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Mark T. Greenberg Ph.D.

Bennett Chair of Prevention Research
Director, Prevention Research Center
College of Health and Human Development
PHE 814 863-0112
FAX 814 863-7963
Email: mxg47@psu.edu

Dear Colleague:
Thank you for your request for information concerning the research that we have
conducted on adolescents’ perceived attachment to peers and parents. First, we have
enclosed a copy of the article that you requested which appeared in the Journal of Youth
and Adolescence in 1987. This article introduced the Inventory of Parent and Peer
Attachment. We have also enclosed an information scoring manual that provides
information on our factor analyses of the scales, information on reliability of the scales,
and a scoring key.
Since the study reported in the1987 paper was carried out, we have revised the IPPA. In
her dissertation, Gay Armsden modified the IPPA in order to separately assess perceived
quality of attachment to mothers and fathers (instead of parents together). We have
enclosed a copy of this unpublished measure, The IPPA (Mother, Father, Peer Version),
and a page of scoring information. The measures have been used in a study of over 400
college students and Gay has found (with minor changes) that most of the same items fall
on the same factors for mothers and father separately that we found in the factor analysis
of parents together on the IPPA. We have included scoring for this version (both total
score for Mother, Father, and Peer) as well as subscale scores.
If you have further questions, please feel free to call (814 863-0112) or e-mail Gay
Armsden at (armsden@seanet.com), or write. If you decide to use our measures in data
collection, please let us know. We would also appreciate a copy of papers that utilize the
measure(s).
Sincerely,

Mark T. Greenberg, Ph.D.
Professor

Gay Armsden, Ph.D.
Research Consultant

1

INVENTORY OF PARENT AND PEER ATTACHMENT (IPPA)

AUTHORS:
Ph.D.

Gay Armsden, Ph.D.
Research Consultant
230 Ilihau St..
Kailua, HI 96734

Mark T. Greenberg,
Professor
Human Development
Penn State University
State College, PA 16802

Variables Measured:

version)

Parent and Peer Attachment (original version)
Mother, Father, and Peer Attachment (revised

Instrument Description:
The IPPA was developed in order to assess adolescents’ perceptions of
the positive and negative affective/cognitive dimension of
relationships with their parents and close friends -- particularly how
well these figures serve as sources of psychological security. The
theoretical framework is attachment theory, originally formulated by
Bowlby and recently expanded by others. Three broad dimensions are
assessed: degree of mutual trust; quality of communication; and
extent of anger and alienation. The development samples were 16 to
20 years of age; however the IPPA has been used successfully in
several studies with adolescents as young as 12. The instrument is a
self-report questionnaire with a five point likert-scale response format.
The original version consists of 28 parents and 25 peer items, yielding
two attachment scores. The revised version (Mother, Father, Peer
Version) is comprised of 25 items in each of the mother, father, and
peer sections, yielding three attachment scores. The IPPA is scored by
reverse-scoring the negatively worded items and then summing the
response values in each section.

and is strongly negatively correlated with loneliness. Attachment to parents has been found to discriminate delinquents from non-delinquents among 12. less secure parent attachment was related to clinical diagnosis of depression. parent rating of the adolescent’s depressive symptoms. Peer attachment.87. covert anger. parental attachment scores are moderately to highly related to Family and Social Self scores from the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and to most subscales on the Family Environmental Scale (Armsden & Greenberg.to 20-yearolds were . and with the degree of positive family coping (communication among family members and relatives concerning problems) (Lewis. & Mitchell. The relationship of attachment and affective status holds even when degree of negative life-change is . parent and peer attachment are correlated with positiveness and stability of selfesteem. & Lopez. Late adolescents experiencing more secure mother and father attachment report less conflict between their parents and experience less loneliness (Armsden. 1991). 1986). . Armsden. 1986. McCauley. life-satisfaction. Peer attachment is modestly correlated with parent attachment as assessed by the IPPA as well as measures of general family functioning and self concept as family member (Armsden & Greenberg. Martin. Parent attachment scores of 12to 18-year-olds are also moderately correlated with scores on the FACES. Woods.86 for peer attachment. For the revised version. 1986). Armsden. resentment/alienation. and loneliness) (Armsden & Greenberg. 1987..to 16-year-old psychiatric patients. Burke. Greenberg.93 for parent attachment and . anxiety. Among late adolescents. Father attachment. & Ellison. 1987. 1987).89. internal reliabilities (Cronbach’s alpha) are: Mother attachment. and affective status (depression. VALIDITY: Among late adolescents. 1986). In a sample of 10. 1987). . Fernandez.to 17-year-olds (Redondo. Peer attachment is positively related to social self concept as assessed by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and family expressiveness on the Family Environment Scale. .2 RELIABILITY: Three week test-retest reliabilities for a sample of 27 18. Scores on the IPPA have also been found to be associated with a number of personality variables. and to patient’s self-reported level of depression (Armsden. Lewis et al.92. 1987).

