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Hungarian Turanism

Hungarian Turanism (Hungarian: Turánizmus or Turanizmus) is a loosely defined and diverse phenomenon
among the history of Hungarian ideas. It includes many
different conceptions and served as a guiding principle
for many political and scientific movements. It was most
lively in the second half of the 19th century and in the first
half of the 20th century. Hungarian Turanism is based
on the idea the Hungarians’ ancestral homeland was in
Asia.[1] It became an extremist political ideology after
World War One.

peoples), and who arrived at the same or very similar conclusions. Turanism was a driving force in the development of Hungarian social sciences, especially linguistics,
archaeology and Orientalism.
Political Turanism was born in the 19th century, in response to the growing influence of Pan-Germanism and
Pan-Slavism, seen by Hungarians as very dangerous to
the state and nation of Hungary, because the country had
large ethnic German and Slavic populations.[1] This political ideology originated in the work of the Finnish nationalist and linguist Matthias Alexander Castrén, who
championed the ideology of Pan-Turanism — the belief
in the racial unity and future greatness of the Ural-Altaic
peoples. He concluded that the Finns originated in Central Asia and far from being a small, isolated people, they
were part of a larger community that included such peoples as the Magyars, the Turks, and the Mongols etc.[7]
Political Turanism was a romantic nationalist movement,
which stressed the importance of common ancestry and
cultural affinity between Hungarians and the peoples of
the Caucasus and Inner and Central Asia, such as the
Turks, Mongols, Parsi etc. It called for closer collaboration and political alliance between them and Hungary, as
a means of securing and furthering shared interests and to
counter the threats posed by the policies of the great powers of Europe. The idea for a “Turanian brotherhood and
collaboration” was borrowed from the Pan-Slavic concept
of “Slavic brotherhood and collaboration”.[8]
After the First World War, political Turanism played a
role in the formation of Hungarian far-right ideologies
because of its ethnic nationalist nature.[9][10] It began to
carry anti-Jewish sentiments and tried to show the “existence and superiority of a unified Hungarian race”.[10]
Nonetheless, Andrew C. Janos asserts that Turanism’s
role in the interwar development of far-right ideologies
was negligible.[11]

“Géza, the faithful king of Tourkia (i.e. Hungary)" on the Holy
Crown of Hungary, from the 11th century.

Before the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin,
the Hungarians were (semi-)nomads[2] and their culture
was similar to other steppe peoples. Most scientists presume a Uralic homeland for the ancient Hungarian conquerors (mainly on linguistic grounds, and on the basis
of limited genetic research carried out on a very limited
number of ancient skeletons found in graves from the age
of the conquest[3][4] ). The proto-Hungarian tribes lived
in the Eurasian forest steppe zone,[5] and so these ancient
ancestors of Hungarians and their relationship with other
equestrian nomadic peoples has been and still is a topic
for research.[6]

In the communist era after the Second World War, Turanism was portrayed and vilified as an exclusively fascist
ideology.[12] Since the fall of communism in 1989 there
has been a renewal of interest in Turanism.

1 Its roots, origins, and development

As a scientific movement, Turanism was concerned with
research into Asian cultures in the context of Hungarian
history and culture. It was embodied and represented by 1.1 The beginnings
many scholars who had shared premises (i.e. the Asian
origin of the Hungarians, and their kinship with Asian Friedrich Max Müller, the German Orientalist and philol1

which lived in or originated from this “Turan” area. hogy Középázsiában az összehasonlító nyelvtudomány segítogist. in. His public lectures received wide attention. the Hungarian capital.” ". Arian. that with the help of comparative linguistics I could find a ray of light in Central Asia. the South.. in the Ugric Branch. which began in the 18th century. Friedrich Max Müller’s Northern Division of Turanian Languages ". Central and Inner Asia inhabited by Turkic peoples. after the equestrian. north of Amu Darya river. according to the Bible. who recognized that territories of Turkestan.Asian steppes.there was no better method “for specifying the relationhabited by nomadic warriors) “Turan” and “Turanian” ship and origin of the various peoples of the earth.. This tradition was preserved in medieval chronicles (such as Gesta Hungarorum[15] and Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum[16] ) as early as the 13th century. his theory proved unsound.. This tradition served as starting point for the scientific research of the ethnogenesis of Hungarian people. amongst the Uyghurs. Leibniz published material counterOrientalist and Turkologist. But in common parlance these terms were used in many (and often different) meanings and senses. in Hungary and abroad. officially. nomadic warriors of the languages. Hebrew was the original landapest. in the Finnic Class. and he named this ancestor language Division was renamed and re-classed as the Ural-Altaic “Scythian”. The linguistic theories of the Dutch philosopher Marcus Müller divided this group into two subgroups. Vámbéry himself used “Turan” to denote the . Semitic. and his terms “Information about hither-to unknown peoples and lan(originally borrowed by him from Persian texts like the guages of Asia and the Americas came into the hands of Shahnameh which used the term “Turan” to denote the scholars such as Gottfried Leibniz..2 1 ITS ROOTS. With béry Ármin: Küzdelmeim. in 1874. In his homályt a magyar őstörténelem sötét tájairól. The meaning of these terms was never defined as many languages as possible in genealogical groupings.that. which dispels the gloom over the dark corners of Hungarian prehistory. Hungarians have had a thousand year old. Ch. He was invited to Bu.[17] ".Wilhelm Leibniz gave the real basis of the modern sciguage was classed by him as a member of this Northern entific research of the origin of the Hungarian language Division. and was known languages had to deal with the common belief of the era. But linguists theorizing about ancestor cussed in international scientific circles...[14] (In Indo-Iranian languages were all derived from a shared the long run.IV.” he called these languages “Turanian”. AND DEVELOPMENT areas of Eastern Balkan.. respectively amongst the Uighurs.” in: Vámwork “The languages of the seat of war in the East. Hungarian scientists shared his definition. and still living tradition about the Asian origins of Magyars.. and supported Boxhorn’s notion sociate member of the Hungarian Aceademy of Sciences. with and people.. published and proposed a new grouping of the nonségével világosságot vető sugarat lelhetek. ORIGINS.következett tehát ebből az a reménységem.ing the Biblical theory. p. 62. mely eloszlatja a Aryan and non-Semitic Asian languages in 1855. Sándor Kőrösi Csoma (the writer of the first Tibetan-English dictionary) traveled to Asia in the strong belief that he could find the kindred of Magyars in Turkestan. the guage of all humans. and used “Turanian” to denote those Turkic peoples and languages (and he meant the Finno-Ugric peoples and languages as the members of this group). of a Scythian ancestor language.Zuerius van Boxhorn and the German thinker Gottfried ern Division. and become an as. Boxhorn conjectured that the European and the Voguls and Ugro-Ostiakes as closest relatives. he considered that he might find those somewhere in Central Asia. by Ármin Vámbéry. and Turanian. and the Northern Division.when Kőrösi set off for the search of the ancient homeland of Magyars and the 'left behind Magyars’... than become denizens in Hungarian language as “Turán” and the comparison of their languages”.[19] a survey of the three families of language. but his Northern ancestor language..from this came my hope. to Hungarian scientists as well..) His theory was well known and widely dis. In order to classify “turáni”. Hungarian lan.”[18] Vámbéry Ármin had the same motivation for his travels to Asia and the Ottoman Empire.

