a pudding-dish, and bake half an hour.

Whip

the whites of the eggs

table-spoonfuls

place on top of

and

If

stiff,

when

and add to them three


the pudding is done,

a layer of the egg, then a layer of jelly

it

lastly the rest of

color.
will

sugar

of

a sauce

is

brown

the egg, and

to

preferred, the simple

delicate

cream sauce

be most suitable.

APPLE ROLY-POLY.
One
One
One

,,

pint of flour.

tea-spoonful of baking-powder.

tea-spoonful of

salt,

milk.

One
One

tea-cupful of sugar.

Two

tea-spoonfuls of cinnamon.

table-spoonful of lard or butter.

Apples.
Sift

the flour,

baking-powder and

rub the lard into them, and when

add

sufficient

sweet milk to

salt

all is

make

well

a soft dough.

the dough out upon the moulding-board, mould


sifting flour

and

roll

it

under

it

together,

thoroughly mixed,

it

Turn

smooth,

to prevent its sticking to the board,

into a sheet a-quarter of an inch thick.

Spread


THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

438

thickly with

this

jelly cake, press the

the

body

apples, and

sliced

sift

over them the

Roll the dough up the same as

sugar and cinnamon.

overlapping parts of dough well to

of the pudding

and also press the ends well to


Place the pudding on a

prevent the escape of the juices.


plate, set the plate in a

steamer over a kettle of hot water,

and steam an hour and


No. I.

Serve with wine sauce,

a-half.

BAKED APPLE PUDDING.


for this is made the same as the preceding.
enough apples to nearly fill the pudding-dish, seasoning them with sugar and cinnamon. After the dough
is smoothed on the board roll it just the size of the top
of the dish, lay it on top of the apples, and bake one
hour.
Serve with cream sauce, or with wine sauce. No. 2.

The dough

Slice

bird's-nest pudding.

This dessert

is

to

be eaten

hot.

To make enough

for

seven persons take


Six medium-sized apples.

One

cupful of sugar.

One-half cupful of milk.

One-half cupful of water.


Flour.

One
One
One
One
Peel

tea-spoonful of baking-powder.

tea-spoonful of cinnamon.
egg.

table-spoonful of butter.

and core the apples, and cut them into eighths.

Place them in a pudding-dish with half the sugar, the cin-

namon and

the water, and bake

them

until nearly

done

PUDDINGS.
generally about twenty

minutes.

439
While the apples are

cooking, rub the butter and the rest of the sugar together,

add the beaten ^^g^ stir well, and add the milk. Sift the
baking-powder and half a tea-cupful of flour together, and
add them to the mixture, stirring in more flour until a
rather thick batter

is

formed.

der, but not quite done,


stir

of

When

the apples are ten-

remove the dish from the oven,

the apples well, carefully turn the batter over the top

them, return the dish to the oven, and bake twenty

minutes.

Serve with cream sauce.

CHOCOLATE PUDDING.
One
Ten

quart of milk.
table-spoonfuls of grated bread.

Four table-spoonfuls

One
One

of grated chocolate.

cupful of sugar.
tea-spoonful of butter.

One-half tea-spoonful of

Four

salt.

eggs.

and when it is boiling, stir in the bread,


and butter. Boil three minutes,
remove from the fire, and turn the pudding into a pudding dish.
Reserve the whites of two of the eggs, beat
the other two whites and the four yolks well together,
and add them to the pudding, stirring them in well
then bake half an hour. Beat the two whites stiff,
add a table-spoonful of sugar, spread the ^gg on top of
the pudding, and brown delicately in the oven.
This is

Heat the

milk,

sugar, chocolate, salt

eaten cold without sauce.

ENGLISH PLUM PUDDING.


This recipe was awarded the two-guinea prize lately

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

440
offered by the

Queen,

competitors.

The

which there were

for

make

following will

five

hundred

a pudding weigh-

ing six pounds.

One pound
One pound

of raisins.
of sue.\

Three-quarters pound of stale bread-crumbs.

One-quarter pound of brown sugar.

One lemon

(rind only).

One-half pound orange peel (candied).

One-quarter pound of

One pound

flour.

of currants.

One-half of a nutmeg grated.

Five eggs.

One-half pint of brandy.

