Math
Matrix

© All Rights Reserved

14 views

Math
Matrix

© All Rights Reserved

- Neural Network Package for Octave Developers Guide
- Linear Algebra - Syllabus
- Algebra u1
- Engineering Mathematics Kanodia
- c_asignment 14
- How Much Mathematics Does an IT Engineer Need to Learn to Get Into Data Science_machine Learning
- 18082015_B. Sc. (Hons.) -Statistics
- As & a Level Further Mathematics 2014 Syllabus
- Three Dimensional Dynamic Response of a Concrete Gravity Dam
- william-wittrick
- HWSolns_Math105_Sp2013
- b Com calicut univercity
- Importantquestions on Maths
- Application to Image Compression
- M3001T Ppt Video
- lunnon
- Matrices
- AE 483 Linear Algebra Review.pdf
- 07 Rr320203 Modelling of Power System Components
- mat 414-01 linear algebra ii

You are on page 1of 213

A square matrix is a matrix with the same number of rows and columns. An n-by-n matrix is

known as a square matrix of order n. Any two square matrices of the same order can be added

and multiplied. The entries aii form the main diagonal of a square matrix. They lie on the

imaginary line which runs from the top left corner to the bottom right corner of the matrix.

Main types[edit]

Name

Example with n = 3

Diagonal matrix

If all entries of A below the main diagonal are zero, A is called an upper triangular matrix.

Similarly if all entries of A above the main diagonal are zero, A is called a lower triangular

matrix. If all entries outside the main diagonal are zero, A is called adiagonal matrix.

Identity matrix[edit]

The identity matrix In of size n is the n-by-n matrix in which all the elements on the main

diagonal are equal to 1 and all other elements are equal to 0, e.g.

It is a square matrix of order n, and also a special kind of diagonal matrix. It is called

identity matrix because multiplication with it leaves a matrix unchanged:

AIn = ImA = A for any m-by-n matrix A.

A square matrix A that is equal to its transpose, i.e., A = AT, is a symmetric matrix. If

instead, A was equal to the negative of its transpose, i.e., A = AT, then A is a skewsymmetric matrix. In complex matrices, symmetry is often replaced by the concept

of Hermitian matrices, which satisfy A = A, where the star or asterisk denotes

the conjugate transpose of the matrix, i.e., the transpose of the complex

conjugate of A.

By the spectral theorem, real symmetric matrices and complex Hermitian matrices

have an eigenbasis; i.e., every vector is expressible as a linear combination of

eigenvectors. In both cases, all eigenvalues are real.[29] This theorem can be

generalized to infinite-dimensional situations related to matrices with infinitely many

rows and columns, see below.

Invertible matrix and its inverse[edit]

A square matrix A is called invertible or non-singular if there exists a matrix B such

that

AB = BA = In.[30][31]

If B exists, it is unique and is called the inverse matrix of A, denoted A1.

Definite matrix[edit]

Positive definite matrix

Indefinite matrix

Q(x,y) = 1/4 x2 + y2

(Ellipse).

(Hyperbola).

indefinite), if for all nonzero vectorsx Rn the associated quadratic form given by

Q(x) = xTAx

takes only positive values (respectively only negative values; both some

negative and some positive values).[32] If the quadratic form takes only nonnegative (respectively only non-positive) values, the symmetric matrix is

called positive-semidefinite (respectively negative-semidefinite); hence the

matrix is indefinite precisely when it is neither positive-semidefinite nor

negative-semidefinite.

A symmetric matrix is positive-definite if and only if all its eigenvalues are

positive, i.e., the matrix is positive-semidefinite and it is invertible.[33] The

table at the right shows two possibilities for 2-by-2 matrices.

Allowing as input two different vectors instead yields the bilinear

form associated to A:

BA (x, y) = xTAy.[34]

Orthogonal matrix[edit]

An orthogonal matrix is a square matrix with real entries whose columns

and rows are orthogonal unit vectors (i.e., orthonormal vectors).

Equivalently, a matrix A is orthogonal if its transpose is equal to

its inverse:

which entails

An orthogonal matrix A is necessarily invertible (with

inverse A1 = AT), unitary (A1 = A*), and normal (A*A = AA*).

The determinant of any orthogonal matrix is either +1 or 1.

Aspecial orthogonal matrix is an orthogonal matrix

with determinant +1. As a linear transformation, every

orthogonal matrix with determinant +1 is a pure rotation, while

every orthogonal matrix with determinant -1 is either a

pure reflection, or a composition of reflection and rotation.

The complex analogue of an orthogonal matrix is a unitary

matrix.

Main operations[edit]

Trace[edit]

The trace, tr(A) of a square matrix A is the sum of its diagonal

entries. While matrix multiplication is not commutative as

mentioned above, the trace of the product of two matrices is

independent of the order of the factors:

tr(AB) = tr(BA).

This is immediate from the definition of matrix multiplication:

transpose, i.e.,

tr(A) = tr(AT).

Determinant[edit]

Main article: Determinant

matrix. The determinant of this matrix is 1, as the

area of the green parallelogram at the right is 1, but

the map reverses the orientation, since it turns the

counterclockwise orientation of the vectors to a

clockwise one.

matrix A is a number encoding certain properties of

the matrix. A matrix is invertible if and only if its

determinant is nonzero. Its absolute value equals

the area (in R2) or volume (in R3) of the image of the

unit square (or cube), while its sign corresponds to

the orientation of the corresponding linear map: the

determinant is positive if and only if the orientation

is preserved.

The determinant of 2-by-2 matrices is given by

terms (rule of Sarrus). The more lengthy Leibniz

formula generalises these two formulae to all

dimensions.[35]

matrices equals the product of their

determinants:

det(AB) = det(A) det(B).[36]

Adding a multiple of any row to another

row, or a multiple of any column to another

column, does not change the determinant.

Interchanging two rows or two columns

affects the determinant by multiplying it by

1.[37] Using these operations, any matrix

can be transformed to a lower (or upper)

triangular matrix, and for such matrices the

determinant equals the product of the

entries on the main diagonal; this provides

a method to calculate the determinant of

any matrix. Finally, the Laplace

expansion expresses the determinant in

terms of minors, i.e., determinants of

smaller matrices.[38] This expansion can be

used for a recursive definition of

determinants (taking as starting case the

determinant of a 1-by-1 matrix, which is its

unique entry, or even the determinant of a

0-by-0 matrix, which is 1), that can be seen

to be equivalent to the Leibniz formula.

Determinants can be used to solve linear

systems using Cramer's rule, where the

division of the determinants of two related

square matrices equates to the value of

each of the system's variables.[39]

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors[edit]

Main article: Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

A number and a non-zero vector v satisfying

Av = v

an eigenvector of A, respectively.[nb

1][40]

not invertible, which is equivalentto

[41]

The polynomial pA in

an indeterminate X given by

evaluation the determinant

det(XInA) is called

the characteristic polynomial of A.

It is a monic

polynomial of degree n. Therefore

the polynomial equation pA() = 0

has at most n different solutions,

i.e., eigenvalues of the

matrix.[42] They may be complex

even if the entries of A are real.

According to the CayleyHamilton

theorem, pA(A) = 0, that is, the

result of substituting the matrix

itself into its own characteristic

polynomial yields the zero matrix.

Computational

aspects[edit]

Matrix calculations can be often

performed with different

techniques. Many problems can be

solved by both direct algorithms or

iterative approaches. For example,

the eigenvectors of a square matrix

can be obtained by finding

a sequence of

vectors xn converging to an

eigenvector when n tends

to infinity.[43]

To be able to choose the more

appropriate algorithm for each

specific problem, it is important to

determine both the effectiveness

and precision of all the available

these matters is called numerical

linear algebra.[44] As with other

numerical situations, two main

aspects are the complexity of

algorithms and their numerical

stability.

Determining the complexity of an

algorithm means finding upper

bounds or estimates of how many

elementary operations such as

additions and multiplications of

scalars are necessary to perform

some algorithm, e.g., multiplication

of matrices. For example,

calculating the matrix product of

two n-by-n matrix using the

definition given above

needs n3multiplications, since for

any of the n2 entries of the

product, n multiplications are

necessary. The Strassen

algorithm outperforms this "naive"

algorithm; it needs

only n2.807multiplications.[45] A refined

approach also incorporates specific

features of the computing devices.

