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Mode-Matching Design of Substrate-Integrated

Waveguide Couplers
Zamzam Kordiboroujeni , Jens Bornemann and Thomas Sieverding

Department o/Electrical and Computer Engineering, University o/Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6, Canada


Mician GmbH, 28195Bremen, Germany


- A mode-matching based full-wave analysis method

According to this paper, if the square vias are chosen properly,

is deployed to design H-plane substrate integrated waveguide

their electrical behaviour would be equivalent to circular vias

(SIW) couplers. In order to apply simple and straightforward

within good accuracy over a broad range of frequencies. Three

mode-matching techniques, commonly used circular vias are

equivalencies between square and circular vias have been

replaced by proper square ones. K-band and W-band SIW

investigated here: first, square and circular vias have the same

directional couplers are designed with square vias, and then
analyzed and validated by commercially available full-wave field
solvers using circular vias. Comparisons with measurements on a
Ka-band SIW coupler with circular vias verify the analysis and
design procedure.


circular via. It has been found that the arithmetic mean of the





increased significantly towards using this new technology in








and easy integration capabilities of planar structures [2].





paper is replaced by a square via whose side length l,quare is








(1 1/ "L


to the diameter d r

ci clilar of the circular via hole.


Coupler Design and Theory
As SIWs are planar realizations of traditional waveguide

During the past few years, different types of microwave


related by


waveguide structures, SIW also utilizes low cost, low profile



every circular via in the SIW coupler designs presented in this

Inheriting low radiation loss, acceptable Q-factor and high


consistently provided the best match in our simulations. Thus


Waveguide (SIW) concept in 2001 [1], attention has been

mean of the inscribed and circumscribed squares of the


cross sections; second, the side length of the equivalent square
via is equal to the arithmetic mean, and third, the geometric

circuits [2], the fastest approach to an initial design of an SIW

technology, e.g. filters [3]-[5], couplers [6]-[9], mixers [10],

coupler is to apply coupler design principles known from all­

[11], and power dividers [12], [13]. Although these SIW

dielectric-filled waveguide H-plane couplers, e.g. [20]. This

structures are mainly designed using commercially available

initial design is then translated to SIW topology with square

full-wave field solvers such as CST Microwave Studio or

vias in order to apply the MMT. Fine optimization on this

Ansoft HFSS, some analytical approaches have been deployed

SIW structure completes the design.

recently to investigate SIW properties and introduce faster

The square vias in the optimized couplers are then replaced

design procedures [14]-[ I 7]. As there is a reduced set of

by circular vias according to (1) and analyzed with full-wave

modes in SIW structures (only TEmo modes), modal analysis

field simulators.

techniques would be an efficient choice.


One of these analytical methods, which is based on the
Mode-Matching Technique (MMT), has been demonstrated to

The theory deployed in this paper is predominantly based

run many times faster than typical field solvers [18]. In this

on a method on two-ports [18]. Since the coupler is a four-port



structure, the only difference for the analysis of couplers is the

microstrip feed ports have been investigated. However, since

discontinuity between the feed ports and the SIW structure. In







most SIW components are designed and fabricated with

the following sub-sections, we present the modal scattering

circular via holes, there is a need to develop analytical

parameter calculations of discontinuities between the coupler

approaches for circular vias. In this paper, the circular vias are

feed ports (both waveguide and microstrip feeds) to an all­

converted to proper square ones, and the MMT is deployed to

dielectric waveguide. For the treatment of sections of arbitrary

analyze and design SIW couplers.

numbers of via holes within a planar, all-dielectric waveguide,
the reader is referred to [18].