E. Family impact study. the authors recommend its use over the original version whenever possible.. and coping with loss. 18. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. (1984). and to a lesser extent. parent attachment. self-esteem. is associated with self-reported tendencies toward the use of more problem-solving coping strategies relative to emotion-managing efforts in stressful situations (Armsden.. J. Lewis et al. University of Washington. peers. October. Among early to middle adolescents. 427-454. negligible but significant positive correlations were obtained between attachment and parents’ education levels (Armsden. M. C. 1986). The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Relationships to well-being in adolescence. 1987). Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Attachment to parents and peers in late adolescence: Relationships to affective status. peer attachment. 16 (5). 1986. Division of Nursing... . 373-386. and Greenberg. threat and challenges. & Leitch. and Mitchell. University of Washington. P. Father... G. (Doctoral Dissertation. M.. T.3 controlled (Armsden & Greenberg. SUGGESTIONS IN USAGE: (1) The revised version of the IPPA (Mother. R01-NUO1000. Armsden... G. F. 1987).T. Unpublished report. 47(4). Public Health Service. 1986). N. 12(5). C. Burke. Parent and peer attachment in early adolescence depression. (1987).T. J. Woods. 1986). C.F.. E. G. McCauley. (1991). 683-692. Greenberg. REFERENCES: Armsden. (1987). M. Quality of attachment to parents and to a lesser extent. Scores on the IPPA were not found to be significantly related to socioeconomic status among a sample of 400 18. Available on microfilm. 1987. Ellison. Lewis.. M.to 20-year-olds. Dissertation Abstracts International. (1986). The nature and importance of attachment relationships to parents and peers during adolescence. Greenberg. Siegal. Peer version) separately assesses mother and father attachment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Armsden. In the same study. were found to be associated with lesser hopelessness and less externally oriented locus of control and with greater self-management (coping) skills (Armsden et al.

. . M. M. (1986). L. Unpublished manuscript. & Lopez. J. L.4 Redondo. An examination of the relationship between family environment and juvenile delinquency. University of Santiago..S. A. J.. Martin. Chile. Fernandez.

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Directly-scored Parent Subscales Items Reversescored Items Trust (10 items) 1 2 4 13 14 21 23 24 3 10 Communicatio n (10 items) 6 8 16 17 20 26 28 Alienation (8 items) 9 11 12 18 19 22 25 27 5 7 15 ---- Peer Subscales Trust (10 items) Communicatio n (8 items) 6 8 12 13 14 15 19 20 21 1 2 3 7 16 17 24 25 5 ---- .10 **ORIGINAL VERSION** INVENTORY OF PARENT AND PEER ATTACHMENT (IPPA) (Parent and Peer Version) SCORING INSTRUCTIONS Calculation of Total Parent and Peer Attachment Scores Separate Parent Attachment and Peer Attachment summary scores are obtained by reverse-scoring items as listed below. Responses to negatively worded items must be reverse-scored before calculations. Subscale Scoring (see Table below) The original IPPA has three Parent and Peer subscales. Subscale scores are computed by summing the item responses. It is necessary to also reverse score all Alienation subscale items.