speak. Even the gates of scientific institutions became closed.[25] of immeasurable grief fell on Hungary. weapons..2 The role of the Habsburgs 3 Leibniz proposed that similar materials be collected from each newly described language. Samoyed etc..[20] The followers of the “Turkist” and “Ugrist” theories lived together peacefully. ".2 The role of the Habsburgs Hungary’s constitution and her territorial integrity were abolished. necessitates (food. like Rasmus Christian Rask. The German linguist and Orientalist Schott was a proponent of Finn-Turk-Hungarian kinship. To this end he asked that explorers either obtain translations of well-known Christian prayers such as the Pater Noster. legnemesebb erői törve voltak. and some European languages like Sami. S. Leibniz took a particular interest in the expansion of the Russian Empire southward and eastward.The word list included numerals. Both of the two main views/theories about the origin of the Hungarian people and language. or. Press and theatrical/public performances were censored. Leibniz recognized that the Semitic languages such as Hebrew and Arabic. He placed the original homeland of the Hungarians to the Volga-Caspian Sea region. placed education under state control. /. Wilhelm Schott (1802-1889) and Matthias Castrén recognized the similarities and connection between Finn-Ugric and Altaic languages. in his book “An historico-geographical description of the north and east parts of Europe and Asia” 1738. and Hungarian did not belong to the same language family as most of the languages of Europe.” in: Herman Ottó: Petényi J.. topographic features. her noblest powEven the bastion of Hungarian culture. the Turkic theory matched the tradition (the Gestas) and historical sources (like the works of Constantine VII and Leo VI the Wise) better. ers were broken.a Nap vértengerbe áldozott le. body parts. a sample list of which he appended to a letter to the Turkologist D. (Grundsätze für die provisorische Organisation des Unterrichtswesens in dem Kronlande Ungarn). In fact.9. but the accounts and works of travelers like Swedish Philip Johan von Strahlenberg (published in his work:" An historicogeographical description of the north and east parts of Europe and Asia ") turned the attention to the “FinnishHungarian connection”. He recognized the connection between the Finnish languages and Hungarian. celestial and weather phenomena.” ". p. “words for common things” (vocabula rerum vulgarium). These theories had a great impact on the research of the origins of the Hungarian language and the ethnogenesis of Hungarian nation.1... Philipp Johann von Strahlenberg about the kinship of Finnish and Hungarian language. kinship terms. Podesta (Leibniz 1768/1989b). better yet. p. Még a tudományos intézetek kapui is bezárultak.” Kevin Tuite: The rise and fall and revival of the Ibero-Caucasian hypothesis. London.e. (In fact the two theories converged. Finnish. 23-82. and considered the Hungarians a mixture of Turks and Hyperboreans / i.[21] ) The discourse remained fully scientific up until the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and the 1848-49 War of Independence but after the bitter experiences of the war and the defeat everything got political overtones.. the Academy . as well as the peoples living on these and on nearby lands.. The night and history was educated from a Habsburg viewpoint. Magyarországra a mérhetetlen gyásznak éjszakája borult. the education of national history was confined. and lists based on his model were taken on expeditions sent by the tsars to study the territories recently brought under their control. the one about the Turkic origin. and the theories were refined as science developed. 2008. This signalled the start of a long era of absolutist rule. the curriculum was prescribed and controlled by the state. as linguists.[22] 1. and her territory was partitioned into crown lands. Saami. drink.[23][24] German became the official language of public administration. drink. and the other about the Finno-Ugric origin had their scientific roots in them. naturalia (God. the Sun went down into a sea of blood. see …). The edict issued on 1849. wild animals) and a dozen verbs (eat. and every aspect of Hungarian life was put under close scrutiny and governmental control.X. in: Historiographia Linguistica.. 39. a magyar tudományos madártan megalapítója. 35 #1. The Habsburgs introduced dictatorial rule.domestic animals).

Szatmár) rejected the Compromise and stood up for Kossuth. mostly Germans and ethnic Germans. despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of the populace wanted full independence. just this one: how could I get a passport from the strict and suspicious Austrian authorities. hol akkor a magyar emigráczió tartotta székét és.I encouraged myself with this. as was believed in Vienna. Turks were seen by many as good allies of the Hungarian cause. because these misfortunate military endeavours resulted in increased state spending. pártütő terveket sző fáradhatatlanúl. on the Great Hungarian Plain antigovernment and anti-Compromise demonstrations of several thousand men took place. towering state debts and financial crisis. csak az az egy: hogy mi útonmódon kaphatok útlevelet a szigorú és gyanakvó osztrák hatóságtól.” "Mennie kell és menni fog. language." in: Vámbéry Ármin: Küzdelmeim. national origin remained politically sensitive themes. A large number of freedom fighters took refuge in the Ottoman Empire. The Habsburg government saw this “Turkism” as dangerous to the empire. so many members of the Austrian political elite (Franz Joseph I of Austria himself. The Habsburgs and part of the Hungarian political elite arranged the AustroHungarian Compromise of 1867. language. to save their empire and dynasty. hozzá még épen Törökországba.[17] “It should happen and it will happen . and press remained under (albeit more permissive) censorship. Many counties (for example Heves. and Turkism remained popular. and did not hurt me other problems. Pest.és kiegyezés-ellenes népgyűlésekre került sor stb. Pest. however. Szatmár) elutasította a kiegyezést és kiállt Kossuth mellett. mint Bécsben hitték. major general Ferdinand Franz Xaver Johann Freiherr Mayerhofer von Grünbühel for example)[29] ) dreamed about Eastern land grabs. and was seen by a very large part of the population as betrayal of the Hungarian cause and the heritage of the 1848-49 War of Independence.[32] The Habsburgs were forced to reconcile with Hungary.ezzel biztattam magam és nem bántott más gond. társadalmi és politikai viszonyaihoz. IV. felfüggesztve liberális elveit. the opposition organized a network of Democratic circles. Academic science remained under state scrutiny and Vámbéry Ármin about Turanian peoples in his “Vámbéry Ármin vázlatai Közép-Ázsiából. Archduke Albrecht. and the institution was practically defunct until the end of 1858. and. . made rebellious plans tirelessly. The government. ORIGINS. “However. komoly nehézségekbe ütközött. and exactly to Turkey.” "Viszont a kiegyezés elfogadtatása a társadalommal. Ujabb adalékok az oxusmelléki országok népismereti. p. This caused deep and lasting cracks in Hungarian society. sent a royal commissioner to the most resistant Heves County.[30][31] ) As a consequence of the Franco-Austrian War and the Austro-Prussian War. where the Hungarian emigration resided. etc. A kormány. Anti-Habsburg and anti-German sentiments were strong. decided to take firm counter moves: imprisoned László Böszörményi who published the Kossuth letters. still dragged on for years. the Habsburg Empire was on the verge of collapse in 1866.[19] And this atmosphere granted public interest for the then new theory of Max Müller. This resulted in renewed cultural exchange. banned the Democratic circles. but had no means to suppress it. határozott ellenlépésekre szánta el magát: bebörtönözte a Kossuth leveleit .4 1 ITS ROOTS.[26][27][28] Hungarians responded with passive resistance. Ch. az Alföldön többezres kormány. national origin became politically sensitive matters. Duke of Teschen. 42. and lost most of its Italian holdings a little later. (The Habsburg Empire lost large territories in the early 19th century /Flanders and Luxembourg/. to get the Compromise accepted within the society posed serious difficulties. when Vámbéry traveled to Constantinople in 1857 for the first time. Questions of nation. and mutual sympathy. Pest pressure. suspending its liberal principles. AND DEVELOPMENT was kept under control: the institution was staffed with foreigners. The stabilization of the system and the admittance of new political institutions.” 1868. Matters of nation. Több megye (például Heves. speeding inflation. Such was the atmosphere. az ellenzék megszervezte a demokrata körök hálózatát. The Compromise was arranged and legitimated by a very small part of the Hungarian society (suffrage was very limited: less than 8 percent of the population had voting rights).