A. Equivalence Between Circular and Square Vias

Discontinuity Between Two Waveguide Feed Ports and an
All-Dielectric Waveguide

In order to replace the circular vias with the proper square

Fig. la shows the boundary conditions of the discontinuity

ones, four different approaches have been investigated in [19].

of two waveguide feed ports to all-dielectric waveguide. For

978-1-4577-1559-4/12/$26.00 ©2012 IEEE


z )da (J�ht. 1b).n)'(V1j�l1)da (J. considered. . (a) waveguide feeds.. Diag{R}(J1)Diag{E}l J M aO ! : BO ! � After calculation of the total modal S matrix of the coupler. I Discontinuities between feed ports and all-dielectric waveguides.8 In the case of microstrip feeds (Fig.m = 12 (V1j� ). (V1j�l1)da (2) where i=1.. RT/duroid 6002 b=0.this case the coupling integrals are simply those of the TEmo modes of the three different waveguides involved. the TEM mode and TEmo modes in the microstrip feeds must be considered as they interact with the TEmo modes of the all-dielectric waveguide.circular vias M - .\ r M.:>./ x=xl modal l Sll=[MMl +Ur [MM1-U] S12=2[MMl +Ur M =Sil S21=Ml [u -Sll]=Sl2 S22=U-MTS12 Fl� Ii the from which the modal scattering matrix is computed as F2� Ii matrices.m = II (V1j. : ------. including the respective wave impedances...dotted lines) and the 11WaveWizard (circular via holes .----x= rll . 2 shows a 3dB K-band H-plane SIW M. CST (circular via holes .\. (5) the desired parameters Sll. M�. lDiag{P}(J2 )Diag{E}J : MW./"':l M (4) where U is the unit matrix...U� Fig.m = Ii(VThn)'(VTh�l1)da T.Jo. \ __ __.94.w. B. .•• WaveWizard - circular vias Fl� (b) Fig. . 2 Comparison between results obtained with MMT (square via holes - solid lines). a2 (3) the MMT (square vias) and simulated with CST Microwave Studio (circular vias).dashed lines) for a 3dB K-band SIW coupler.. w. ! aO --. _ _ scattering M.CST .�: ' w ..71mm so that 702 . metallization substrate thickness t=17Ilm......j with the IlWaveWizard with circular via holes and analyzed F'� &reJ! x=x2 - x=o with B2� .and 2 (Fig.2.W.MMT - -10 : BO ��_\. From these matrix A1 and Az are the cross section areas of waveguides - '0" > "I ow x=O _ al .. The substrate is chosen as i o .. Consequently..W.k be the cross-sectional functions in waveguides .. respectively.__. S21.. (b) microstrip feeds. and the total coupling and 2.7·········· F� MoW .-------�-_..W� directional coupler with waveguide ports which is designed ��. then the two coupling integrals are where (J�h )n. . height The diameters of the circular vias are chosen as d=0.508mm and with £[=2./ (a) IV...l. Discontinuity Between Two Microstrip Feed Ports and an All-Dielectric Waveguide 1.W. (VT:f)'(V1j�X. each coupling integral In (2) IS replaced by two integrals such that (J.-_----i l coupling matrices are determined as in [18]... RESULTS The inset of Fig. structure are extracted from the computed overall modal two­ port scattering matrix (5). Let T}.________� � square vias .h )k.. la). and O.m = I.. Thus cross-sectional functions of the electric (TEM) and magnetic (TE) vector potentials must be I' 20 2\ 22 23 24 2S 26 27 II(.n Th� .. S31 and S41 of the four-port M. is F� __ ' Ii� ' .