11 Alienation (7 items) 4 9 10 11 18 22 23 ---- .

77 28 .72 .66 .63 .62 .59 8 .59 .65 PEER ATTACHMENT SCALES Item Number 5 6 8 12 13 14 15 19 20 21 ALIENA TION Item Number 4 9 10 11 18 22 TRUST Item-total .45 .75 Item-total correlation .60 .73 .57 .73 .75 17 .64 ALIENATION Item-total Correlation .75 .57 .57 .75 26 .70 .73 .61 .72 .44 Item Number 1 2 3 7 16 17 24 25 COMMUNICATION Item-total .59 .51 .75 .71 .61 15 .56 .60 .40 .63 .63 16 .68 .72 .27 .68 .68 Item Number 9 11 12 18 19 22 25 27 TRUST Item Number Item-total 1 2 3 4 10 13 14 21 23 24 .57 .58 .55 .67 7 .12 INVENTORY OF PARENT AND PEER ATTACHMENT (IPPA): (Parent and Peer Version) ITEM-TOTAL CORRELATIONS* PARENT ATTACHMENT SCALES COMMUNICATION Item Number Item-total correlation 5 .53 6 .74 .80 20 .76 .46 .59 .74 .69 .

13 * Correlation between item scores and the total score (excluding that item) .

Armsden. Greenberg.D.14 INVENTORY OF PARENT AND PEER ATTACHMENT: (MOTHER. University of Washington Seattle. Attachment Scale Items to be reverse-scored Mother 3 6 8 9 10 11 14 17 18 23 Father 3 6 8 9 10 11 14 17 18 23 Peer Authors: 4 5 9 10 11 18 22 23 Mark T. Father. WA 98195-1525 . FATHER AND PEER VERSION) SCORING INSTRUCTIONS Mother. Ph.. and Gay C. Ph.D. Department of Psychology. and Peer Attachment scores are calculated by (1)reverse-scoring the items whose numbers are listed below and (2)summing all 25 items for each scale.

but . making their independence questionable. FATHER. PEER VERSION) How to Score the Revised Version in Order to Use the Original IPPA Subscales SUBSCALE ITEM NUMBER ON REVISED VERSION Direct-scored items Reverse-scored items Parent Trust 1 2 4 12 13 20 21 22 3 9 Parent Communication 5 7 15 16 19 24 25 6 14 Parent Alienation 8 10 11 17 18 23 Peer Trust 6 8 12 13 14 15 19 20 21 Peer Communication 1 2 3 7 16 17 24 25 Peer Alienation 4 9 10 11 18 22 23 5 *Some of these subscales are highly correlated on the original version of the instrument.15 INVENTORY OF PARENT AND PEER ATTACHMENT: (MOTHER. Initial investigation of the dimensional structure of the revised version suggests a similar structure.

16 some differences exist between Mother and Father Attachment in item-content of the dimensions. . Further investigation is warranted.

1 2 3 4 5 21. Please read the directions to each part carefully.i upset about something. I like to get my mother’s point of view on things I’m concerned about. so I don’t bother her with mine. My mother can tell when I’m 1 2 3 4 5 23.D. 1 2 3 4 5 6. My mother has her own problems. I trust my mother. I get upset a lot more than my mother knows about. My mother trusts my judgment. Talking over my problems with my mother makes me feel ashamed or foolish. My mother doesn’t understand what I’m going through these days. 1 2 3 4 5 4. 1 2 3 4 5 19. My mother respects my feeling. Please read each statement and circle the ONE number that tells how true the statement is for you now. 1 2 3 4 5 7. a natural mother and a step-mother) answer the questions for the one you feel has most influenced you. 1 2 3 4 5 22. 1 2 3 4 5 16. I wish I had a different mother. I don’t get much attention from my mother. When I am angry about something. I feel it’s no use letting my feelings show around my mother.g. 1 2 3 4 5 Some of the following statements asks about your feelings about your mother or the person who has acted as your mother. 1 2 3 4 5 13. 1 Almost Never or Never True Not Very Often True Sometimes True Often True Almost Always or Always True 1 2 3 4 5 This questionnaire asks about your relationships with important people in your life. If you have more than one person acting as your mother (e. My mother understands me. 1 2 3 4 5 12. I feel angry with my mother. 1 2 3 4 5 1 Address for Dr. 1 2 3 4 5 5. 1 2 3 4 5 2. My mother accepts me as I am. State College. and your close friends. I tell my mother about my problems and troubles. 1 2 3 4 5 Part I 10. Ph. My mother helps me to understand myself better. Greenberg. Ph. 1 2 3 4 5 18. of Human Development. Penn State University. 8. Almost Never or Never True Not Very Often True Sometimes True Often True 1. 1 2 3 4 5 15. my mother tries to be understanding. 9. my mother cares about my point of view. 1 2 3 4 5 17. 1 2 3 4 5 3. My mother helps me to talk about my difficulties. your mother. My mother expects too much from me. I get upset easily around my mother. 1 2 3 4 5 11. INVENTORY OF PARENT AND PEER ATTACHMENT (IPPA) Authors:  Gay Armsden. Greenberg: Dept. PA 16802. and Mark T. 1 2 3 4 5 20. I feel my mother does a good job as my mother. your father.D. 1 2 3 4 5 14. Almost Always or Always True . When we discuss things.

ii 24. If my mother knows something is bothering me. 25. she asks me about it. I can count on my mother when I need to get something off my chest. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 .