In many practical situations

additional information about the

matrices involved is known. An

important case are sparse

matrices, i.e., matrices most of

whose entries are zero. There are

specifically adapted algorithms for,

say, solving linear

systems Ax = b for sparse

matrices A, such as the conjugate

gradient method.[46]

An algorithm is, roughly speaking,

numerically stable, if little

not lead to big deviations in the

result. For example, calculating the

inverse of a matrix via Laplace's

formula (Adj (A) denotes

the adjugate matrix of A)

A1 = Adj(A) / det(A)

may lead to significant

rounding errors if the

determinant of the matrix is

very small. The norm of a

matrix can be used to capture

the conditioning of linear

algebraic problems, such as

computing a matrix's inverse.[47]

Although most computer

languages are not designed

with commands or libraries for

matrices, as early as the

1970s, some engineering

desktop computers such as

the HP 9830had ROM

cartridges to add BASIC

commands for matrices. Some

computer languages such

as APL were designed to

manipulate matrices,

and various mathematical

programscan be used to aid

computing with matrices.[48]

Decomposition[edit

]

Main articles: Matrix

decomposition, Matrix

diagonalization, Gaussian

elimination and Montante's

method

There are several methods to

render matrices into a more

are generally referred to

as matrix

decomposition or matrix

factorization techniques. The

interest of all these techniques

is that they preserve certain

properties of the matrices in

question, such as determinant,

rank or inverse, so that these

quantities can be calculated

after applying the

transformation, or that certain

matrix operations are

algorithmically easier to carry

out for some types of matrices.

The LU decomposition factors

matrices as a product of lower

(L) and an upper triangular

matrices (U).[49] Once this

decomposition is calculated,

linear systems can be solved

more efficiently, by a simple

technique called forward and

back substitution. Likewise,

inverses of triangular matrices

are algorithmically easier to

calculate. The Gaussian

elimination is a similar

algorithm; it transforms any

matrix to row echelon

form.[50] Both methods proceed

by multiplying the matrix by

suitable elementary matrices,

which correspond to permuting

rows or columns and adding

multiples of one row to another

row. Singular value

decomposition expresses any

matrix A as a product UDV,

where Uand V are unitary

matrix.

An example of a matrix in

Jordan normal form. The grey

blocks are called Jordan

blocks.

gonalization expresses A as a

product VDV1, where D is a

diagonal matrix and V is a

suitable invertible

matrix.[51] If A can be written in

this form, it is

called diagonalizable. More

generally, and applicable to all

matrices, the Jordan

decomposition transforms a

matrix into Jordan normal form,

that is to say matrices whose

only nonzero entries are the

eigenvalues 1 to n of A,

placed on the main diagonal

and possibly entries equal to

one directly above the main

diagonal, as shown at the

right.[52] Given the

eigendecomposition,

the nth power of A (i.e., n-fold

iterated matrix multiplication)

can be calculated via

and the power of a

diagonal matrix can be

calculated by taking the

corresponding powers of

the diagonal entries, which

is much easier than doing

the exponentiation

for A instead. This can be

used to compute the matrix

exponential eA, a need

frequently arising in

solving linear differential

equations, matrix

logarithms and square

roots of matrices.[53] To

avoid numerically illconditionedsituations,

further algorithms such as

the Schur

decomposition can be

employed.[54]

Abstract

algebraic

aspects and

generalizations[

edit]

Matrices can be

generalized in different

ways. Abstract algebra

uses matrices with entries

in more general fields or

even rings, while linear

algebra codifies properties

of matrices in the notion of

linear maps. It is possible

to consider matrices with

infinitely many columns

and rows. Another

which can be seen as

higher-dimensional arrays

of numbers, as opposed to

vectors, which can often

be realised as sequences

of numbers, while matrices

are rectangular or twodimensional array of

numbers.[55] Matrices,

subject to certain

requirements tend to

form groups known as

matrix groups.

general entries[edit]

This article focuses on

matrices whose entries are

real or complex

numbers. However,

matrices can be

considered with much

more general types of

entries than real or

complex numbers. As a

first step of generalization,

any field, i.e.,

a set where addition, subtr

action, multiplication and di

vision operations are

defined and well-behaved,

may be used instead

of R or C, for

example rational

numbers or finite fields.

For example, coding

theory makes use of

matrices over finite fields.

Wherever eigenvalues are

considered, as these are

roots of a polynomial they

field than that of the entries

of the matrix; for instance

they may be complex in

case of a matrix with real

entries. The possibility to

reinterpret the entries of a

matrix as elements of a

larger field (e.g., to view a

real matrix as a complex

matrix whose entries

happen to be all real) then

allows considering each

square matrix to possess a

full set of eigenvalues.

Alternatively one can

consider only matrices with

entries in an algebraically

closed field, such as C,

from the outset.

More generally, abstract

algebra makes great use

of matrices with entries in

a ring R.[56] Rings are a

more general notion than

fields in that a division

operation need not exist.

The very same addition

and multiplication

operations of matrices

extend to this setting, too.

The set M(n, R) of all

square n-by-n matrices

over R is a ring

called matrix ring,

isomorphic to

the endomorphism ring of

the left R-module Rn.[57] If

the ring R is commutative,

i.e., its multiplication is

commutative, then M(n, R)

is a unitary

noncommutative

(unless n = 1) associative

algebra over R.

The determinant of square

matrices over a

commutative ring R can

still be defined using

the Leibniz formula; such a

matrix is invertible if and

only if its determinant

is invertible in R,

generalising the situation

over a field F, where every

nonzero element is

invertible.[58] Matrices

over superrings are

calledsupermatrices.[59]

Matrices do not always

have all their entries in the

same ring or even in any

ring at all. One special but

common case is block

matrices, which may be

considered as matrices

whose entries themselves

are matrices. The entries

need not be quadratic

matrices, and thus need

not be members of any

ordinary ring; but their

sizes must fulfil certain

compatibility conditions.

Relationship to

linear maps[edit]

Linear maps Rn Rm are

equivalent to m-byn matrices, as

described above. More

generally, any linear

map f: V W between

finite-dimensional vector

spaces can be described

by a matrix A = (aij), after

choosing bases v1,

..., vn of V, and w1,

..., wm of W (so n is the

dimension of V and m is

the dimension of W), which

is such that

In other words,

column j of A expresse

s the image of vj in

terms of the basis

vectors wi of W; thus

this relation uniquely

determines the entries

of the matrix A. Note

that the matrix

depends on the choice

of the bases: different

choices of bases give

rise to different,

but equivalent

matrices.[60] Many of

the above concrete

notions can be

reinterpreted in this

light, for example, the

transpose

matrix AT describes

the transpose of the

linear map given by A,

with respect to the dual

bases.[61]

These properties can

be restated in a more

natural way:

matrices with entries in

a field

with

multiplication as

composition

is equivalent to the

category of finite

dimensional vector

spaces and linear

maps over this field.

More generally, the set

of mn matrices can

be used to represent

the R-linear maps

between the free

modules Rm and Rn for

an arbitrary ring R with

unity.

When n = mcompositio

n of these maps is

possible, and this

gives rise to the matrix

ring of nn matrices

representing

the endomorphism

ring of Rn.

Matrix

groups[edit]

Main article: Matrix

group

A group is a

mathematical structure

consisting of a set of

objects together with

a binary operation, i.e.,

an operation

combining any two

objects to a third,

subject to certain

requirements.[62] A

objects are matrices

and the group

operation is matrix

multiplication is called

a matrix group.[nb

2][63]

Since in a group

be invertible, the most

general matrix groups

are the groups of all

invertible matrices of a

given size, called

the general linear

groups.

Any property of

matrices that is

preserved under matrix

products and inverses

can be used to define

further matrix groups.

For example, matrices

with a given size and

with a determinant of 1

form a subgroup of

(i.e., a smaller group

contained in) their

general linear group,

called a special linear

group.[64] Orthogonal

matrices, determined

by the condition

M M = I,

T

form

the orthogonal

group.[65] Every

orthogonal matrix

has determinant 1

or 1. Orthogonal

matrices with

determinant 1 form

a subgroup

called special

orthogonal group.

Every finite

group is isomorphi

c to a matrix

group, as one can

see by considering

the regular

representation of

the symmetric

group.[66] General

groups can be

studied using

matrix groups,

which are

comparatively

well-understood,

by means

of representation

theory.[67]

Infinite

matrices[edit]

It is also possible

to consider

matrices with

infinitely many

rows and/or

columns[68] even if,

being infinite

objects, one

cannot write down

such matrices

explicitly. All that

matters is that for

every element in

the set indexing

rows, and every

element in the set

indexing columns,

there is a welldefined entry

(these index sets

need not even be

subsets of the

natural numbers).