the side lengths of the equivalent square vias are Isquare=0. 3b) of a multi-aperture 6dB H-plane coupler in SIW technology -10 on RT/duroid 6002.. 8S 40 -so -60 . Finally.34dB couplers... higher-order mode effects come into play beyond 27 GHz.dashed lines) for a 8. 3 shows the layout (Fig.dashed -20 lines) for a 6dB K-band multi-aperture SIW coupler. both with circular vias.solid lines) and CST (circular via holes .dashed between the MMT results with square via holes and those Layout and performance comparison between results obtained with lines) for a 3dB W-band 24-aperture SIW coupler. The results of the MMT approach with square vias and CST and IlWaveWizard simulations.25mm.70 -110 --.MMT -square vias flGHz Fig.CST -circular vias 0 110 Fig. Fig. !If -40 -so --. 3 . 5 those of the tandem Fig.quare =0. 0 Fig.2929mm so that the side lengths of the equivalent square vias are i.. 4 shows the layout and performance of the 8.MMT -square vias ----. 5 connection with 24 apertures.solid lines) and CST (circular via holes ...-.MMT -square vias .CST -circular vias Layout and perfonnance comparison between results obtained with MMT (square via holes ..34dB W-band l2-aperture SIW coupler. Thus such a coupler is realized as a tandem connection of two 8.-. the wide bandwidth specification and fabrication restrictions on minimum via dimensions and distances do not allow a -40 straight-forward synthesis using standard coupler theory. -30 - 90 I1GHz -10 l'Q .. Due to the SIW width and the relatively IS311 large coupling sections.254mm. 4 -20 � " !If 9S 100 lOS 110 115 120 Layout and performance comparison between results obtained with MMT (square via holes . Excellent agreement is observed MMT (square via holes . 3a) and performance (Fig..solid lines) and CST (circular via holes . For a 3dB multi-aperture W-band SIW coupler.. via holes and CST with circular via holes. The substrate is RT/duroid 6002 with a -so substrate height of b=0. The diameters of the circular vias are chosen as dcircular =0. 6 compares the MMT results with measurements of aKa-band 3dB H-plane SIW coupler with 703 . 2. Excellent agreement is obtained.606mm according to (1).CST -circularvias -90 -100 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 --.. the IlWaveWizard permits a fast direct design and fine optimization of SIW components with circular vias. from CST using circular via holes. �-30 -. are compared in Fig.34dB coupler with 12 apertures and Fig. Note that for structures involving separate individual layers of slices of via holes. Excellent agreements are again -20 observed between results obtained with the MMT with square l'Q . 110 8S 90 9S 100 lOS 110 115 120 I1GHz Fig.