I tell my father about my problems and troubles 1 2 3 4 5 17. I like to get my father’s point of view on things I’m concerned about. My father helps me to understand myself better. I trust my father. 1 2 3 4 5 15. My father doesn’t understand what I’m going through these days. 1 2 3 4 5 18. 1 2 3 4 5 11. I feel it’s no use letting my feelings show around my father. natural and step-father) answer the question for the one you feel has most influenced you. 24. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 21. I can count on my father when I need to get something off my chest. I feel my father does a good job as my father. My father trusts my judgment. 1 2 3 4 5 25. 1 2 3 4 5 20. When I am angry about something. I feel angry with my father 1 2 3 4 5 Almost Never or Never True Not Very Often True Sometimes True Often True 1. my father cares about my point of view. 23. My father expects too much from me. Talking over my problems with my father makes me feel ashamed or foolish. so I don’t bother him with mine. 6. I get upset a lot more than my father knows about. 1 2 3 4 5 14. 1 2 3 4 5 19. I don’t get much attention from my father. or the man who has acted as your father. My father can tell when I’m upset about something. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 7. If you have more than one person acting as your father (e.iii Part II This part asks about your feelings bout your father. If my father knows something is bothering me. 1 2 3 4 5 5. 1 2 3 4 5 2. My father accepts me as I am. . My father helps me to talk about my difficulties. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 8. 1 2 3 4 5 4. I wish I had a different father. he asks me about it. 1 2 3 4 5 12. 1 2 3 4 5 10. Almost Always or Always True Almost Never or Never True Not Very Often True Sometimes True Often True Almost Always or Always True 16. 22. My father understands me. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 9. 1 2 3 4 5 3. I get upset easily around my father. My father respects my feelings. 1 2 3 4 5 13.g. My father has his own problems. my father tries to be understanding. When we discuss things.

I feel angry with my friends. 8. 1 2 3 4 5 24. Talking over my problems with friends makes me feel ashamed or foolish. 1 2 3 4 5 6. 1 2 3 4 5 11. My friends care about how I am 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 7. they ask me about it. When we discuss things. I can tell my friends about my problems and troubles. 1 2 3 4 5 2. 1 2 3 4 5 14. 1 2 3 4 5 3. My friends don’t understand what I’m going through these days. 1 2 3 4 5 15. 1 2 3 4 5 12. 1 2 3 4 5 13. I wish I had different friends. . My friends are fairly easy to talk to. My friends understand me. my friends care about my point of view. Part III This part asks about your feelings about your relationships with your close friends. My friends accept me as I am. I feel alone or apart when I am with my friends. my friends try to be understanding. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Almost Never or Never True Not Very Often True Sometimes True Often True Almost Always or Always True Almost Never or Never True Not Very Often True Sometimes True Often True Almost Always or Always True 18. 1 2 3 4 5 19. 1 2 3 4 5 25. I like to get my friend’s point of view on things I’m concerned about.iv feeling. If my friends know something is bothering me. I feel my friends are good friends. my friends encourage me to talk about my difficulties. My friends respect my feelings. 1 2 3 4 5 5. When I am angry about something. 1 2 3 4 5 21. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 9. 1 2 3 4 5 23. I feel the need to be in touch with my friends more often. I get upset a lot more than my friends know about. It seems as if my friends are irritated with me for no reason. 1 2 3 4 5 16. 17. Please read each statement and circle the ONE number that tells how true the statement is for you now. My friends can tell when I’m upset about something. I trust my friends. 1 2 3 4 5 10. 1 2 3 4 5 1. My friends listen to what I have to say. My friends help me to understand myself better. 1 2 3 4 5 22. 1 2 3 4 5 20. I can count on my friends when I need to get something off my chest.