The basic

operations of

addition,

subtraction, scalar

multiplication and

transposition can

still be defined

without problem;

however matrix

multiplication may

involve infinite

summations to

define the resulting

entries, and these

are not defined in

general.

If R is any ring with

unity, then the ring

of endomorphisms

of

as a

right R module is

isomorphic to the

ring of column

finite

matrices

who

se entries are

indexed by

, and whose

columns each

contain only finitely

many nonzero

entries. The

endomorphisms

of M considered as

a left R module

result in an

analogous object,

the row finite

matrices

who

se rows each only

have finitely many

nonzero entries.

If infinite matrices

are used to

describe linear

maps, then only

those matrices can

be used all of

whose columns

have but a finite

number of nonzero

entries, for the

following reason.

For a matrix A to

describe a linear

map f: VW,

bases for both

spaces must have

been chosen;

recall that by

definition this

means that every

vector in the space

can be written

uniquely as a

(finite) linear

combination of

basis vectors, so

that written as a

(column)

vector v of

coefficients, only

finitely many

entries vi are

nonzero. Now the

columns

ofA describe the

images by f of

individual basis

vectors of V in the

basis of W, which

is only meaningful

if these columns

have only finitely

many nonzero

entries. There is

no restriction on

the rows

of A however: in

the

product Av there

are only finitely

many nonzero

coefficients

of v involved, so

every one of its

entries, even if it is

given as an infinite

sum of products,

involves only

finitely many

nonzero terms and

is therefore well

defined. Moreover

this amounts to

forming a linear

combination of the

columns of A that

effectively involves

only finitely many

of them, whence

the result has only

finitely many

nonzero entries,

because each of

those columns do.

One also sees that

products of two

matrices of the

given type is well

defined (provided

as usual that the

column-index and

row-index sets

match), is again of

the same type,

and corresponds

to the composition

of linear maps.

If R is a normed

ring, then the

condition of row or

column finiteness

can be relaxed.

With the norm in

place, absolutely

convergent

series can be used

instead of finite

sums. For

example, the

matrices whose

column sums are

absolutely

convergent

sequences form a

ring. Analogously

of course, the

matrices whose

row sums are

absolutely

convergent series

also form a ring.

matrices can also

be used to

describe operators

on Hilbert spaces,

where

convergence

and continuity que

stions arise, which

again results in

certain constraints

that have to be

imposed.

However, the

explicit point of

view of matrices

tends to obfuscate

the matter,[nb 3] and

the abstract and

more powerful

tools of functional

analysis can be

used instead.

Empty

matrices[edit]

An empty matrix is

a matrix in which

the number of

rows or columns

(or both) is

zero.[69][70] Empty

matrices help

dealing with maps

involving the zero

vector space. For

example, if A is a

3-by-0 matrix

and B is a 0-by-3

matrix, then AB is

the 3-by-3 zero

matrix

corresponding to

the null map from

a 3-dimensional

space V to itself,

while BA is a 0-by0 matrix. There is

no common

notation for empty

matrices, but

most computer

algebra

systems allow

creating and

computing with

them. The

determinant of the

0-by-0 matrix is 1

as follows from

regarding

the empty

product occurring

in the Leibniz

formula for the

determinant as 1.

This value is also

consistent with the

fact that the

identity map from

any finite

dimensional space

to itself has

determinant 1, a

fact that is often

used as a part of

the

characterization of

determinants.

Applicatio

ns[edit]

There are

numerous

applications of

matrices, both in

mathematics and

other sciences.

Some of them

merely take

advantage of the

compact

representation of a

set of numbers in

a matrix. For

example, in game

theory and econo

mics, the payoff

matrix encodes the

payoff for two

players, depending

on which out of a

given (finite) set of

alternatives the

players

choose.[71] Text

mining and

automated thesaur

us compilation

makes use

of document-term

matrices such

as tf-idf to track

frequencies of

certain words in

several

documents.[72]

Complex numbers

can be

represented by

particular real 2by-2 matrices via

under which

addition and

multiplication

of complex

numbers and

matrices

correspond to

each other.

For example,

2-by-2 rotation

matrices

represent the

multiplication

with some

complex

number

of absolute

value 1,

as above. A

similar

interpretation

is possible

for quaternion

s[73] and Cliffor

d algebras in

general.

Early encryptio

n techniques

such as

the Hill

cipher also

used matrices.

However, due

to the linear

nature of

matrices,

these codes

are

comparatively

easy to

break.[74] Comp

uter

graphics uses

matrices both

to represent

objects and to

calculate

transformation

s of objects

using

affine rotation

matrices to

accomplish

tasks such as

projecting a

threedimensional

object onto a

twodimensional

screen,

corresponding

to a theoretical

camera

observation.[75]

Matrices over

a polynomial

ring are

important in

the study

of control

theory.

Chemistry ma

kes use of

matrices in

various ways,

particularly

since the use

of quantum

theory to

discuss molec

ular

bonding and s

pectroscopy.

Examples are

the overlap

matrixand

the Fock

matrix used in

solving

the Roothaan

equations to

obtain

the molecular

orbitals of

the Hartree

Fock method.

Graph

theory[edit]

An

undirected

graph with

adjacency

matrix

The adjacency

matrix of

a finite

graph is a

basic notion

of graph

theory.[76] It

records which

vertices of the

graph are

connected by

an edge.

Matrices

containing just

two different

values (1 and

0 meaning for

example "yes"

and "no",

respectively)

are

called logical

matrices.

The distance

(or cost)

matrix contain

s information

about

distances of

the

edges.[77] Thes

e concepts

can be applied

to websites co

nnected hyperl

inks or cities

connected by

roads etc., in

which case

(unless the

road network

is extremely

dense) the

matrices tend

to be sparse,

i.e., contain

few nonzero

entries.

Therefore,

specifically

tailored matrix

algorithms can

be used

in network

theory.

Analysis

and

geometry[

edit]

The Hessian

matrix of

a differentiable

function : Rn

R consists

of the second

derivatives of

with respect

to the several

coordinate

directions,

i.e.[78]

At

the saddle

point (x = 0,

y = 0) (red)

of the

function f(x,

y)

= x2 y2,

the Hessian

matrix

is indefinite

.

It encodes

informatio

n about

the local

growth

behaviour

of the

function:

given

a critical

point x = (

x1, ..., xn),

i.e., a

point

where the

first partial

derivatives

of vanis

h, the

function

has a local

minimum i

f the

Hessian

matrix

is positive

definite. Q

uadratic

programmi

ng can be

used to

find global

minima or

maxima of

quadratic

functions

closely

related to

the ones

attached

to

matrices

(see abov

e).[79]

Another

matrix

frequently

used in

geometric

al

situations

is

the Jacobi

matrix of a

differentia

ble

map f: Rn

Rm. If f1,

..., fm deno

te the

componen

ts of f,

then the

Jacobi

matrix is

defined

as [80]

If n >

m,

and if

the

rank

of the

Jacobi

matrix

attains

its

maxim

al

value

m, f is

locally

inverti

ble at

that

point,

by

the im

plicit

functio

n

theore

m.[81]

Partial

differe

ntial

equati

ons ca

n be

classif

ied by

consid

ering

the

matrix

of

coeffic

ients

of the

highes

t-order

differe

ntial

operat

ors of

the

equati

on.

For ell

iptic

partial

differe

ntial

equati

ons thi

s

matrix

is

positiv

e

definit

e,

which

has

decisi

ve

influen

ce on

the

set of

possib

le

solutio

ns of

the

equati

on in

questi

on.[82]

The fi

nite

eleme

nt

metho

d is an

import

ant

numer

ical

metho

d to

solve

partial

differe

ntial

equati

ons,

widely

applie

d in

simula

ting

compl

ex

physic

al

syste

ms. It

attem

pts to

appro

ximate

the

solutio

n to

some

equati

on by

piece

wise

linear

functio

ns,

where

the

pieces

are

chose

n with

respe

ct to a

suffici

ently

fine

grid,

which

in turn

can

be

recast

as a

matrix

equati

on.[83]

Pro

babi

lity

theo

ry

and

stati

stic

s[edit

]

Tw

o

diff

ere

nt

Ma

rko

v

ch

ain

s.

Th

e

ch

art

de

pic

ts

the

nu

mb

er

of

par

ticl

es

(of

a

tot

al

of

10

00)

in

sta

te

"2"

.

Bot

h

limi

tin

g

val

ue

s

ca

n

be

det

er

mi

ne

d

fro

m

the

tra

nsi

tio

n

ma

tric

es,

whi

ch

are

giv

en

by

(re

d)

an

d

(bl

ac

k).