Antennas Propag. Chengdu. 37th European Microwave Con!. . 16." Proc. Abhari. W. and R. the agreement between measurements with circular via holes and MMT [2] computations with square via holes is deemed acceptable in many technical applications and thus verifies the MMT analysis procedure using square via holes. Nov. Deslandes and K. Zhou. S." Proc.. Boston. 1993. "E-plane directional couplers in substrate-integrated waveguide technology. Bozzi and L. Vahldieck." Workshop Notes: Substrate Integrated Circuits.. Smith and R. and U. Microwave Symp. "On the equivalence between cylindrical and rectangular via-holes in electromagnetic modeling. H. 418-421. W." IEEE Trans. Moreover. 1-4. Cassivi. Daigle. Oct. Jan. "Compact substrate integrated waveguide Wilkinson power dividers. "Development of substrate integrated waveguide power dividers. Analysis and Design of Substrate Integrated Waveguide Using Ef f icient 2D Hybrid Method. [16] The results from the theory are validated by data obtained from full-wave simulations of the same structures with circular vias." Proc. M. Wu. Microwave Theory Tech. D. May 2003. Morgan & Claypool Publishers Series. and M. "Single-layer substrate integrated waveguide directional couplers. Fumeaux. and H.-x. It is demonstrated that the [17] proposed analytical approach accurately models the SIW couplers. pp. vol. J(Jh Mediterranean Microwave Symp. Asia-Pacific Microwave Conf. 2006. pp. Buchta and W. vol. Symp.. AI-75. "Development of a low cost microwave mixer using a broad-band substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) coupler. and K. pp. C. Z. pp. Wu and AA Kishk. Han. Sadreazami. Int. Asia-Pacific Microwave Con!.R. Dig. 9-12. Shahvirdi and A Banai. Bornemann. "Single-substrate integration technique of planar circuits and waveguide filters. Montreal. Kordiboroujeni. D. 593-596. K. Taiwan.. Microwave Theory Tech. 25942601. [4] [5] [6] O �------�---. 19962004. N. 14091412. [13] [14] V." Proc. 153.H. pp. Li. 2002. E. 2008.X. Microwave Theory Tech. J. Taipei. Sep. Canada. Taringou. Heinrich. the results from the proposed technique are verified by measured data of [18] a 3dB Ka-band SIW coupler. 20IO. The circular vias are replaced with square ones which allows for a fast and accurate design of SIW H-plane couplers. Nov. and K. Turkey. Kim. M. vol. Con! Microwave Millimeter Wave Tech. l Bornemann. Hong. Wavegnide Components for Antenna Feed Systems.Wu." Proc. Microwave Symp." IEEE MTT-S Int. While the agreement is not as good as compared to previous results. Amsterdam. Germany. CONCLUSIONS K-band and W-band substrate-integrated waveguide couplers with circular vias and both waveguide and microstrip [15] ports are effectively modelled by a simple and straightforward mode-matching approach. X. ASia-Pacific Microwave Con!. Theory and CAD. Bornemann. The Netherlands. "Applying contour integral method for analysis of substrate integrated waveguide filters.measured [6J .circular vias --- MMT [II] -50 � �mmmmmmmrrffimTITImmmnm � � U U � W � D n D � � � n [12] � fTGHz Fig. V. E.A Labay and . 1-4. pp.S. PhotoniCS." Proc. Oct. Vahldieck. pp. Rosenberg. Dig. 2001. vol. 84-86.C. Cyprus. 65. 2007. Hong.. Canadian Con! Elec. pp. Lee. USA. Hao. Lai. Wu. Kim. H. REFERENCES [I] K. 793-796. RFIMicrowave Engr. Wu." Proc. 287-292. Song. 2009. and K. USA.. Q. 1095-1098. and R. Winkler. "Full-wave analysis and equivalent-circuit modeling of SIW components. "Integration and interconnect techniques of planar and nonplanar structures for microwave and millimeter-wave circuits - 704 Current status and future trend. . "An LTCC based 35-GHz substrate-integrated-waveguide bandpass filter. K. Aug. Deslandes.microstrip ports as presented in [6]. Hong Kong.I. 6 Layout and performance comparison between results obtained with MMT (square via holes . Lecture #26. Chen. Communications. June 2009. Feb. pp. Microw. Con!. "Substrate Integrated Waveguide directional couplers. Anaheim. and K.. Wu." Frequenz J. 57. Mehrshahi. 2011. Dec. Feb. Kyoto. "PCB substrate integrated waveguide-filter using via fences at millimeter-wave. Munich. 1st European Wireless Tech." IEEE Microwave Wireless Compo Lett. Fort Worth. and S. and K. "Singly balanced mixer using substrate integrated waveguide magic-T structure. Chen. 2006. Note that a [3] comparison with a different measured SIW coupler in [10] (not shown here) shows similar agreement. May 2010. IEEE MTT-S int.. Wu. D. lX. Perregrini.. A Patrovsky. Oct. M. pp. 2003. J. Compo Engr. USA. Synthesis Lectures on Computational Electromagnetics." lEE Proc. [19] ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to acknowledge support for this work from the National Science and Engineering Research Council [20] of Canada." IEEE AP-S Int. 2008. Abaei. "Coupling mechanism in hybrid SIW CPW forward couplers for millimeter-wave substrate integrated circuits. L. Barth. pp. Aug. 1605-1608. 51.square vias . 1921-1924. June 2009. pp.. May 2010. 2010. F. 411-416. Japan. and Z.S." Proc.solid lines) and measurements (circular via holes dashed lines) for a 3dB Ka-band SIW coupler according to [6]. B. lW. "A mode-matching approach for the analysis and design of substrate-integrated waveguide components.. "Characterization of the propagation properties of the half-mode substrate integrated waveguide. pp.. pp. Y. Dig..I.. pp. pp.. Uher." IEEE Trans. Hao. Wu. pp. Norwood. 142-145. Microwave Symp. Dec." IEEE Trans. Z. W. [7] 10 - [8] -20 [9] [10] -40 . Wu. Grubinger. Deslandes. Hong." IEEE MTT-S Int.A. vol.. vol. 2008. USA. T. China. H. Germain. "Analysis of substrate integrated waveguide based on two dimensional multi-port method. June 2004. 56. 5.-c. 426-431. USA: Artech House. H. vol. and results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by full-wave field solvers.S. Charleston..