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**FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
**

Sections: 18EB, 4456, 4458

Class hour: MWF 6th period (12:50 – 13:40)

Class room: 201 NEB

Instructor: Nam-Ho Kim

Office: 210 MAE-A

Office hour: MWF 7th period (13:55 – 14:45)

Phone: 352-575-0665

E-mail: nkim@ufl.edu

http://www.mae.ufl.edu/nkim/

1

SYLLABUS

• Teaching Assistants

– TA1

• Office: TBD, Phone: TBD

• Office hour: TBD, e-mail: TBD

– TA2

• Office: TBD, Phone: TBD

• Office hour: TBD, e-mail: TBD

• Textbook:

– Concepts and applications of finite element analysis, by Cook, Malkus,

Plesha, and Witt, Wiley, 2002

• Required. Available in the University Bookstore

2

OFFICE HOURS Period Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 7:25 . 352-575-0665.edu 3 GRADES • Homework – Homework problems will be assigned during every lecture.4:55 Instructor: 210 MAEA.edu TA1: TBD TA2: TBD Class website (Sakai): https://lss. 22nd (Exam3) – Quiz: There will be unannounced pop quizzes during the class. Formal report is required.at. Apr. equally contributing exams. • Exams – Three.3:50 4:05 . 9th (Exam1).ufl.12:35 Class Prep Class Prep Class Prep 12:50 . No late homeworks will be accepted.11:30 11:45 . 4 . • Projects – Two projects in finite element analysis and design using Abaqus.10:25 10:40 .1:40 EML5526 EML5526 EML5526 1:55 . and students are required to submit homework before starting Wednesday class of the following week.9:20 9:35 . March 20th (Exam2). All projects should be submitted to Sakai.8:15 8:30 . Tentative schedules: Feb. nkim@ufl.2:45 Office hour Office hour Office hour 3:00 .

9 89.GRADES • Grading – Exams (50%). all the rules will be strictly kept – Instead.9 79. Homework (15%). the lowest 2 grades from HW + quizzes will be dropped in final grade calculation 5 Academic Honesty • • • • You have signed a statement of academic honesty You can discuss HWs and projects with classmates HWs: each problem must be solved by yourself Projects – All computer modeling simulation works should be done by yourself – Report must be written by yourself (no copy and past from other sources) – TA will check electronic version (model file & report) • I will report all honor code violations to Student Conduct and Conflict Resolution • Mishap during exam: Fail the course • Mishap in submitted projects: Fail the course • Mishap during quiz: One letter grade down • Mishap in submitted HWs: One letter grade down 6 .9 66. Projects (30%). it would be difficult to accommodate individual excuses.9 86.9 72. Quiz (5%) A A- B+ B B- C+ C C- D+ D D- E 100 92.9 82.9 76.9 59. • Lectures – Lecture slides will be posted on Sakai 24 hours before the class – Students are responsible to study the lecture before class starts • Rules – Since this is a large class.9 93 90 87 83 80 77 73 70 67 63 60 – Opportunities for extra credits will be posted on Sakai time to time.9 69.9 62. Therefore.

Basic elements Ch4. Galerkin and weighted residual methods Ch6. – You need to install the software in a week • 10 tutorials will be provided during the semester – Once a week (Time and classroom will be announced later) 7 COURSE SCHEDULES Ch1.com/simulia/freese – You will need an image file of your student ID. 1D elements and computational procedures Ch3.SOFTWARE • We will use a commercial finite element analysis software called “Abaqus” for homeworks and projects • Download software from http://campus. error estimation. Modeling considerations and software use Ch11. Isoparametric triangles and tetrahedra Ch8. Dynamics 8 . and convergence Ch10.3ds. Coordinate transformation and analysis options Ch9. Introduction Ch2. Variational formulation Ch5. Isoparametric elements Ch7. Error.