Stoch

astic

matric

es are

squar

e

matric

es

whose

rows

are pr

obabili

ty

vector

s, i.e.,

whose

entrie

s are

nonnegati

ve

and

sum

up to

one.

Stoch

astic

matric

es are

used

to

define

Mark

ov

chains

with

finitely

many

states.

[84]

row of

the

stocha

stic

matrix

gives

the

proba

bility

distrib

ution

for the

next

positio

n of

some

particl

e

curren

tly in

the

state

that

corres

ponds

to the

row.

Prope

rties

of the

Marko

v

chain

like ab

sorbin

g

states,

i.e.,

states

that

any

particl

e

attains

event

ually,

can

be

read

off the

eigenv

ectors

of the

transiti

on

matric

es.[85]

Statist

ics

also

makes

use of

matric

es in

many

differe

nt

forms.[

86]

Des

criptiv

e

statisti

cs is

conce

rned

with

descri

bing

data

sets,

which

can

often

be

repres

ented

as dat

a

matric

es,

which

may

then

be

subjec

ted

to dim

ension

ality

reduct

ion tec

hniqu

es.

Theco

varian

ce

matrix

enco

des

the

mutua

l varia

nce of

sever

al ran

dom

variabl

es.[87]

Anoth

er

techni

que

using

matric

es

are lin

ear

least

squar

es, a

metho

d that

appro

ximate

sa

finite

set of

pairs

(x1, y1)

,

(x2, y2)

, ...,

(xN, yN

), by a

linear

functio

n

yi axi + b, i = 1, ..., N

w

hi

ch

ca

n

be

fo

r

m

ul

at

ed

in

te

r

m

s

of

m

at

ric

es

,

rel

at

ed

to

th

e

si

ng

ul

ar

va

lu

e

de

co

m

po

sit

io

n

of

m

at

ric

es

.[88

]

R

an

do

m

m

at

ric

es

a

re

m

at

ric

es

w

ho

se

en

tri

es

ar

e

ra

nd

o

m

nu

m

be

rs,

su

bj

ec

t

to

su

ita

bl

e

pr

ob

ab

ilit

y

di

str

ib

uti

on

s,

su

ch

as

m

at

rix

no

r

m

al

di

str

ib

uti

on

.

B

ey

on

d

pr

ob

ab

ilit

y

th

eo

ry,

th

ey

ar

e

ap

pli

ed

in

do

m

ai

ns

ra

ng

in

g

fr

o

m

nu

m

be

r

th

eo

ry

to

ph

ys

ic

s.[

89][

90]

S

y

m

m

e

tr

ie

s

a

n

d

tr

a

n

s

f

o

r

m

a

ti

o

n

s

i

n

p

h

y

si

c

s[

e

di

t]

F

ur

th

er

inf

or

m

ati

on

:

S

y

m

m

et

ry

in

ph

ys

ic

s

Li

ne

ar

tr

an

sf

or

m

ati

on

s

an

d

th

e

as

so

ci

at

ed

s

y

m

m

et

rie

s

pl

ay

a

ke

y

rol

e

in

m

od

er

n

ph

ys

ic

s.

F

or

ex

a

m

pl

e,

el

e

m

en

ta

ry

pa

rti

cl

es

in

q

ua

nt

u

m

fie

ld

th

eo

ry

ar

e

cl

as

sif

ie

d

as

re

pr

es

en

tat

io

ns

of

th

e

Lo

re

nt

z

gr

ou

p

of

sp

ec

ial

rel

ati

vit

y

an

d,

m

or

e

sp

ec

ifi

ca

lly

,

by

th

eir

be

ha

vi

or

un

de

r

th

e

sp

in

gr

ou

p.

C

on

cr

et

e

re

pr

es

en

tat

io

ns

in

vo

lvi

ng

th

e

P

au

li

m

at

ric

es

a

nd

m

or

e

ge

ne

ral

g

a

m

m

a

m

at

ric

es

a

re

an

int

eg

ral

pa

rt

of

th

e

ph

ys

ic

al

de

sc

rip

tio

n

of

fe

r

mi

on

s,

w

hi

ch

be

ha

ve

as

s

pi

no

rs.

[91]

F

or

th

e

th

re

e

lig

ht

es

tq

ua

rk

s,

th

er

e

is

a

gr

ou

pth

eo

re

tic

al

re

pr

es

en

tat

io

n

in

vo

lvi

ng

th

e

sp

ec

ial

un

ita

ry

gr

ou

p

S

U(

3)

;

fo

r

th

eir

ca

lc

ul

ati

on

s,

ph

ys

ici

st

s

us

e

a

co

nv

en

ie

nt

m

at

rix

re

pr

es

en

tat

io

n

kn

o

w

n

as

th

e

G

ell

M

an

n

m

at

ric

es

,

w

hi

ch

ar

e

al

so

us

ed

fo

r

th

e

S

U(

3)

g

au

ge

gr

ou

pt

ha

t

fo

r

m

s

th

e

ba

si

s

of

th

e

m

od

er

n

de

sc

rip

tio

n

of

str

on

g

nu

cl

ea

r

int

er

ac

tio

ns

,q

ua

nt

u

m

ch

ro

m

od

yn

a

mi

cs

.

T

he

C

ab

ib

bo

K

ob

ay

as

hi

M

as

ka

w

a

m

at

rix

,

in

tu

rn

,

ex

pr

es

se

s

th

e

fa

ct

th

at

th

e

ba

si

c

qu

ar

k

st

at

es

th

at

ar

e

im

po

rt

an

t

fo

r

w

ea

k

int

er

ac

tio

ns

a

re

no

t

th

e

sa

m

e

as

,

bu

t

lin

ea

rly

rel

at

ed

to

th

e

ba

si

c

qu

ar

k

st

at

es

th

at

de

fin

e

pa

rti

cl

es

wi

th

sp

ec

ifi

c

an

d

di

sti

nc

t

m

as

se

s.[

92]

L

i

n

e

a

r

c

o

m

b

i

n

a

ti

o

n

s

o

f

q

u

a

n

t

u

m

s

t

a

t

e

s[

e

di

t]

T

he

fir

st

m

od

el

of

qu

an

tu

m

m

ec

ha

ni

cs

(

H

ei

se

nb

er

g,

19

25

)

re

pr

es

en

te

d

th

e

th

eo

ry'

s

op

er

at

or

s

by

inf

ini

te

di

m

en

si

on

al

m

at

ric

es

ac

tin

g

on

qu

an

tu

m

st

at

es

.[93

]

hi

s

is

al

so

re

fe

rr

ed

to

as

m

at

rix

m

ec

ha

ni

cs

.

O

ne

pa

rti

cu

lar

ex

a

m

pl

e

is

th

e

de

ns

ity

m

at

rix

th

at

ch

ar

ac

te

riz

es

th

e

"

mi

xe

d"

st

at

e

of

a

qu

an

tu

m

sy

st

e

m

as

a

lin

ea

r

co

m

bi

na

tio

n

of

el

e

m

en

ta

ry,

"p

ur

e"

ei

ge

ns

tat

es

.[94

]

A

no

th

er

m

at

rix

se

rv

es

as

a

ke

y

to

ol

fo

r

de

sc

rib

in

g

th

e

sc

att

eri

ng

ex

pe

ri

m

en

ts

th

at

fo

r

m

th

e

co

rn

er

st

on

e

of

ex

pe

ri

m

en

tal

pa

rti

cl

e

ph

ys

ic

s:

C

oll

isi

on

re

ac

tio

ns

su

ch

as

oc

cu

r

in

pa

rti

cl

e

ac

ce

ler

at

or

s,

w

he

re

no

nint

er

ac

tin

g

pa

rti

cl

es

he

ad

to

w

ar

ds

ea

ch

ot

he

r

an

d

co

lli

de

in

a

s

m

all

int

er

ac

tio

n

zo

ne

,

wi

th

a

ne

w

se

t

of

no

nint

er

ac

tin

g

pa

rti

cl

es

as

th

e

re

su

lt,

ca

n

be

de

sc

rib

ed

as

th

e

sc

al

ar

pr

od

uc

t

of

ou

tg

oi

ng

pa

rti

cl

e

st

at

es

an

d

a

lin

ea

r

co

m

bi

na

tio

n

of

in

go

in

g

pa

rti

cl

e

st

at

es

.