Chop

the suet fine, mince the orange peel, clean,

wash
and mix all the
Beat thc^- --oro-s, add to them
dry ingredients together.
the brandy; pour this liquid over -.... i^^ mixture, and
mix thoroughly. Pack the pudding into well greased
pudding-moulds, and boil six hours as soon as made, and
six hours when wanted for use.
(For boiling pudding,
see page 456.) Serve with
and dry the currants, stone the

BRANDY

raisins,

SAUCE.

F'our table-spoonfuls of butter.

Two

eggs (whites only).

One

cupful of powdered sugar.

Four table-spoonfuls
Four table-spoonfuls

Rub

of brandy.

of boiling water.

the butter to a cream, gradually add the sugar,

and beat

until

at a time,

light.

Then add

the while.

When

white and

beating

all

the whites one

ready to serve.

PUDDINGS.
add the brandy and boiling water,

441

set the

bowl containing

the sauce in a basin of hot water over the


light

and creamy, and

fire, stir

until

serve.

BREAD PUDDING.
This pudding

is

served hot

and the following propor-

tions are sufficient for seven persons.

One
One

pint of stale bread.

quart of milk.

Three table-spoonfuls

Two
One

of sugar.

eggs.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

Place the bread in the milk, and after

two hours, mash

has soaked

it

light, and
add to them the sugar and salt. When well mixed, stir
this into the brt^.K and milk, pour the whole into an

earthenwar^

..

very

fine.

Beat the eggs

^ dish, and bake three-quarters of an


Serve with

..

hour in a rather slow oven.

VANILLA SAUCE.

Two

eggs (whites and one yolk).

One-half cupful of granulated sugar.

Three table-spoonfuls

One

of milk.

tea-spoonful of vanilla.

Separate the yolks from the whites, beat the latter to a


stiff froth,

and add the sugar,

Beat one of the yolks


milk,

add the

boat.

Heap

just before

The

vanilla,

well,

stirring

stir

it

in

it

vigorously.

thoroughly into the

and place the mixture

in the

the beaten whites on top, and stir

serving and after the sauce

other yolk

is

is

not required in the sauce.

sauce-,

them

on the

in

table.

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

442

CHERRY PUDDING.
This

is

family of

a large recipe, two-thirds being sufficient for a


six.

Three eggs.

Two

quarts of cherries.

One

tea-spoonful of

Two

tea-spoonfuls of baking-powder.

salt.

One and one-half pint


One pint of flour.
One pint of milk.
One table-spoonful of

of stale bread-crumbs.

sugar.

One-quarter of a nutmeg.

Soak the bread

in

the

milk for one hour.

Mix

the

and nutmeg together,


Mash the bread in the milk,
sifting all through a sieve.
stir into it the flour mixture, mix well, add the eggs, well
beaten, and lastly put in the cherries, which may be
stoned or not, as preferred. This pudding may be
steamed or boiled. If to be steamed, butter the pudding-

sugar, salt, baking-powder, flour

tin

thoroughly, turn into

it

the mixture, allowing space

pudding to increase one-third

and steam
pudding
bag in boiling water, spread it out, dredge it well on the
inside with flour, pour in the mixture, and tie it up
Have a tin plate at the bottom of a kettle that
securely.
Place the pudding in this
is half full of boiling water.
kettle, and boil it constantly for four hours, replenishing
When
the water as needed from the boiling tea-kettle.
done, lift the pudding out, plunge it into cold water,
remove it immediately and turn it out upon a platter.
Serve with a sauce made the same as strawberry sauce

for the

two hours and

a-half.

If

in

size,

to be boiled, dip the

PUDDINGS.
(see

443

page 436), substituting for the berries one cupful of

cherries that have been slightly stewed.

APPLE TAPIOCA PUDDING.


Three-quarter cupful of pearl tapioca.

One quart of
One lemon.

water.

One-half tea-spoonful of

Seven apples.
Fourteen tea-spoonfuls

salt.

of sugar.

Soak the tapioca over night

in the water
or if the fine
used three hours of soaking will suffice. One
hour before dinner time, place the water and tapioca

tapioca

in a

is

double

boiler,

parent, usually

and

until the

boil

about thirty minutes.

tapioca
Stir

it

is

trans-

often,

and

add the salt just before taking the tapioca from the fire.
Pare and core the apples, place in the cavity made by
each core two tea-spoonfuls of sugar, and divide the
juice of the lemon among the seven apples.
Place a
little dot of butter on top of each apple, arrange the apples
in a

until

baking-dish, pour

they

are

soft,

the

tapioca over them, and bake

usually

thirty

or

forty

Serve hot with cream and sugar.