.[33] 5 towards folklore.[44] published in 1876. regrettably. published in 1871. p. as better heirs and keepers of real Hungarian legacy.[36] ) and Ignác Goldziher[37][38] were Jewish or of Jewish descent (Vámbéry was neither proud nor ashamed of his Jewish ancestry.[34][35] (Also known as Wilhelm von Hevesy(1877-1945) He was the older brother of György Hevesy. átvittek a személyeskedés terére is.”[39] and published in 1869-70.a magyar nyelv eredetében ugor. and others supported Vámbéry. Perhaps this was the first instance of the use of the word “turáni” in a Hungarian language scientific text. but the old Latin proverb was proven once again: Philologi certant.[1][41][42][43] The Finn-Ugrist Pál Hunfalvy widened the front of the “Ugric-Turk War” with his book “Magyarország ethnographiája. like Ármin Vámbéry. and questioned Vámbéry’s (scientific) honesty and credibility. myths. and they found it neither as scientific nor as conclusive in the question of the affiliation of Hungarian language. so he presented a variant of long and perilous journey he arrived at Pest in May 1864.).” utazás” were published in 1865. like “Munda-Magyar-Maori. Thanks to his travels Vámbéry became an internationally renowned writer ". Vilmos Hevesy.(The neologists of the first half of the 19th century had turned “The fight.a múlt században. lasted quite a long time.. concludes that the Huns. linguist József Thúry. presenting customs. társadalmi és politikai viszonyaihoz. After a it is basically Ugric in origin. sajnos." in: Vámbéry Ármin: Küzdelmeim. 393. a leginkább ellenálló Heves megyébe pedig királyi biztost küldött. albeit Akadémia and its president. He was a talented writer: he presented serious scientific matters in an interesting. Bulgars and Avars were Ugric (p.1. but belication of his book about the travels. readable manner. ethnology and history. At the beginning of Hungarian Turanism. The Ambassador of Austria in Lon. which started as a scientific dispute.3 Ármin Vámbéry’s work In this work Vámbéry tried to prove with the help of word comparisons.)[40] The historian Henrik Marczali. 130. tries to prove that the Huns were FinnUgric (p.ugor és török jellemű. who received him in an audience and rewarded Vámbéry’s international success by granting him professorship in the Royal University of Pest.. 122. coupled with the widespread disillusionment about the political elite turned public attention to the lower classes and peasantry. Budenz criticised Vámbéry and his work in an aggressive. IX.. traditions and culture of far-flung peoples and faraway places were key in raising wide public interest in ethnography.) Vámbéry’s later work. he became a member of the Reformed Church. (Budenz’s work was investigated and analysed by a group of modern linguists. as the author stated..[19] 1. that as a result of intermingling of the early Vámbéry started his second journey into Asia in July Hungarians with Turkic peoples. In fact. 48. Ch. and an electrical engineer by profession.4 The “Ugric-Turkic War” Vámbéry published his “Vámbéry Ármin vázlatai KözépÁzsiából.” in 1868. 1. p. that the Jews are more prolific than other peoples. entitled “Magyar és török-tatár szóegyezések. the Hungarian language 1861 with the approval and monetary help of the got a distinct dual (Ugric AND Turkic) character.). In this book he stresses the very strong connection between language and nation (p. He went to London to arrange the English language pub". 120.4 The “Ugric-Turkic War” közlő Böszörményi Lászlót. He became acquainted with members of érintkezése és történeti átalakulásánál fogva egyformán British social elite.the Hungarian language is Ugric in its origin. some of its notable promoters and researchers. His enjoyable books and other writings.[19] Vámbéry’s work was criticized by Finno-Ugrist József Budenz in “Jelentés Vámbéry Ármin magyar-török szóegyezéséről.).” in: Vámbéry Ármin: Magyar és don gave him a letter of recommendation to the Emperor. “Travels in Cencause the nations later contact and historical transformatral Asia” and its Hungarian counterpart “Közép-ázsiai tion it is equally Ugric and Turkic in character. derogatory style. although he was kind of a Finno-Ugrist publishing books and other writings about the Finno-Ugric-Munda kinship. linguist Károly Pozder. Emil Dessewffy. 295. de a nemzet későbbi and celebrity. Vámbéry was a key figure in the development of Turanism. brought over also to the field of personal remarks. and considered himself Hungarian). questions the credibility and origin of the Gestas (p. A rendszer stabilizálása és az új politikai intézmények elfogadása azonban még így is évekig elhúzódott. melyet fanatikus ellenfeleim. the power of his books. Ujabb adalékok az oxusmelléki országok népismereti.” "A küzdelem..).”. ballads and tales in their search of a new national literary style. but had not had interest in other aspects of rural peasant life. török-tatár szóegyezések.. anthropologist Aurél Török. betiltotta a demokrata köröket. an Indian link between the antipodes new tracks of Hungarian origins” and “FinnischUgrisches aus Indien” in the 1920s and 30’s. tamen sub judice lis. tamen sub judice lis. de ezúttal is bevált a régi diák közmondás: Philologi certant." in: Cieger András: Kormány a mérlegen . mentions. so the quickly grow- . eltartott jó sokáig..”. linguistic contact theory. but quickly turned into a long-lasting (it raged for two decades) bitter feud. and in the development of the “scientific consciousness” of the general public. which my fanatical opponents. was the casus belli of the “Ugor-török háború" (“Ugric-Turk War”).