T

he

lin

ea

r

co

m

bi

na

tio

n

is

gi

ve

n

by

a

m

at

rix

kn

o

w

n

as

th

e

Sm

at

rix

,

w

hi

ch

en

co

de

s

all

inf

or

m

ati

on

ab

ou

t

th

e

po

ss

ibl

e

int

er

ac

tio

ns

be

tw

ee

n

pa

rti

cl

es

.[95

]

N

o

r

m

al

m

o

d

e

s[

e

di

t]

A

ge

ne

ral

ap

pli

ca

tio

n

of

m

at

ric

es

in

ph

ys

ic

s

is

to

th

e

de

sc

rip

tio

n

of

lin

ea

rly

co

up

le

d

ha

r

m

on

ic

sy

st

e

m

s.

T

he

e

qu

ati

on

s

of

m

oti

on

of

su

ch

sy

st

e

m

s

ca

n

be

de

sc

rib

ed

in

m

at

rix

fo

r

m,

wi

th

a

m

as

s

m

at

rix

m

ult

ipl

yi

ng

a

ge

ne

ral

iz

ed

ve

lo

cit

y

to

gi

ve

th

e

ki

ne

tic

te

r

m,

an

d

a

fo

rc

e

m

at

rix

m

ult

ipl

yi

ng

a

di

sp

la

ce

m

en

t

ve

ct

or

to

ch

ar

ac

te

riz

e

th

e

int

er

ac

tio

ns

.

T

he

be

st

w

ay

to

ob

tai

n

so

lut

io

ns

is

to

de

te

r

mi

ne

th

e

sy

st

e

m'

s

ei

ge

nv

ec

to

rs,

its

n

or

m

al

m

od

es

,

by

di

ag

on

ali

zi

ng

th

e

m

at

rix

eq

ua

tio

n.

T

ec

hn

iq

ue

s

lik

e

thi

s

ar

e

cr

uc

ial

w

he

n

it

co

m

es

to

th

e

int

er

na

l

dy

na

mi

cs

of

m

ol

ec

ul

es

:

th

e

int

er

na

l

vi

br

ati

on

s

of

sy

st

e

m

s

co

ns

ist

in

g

of

m

ut

ua

lly

bo

un

d

co

m

po

ne

nt

at

o

m

s.[

96]

T

he

y

ar

e

al

so

ne

ed

ed

fo

r

de

sc

rib

in

g

m

ec

ha

ni

ca

l

vi

br

ati

on

s,

an

d

os

cil

lat

io

ns

in

el

ec

tri

ca

l

cir

cu

its

.[97

]

G

e

o

m

e

tr

ic

al

o

p

ti

c

s[

e

di

t]

G

eo

m

et

ric

al

op

tic

s

pr

ov

id

es

fu

rt

he

r

m

at

rix

ap

pli

ca

tio

ns

.

In

thi

s

ap

pr

ox

im

ati

ve

th

eo

ry,

th

e

w

av

e

na

tu

re

of

lig

ht

is

ne

gl

ec

te

d.

T

he

re

su

lt

is

a

m

od

el

in

w

hi

ch

li

gh

t

ra

ys

a

re

in

de

ed

ge

o

m

et

ric

al

ra

ys

. If

th

e

de

fle

cti

on

of

lig

ht

ra

ys

by

op

tic

al

el

e

m

en

ts

is

s

m

all

,

th

e

ac

tio

n

of

al

en

s

or

re

fle

cti

ve

el

e

m

en

t

on

a

gi

ve

n

lig

ht

ra

y

ca

n

be

ex

pr

es

se

d

as

m

ult

ipl

ic

ati

on

of

a

tw

oco

m

po

ne

nt

ve

ct

or

wi

th

a

tw

oby

tw

o

m

at

rix

ca

lle

d

ra

y

tr

an

sf

er

m

at

rix

:

th

e

ve

ct

or'

s

co

m

po

ne

nt

s

ar

e

th

e

lig

ht

ra

y'

s

sl

op

e

an

d

its

di

st

an

ce

fr

o

m

th

e

op

tic

al

ax

is,

w

hil

e

th

e

m

at

rix

en

co

de

s

th

e

pr

op

er

tie

s

of

th

e

op

tic

al

el

e

m

en

t.

A

ct

ua

lly

,

th

er

e

ar

e

tw

o

ki

nd

s

of

m

at

ric

es

,

vi

z.

a

re

fr

ac

tio

n

m

at

rix

d

es

cri

bi

ng

th

e

re

fr

ac

tio

n

at

a

le

ns

su

rf

ac

e,

an

d

at

ra

ns

lat

io

n

m

at

rix

,

de

sc

rib

in

g

th

e

tr

an

sl

ati

on

of

th

e

pl

an

e

of

re

fe

re

nc

e

to

th

e

ne

xt

re

fr

ac

tin

g

su

rf

ac

e,

w

he

re

an

ot

he

r

re

fr

ac

tio

n

m

at

rix

ap

pli

es

.

T

he

op

tic

al

sy

st

e

m,

co

ns

ist

in

g

of

a

co

m

bi

na

tio

n

of

le

ns

es

an

d/

or

re

fle

cti

ve

el

e

m

en

ts,

is

si

m

pl

y

de

sc

rib

ed

by

th

e

m

at

rix

re

su

lti

ng

fr

o

m

th

e

pr

od

uc

t

of

th

e

co

m

po

ne

nt

s'

m

at

ric

es

.[98

]

E

le

c

tr

o

n

ic

s[

e

di

t]

Tr

ad

iti

on

al

m

es

h

an

al

ys

is

in

el

ec

tr

on

ic

s

le

ad

s

to

a

sy

st

e

m

of

lin

ea

r

eq

ua

tio

ns

th

at

ca

n

be

de

sc

rib

ed

wi

th

a

m

at

rix

.

T

he

be

ha

vi

ou

r

of

m

an

y

el

ec

tr

on

ic

co

m

po

ne

nt

s

ca

n

be

de

sc

rib

ed

us

in

g

m

at

ric

es

.

Le

t

A

be

a

2di

m

en

si

on

al

ve

ct

or

wi

th

th

e

co

m

po

ne

nt'

s

in

pu

t

vo

lta

ge

v1

a

nd

in

pu

t

cu

rr

en

t i1

a

s

its

el

e

m

en

ts,

an

d

let

B

b

e

a

2di

m

en

si

on

al

ve

ct

or

wi

th

th

e

co

m

po

ne

nt'

s

ou

tp

ut

vo

lta

ge

v2

a

nd

ou

tp

ut

cu

rr

en

t i2

a

s

its

el

e

m

en

ts.

T

he

n

th

e

be

ha

vi

ou

r

of

th

e

el

ec

tr

on

ic

co

m

po

ne

nt

ca

n

be

de

sc

rib

ed

by

B

=

H

A,

w

he

re

H

is

a

2

x

2

m

at

rix

co

nt

ai

ni

ng

on

ei

m

pe

da

nc

e

el

e

m

en

t

(h

12

,

on

e

ad

mi

tta

nc

e

el

e

m

en

t

(h

21

an

d

tw

o

di

m

en

si

on

le

ss

el

e

m

en

ts

(h

11

an

d

h22

).

C

al

cu

lat

in

g

a

cir

cu

it

no

w

re

du

ce

s

to

m

ult

ipl

yi

ng

m

at

ric

es

.

H

i

s

t

o

r

y

[e

di

t]

M

at

ric

es

ha

ve

a

lo

ng

hi

st

or

y

of

ap

pli

ca

tio

n

in

so

lvi

ng

li

ne

ar

eq

ua

tio

ns

b

ut

th

ey

w

er

e

kn

o

w

n

as

ar

ra

ys

un

til

th

e

18

00

s.

T

he

C

hi

ne

se

te

xt

T

he

Ni

ne

C

ha

pt

er

s

on

th

e

M

at

he

m

ati

ca

l

Ar

tw

ritt

en

in

10

th

2n

d

ce

nt

ur

y

B

C

E

is

th

e

fir

st

ex

a

m

pl

e

of

th

e

us

e

of

ar

ra

y

m

et

ho

ds

to

so

lv

e

si

m

ult

an

eo

us

eq

ua

tio

ns

,[99

nc

lu

di

ng

th

e

co

nc

ep

t

of

de

te

r

mi

na

nt

s.