BLACK PUDDING.
One
One

cupful of molasses.
cupful of

Two and
One
One

warm

water.

one-half cupfuls of flour.

cupful of raisins.

scanty tea-spoonful of soda.

One-half scant tea-spoonful of

One

egg.

salt.

minutes.

^^^ ^^ TTERN COOK-BOOK.

444

Place the water and molasses together, add the soda,

and

stir all well to

after

in a

the salt

and

stirring vigorously

Stone the raisins, chop them rather

each addition.

coarse and add them

mould

Add

dissolve the latter.

and then the egg well beaten,

flour

Butter a pudding

the last thing.

or a basin, turn the

mixture into

it,

set the basin

steamer over a kettle of boiling water, and steam two


Serve with the following

hours.

SUGAR SAUCE.
One

cupful of white sugar.

One-half cupful of butter.

Two

eggs.

Vanilla to flavor.

Rub
froth_y

the butter and sugar together until they form a

Separate the whites and yolks of the eggs,

cream.

them well into


and then add the beaten whites,
which have been whipped to a stiff froth. Beat all well
together, add the flavoring, and the sauce is then ready to
add

first

the yolks, well beaten, and stir

the butter and sugar

use.

FANCY PUDDING.
One

pint of milk.

Three eggs (whifes).


Three table-spoonfuls
Three table-spoonfuls

of corji-starch.

of sugar.

One-half tea-spoonful of

Dissolve the corn-starch in a


place the rest of the milk on the

and when

it

is

scalding,

latter boil three minutes,

salt.

little

of the cold milk,

fire

in a double-boiler,

add the corn-starch. Let the


and add the sugar and salt and

PUDDINGS.
then the whites of eggs beaten to a

445
stilf froth.

Cook

but

moment, remove the mixture from the fire, pour it into a


pudding-mould that has been wet in cold water, and set
it away to cool.
Make the following
a

FANCY SAUCE.
One

pint of milk.

Three eggs

(yolks).

Vattilla to flavor.

One-third cupful of sugar.

One

tea-spoonful of corn-starch.

One-third tea-spoonful of

Beat the yolks until


spoonfuls of the milk.
the corn-starch,

and

light,

Add

the

and when the

salt.

stir into them two table


same quantity of milk to

latter is well dissolved stir

the two mixtures vigorously together.


the milk on the

fire

scalding, turn into

it

in a

Place the rest of

double-boiler,

and when

it

is

the mixture of ^gg and corn-starch.

Let the whole boil two minutes, add the

salt and the


remove from the fire, and when the sauce is cold,
add the flavoring. Turn the puddfng out upon a platter,
pour the sauce about it, and serve.

sugar,

COTTAGE PUDDING.
One

cupful of milk.

Two

eggs.

One
One

table-spoonful of butter.

cupful of sugar.

Three tea-spoonfuls of baking-powder.


Flour to thicken, about one pint.

Rub

the butter and sugar to a cream, and

well beaten,

and then the

milk, stirring

add the ^gg^

all well.

Sift the

THE PA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

446

baking-powder over the top, and before


over
to

it

make

Stir well,

little flour.

a rather thick batter

stirring

buttered dish, and bake thirty minutes.

milk sauce.

it

in, sift

adding enough more flour


then pour the batter into a
Serve hot with

(See page 415.)

CHOCOLATE CUSTARD PUDDING.


One-half cupful of grated chocolate.

One and

one-half pint of milk.

Three table-spoonfuls

Two table-spoonfuls
Two eggs.

of sugar.

of corn-starch.

One-half tea-spoonful of

Two

Place the corn-starch

and dissolve

it

salt.

tea-spoonfuls of vanilla.

in

two table-spoonfuls

of the

milk

place the yolks of the v^ggs also in two

table-spoonfuls of the milk, and beat them thin v/ith a


fork

then place

rest of the milk


it

in the

boils, turn

two mixtures together.

the

on the

boil five

minutes or

solved.

Remove

fire in

grated chocolate,

the liquid from the

when

stir well,

and

when
let

it

until the chocolate is perfectly dis-

through a fine wire strainer


or boiler, and

Put the

a double-boiler, and

it

and

fire,

then return

it

boils again, stir into

it

strain

it

to the kettle

the mixture

and egg. Add the salt and sugar, stir


often and let the whole cook six or eight minutes.
Turn
the pudding into a pudding-dish, and add the vanilla.
Beat the whites of the eggs stiff, add one large table-

of

corn-starch

spoonful of sugar, lay the froth on top of the pudding,

and brown
for

sauce.