from architecture to applied and decorative arts. ethnography.[45] and published in 1882. who have left a lasting legacy in Hungarian culture: • Ármin Vámbéry (1832-1913) was the founding father of Hungarian Turkology. He founded Europe’s first Turcology department at the Royal University of Pest (present day Eötvös Loránd University).). but the Turkic-Tatar component gives the true core. Turanist scientists greatly contributed to the development of Hungarian and international science and arts.” published in 1884. archaeologist. especially linguistics. In reality it was coined by the Finno-Ugrist Ferdinánd Barna.[48] He was a member of the MTA... ".”. archaeology. This is a short list of Turkist/Turanist scientists and artists. Vámbéry’s work was criticized heavily by his FinnoUgrist opponents. • Béla Széchenyi (1837-1918). The “Ugric-Turkic War” was never closed properly. in which not the Finn-Ugric.” in: Vámbéry Ármin: A magyarok eredete. • Alajos Paikert (1866-1948) Was the founding father of the “Magyar Mezőgazdasági Múzeum” (Museum of Hungarian Agriculture). It should be noted. AND DEVELOPMENT ing number of them presents a real menace for the nation (p.[17][49] He was a member of the MTA.6 1 ITS ROOTS..” ". In his work titled “Vámbéry Ármin: A magyarok eredete. and stresses what an important and eminent role the Germans played in the development of Hungarian culture and economy (p. In fact no Turanist scientist wrote such things about the Finn-Ugric peoples. Perhaps this was a Freudian slip. in his work “Vámbéry Ármin A magyarok eredete czímű műve néhány főbb állításának bírálata.. He The origin of 'fish fat smelling kinship' in the work of the FinnUgrist Barna Ferdinánd. ORIGINS...[47] He was a member of the MTA. and one of the founders of the Turan Society. • Géza Nagy (1855-1915).a magyarban vegyülék népet látok. This forced scientists to try to harmonize and synthesize the differing theories somehow. hanem török-tatár elem képezi a tulajdonképeni magvat. • Jenő Zichy (1837-1906). Vámbéry went a step further. art historian. Ethnologiai tanulmány. This resulted in the development of a complex national mythology. Turanism was a driving force in the development of Hungarian social sciences. titled “Vámbéry Ármin A magyarok eredete czímű műve néhány főbb állításának bírálata. and in the development of Hungarian arts. Preface. history. VI. This critique gave rise to the evercircling myth of the “fish-smelling kinship” and its variants.. archaeologist. He was a member and secretary general of the MTA. He supported Vámbéry in the “Ugric-Turkic War”. which researched Asia and its culture in context of Hungarian history and culture. that no one of the authors has ever given the written source/base of this accusation against the Turanist scientists. 424. • Ferenc Pulszky (1814-1897). and Orientalism. in which he claimed that Hungarian nation and language are basically Turkic in origin.I see a compound people in Hungarians. traveler and explorer of Asia. fish fat eating people spending their woeful lives with fishand easel-catching”. traveler and explorer of Asia. He was a member of the MTA and the director of Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum (Hungarian National Museum). . and presented a newer version of his theory. Ethnologiai tanulmány.). In this work Barna called the Finn-Ugric peoples “a petty. was a member of the MTA (Hungarian Academy of Sciences).[46] He supported Vámbéry in the “Ugric-Turkic War”.. ethnographer. 420. • János Arany (1817-1882). writer of a large corpus of poems about Hungarian historical past. p. This combined the Asian roots and origins of Magyars with their European present. and the Finn-Ugric element in them is a result of later contact and intermingling. a melyben nem finn-ugor.” published in 1884. Turanism got a new meaning: it became the given name of a variant of Orientalism. poet.

Oriental.[51] • Gyula Sebestyén (1864-1946). • Ferenc Zajti (1886-1961). In 1916. economical etc. ethno. • Vilmos Pröhle (1871-1946).[57] art. kutatása múltban és jelenben. historian. • Benedek Baráthosi Balogh (1870-1945). past and present.1. approach formed the “Kőrösi Csoma-Társaság” (Kőrösi “The goal of Turanian Society is the cultural and eco. He was the warden/curator of the Oriental Collection of the Fővárosi Könyvtár (“Library of the Capital” in English. then prevailing Ural-Altaic linguistic theory.[17] (1854-1934). painter. vagyis a magyar nemzet és a velünk rokon többi európai és ázsiai népek kulturális és gazdasági előrehaladása. and the following revolutionary from Jenő Zichy. The Sosculptor. one of the first researchers of Chinese and Japanese language and literature in Hungary. art theorist.[52][53] • József Huszka ethnographer. The Tu. Céljait a nem turáni népekkel egyetértve óhajtja elérni. the Timkó expedition. geographer. ethnographer. Finnish and Japanese language the Gödöllő artists’ colony. But the organisation was (also called The Hungarian Asiatic Society)). rupted the operation of the Eastern Cultural Centre. folklorist. who created pedition."[55] art teacher. the Milleker expedition. a new national architectural style from the elements the Kovács-Holzwarth expedition. a kind of lyceum was formed in 1910. gazdasági stb.[17] He was a member of the MTA. a leading figure of the Hungarian Arts & was redressed into the “Magyar Keleti Kultúrközpont” Crafts movement.[17] He was a member of the MTA. The more radical political turanists left nomic progress. the present day Fővárosi Szabó Ervin Könyvtár).[17] After the outbreak of First World War politics ensnarled • Károly Kós (1883-1977). Those who wanted a more scincelike where the ancestors of Hungarians might had lived. furthermore the geographical. and direct governmental influence over its operation grew. The Turan Society arranged and funded five exHungarian Arts & Crafts movement. Kulturpalota ist.[17] He was a member of the MTA.e. architect. It wishes to accomplish its objectives in agreement with non-Turanian nations. Archduke Joseph Francis of Austria (Archduke graphical. Orientalist.(The Mészáros-Milleker ex• Ödön Lechner (1845-1914). because of pronounced internal ran society concentrated on Turan as geographic location ideological stresses. • Jenő Cholnoky (1870-1950). artisan. and Asian nations.[1][58] The defeat The idea of a Hungarian Oriental Institute originated in the First World War. graphic the work of the Society. the Turan Society artist.” "Turáni Társaság célja az egész turánság. historian. confederation. úgymint az ázsiai kontinens földrajzi. architect. i.4 The “Ugric-Turkic War” 7 • Henrik Marczali (1856-1940). and formed the “Magyarországi Turán nians. Persian. néprajzi. He arranged Rabindranáth Tagore’s visit to Hungary in 1926. research of the Asian conti. • Lajos Lóczy (1849-1920). ethnographer. linguist. Orientalist.[17] He was a member of the MTA. one of the founders of ciety arranged Turkish. The scholars of the Turan society interpreted the ethnic and linguistic kinship and relations between Hungarians and the so-called Turanian peoples on the basis of the • Aladár Körösfői-Kriesch (1863-1920). Politikai és felekezeti kérdések kizártak. a leading figure of the courses. writer. painter. He was the founder of the Magyar Indiai Társaság ( Hungarian India Society). this idea did not come movements and Entente occupation of the country distrue. geographer.In 1920. Sassanian and Indian expedition.split into three that year. Instead.Csoma Society).Marosvásárhely.[54] Unfortunately.the Turan Society. geologist. flourishment of all Tura. Political and religious issues are Hungarian Turan Society[59] . tömörülése. excluded.Joseph Francis Habsburg) became the first patron of the nent.[17] (Hungarian Eastern Cultural Centre). the Hungarian nation and all kindred European Szövetség” (Turan Federation of Hungary). Lecturers included `Abdu'l-Bahá[56] and Shuho Chiba. traveler. so called “Turáni Társaság” (The Hungarian Turan Society real work began only in 1920.[17] peditions into Asia till 1914.) The Society held public lectures regularly.[17] He was a member of the MTA.[17][50] Aladár Körösfői-Kriesch: “Circle Dance of Shamans” 1911. erősödése. • Sándor Márki (1853-1925). and the Sebők-Schutz of Hungarian folk art.