3.4 13-Feb 14 Principle of stationary potential energy Rayleigh-Ritz method.2 20-Feb 17 1D Galerkin method.12. 7.2 27-Feb 20 Quadrature.6.9. 6.5 2-Mar Spring break.2. No class 4-Mar Spring break. 3. stress calculation 13-Mar 23 Element shape.7. 2. Hexahedral element 6.9.9 18-Feb 16 Galerkin method. 2. 3. 4. Integration by parts 5. 7.3.10 11-Mar 22 Spring break. 4. static condensation. 6.11. improved elements 3. choice of integration Distributed load.3 28-Jan 9 Plane elements (CST.10 9-Feb 12 Equivalent nodal forces.2.7 9 COURSE SCHEDULES cont. Convergence 4.2.8. No class Incompatible modes.13 16-Mar 24 Iso-parametric triangles and tetrahedrons 7.6.3.10 14-Jan 4 Beam element 2. 6. 2.5.6. 3.8 10 .4 23-Feb 18 2D Galerkin method 5.1.4.2. 6.8.1.3. Wk 7 8 9 10 11 Date Lect Class Reading 16-Feb 15 FE form of R-R method. 3. 3.4 9-Mar 21 18-Mar Exam 2 review 20-Mar Exam 2 6. 4.3 16-Jan 5 Sparsity. Day 19-Jan 3 Class 21-Jan 6 Stress-strain review 23-Jan 7 Stress-strain review 26-Jan 8 Interpolation. 2. 5.COURSE SCHEDULES cont. Q8. 4. symmetry 2.6. Wk 1 2 Date Lect 4 5 6 Reading 7-Jan 1 Syllabus and Introduction to FEA 9-Jan 2 1D system of springs 2.1. 7.5.12. Strong & weak form. 4. Q8. 2. Q4.13 11-Feb 13 4. element matrix formulation 3.1. No class 6-Mar 6.7 12-Jan 3 Bar element 2. LST. 2.7 30-Jan 10 Plane elements 2-Feb Exam1 review 4-Feb Exam1 3.9. Quadrilateral element 6.11 No class. Q9. Martin Luther King Jr. stress calculation 3.8. Weighted residual 5. body force. 3.1.4.5 25-Feb 19 Isoparametric mapping. Q9) 3.5. 6.4.11. mapping. 6. 6. 5. Project 1 discussion 4. 2. 6.1 6-Feb 11 Choice of interpolation. 4.3. patch test 6. 3.

– If you don’t understand it. CMS. smoothing. • Try to understand the meaning of equations – If you memorize an equation that you don’t understand.4.2. then answer A not B.2.11 ~ 11.1.10 11. modes. condition number 9.3 30-Mar 28 Diagonal decay test. reanalysis. mass lumping. • Follow equations – Do not just read the equation. 9.2. If A is asked.3.5 33 Mesh revision.9 10. damping. stability 17-Apr 36 Make-up class 8-Apr 10-Apr 13-Apr 16 Reading 25 6-Apr 15 Class 23-Mar 3-Apr 14 Lect 30 31 32 20-Apr Exam 3 review 22-Apr Exam 3 11. 11. Wk 12 13 Date Coordinate transformation 8.5 ~ 8.7.6 11.2. ask a question until you get answered. – You must follow all equations by HAND. Math is a language. material properties Dynamic equation.9. 11.5. 8.10 27-Mar 27 Source of error. harmonic response 15-Apr 35 Direct integration. 9. error estimate Model simplification. convergence rate 9.8. 10.COURSE SCHEDULES cont. – Do not submit a blank answer.3 11. 9. residuals. element shape. 11. • Follow the instruction carefully – Read carefully what is asked. you can’t solve the problem. 9. element shape.3. 8.1. 12 . quality test 8. 10. 11.4.6 1-Apr 29 9.4. explicit and implicit.7. not EYE. 9. 115. 9..4 25-Mar 26 Dissimilar element. 8. material properties Model simplification.8. Project 2 discussion Natural frequency.14 11 TIPS FOR A • Be patient and persistent – Read the text repeatedly until you understand it. 11. 10. model reduction 34 Modal method. ill-conditioning. Ritz vector. singularity.

USA 1 Point of Departure Let’s say that you have a cool idea of a new motorcycle design So. you have to decide all parts. FL 32611. you decide to build your own motorcycle That means. etc 2 .Finite Element Method A bridge between Mechanics of Materials and real-world applications Nam-Ho Kim University of Florida Gainesville. sizes.