In

15

45

Ita

lia

n

m

at

he

m

ati

ci

an

G

iro

la

m

o

C

ar

da

no

b

ro

ug

ht

th

e

m

et

ho

d

to

E

ur

op

e

w

he

n

he

pu

bli

sh

ed

A

rs

M

ag

na

.[10

0]

T

he

J

ap

an

es

e

m

at

he

m

ati

ci

an

S

ek

iu

se

d

th

e

sa

m

e

ar

ra

y

m

et

ho

ds

to

so

lv

e

si

m

ult

an

eo

us

eq

ua

tio

ns

in

16

83

.[10

1]

T

he

D

ut

ch

M

at

he

m

ati

ci

an

J

an

de

W

itt

re

pr

es

en

te

d

tr

an

sf

or

m

ati

on

s

us

in

g

ar

ra

ys

in

hi

s

16

59

bo

ok

E

le

m

en

ts

of

C

ur

ve

s(

16

59

).[1

02]

B

et

w

ee

n

17

00

an

d

17

10

G

ott

fri

ed

W

ilh

el

m

Le

ib

ni

z

pu

bli

ci

ze

d

th

e

us

e

of

ar

ra

ys

fo

r

re

co

rdi

ng

inf

or

m

ati

on

or

so

lut

io

ns

an

d

ex

pe

ri

m

en

te

d

wi

th

ov

er

50

dif

fe

re

nt

sy

st

e

m

s

of

ar

ra

ys

.[10

0]

Cr

a

m

er

p

re

se

nt

ed

hi

s

rul

ei

n

17

50

.

T

he

te

r

m

"

m

at

rix

"

(L

ati

nf

or

"w

o

m

b"

,

de

riv

ed

fr

o

m

m

at

er

m

ot

he

r[10

3]

w

as

co

in

ed

by

Ja

m

es

Jo

se

ph

S

yl

ve

st

er

in

18

50

,[10

4]

w

ho

un

de

rst

oo

d

a

m

at

rix

as

an

ob

je

ct

gi

vi

ng

ris

e

to

a

nu

m

be

r

of

de

te

r

mi

na

nt

s

to

da

y

ca

lle

d

mi

no

rs,

th

at

is

to

sa

y,

de

te

r

mi

na

nt

s

of

s

m

all

er

m

at

ric

es

th

at

de

riv

e

fr

o

m

th

e

ori

gi

na

l

on

e

by

re

m

ov

in

g

co

lu

m

ns

an

d

ro

w

s.

In

an

18

51

pa

pe

r,

S

yl

ve

st

er

ex

pl

ai

ns

:

I have in previous papers defined a "Matrix" as a rectangular array of terms, out of which

different systems of determinants may be engendered as from the womb of a common

parent.[105]

A

r

t

h

u

r

C

a

y

l

e

y

p

u

b

l

i

s

h

e

d

a

t

r

e

a

t

i

s

e

o

n

g

e

o

m

e

t

r

i

c

t

r

a

n

s

f

o

r

m

a

t

i

o

n

s

u

s

i

n

g

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

t

h

a

t

w

e

r

e

n

o

t

r

o

t

a

t

e

d

v

e

r

s

i

o

n

s

o

f

t

h

e

c

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

s

b

e

i

n

g

i

n

v

e

s

t

i

g

a

t

e

d

a

s

h

a

d

p

r

e

v

i

o

u

s

l

y

b

e

e

n

d

o

n

e

.

I

n

s

t

e

a

d

h

e

d

e

f

i

n

e

d

o

p

e

r

a

t

i

o

n

s

s

u

c

h

a

s

a

d

d

i

t

i

o

n

,

s

u

b

t

r

a

c

t

i

o

n

,

m

u

l

t

i

p

l

i

c

a

t

i

o

n

,

a

n

d

d

i

v

i

s

i

o

n

a

s

t

r

a

n

s

f

o

r

m

a

t

i

o

n

s

o

f

t

h

o

s

e

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

a

n

d

s

h

o

w

e

d

t

h

e

a

s

s

o

c

i

a

t

i

v

e

a

n

d

d

i

s

t

r

i

b

u

t

i

v

e

p

r

o

p

e

r

t

i

e

s

h

e

l

d

t

r

u

e

.

C

a

y

l

e

y

i

n

v

e

s

t

i

g

a

t

e

d

a

n

d

d

e

m

o

n

s

t

r

a

t

e

d

t

h

e

n

o

n

c

o

m

m

u

t

a

t

i

v

e

p

r

o

p

e

r

t

y

o

f

m

a

t

r

i

x

m

u

l

t

i

p

l

i

c

a

t

i

o

n

a

s

w

e

l

l

a

s

t

h

e

c

o

m

m

u

t

a

t

i

v

e

p

r

o

p

e

r

t

y

o

f

m

a

t

r

i

x

a

d

d

i

t

i

o

n

.

[

1

0

0

]

E

a

r

l

y

m

a

t

r

i

x

t

h

e

o

r

y

h

a

d

l

i

m

i

t

e

d

t

h

e

u

s

e

o

f

a

r

r

a

y

s

a

l

m

o

s

t

e

x

c

l

u

s

i

v

e

l

y

t

o

d

e

t

e

r

m

i

n

a

n

t

s

a

n

d

A

r

t

h

u

r

C

a

y

l

e

y

'

s

a

b

s

t

r

a

c

t

m

a

t

r

i

x

o

p

e

r

a

t

i

o

n

s

w

e

r

e

r

e

v

o

l

u

t

i

o

n

a

r

y

.

H

e

w

a

s

i

n

s

t

r

u

m

e

n

t

a

l

i

n

p

r

o

p

o

s

i

n

g

a

m

a

t

r

i

x

c

o

n

c

e

p

t

i

n

d

e

p

e

n

d

e

n

t

o

f

e

q

u

a

t

i

o

n

s

y

s

t

e

m

s

.

I

n

1

8

5

8

C

a

y

l

e

y

p

u

b

l

i

s

h

e

d

h

i

s

M

e

m

o

i

r

o

n

t

h

e

t

h

e

o

r

y

o

f

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

[

1

0

6

]

[

1

0

7

]

i

n

w

h

i

c

h

h

e

p

r

o

p

o

s

e

d

a

n

d

d

e

m

o

n

s

t

r

a

t

e

d

t

h

e

C

a

y

l

e

y

H

a

m

i

l

t

o

n

t

h

e

o

r

e

m

.

[

1

0

0

]

A

n

E

n

g

l

i

s

h

m

a

t

h

e

m

a

t

i

c

i

a

n

n

a

m

e

d

C

u

l

l

i

s

w

a

s

t

h

e

f

i

r

s

t

t

o

u

s

e

m

o

d

e

r

n

b

r

a

c

k

e

t

n

o

t

a

t

i

o

n

f

o

r

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

i

n

1

9

1

3

a

n

d

h

e

s

i

m

u

l

t

a

n

e

o

u

s

l

y

d

e

m

o

n

s

t

r

a

t

e

d

t

h

e

f

i

r

s

t

s

i

g

n

i

f

i

c

a

n

t

u

s

e

t

h

e

n

o

t

a

t

i

o

n

A

=

[

a

i

,

j

]

t

o

r

e

p

r

e

s

e

n

t

a

m

a

t

r

i

x

w

h

e

r

e

a

i

,

j

r

e

f

e

r

s

t

o

t

h

e

i

t

h

r

o

w

a

n

d

t

h

e

j

t

h

c

o

l

u

m

n

.

[

1

0

0

]

T

h

e

s

t

u

d

y

o

f

d

e

t

e

r

m

i

n

a

n

t

s

s

p

r

a

n

g

f

r

o

m

s

e

v

e

r

a

l

s

o

u

r

c

e

s

.

[

1

0

8

]

N

u

m

b

e

r

t

h

e

o

r

e

t

i

c

a

l

p

r

o

b

l

e

m

s

l

e

d

G

a

u

s

s

t

o

r

e

l

a

t

e

c

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

s

o

f

q

u

a

d

r

a

t

i

c

f

o

r

m

s

,

i

.

e

.

,

e

x

p

r

e

s

s

i

o

n

s

s

u

c

h

a

s

x

2

+

x

y

2

y

2

,

a

n

d

l

i

n

e

a

r

m

a

p

s

i

n

t

h

r

e

e

d

i

m

e

n

s

i

o

n

s

t

o

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

.

E

i

s

e

n

s

t

e

i

n

f

u

r

t

h

e

r

d

e

v

e

l

o

p

e

d

t

h

e

s

e

n

o

t

i

o

n

s

,

i

n

c

l

u

d

i

n

g

t

h

e

r

e

m

a

r

k

t

h

a

t

,

i

n

m

o

d

e

r

n

p

a

r

l

a

n

c

e

,

m

a

t

r

i

x

p

r

o

d

u

c

t

s

a

r

e

n

o

n

c

o

m

m

u

t

a

t

i

v

e

.