But there was a conflict in the circles of Hungarian political elite: many members of it were unwilling to swap the Ottoman alliance for direct Habsburg rule. Erdély became an ally of the Ottomans (1528. and the suppression in Hungary itself of the German elements that remained loyal to the Empire. But the Kossuth episode. Turkism was reborn in the wake of the 1848-49 War of Independence. Thököly’s liberation movement and Rákóczi’s War of Independence meant the climax of this Turkism. would remain constant to the conviction that its position can only be secured by the support of the German element in Austria and Germany. Turkish orientation had a long tradition in Hungary. “If the balance of opinion in Hungary were always determined by sober political calculation. The Hungarian supporters of the fragments merged and amalgamated into the Hungarian Compromise have argued that the already weakened Auspopulation.Hungarian political movements and attempts to regain der ceased to exist after 1908. this brave and independent people. and comparatively insignificant in numbers. the Hungarians were ambivalent towards these old-new Austrian allies. The main scene of Despite the Compromise. isolated in the broad ocean of Slav populations.Russian and/or Habsburg expansion in the Balkans. They turned towards the rivals of the Hab2 Political Turanism sburgs . lan. in the wake of the annexa. and many of her ethnic minorities turned against the country.[62] Hungary was defeated with the help of Russian military intervention.VIII. the first patron of the Hun. and the third formed the “keleti Magyar Királyság” (Eastern Hungarian Kingdom)/ “Erdélyi Fejedelemség” (Principality of Transylvania).independence proved unfruitful. but can help Hungary warred with the Ottoman Empire for centuries. There were serious atrocities against ethnic Hungarians. and military moves.29. From this Archduke Joseph Francis Habsburg. even to the Prussians . Pan-Slavism and Pan-Germanism were seen as garian Turan Society serious threats to the existence of Hungary and Hungarians. culture. Hungarians looked for allies and friends to secure their position.for support and help. capable of preventing rect contact with Turanian/Turkic peoples from time im.time on. Serious clashes occurred between the Hungarians and the Vlachs of Eastern Hungary and the Serbs of the South. Kun (Cuman) tribes and population Compromise of 1867. one became part of the Ottoman Empire (1541. 29. Hungarians were interested in a Hungarians and their ancestors lived amongst or in di. During the ethnogenesis verge of collapse with a series of miscalculated political of Hungarian people Kabar. During the war Hungary was attacked by the Habsburgs. This led to the Austro-Hungarian Besenyő (Pecheneg). state and nation. and Germany became united under role in the birth and formation of Hungarian people. At the same time. Bulgar. The Ottoman attempts at further territorial expansion failed in the end and the Habsburgs reconquered the Hungarian territories. from agriculture to warfare. As a result of a discord of succession Hungary broke up into three parts in the 16th century: one was under Habsburg rule. So. with other symptoms showed that among Hungarian hussars and lawyers self- . memorial to 1908. (A common Hungarian-Turkish bor.to Turkey. to the Italians. A large group aspired for full independence.II. strong and friendly Turkey. Jász (Alan).[61] The intensive everyday contacts in the one and a half centuries that followed resulted in pronounced Ottoman Turkish influence on Hungarian art and culture from music to jewellery and clothing. Avar.).stable.Prussian rule. The Habsburgs took their empire to the guage.). prevent Slavic expansion.8 2 POLITICAL TURANISM these power struggles was the territory of Hungary. as one can see. the tion of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the evacuation of the Habsburgs were unable to acquire the leading position of Sanjak of Novibazar.) These peoples played an eminent the German union. these events are remembered as “oláhjárások” and “rácjárások” ("Vlach rampages” and "Rascian rampages”). but felt Turkish dependence more amenable than Habsburg reign. In the last third of the 17th century strife intensified between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs. tria is no longer a threat to the Hungarians. These painful events and experiences changed Hungarians’ attitudes profoundly: They began to feel themselves insecure and endangered in their own home.