Design Trade-off Need to remove material to have a good acceleration Need to add material for safety Where can I remove material? Where should I have to add material? Use Mechanics of Materials!!! 3 Gap We learned Mechanics of Materials. but … How can I use it to solve real-world applications? Torsion Bending 4 .

how can I solve for my motorcycle? xx xy bx 0 x y xy yy by 0 x y We know how to solve it in a simple domain y x 5 Finite Element Method • What is the finite element method (FEM)? – A technique for obtaining approximate solutions to boundary value problems. – Partition of the domain into a set of simple shapes (element) – Approximate the solution using piecewise polynomials within an element xx xy F bx 0 x y xy yy by 0 Structure x y u Piecewise-Linear Approximation Element x 6 .Mechanics of Materials Equilibrium at every point is governed by differential equation But.

and 5 (Interpolation). – All others can be calculated (or interpolated) from nodal solutions u1 u2 N2 N1 x L – Displacement within the element u ( x) a bx u1 u2 u1 Lx x x u1 u2 L L L – Strain of the element u 1 1 ( x) u1 u2 x L L Interpolation (Shape) Function 8 . 2. 7 Interpolation • Finite element analysis solves for Nodal Solutions. 5 6 1 1 7 8 2 3 2 3 Nodes Elements 4 – Solution at Element 1 is described using the values at Nodes 1. – Elements 1 and 2 share the solution at Nodes 2 and 6. 6.What Are Elements? • How to discretize the domain? – Using simple shapes (element) – All elements are connected using “nodes”.

K11 K 21 K n1 K12 K1n u1 F1 K 22 K 2 n u2 F2 K n 2 K nn un Fn 9 Example: Finite Elements • Plastic Wheel Cover Model – 30. 22.811 Elements – Matrix size is larger than 150.000.000150. – MSC/PATRAN (Graphic user interface) 10 . – Different physical problems have different matrices and vectors.System of Matrix Equations • How to calculate nodal solutions? – Construct a huge simultaneous system of equations and solve for nodal solutions.595 Nodes.

000 unknowns 3-d finite element mesh for analysis: head of femur for 2-day old infant (after T. Ribble) 12 .Numerical Models of Engineering Components A A B B A C A D B A C B D B C A A AB E D G A G H A D G H E F F A C E G D B D D E F G B A C B E G A D ED B B C F F CB B A B E D D C F A F F E C D D D B A D C A B C D C E E B A A B C Y H C C A C C E E Z X 11 11 Numerical Models of Engineering Components ~21.

13 Crashworthiness Analysis Crash of a SAAB 9000 17h CPU time on CRAY x-MP/48 (after J. (after Zienkiewicz and Taylor.Computational Fluid Dynamics Initial Mesh Mach Number contours Viscous flow past 2-d simulation of the forebody of a shuttle at Mach 2. 1991). Hallquist) 14 .

Convergence Study • How do you know the FEM solution is accurate? • Convergence: the finite element solution converges to the exact solution as the size of elements decreases u Exact solution Two elements Four elements Eight elements x uI Try with at least three different element sizes to determine convergence Number of Elements 15 Element Selection • What element should I have to use? – Element is mathematical representation – Different elements behave differently 16 .

Finite Element Procedure Preliminary analysis Preprocessing Correction/Refinement Solving the problem Postprocessing Converged? No Yes Stop 17 Modeling Issues • Common mistake: FE model is not a replication of CAD geometry • Model: Mathematically identical to a purpose • Simplification: delete unimportant small features separate consideration of small holes 18 .

668ave max = 1.Boundary Conditions • Error in boundary conditions will not disappear no matter how much you refine the model!! • Most assumptions are often made in BC • Need to be careful in interpreting results near the boundary b b (a) Concentrated force min = 0.198ave max = 2.575ave 19 Example: Automotive Door Panel Stamping 20 .5b (b) Distributed forces min = 0.973ave max = 1.027ave 0.25b 0.387ave min = 0.

Example: Airbag Deployment 21 Forging 22 .

garbage outputs • Try to be an engineer. but it helps YOU to solve the problem • It helps you to understand the mechanical system that you are working on • Garbage inputs.Example: Vorticity 23 Things to Remember • Finite element method does not solve a problem. not a technician 24 .

be/hrfcROMz2II • Downmilling – http://youtu.be/pYCOkIVLA_c • Rolling – http://youtu.be/E1d4WKkbtdY 26 .QUESTIONS? 25 YouTube Videos • Two vehicle impact NCAC FEA FEM – http://youtu.

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