The above quantity is enough


The pudding is eaten cold, without

delicately.

six persons.

PUDDINGS.

447

MINUTE PUDDING.
One
One
One
One

Two

quart of milk.
pint of flour.

tea-spoonful of

salt.

tea-spoonful of butter.
eggs.

Beat the eggs well, and add the flour and enough of
make all smooth. Place the rest of the milk

the milk to

on the
in the

fire in

a double-boiler, and when scalding hot,

Cook

mixture of flour and egg.

the salt

and

and serve

butter,

NUTMEG
One

at

stir

ten minutes, add

once with

SAUCE.

pint of milk.

One-half cupful of sugar.

Nutmeg

to taste.

Place the sugar and milk together and


sufflcient

nutmeg

SVl^EDISH

This pudding

into

them

PUDDING.

to

be served hot.

Two

cupfuls of flour

is

sift

to flavor.

For

five

persons allow

One-half cupful of butter.

One-half cupful of sugar.

One-half tea-spoonful of

Four

Rub

the butter

salt.

eggs.

and sugar

to a cream,

and add the

yolks of the eggs, well beaten, then the salt and flour and
lastly the

beaten whites.

Butter five tea-cups, and pour

the batter into them, filling the cups but half

full.

Place

the cups in a steamer over a kettle of boiling water, and

THE FA TTERN COOK-BOOK.

448

Steam them thirty minutes, by which time the batter will


Turn the puddings out upon a hot platter,
fill the cups.

and pour around them a clear

BRANDY SAUCE.
Two

table-spoonfuls of butter.

Four table-spoonfuls
Four table-spoonfuls

One egg

of brandy.
of boiling water.

(white).

One-half cupful of powdered sugar.

Beat the butter to a cream, gradually add the sugar,

and light then add the white,


and stir well. When ready to
serve, add the brandy and the water, stand the bowl containing the sauce in a basin of boiling water on the fire,
and stir until the sauce is light and foamy. It is then

and beat
beaten

until

white

to a stiff

froth,

ready to use.
TIPSY

PUDDING.

made of any dry cake, sponge-cake being


The following recipe is calculated for six

This may be
preferred.

persons.

Saturate six slices of sponge cake with sherry,


to
is not soaked enough to fall
Place the cake in the serving dish, and pour over

taking care the cake


pieces.
it

the following

SOFT CUSTARD.

One

pint of milk.

Three eggs

(yolks).

One-half teaspoon ful of

Two
Beat the yolks

salt.

table-spoonfuls of sugar.

well,

and add

to

them

half a cupful of

PUDDINGS.
the milk

^g

place the rest of the milk in a double-boiler on


and when scalding hot, stir in the yolks, cook
one minute, and add the salt and sugar. The custard is
the

fire,

then ready to use.

pudding

If the

top

with

placed in a glass dish, decorate the

is

eggs prepared as follows

the whites of the

Beat the whites

stiff.

Have ready

a pint of boiling milk,

put in a spoonful of the egg, cook

it one minute, turn it


and cook one minute longer then take
it up, drain on a dish, and when quite free of milk, lay it
on top of the custard. This is called " poaching the
white."
Repeat the process until all the egg has been
prepared, and place a dot of jelly on top of each piece

on the other

of

side,

egg before sending the pudding


If the

pudding

is

to table.

served in a platter, beat the whites

add two table-spoonfuls of sugar and one tea-spoonegg on top of the pudding, and
brown in the oven.
stiff,

ful of vanilla, sprinkle the

RICE CARAMEL PUDDING.

One

cupful of rice.

One-half cupful of sugar.

Two
Two
One
One

Wash
water.

the rice,

Drain

off

eggs.

and a half pints

of milk.

tea-spoonful of salt.
stick of

cinnamon.

and soak

it

for three hours in plenty of

the water at the end of the time, place

and cinnamon in a double boiler with all but half


of the milk, and cook for two hours.
Place the
sugar in a small frying-pan, and stir until it turns brown
and becomes a liquid. Instantly pour the sugar into a
the rice

a cupful

-9

THE PA TTEKN COOK-BOOK.

450
three-piiiL

mould that has been well warmed on the back


and turn the mould around so that the sugar

of the range,

will coat all parts of

it.

As

sugar hardens quickly,

the