2001. pre-treaty Hungary.The extremist Turanians insisted on “ties of ancestry” with the Turkish peoples. It is an opportunity for the Christian Turanists to link Jesus Christ to the ancient middle-eastern mystery and . the Ottomans and Japan. because it was out of accord with the ideological background of the regime.”[71] According to the historian Krisztián Ungváry “With the awakening of Hungarian nationalism at the beginning of the 20th century. But it was used by the government as an informal tool to break the country’s international isolation. p. or the revivification of real or supposed elements of priest-magicians of ancient “magic” MiddleEastern world. under oppressive conditions. locating a cultural essence of Magyarness in everything from fishing hooks and methods of animal husbandry to ritual folk songs.[65] Turanism never became official. where he invented the theory of Jesus the Parthian warrior prince. Prince von Bismarck.VI. “Turanist ethnographers and folklorists privileged the peasants’ cultural 'uniqueness’. Public sentiment became strongly antiWestern. Hopeful Future. and pagan ancient Hungarian religion. The idea was a key part of his ideology of “Hungarism”. the man and the statesman: being the reflections and reminiscences of Otto. the Parthian prince” are such. Under these circumstances no Hungarian government could survive without seeking justice for Magyars and Hungary.[72] The theory of “Jesus. the Parthian prince”. Burdened Past. Even in quiet times many a Magyar will get the gypsies to play to him the song.” Bismarck.[68] with Japan in 1938. Vol.”[72] 3 Turanism and Hungarian fascism The leader of the Hungarian fascist Arrow Cross Party. Japan and even the Sumerians. and Sumerians are Turanid according to Turanist theses.. Stephen and Wu.4 percent of its total population.4. some Hungarians encouraged Turanism as a means of uniting Turks and Hungarians against the perils posed by the Slavs and Pan-Slavism. II.[66] with the Republic of Estonia in 1937. Hungary signed treaties of friendship and collaboration with the Republic of Turkey in 1923. kindred peoples and allies in the East so that Hungary could break out of its isolation and regain its well deserved position among the nations. rightist people. 'individualistic' dances. in the successor states. sometimes even with an anti-Semitic hint propagated sharply anti-Western views and the superiority of Eastern culture. led different strata in society towards Turanism. 255256. 219.: China and Christianity.2 million ethnic Hungarians.7 percent of the territory of historic. anti-French.[67] with the Republic of Finland in 1937. Under the terms of the Treaty of Trianon (1920.. However Pan-Turanism was never more than an outrider to the more prevalent PanTurkist movement. spicy dishes and superstitions. Kolozsvár were lost. Many Christian Hungarian Turanists held the view that Jesus Christ was not a Jew but a proto-Hungarian or a “noble of Parthia”. and lost 58. one-third of all Hungarians resided outside the new boundaries of Hungary. p.[63] In the half-century prior to the First World War. the question became topical again. a pártus herceg) “King Jesus.1 Christian Turanists A Hungarian non-commissioned officer Ferenc Jós Badiny wrote his book ( Jézus Király. Old Hungarian cities of great cultural importance like Pozsony. and build alliances.).9 confidence is apt in critical moments to get the better of political calculation and self-control. archaic. which some Hungarians of the 1930s described as the 'other sword of Turan' (the first sword being Hungary). Kassa. the necessity of a pro-Eastern policy.[69] with Bulgaria in 1941.” in: Uhalley. A more radical group of conservative.[73] In Hungary some fascists (and non-fascists) tried to link the ancestors of the Hungarians to Timur. 1898. and anti-British. and held the view that Jesus was not a Jew but a Hungarian or a “noble of Parthia”. and the pessimistic feeling of loneliness. believed in the existence of a distinct Turanid Hungarian race (which included Jesus Christ). Reuniting the Magyars became a crucial point in public life and on the political agenda. More than 3. and development of the awareness of Turanic racialism among Hungarian people. 'Der Deutsche ist ein Hundsfott' ('The German is a blackguard'). the new Hungarian state constituted only 32. Outrage led many to reject Europe and turn towards the East in search of new friends and allies in a bid to revise the terms of the treaty and restore Hungarian power. Tibet.[64] Turanism helped in the creation of the important Turkish-Austro-Hungarian and BulgarianAustro-Hungarian military and strategic alliances. They tried to look for friends. Xiaoxin eds. The movement received impetus after Hungary’s defeat in World War I. shamanism.The claims of certain linguistic researchers regarding the Finno-Ugric relationship were therefore strongly rejected. 4 Turanist 1989 belief-systems after 4. because many found the idea that their nation was related to a peaceful farming people (the Finns) as insulting. Otto von: Bismarck.[70] In Transylvania. The elite wanted to see itself as a military nation. Also some muslim Turkish Turanists held the view that Muhammad was not an Arab but a Sumerian. “Disappointment towards Europe caused by 'the betrayal of the West in Trianon'. Ferenc Szálasi.

and it has not got much to do with ancient Hungarian traditions. Hungary. Tatars. http://real-d. //www2. Bulgarians.3 Kurultáj See also: Kurultai The Kurultáj is a tribal assembly based on the common heritage of the peoples of Central Asian nomadic origin. p.iif. Bashkirs. http://www. In the reality. Chuvash.hu/08okt/03.) It is also a popular tourist attraction in Hungary (from late 2000s) and Central Asia.hu/fokozatok/PDF/Kovacsne_ Csanyi_Bernadett/tezisfuzet_magyar_csanyiB.[80][81] In the 1990s a well developed souvenir and merchandise business has grown around Turanism. Turks. [3] KOVÁCSNÉ CSÁNYI Bernadett: Honfoglalás kori. Budapest.hu [Valóság (2013 I. • Hungarian neopaganism • Ármin Vámbéry • Ignác Goldziher 6 References [1] “FARKAS Ildikó: A magyar turanizmus török kapcsolatai (“The Turkish connections of Hungarian Turanism”)". Kazakhs.u-szeged.)[76] 4.10 6 REFERENCES (Azerbaijani. Karachays.2 The Habsburg conspiracy theory The Habsburg conspiracy theory is very popular amongst political Turanists. which is quite similar to other well known international examples of business of this kind. 252. www. Gagauz. Corvina.sci.[78][79] 4.[75] The right-wing Jobbik party and its president Gábor Vona are uncompromising supporters of Turanism and PanTurkism (The ideology of Jobbik considers Hungarians as a Turkic nation. Elméletek az újabb irodalom tükrében. 134 [6] ZIMONYI István: A magyarság korai történetének sarokpontjai.mtak. traditionalist and historical reenactment groups. valamint magyar és székely populációk apai ági http: genetikai kapcsolatrendszerének vizsgálata. Nogai. Both Catholic and Protestant religious leaders of Hungary acted against this theory and beliefs. Retrieved 7 March 2014.pdf [4] MENDE Balázs Gusztáv: Archeogenetika és a honfoglalás kor népességtörténete: új módszer – régi problémák.hu/597/7/dc_500_12_doktori_ mu. p. 1983.-IV)].matud. it was Emperor Francis Joseph who used his political prestige to give a university cathedra (as professor) for Ármin Vámbéry. The first Kurultáj was in Kazakhstan in 2007 and the last one was organized in 2014 at Bugac. the Habsburgs envied the glorius Turanian past and “ancestry” of the Hungarian nation.valosagonline. Yakuts etc. Buryats. 1976. therefore Habsburgs created a plan to hide it from the Hungarian and European public opinion. 2012. According to the opinion of Hungarian researcher Igaz Levente this merchandise industry grown around modern Hungarian Turanism became a kind of business. Hungarians.[82] 5 See also • Curse of Turan • Pál Teleki • Turanism (similar Turkic ideology) Jesus Christ as Parthian-Hungarian warrior prince the ancient pagan Hungarian beliefs. Üzbeks. Karakalpaks. the leaders of Hungarian turanists.pdf . Gondolat Könyvkiadó. 2013. Turkmen. Kyrgyz. Uighurs. which was invented only in the 1970s. [2] GYÖRFFY György: István király és műve.[77] According to the myth.html [5] HAJDÚ Péter: Ancient culture of the Uralian peoples. which he called “Szittya biznisz” (Scythian business).