C

a

u

c

h

y

w

a

s

t

h

e

f

i

r

s

t

t

o

p

r

o

v

e

g

e

n

e

r

a

l

s

t

a

t

e

m

e

n

t

s

a

b

o

u

t

d

e

t

e

r

m

i

n

a

n

t

s

,

u

s

i

n

g

a

s

d

e

f

i

n

i

t

i

o

n

o

f

t

h

e

d

e

t

e

r

m

i

n

a

n

t

o

f

a

m

a

t

r

i

x

A

=

[

a

i

,

j

]

t

h

e

f

o

l

l

o

w

i

n

g

:

r

e

p

l

a

c

e

t

h

e

p

o

w

e

r

s

a

j

k

b

y

a

j

k

i

n

t

h

e

p

o

l

y

n

o

m

i

a

l

,

w

h

e

r

d

e

n

o

t

e

s

t

h

e

p

r

o

d

u

c

t

o

f

t

h

e

i

n

d

i

c

a

t

e

d

t

e

r

m

s

.

H

e

a

l

s

o

s

h

o

w

e

d

,

i

n

1

8

2

9

,

t

h

a

t

t

h

e

e

i

g

e

n

v

a

l

u

e

s

o

f

s

y

m

m

e

t

r

i

c

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

a

r

e

r

e

a

l

.

[

1

0

9

]

J

a

c

o

b

i

s

t

u

d

i

e

d

"

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

a

l

d

e

t

e

r

m

i

n

a

n

t

s

"

l

a

t

e

r

c

a

l

l

e

d

J

a

c

o

b

i

d

e

t

e

r

m

i

n

a

n

t

s

b

y

S

y

l

v

e

s

t

e

r

w

h

i

c

h

c

a

n

b

e

u

s

e

d

t

o

d

e

s

c

r

i

b

e

g

e

o

m

e

t

r

i

c

t

r

a

n

s

f

o

r

m

a

t

i

o

n

s

a

t

a

l

o

c

a

l

(

o

r

i

n

f

i

n

i

t

e

s

i

m

a

l

)

l

e

v

e

l

,

s

e

e

a

b

o

v

e

;

K

r

o

n

e

c

k

e

r

'

s

V

o

r

l

e

s

u

n

g

e

n

b

e

r

d

i

e

T

h

e

o

r

i

e

d

e

r

D

e

t

e

r

m

i

n

a

n

t

e

n

[

1

1

0

]

a

n

d

W

e

i

e

r

s

t

r

a

s

s

'

Z

u

r

D

e

t

e

r

m

i

n

a

n

t

e

n

t

h

e

o

r

i

e

,

[

1

1

1

]

b

o

t

h

p

u

b

l

i

s

h

e

d

i

n

1

9

0

3

,

f

i

r

s

t

t

r

e

a

t

e

d

d

e

t

e

r

m

i

n

a

n

t

s

a

x

i

o

m

a

t

i

c

a

l

l

y

,

a

s

o

p

p

o

s

e

d

t

o

p

r

e

v

i

o

u

s

m

o

r

e

c

o

n

c

r

e

t

e

a

p

p

r

o

a

c

h

e

s

s

u

c

h

a

s

t

h

e

m

e

n

t

i

o

n

e

d

f

o

r

m

u

l

a

o

f

C

a

u

c

h

y

.

A

t

t

h

a

t

p

o

i

n

t

,

d

e

t

e

r

m

i

n

a

n

t

s

w

e

r

e

f

i

r

m

l

y

e

s

t

a

b

l

i

s

h

e

d

.

M

a

n

y

t

h

e

o

r

e

m

s

w

e

r

e

f

i

r

s

t

e

s

t

a

b

l

i

s

h

e

d

f

o

r

s

m

a

l

l

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

o

n

l

y

,

f

o

r

e

x

a

m

p

l

e

t

h

e

C

a

y

l

e

y

H

a

m

i

l

t

o

n

t

h

e

o

r

e

m

w

a

s

p

r

o

v

e

d

f

o

r

2

2

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

b

y

C

a

y

l

e

y

i

n

t

h

e

a

f

o

r

e

m

e

n

t

i

o

n

e

d

m

e

m

o

i

r

,

a

n

d

b

y

H

a

m

i

l

t

o

n

f

o

r

4

4

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

.

F

r

o

b

e

n

i

u

s

,

w

o

r

k

i

n

g

o

n

b

i

l

i

n

e

a

r

f

o

r

m

s

,

g

e

n

e

r

a

l

i

z

e

d

t

h

e

t

h

e

o

r

e

m

t

o

a

l

l

d

i

m

e

n

s

i

o

n

s

(

1

8

9

8

)

.

A

l

s

o

a

t

t

h

e

e

n

d

o

f

t

h

e

1

9

t

h

c

e

n

t

u

r

y

t

h

e

G

a

u

s

s

J

o

r

d

a

n

e

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

(

g

e

n

e

r

a

l

i

z

i

n

g

a

s

p

e

c

i

a

l

c

a

s

e

n

o

w

k

n

o

w

n

a

s

G

a

u

s

s

e

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

)

w

a

s

e

s

t

a

b

l

i

s

h

e

d

b

y

J

o

r

d

a

n

.

I

n

t

h

e

e

a

r

l

y

2

0

t

h

c

e

n

t

u

r

y

,

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

a

t

t

a

i

n

e

d

a

c

e

n

t

r

a

l

r

o

l

e

i

n

l

i

n

e

a

r

a

l

g

e

b

r

a

.

[

1

1

2

]

p

a

r

t

i

a

l

l

y

d

u

e

t

o

t

h

e

i

r

u

s

e

i

n

c

l

a

s

s

i

f

i

c

a

t

i

o

n

o

f

t

h

e

h

y

p

e

r

c

o

m

p

l

e

x

n

u

m

b

e

r

s

y

s

t

e

m

s

o

f

t

h

e

p

r

e

v

i

o

u

s

c

e

n

t

u

r

y

.

T

h

e

i

n

c

e

p

t

i

o

n

o

f

m

a

t

r

i

x

m

e

c

h

a

n

i

c

s

b

y

H

e

i

s

e

n

b

e

r

g

,

B

o

r

n

a

n

d

J

o

r

d

a

n

l

e

d

t

o

s

t

u

d

y

i

n

g

m

a

t

r

i

c

e

s

w

i

t

h

i

n

f

i

n

i

t

e

l

y

m

a

n

y

r

o

w

s

a

n

d

c

o

l

u

m

n

s

.

[

1

1

3

]

L

a

t

e

r

,

v

o

n

N

e

u

m

a

n

n

c

a

r

r

i

e

d

o

u

t

t

h

e

m

a

t

h

e

m

a

t

i

c

a

l

f

o

r

m

u

l

a

t

i

o

n

o

f

q

u

a

n

t

u

m

m

e

c

h

a

n

i

c

s

,

b

y

f

u

r

t

h

e

r

d

e

v

e

l

o

p

i

n

g

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

a

l

a

n

a

l

y

t

i

c

n

o

t

i

o

n

s

s

u

c

h

a

s

l

i

n

e

a

r

o

p

e

r

a

t

o

r

s

o

n

H

i

l

b

e

r

t

s

p

a

c

e

s

,

w

h

i

c

h

,

v

e

r

y

r

o

u

g

h

l

y

s

p

e

a

k

i

n

g

,

c

o

r

r

e

s

p

o

n

d

t

o

E

u

c

l

i

d

e

a

n

s

p

a

c

e

,

b

u

t

w

i

t

h

a

n

i

n

f

i

n

i

t

y

o

f

i

n

d

e

p

e

n

d

e

n

t

d

i

r

e

c

t

i

o

n

s

.

O

t

h

e

r

h

i

s

t

o

r

i

c

a

l

u

s

a

g

e

s

o

f

t

h

e

w

o

r

d

m

a

t

r

i

x

i

n

m

a

t

h

e

m

a

t

i

c

s

[

e

d

i

t

]

T

h

e

w

o

r

d

h

a

s

b

e

e

n

u

s

e

d

i

n

u

n

u

s

u

a

l

w

a

y

s

b

y

a

t

l

e

a

s

t

t

w

o

a

u

t

h

o

r

s

o

f

h

i

s

t

o

r

i

c

a

l

i

m

p

o

r

t

a

n

c

e

.

