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Central Nervous System

The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the two parts of the nervous system. The other
is the peripheral nervous system which includes nerves in the organs, muscles, arms, and
legs. The CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord. It is the "control center" for the
entire body and regulates how the body will function.
The average brain weighs 3 pounds (1.3 kg) and contains 100 billion nerve cells, or
neurons. The skull encloses the brain in bone. The brain contains three main areas: the
cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the medulla oblongata. The cerebrum is the conscious part
of the brain, while the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata form the part of the brain
that controls unconscious behavior.
The medulla oblongata, along with the pons, regulates heartbeat, blood pressure,
breathing, and reflexes such as swallowing and coughing. It is in the part of the brain
known as the hindbrain and is nearest to the spinal cord. The cerebellum, connected to the
back of the brainstem, is also part of the hindbrain. It coordinates fine motor movement
and regulates balance and posture.
The cerebrum is in the forebrain and relates to the central nervous system functioning of
reasoning, intelligence, learning, and memory. It also regulates sensory and motor
controls. The cerebrum is the biggest part of the brain and is divided into the left and right
hemispheres. The corpus callosum separates the cerebral hemispheres and is made up of
nerve fibers.
The cerebral cortex is the covering on the brain's two hemispheres. Much of the sensory
and motor control functioning of the central nervous system is located in the four divisions
of the cerebral cortex lobes. The four divisions are the occipital, temporal, parietal, and
frontal lobes.
The occipital lobe relates to the functioning of the eye and its visual messages. The
temporal lobe relates to the ear and its processing of sounds. The parietal lobe relates to
sensory messages such as taste, touch, pain, pressure, and temperature sensations such
as hot or cold. The frontal lobe relates to thought, speech, and motor skills. All four lobes
work together to help the body function.
The spinal cord section of the central nervous system connects the brain to the body. It is
enclosed by the backbone, or vertebral column. Nerve cells work two ways between the
brain and the spinal cord: they carry messages to the brain from the rest of the body and
they carry messages from the brain to the rest of the body.
Endocrine System
The endocrine system is a collection of glands and organs that produce and regulate
hormones in the bloodstream to control many functions of the body. This system overlaps
with the nervous system and exocrine system, and its responsibilities include metabolism,
growth and sexual development. Most animals that have advanced physiology, such as
vertebrates and crustaceans, have an endocrine system.

the proper message must reach its intended destination to be effective. the pituitary gland is often called the master gland because it controls the functioning of other members of the endocrine system. For example. To a lesser degree. Relation between the Central Nervous System and the Endocrine System The endocrine system and nervous system are both essential to the communication and relay of messages throughout the body. but they did know that hormones are important for maintaining homeostasis — a healthy balanced state within the body. Hormones Hormones that are made in the body's glands work like messages. which regulates people's sleeping cycles. which controls how much sugar is kept circulating in the bloodstream. however. hypothalmus and pineal gland in the brain. which informs the cell what to do next. while the nervous system is more concerned with impulses and neurological signals that trigger action. For this reason. but the two systems also overlap and work together in a few important respects. nor do they have the same fertility levels throughout their lives. The glands of a person's endocrine system control many things. particularly when it comes to homeostasis. certain hormones are designed to end up only at certain cells. adrenal glands and pancreas in the abdomen. Just like with other types of communication. . The endocrine system regulates these cycles to ensure that the body has the appropriate amount of energy and the proper fertility levels. The pancreas produces insulin. It also is responsible for long-term development such as bone growth and short-term cycle stages such as hunger. Regulating Cycles The endocrine system can be thought of as the system that determines the cycles of the body. organs such as the heart. As of early 2012. Both systems depend on communication between cells to relay messages. it might be told to start making energy out of sugar or to trigger ovulation. For example. the thymus. scientists did not completely understand the roles of all hormones. the thyroid and parathyroids in the neck. sleep cycles and nutrition cycles. and the target cell won't react to any chemical other than its special hormone. In most cases they work in different ways and have different means of transmitting their signals from one place to another. The hormones produced by these glands are far too numerous and complicated to list. such as reproductive cycles. called target cells. People don't need to eat at perfectly spaced intervals to have a constant supply of energy.Glands The major glands of the endocrine system are the pituitary gland. lungs and stomach are involved in hormone management. it links to a receptor spot. As a general rule the endocrine system is responsible for regulating hormones and using hormone-based signals to change the body’s responses. After the hormone reaches the correct cell. and the gonads — either ovaries or testes — in the lower abdomen. Pineal glands makes melatonin. such as when he or she falls asleep and when the person reaches his or her adult height. The hormone won't interfere with a non-target cell.

muscles. and a section of the brain known as the hypothalamus affects the behavior of the each system. for example. and the peripheral nervous system. and it is basically a collection of cells that dictate the body’s response to external stimuli. too. tissues.though. don’t usually travel down defined nerves or pathways. which are chemicals that course through the body after their release from the brain’s pituitary region. Basics of Nerve Signals Nerve signals are the most numerous. The biggest difference usually comes down to how and why the communications are happening. They are secreted into the bloodstream and are subsequently taken to various cells. Role in Homeostasis . Hormonal messages are chemical byproducts of endocrine glands. It also influences the endocrine system. which is generally understood to be the brain and spinal column. These chemicals then transfer information or instructions to cells related to organs. rather. In order to serve its purpose. the endocrine system uses a series of glands for the secretion of hormones. The pituitary gland is the most important gland in the system because it produces hormones that influence the behavior of other endocrine cells. and they travel along distinct routes. from the basic to the very complex. which is the nerve networks that extend out of the spine and to most parts of the body. The nervous system also sends messages throughout the body that help ensure that the body functions in an optimal manner. These depend on fast-moving neurons that travel though the central nervous system. by contrast. they are linked via the hypothalamus. This sort of communication is usually most concerned with sensation. Signals touch everything from internal organs to the tips of fingers and toes. they are carried in hormones. Endocrine Function Signals that start in the endocrine system. Chemicals produced by this part of the brain increase or decrease the amount of hormones released by the pituitary gland. and reproduction. and also generally the most complex. Understanding Chemical Communications Cell-based communication has a huge role in many of the body’s functions. and because of the pituitary gland’s importance to hormonal messaging. like pain and temperature sensitivity. It uses the nervous system to control breathing during strenuous physical activity and digestion after large meals. control here makes the hypothalamus a key part of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus is located in the center of the brain near the brain stem. Glands are cells that identify certain materials in the bloodstream in order to convert them into chemicals that can be used in other areas of the body. Hypothalamus Links Although the two systems are distinct and work independent of each other. Both the endocrine and nervous systems are primarily responsible for regulating and controlling signals so that things happen the way they should.

sound. and digestion. the nervous system controls short term behavior like breathing.Both the endocrine system and nervous system are also essential when it comes to allowing the body to maintain homeostasis. . smell. touch and taste. as well as sensory behavior like sight. This is achieved through the adjustment of the bodily functions regulated by the endocrine and nervous systems. While the endocrine system primarily governs long term behavior such as growth. sweating. Homeostasis is the state reached when each part of the body functions in equilibrium with every other part.