42. a magyar tudományos madártan megalapítója. 1858. [14] MÜLLER.” in: Zoltán VÁGI.” JANOS. Anti-Communism. In: Egyháztörténeti Szemle. Hungarian “Turanism” came into being. p. ein Gemisch von Türken und Hyperboreern. http://mek.oszk. S. 1905.britannica.org/details/languagesseatwa00mlgoog [15] Anonymus: Gesta Hungarorum. der Osmane.: The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire.com/EBchecked/topic/98799/ Matthias-Alexander-Castren http: [8] http://www.: The Politics of Backwardness in Hungary."/ in: “turanizmus”. und so entwickelte sich der heutige Ungar.tankonyvtar. David F.lib.bme. Köln-Wien.htm http://mek.katolikus. [11] “While Turanism was and remained little more than a fringe ideology of the Right. Louise O. Friedrich Max: The languages of the seat of war in the East. had a number of adherents. [13] KATIČIĆ. http://epa. //www. [37] HANEBRINK.ttk.11 [7] EB on Matthias Alexander Castrén. 1997. George van: Languages of the Himalayas: an ethnolinguistic handbook.omikk. Vasvari: Comparative Hungarian Cultural Studies (page:48) . Ihre häufigen Wanderungen hatten noch fernere Amalgamation mit Indo-Germanischen Völkern zu Folge. 1982. majd a szocializmusban „fasisztává” minősült. Sárospatak és az Akadémia.htm [36] DRIEM.html [26] BOLVÁRI-TAKÁCS Gábor: Teleki József. Philipp Johann von: An historicogeographical description of the north and east parts of Europe and Asia http://catalog.hu/00000/ 00021/00290/pdf/MKSZ_EPA00021_1974_90_03-04_ 269-293.msu. uni-miskolc. hu/02200/02249/02249. the second orientation of the national socialists. 00355/html/index.htm [34] http://mtda. Paul: Islam. p. p.oszk.org/Record/ 010825073 [21] " Die Stammväter der Magyaren in Ungarn waren.zemplenimuzsa. 213 [10] "..pdf [24] CSOHÁNY János: Leo Thun egyházpolitikája. p..oszk. http://epa.a múlt században. 1855.51. took over several theses from Turanism’s range of ideas. http://janus. and was adopted as the platform of several national socialist groups. http://mek. úgy vélte. Semitic.275.19. as the cornerstone for racial nationalism.hu/show_news. aminek következtében a turanizmus népszerűsége erősen lecsökkent. and Christian Civilization: The Ottoman Menace in Interwar Hungary.http://c3. azokra valahol Közép-Ázsiában.2010.hu/~{}egyhtort/cikkek/csohany-thun.XII.hu/05_2/ btg. eredményei és gondjai. 1970. Böhlau. [22] HERMAN Ottó: Petényi J. wie die Geschichte leise andeutet und der Ur-Kern ihrer Sprache zu bestätigen scheint.html?id= 3135&issue_id=390 [28] Vasárnapi Ujság. " SCHOTT. Vers un profil convergent des fascismes ?: “Nouveau consensus” et religion politique en Europe centrale.In addition. 02200/02245/02245..html http://mek..hu/books/zajti_ferenc_magyar_evezredek. Gábor KÁDÁR: The Holocaust in Hungary: Evolution of a Genocide. illetve az ujgurok között bukkanhat rá.161-162. Arian and Turanian.7. With a survey of the three families of language. [12] "Magyarországon az 1944-ben uralomra jutott Nemzetszocialista Párt több tételt átvett a turanizmus eszmeköréből.hu/hu/tartalom/historia/95-01/ ch08. László CSŐSZ.htm [25] Az Entwurf hatása a történelemtanításra.hu/03900/03975/03975. 1984.oszk. 1825-1945. [33] CIEGER András: Kormány a mérlegen .hu/tamop/tananyagok/tort_tan_ valt/az_entwurf_hatsa_a_trtnelemtantsra.10.oszk. Wilhelm: Versuch über die Tatarischen Sprachen.hu/12100/ 12102/12102. Editions L'Harmattan.. wie sein heutiger Nachbar und UrVerwandter.hathitrust.hu/09300/09396/html/01. and then in the socialist era it was labelled as “fascist”. [30] PALOTÁS Emil: Okkupáció–annexió 1878–1908.hu/00300/ [18] ". p. lexikon.com/bps/search?query=turanism [9] Traian Sandu.hu/hu/csoma-elete. http://www.htm [32] GOOD. pan-Europaism.amikor Kőrösi elindult a magyarok őshazáját és a ‘hátramaradt magyarokat’ megkeresni.britannica. oszk. http://www. p. 2010."/"In Hungary the Nationsocialist Party which ascended to power in 1944. p. pdf [35] http://mek.p.pte.82. Cambridge Journals [38] Steven Totosy de Zepetnek.htm [27] VEKERDI László: Egy könyvtár otthonai.oszk. 1984. This pseudoscientific ideology strove to prove the existence and superiority of a unified Hungarian “race” and therefore inevitably incorporated an anti-Jewish aspect. Retrieved 7 March 2014. http://www.pdf [29] KOS.https: //archive.html [31] http://staff. 11/2. and as a result the popularity of Turanism strongly dwindled.mtak. http://tmt. Radoslav: A contribution to the general theory of comparative linguistics. http://mek.edu/sowards/balkan/lect10.. aus mancherlei Völker-Elementen eben so geläutert und männlich schön hervorgegangen.hu/ 00000/00030/00251/pdf/VU-1858_05_51_12_19.htm [19] VÁMBÉRY Ármin: Küzdelmeim.hu/ [16] Kézai Simon mester Magyar krónikája.pdf [23] BUZINKAY Géza: A magyar irodalom és sajtó irányítása a Bach-korszakban.XXXIV.htm [17] Magyar Életrajzi Lexikon.oszk.hu/scripta/szazadveg/14/cieger. Franz Josef: Die Politik Österreich-Ungarns während der Okkupationskrise 1874/75-1879. Andrew C. p. 1836.”http: //csoma.hu [Magyar Katolikus Lexikon (Hungarian Catholic Lexicon)].pdf [20] STRAHLENBERG. 1750-1914.