B

e

r

t

r

a

n

d

R

u

s

s

e

l

l

a

n

d

A

l

f

r

e

d

N

o

r

t

h

W

h

i

t

e

h

e

a

d

i

n

t

h

e

i

r

P

r

i

n

c

i

p

i

a

M

a

t

h

e

m

a

t

i

c

a

(

1

9

1

0

1

9

1

3

)

u

s

e

t

h

e

w

o

r

d

m

a

t

r

i

x

i

n

t

h

e

c

o

n

t

e

x

t

o

f

t

h

e

i

r

A

x

i

o

m

o

f

r

e

d

u

c

i

b

i

l

i

t

y

.

T

h

e

y

p

r

o

p

o

s

e

d

t

h

i

s

a

x

i

o

m

a

s

a

m

e

a

n

s

t

o

r

e

d

u

c

e

a

n

y

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

t

o

o

n

e

o

f

l

o

w

e

r

t

y

p

e

,

s

u

c

c

e

s

s

i

v

e

l

y

,

s

o

t

h

a

t

a

t

t

h

e

b

o

t

t

o

m

(

0

o

r

d

e

r

)

t

h

e

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

i

s

i

d

e

n

t

i

c

a

l

t

o

i

t

s

e

x

t

e

n

s

i

o

n

:

Let us give the name of matrix to any function, of however many variables, which does

not involve any apparent variables. Then any possible function other than a matrix is

derived from a matrix by means of generalization, i.e., by considering the proposition

which asserts that the function in question is true with all possible values or with some

value of one of the arguments, the other argument or arguments remaining

undetermined.[114]

F

o

r

e

x

a

m

p

l

e

a

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

(

x

,

y

)

o

f

t

w

o

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

s

x

a

n

d

y

c

a

n

b

e

r

e

d

u

c

e

d

t

o

a

c

o

l

l

e

c

t

i

o

n

o

f

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

s

o

f

a

s

i

n

g

l

e

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

,

e

.

g

.

,

y

,

b

y

c

o

n

s

i

d

e

r

i

n

g

t

h

e

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

f

o

r

a

l

l

p

o

s

s

i

b

l

e

v

a

l

u

e

s

o

f

i

n

d

i

v

i

d

u

a

l

s

a

i

s

u

b

s

t

i

t

u

t

e

d

i

n

p

l

a

c

e

o

f

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

x

.

A

n

d

t

h

e

n

t

h

e

r

e

s

u

l

t

i

n

g

c

o

l

l

e

c

t

i

o

n

o

f

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

s

o

f

t

h

e

s

i

n

g

l

e

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

y

,

i

.

e

.

,

a

i

(

a

i

,

y

)

,

c

a

n

b

e

r

e

d

u

c

e

d

t

o

a

m

a

t

r

i

x

o

f

v

a

l

u

e

s

b

y

c

o

n

s

i

d

e

r

i

n

g

t

h

e

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

f

o

r

a

l

l

p

o

s

s

i

b

l

e

v

a

l

u

e

s

o

f

i

n

d

i

v

i

d

u

a

l

s

b

i

s

u

b

s

t

i

t

u

t

e

d

i

n

p

l

a

c

e

o

f

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

y

:

bjai: (ai, bj).

A

l

f

r

e

d

T

a

r

s

k

i

i

n

h

i

s

1

9

4

6

I

n

t

r

o

d

u

c

t

i

o

n

t

o

L

o

g

i

c

u

s

e

d

t

h

e

w

o

r

d

m

a

t

r

i

x

s

y

n

o

n

y

m

o

u

s

l

y

w

i

t

h

t

h

e

n

o

t

i

o

n

o

f

t

r

u

t

h

t

a

b

l

e

a

s

u

s

e

d

i

n

m

a

t

h

e

m

a

t

i

c

a

l

l

o

g

i

c

.

[

1

1

5

]

- Neural Network Package for Octave Developers GuideUploaded byGean Kleber
- Linear Algebra - SyllabusUploaded bymichache
- Algebra u1Uploaded byEdgar Conrado
- Engineering Mathematics KanodiaUploaded bykumarmkishore
- c_asignment 14Uploaded byMubarak Ali
- How Much Mathematics Does an IT Engineer Need to Learn to Get Into Data Science_machine LearningUploaded byhamedfazelm
- 18082015_B. Sc. (Hons.) -StatisticsUploaded byTavishi Singh
- As & a Level Further Mathematics 2014 SyllabusUploaded byShawn
- Three Dimensional Dynamic Response of a Concrete Gravity DamUploaded byBMWrider1453
- william-wittrickUploaded byMec Inov
- HWSolns_Math105_Sp2013Uploaded byGlazylynCortezPalo
- b Com calicut univercityUploaded byfarhan ok
- Importantquestions on MathsUploaded bysatyag24
- Application to Image CompressionUploaded byjeysam
- M3001T Ppt VideoUploaded bycheckarun
- lunnonUploaded byGeorge Louis
- MatricesUploaded byShaho Abdulqader Mohamedali
- AE 483 Linear Algebra Review.pdfUploaded bypuhumight
- 07 Rr320203 Modelling of Power System ComponentsUploaded byandhracolleges
- mat 414-01 linear algebra iiUploaded byapi-76053330
- diseño2Uploaded byMaciel Ramirez
- Brochure GEKKO v2.3Uploaded byKoufi
- final exam reviewUploaded byapi-237333666
- NA-Ch.03 Problems.pptxUploaded byMohammed
- CanadaUploaded bycuandotunoestas
- lec22.pdfUploaded bymukeshmyst
- ErrataUploaded byNamal Wanninayake
- Set 1Uploaded byHusain Qutbuddin
- bear boosters matrix operationsUploaded byapi-255155256
- IntroToLinearDynamicalSystems-Lecture01Uploaded byigormassao

- The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes[1]Uploaded byHarsha
- For MuleUploaded byhal9001
- Matrix MultiplicationUploaded byeminasal
- Row OperationsUploaded byeminasal
- Zbirka Rijetenih Zadataka i Problema Iz Matematike Sa Osnovama Teorije i Ispitni Zadaci Mesihovic ArslanagicUploaded byeminasal
- Sub MatrixUploaded byeminasal
- Linear Equations[Edit]Uploaded byeminasal
- Linear TransformationsUploaded byeminasal
- Square MatricesUploaded byeminasal
- MatrixUploaded byeminasal
- DefinitionUploaded byeminasal
- NotationUploaded byeminasal
- Basic OperationsUploaded byeminasal
- halalUploaded bymslatif1

- Rock PhysicsUploaded bymohamed_books
- THE REVIEW OF TRANSIENT STABILITY BETWEEN SHUNT AND SERIES FACTS CONTROLLERSUploaded byUGCJOURNAL PUBLICATION
- Scott Onstott - Taking Measure - Explorations in Number, Architecture and Consciousness.pdfUploaded bypep
- Contribution of Great Mathematician S.ramanujan in MathematicsUploaded byVikas Mehta
- Ec6402 Ct Add QbUploaded byImmanuel Vinoth
- R30D Drehwinkelaufnehmer EnUploaded byJay R SV
- D1 Specimen PaperUploaded byhallixrap
- Complete Autocad ComandsUploaded byThirunagaru Sandeep Gupta
- ngai2011.pdfUploaded bySwakkhar Shatabda
- CKEG_Day3Uploaded byNuman
- Pe 010 503 Advanced Mechanics OfmaterialsUploaded byyogeshwararao
- jw7981Uploaded byacetilen
- Letter from Greater Cincinnati Water Works to CPSUploaded byCarrie
- Customer Lifetime Value ModelsUploaded bypraveen_bpgc
- IGNOU-B-Sc-PHE09-Optics.pdfUploaded byMadhusudan Ghosh
- AMOS TutorialUploaded byIbrahim Osman Adam
- Lambda Tuning RulesUploaded byHéctor Hernández Malerva
- CHEE319_tutorial1Uploaded byMansour Abdulaziz
- Stat 321 Sept 12Uploaded byConnor
- Eamcet Qr Chemistry Sr Chem 08.Thermodynamics 133-153Uploaded byJagadeesh Goli
- Deepsoil User Manual v6Uploaded byJoy Mondal
- ELECTRIC CIRCUIT NOTE CHAPTER 2.pdfUploaded bynurul najihah
- Petrel 2016 What's NewUploaded byalpes27
- Ncert Physics11 SolutionUploaded byRebel Mad
- Preacher&10msemformediationUploaded byEduardo Farias
- Compressor Foundation 1Uploaded bymasood_khalid
- CFLabSheet1Uploaded byCiscoexam Fdo
- Undergraduate TextUploaded byReed M. Eldridge
- teaching resumeUploaded byapi-274919215
- Priority Driven SchedulingUploaded byKhakhariaHétál