1000ev.: China and Christianity. the man and the statesman: being the reflections and reminiscences of Otto. p.tankonyvtar. törvénycikk a Török Köztársasággal Konstantinápolyban 1923.hu/mostort/ostortnyelveszet1. p. évi október hó 22. SUNY Press.oszk.extra. rész.jobbik. p. Burdened Past.III.ee/public/va_lu/l37-2-1. http:// www. évi XVI. http://www. évi XVI. in: Kultúra.hu/bbb/coll. 109-189.12 [39] VÁMBÉRY Ármin: Magyar és török-tatár szóegyezések. Ethnologiai tanulmány. http://www.1000ev.hu/index. nemzet.hu/09300/09396/ 09396. Hopeful Future.pdf [61] MAKKAI László.php?a=3&param=7599 [46] http://mek. pdf [63] BISMARCK. évi október hó 13.pdf [65] UHALLEY. 1914-1945 (University of Wisconsin Press.hu/mtda/Hunfalvy-Magyarorszag_ ethnographiaja. évi XXIII. 2001. 255-256.272-274 [74] JÁNOS.com/jobbik_news/europe/3198.oszk.htm [49] http://epa. augusztus 23–26.kirj. 1986. napján kelt magyar-bolgár egyezmény becikkelyezéséről.: East Central Europe in the Modern World Stanford University Press. Michela SALVAGNI: THE ”UGRICTURKIC BATTLE”: A CRITICAL REVIEW.pdf [48] http://mek. Vol.php?a=3&param=8169 [53] http://terebess. Aldous: Writers and Readers.pdf [76] http://www. MÓCSY András eds.hu/keletkultinfo/lexikon/zajti.hu/index. 1884.1000ev. [40] Angela MARCANTONIO.pte.php/Cikk?id=155 [77] http://finnugor.oszk.1000ev. 1898.elte. 2011.pdf [67] 1938. 1937.hu/index. [45] VÁMBÉRY Ármin: A magyarok eredete.http://mek.hu/02300/02392/00032/pdf/EPA02392_ egy_phil_kozl_08_1884_05_416-440.: Erdély története.oszk. 1884. 1936.hu/index.hu/02300/02392/00030/pdf/EPA02392_ egy_phil_kozl_08_1884_02_131-158.org/fejezetek/1896/ 07_magyarellenes_atrocitasok_a_karpat_medenceben. http:// www. 219. http://mek. http://epa.fszek.php/ Cikk?id=155 [72] See Ungváry [55] "http://mtdaportal. p. 2001. http://epa.htm [47] http://mek. Pirjo NUMMENAHO. napján kelt magyar-japán barátsági és szellemi együttműködési egyezmény becikkelyezéséről. identitás.html [60] HUXLEY. törvénycikk a szellemi együttműködés tárgyában Budapesten.97 [54] VINCZE Zoltán: Létay Balázs. Xiaoxin eds. http://www.hu/a-bahai-hit/ magyarorszagi-tortenet/abdul-baha-budapesten/#id% C3%81PRILIS_9_SZERDA [73] Stanley Payne A History of Fascism.16.html [71] László Kürti The Remote Borderland: Transylvania in the Hungarian Imagination.pdf [56] http://www. évi december hó 18.hu/keletkutatas/Keletkutatas_2012-tavasz. 1884.html [62] BOTLIK József: Magyarellenes atrocitások a Kárpátmedencében.http://www.php?a=3&param=8078 [68] 1938. p. Stephen and WU. 3. a magyar asszirológia legszebb reménye http://www.muvelodes. http://www. törvénycikk a szellemi együttműködés tárgyában Szófiában az 1941. évi február hó 18. törvénycikk a Budapesten.hu/books/teleki_pal_a_turani_ tarsasag.neprajz.1000ev.ro/index. Prince von Bismarck. napján kelt magyar-észt egyezmény becikkelyezéséről.muvelodes.1882.php?a=3&param=8084 [69] 1940.hu/hu/tartalom/tkt/ ostortenet-nemzettudat/ch07. pdf [51] http://www.) elhangzott előadások.hu/02100/02109/html/93.pdf 6 REFERENCES [59] http://www.oszk. rész. II. http: //www. Andrew C.bahai.php?a=3&param=8115 [70] 1941.409-421. rész. törvénycikk a szellemi együttműködés tárgyában Budapesten. A VI. 1938.hu/00300/00355/html/ABC17155/ 17265. http://epa. Otto von: Bismarck.html [58] http://www. 1995) pp. Nemzetközi Hungarológiai Kongresszuson (Debrecen.hu/05300/05389/pdf/Loczy_ Szechenyi_emlekezete.oszk.ro/index.lib. 2. évi I.nytud.hu/00300/00355/html/ABC11587/ 12489. 2002 pp.pdf [42] THÚRY József: Az ugor-magyar theoria.oszk.hu/english_periscope/ shamans-in-the-pantry-25940 [57] Vasárnapi Ujság.hu/nyk/reg/008.com/ EBchecked/topic/440695/Pan-Turanianism [44] HUNFALVY Pál: Magyarország ethnographiája. évi XXIX. http://www. http://adattar.” In Nyelvtudományi közlemények VIII.pdf [50] http://kcst.hu/02300/02392/00031/pdf/EPA02392_ egy_phil_kozl_08_1884_03-04_295-311. 1. napján kötött barátsági szerződés becikkelyezéséről.hu/?p=3265 [66] 1924.pdf [43] THÚRY József: Az ugor-magyar theoria.hu/00000/ 00030/03094/pdf/VU_EPA00030_1913_11.britannica.185-186 [75] http://hetivalasz. 1913. napján kelt magyar-finn egyezmény becikkelyezéséről. 1937. Első kötet. http://epa.http://digitalia.oszk.pdf [41] THÚRY József: Az ugor-magyar theoria.htm [52] SZABÓ Lilla: Zajti Ferenc festőművész és Medgyaszay István építész magyarságkutatásai.vmmi. [64] EB on Pan-Turanianism.oszk.oszk. évi november hó 15. 2006.hu/01600/01614/00002/pdf/nyjame_02_ 1959_051-061.pdf .hu/index.

Retrieved 10.php?action= recordView&type=places&category_id=3115&id= 319584 [79] http://www. Check date values in: |date=. PhD thesis. "Élet a szittya bizniszen túl – utak a magyar hagyományőrzésben” (in Hungarian).tenyleg.13.nyest.(2012 Central European University)| • Joseph Kessler Turanism and Pan-Turanism in Hungary: 1890-1945 (University of California.13).05.05.hu/20120810/ deputy-house-speaker-greets-asian-ethnic-groups-in-parliament/ [82] Barna Borbas (05.hu/renhirek/ akiknek-el-akarjak-venni-a-multjukat [80] Kurultaj official website [81] http://www. Heti Valasz. |accessdate= (help) 7 Further reading • Emel Akcah and Umut Korkut: Geographical Metanarratives in East-Central Europe: Neo-Turanism in Hungary.13 [78] http://www. Berkeley.politics.com/index. 1967) .

Jezebel1349. Yobot. Nigej. Moreschi. Z10987.'_1868.svg Original artist: El T (original icon). Böri. and Jakub Steiner (although minimally).14 8 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES. SmackBot. Dosemark.wikimedia.jpg Source: http://upload. Avpop. Woohookitty.” • File:Géza_I. Dougweller. 1868.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Maghasito • File:Max_Müller’{}s_Northern_Division_of_Turanian_Languages. Niceguyedc. Folantin. John of Reading.png Source: http://upload. and Turanian. Vitaan26. Koertefa. Drubtri.png Source: http://upload. SchreiberBike. _London. Magioladitis.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/Jozsef_Ferenc_f%C5%91herceg. Rjwilmsi. 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