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**SUBMITTED BY: ZARYAN IJAZ
**

SUBMITTED TO: DR. LIAQAT

DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS

**SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING
**

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

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NOMENCLATURE D= mean diameter of spring d= spring wire diameter r(standard value) E = modulus of elasticity of material F= load. Fmax = Maximum limit of load variation on spring during operation condition. Fo = the maximum operating load Fs = load at solid length. fss = fatigue factor of safety Fw = weight of the vehicle G = modulus of rigidity of spring material K = spring rate or spring stiffness KB = curvature factor Lf= free length of the spring Li = installed length corresponding to initial load Ls= solid length of the spring Na = number of active coils Se = endurance limit strength of material Sut = tensile strength of material ρ = density of spring material τd = design stress ωd= represents the damped angular frequency ωn = natural frequency of the system Ω = forcing angular frequency. 2 .. Fmin =Minimum limit of load variation on spring during operation condition.

compressive. spring is most important part. or torsion loads. design constraints. the cantilever springs. The flat springs on the other hand include the elliptical type. to provide flexibility. The performance of the suspension system is fully depends upon the spring stiffness. If someone wants to reduce the weight of suspension system then he has to consider the other factors like performance. steering system. especially in light body automobiles.0 INTRODUCTION A vehicle chassis is made up of several systems that all work in union to provide a safe and comfortable ride. Helical coil spring is normally used for the light vehicle suspension system. So we can work on the suspension system to achieve lower weight. One of the major factors to maximize the fuel efficiency is weight of automobile vehicle. the wound motor type or Belleville springs. engine. It cushions the ride of the frame. and to store or absorb energy.1. Their suitability for this purpose is not far from the advantage of being 3 . The chassis includes the frame. Coil springs include helical (tension and compression) springs of round or squared wire made to resist tensile. steering system. automobile industries trying to improve the fuel efficiency of automobile vehicle. corrosion resistance. springs may be classified as coil (wire) springs. leaf (flat) springs or special shaped springs. brake system. brake system. In present. cost etc. while keeping the tires in contact with road under all conditions. transmission and passengers. Helical compression spring is a form of coil spring usually made of a wire of steel or alloy steel coiled in the form of a helix. This spring type has become the most popular type of springs used for independent front-and rear-suspension systems of vehicle. and suspension system and wheel assemblies. In general. The function of spring in suspension system is to distort when loaded and to recover its original shape when the load is removed. fatigue strength of material. Its primary purpose is to support compressive load as the name implies. Mechanical springs are used in machines to exert forces. In this suspension system. frame. And to absorb and control energy due to shocks or vibrations. wheel assembly for matter of safety. But we can't compromise with the system like. Suspension system is one of the important segments of an automobile vehicle.

they store about twice as much energy per unit volume than leaf springs. the basic factors that must be considered in choosing the right material to use include service condition. Stresses in the spring are proportional to load. Design Assumptions The following assumptions are made respect to this study: 1.accommodated in a confined space while enabling a wide range of spring rates. 4 . chrome silicon. Material for helical springs should meet basic requirements as high fatigue strength. and temperature factor. oil-tempered wire. Design Design usually requires an iterative process in which an initial design is created and then subjected to analysis of some kind. Design usually requires an iterative process in which an initial design is created and then subjected to analysis of some kind. Materials There are different spring materials available to the designer. until the designer is satisfied that an optimum design has been created. The result of the analysis is a revision of the design. followed by another analysis and so forth. beryllium copper. The result of the analysis is a revision of the design. The load on the automobile suspension system is the weight of the vehicle and its content (passengers and goods). but the choice of material depends on its application. However. until the designer is satisfied that an optimum design has been created. and high resilience. high ductility. and various nickel alloys. Others are creep resistant and corrosion resistant. corrosion-resisting steels as well as non-ferrous materials such as phosphorousbronze. followed by another analysis and so forth. A list of specific materials for helical springs from the steel materials category mentioned above are music wire. A variety of materials for spring include plain carbon steels alloy steels. and may only weigh about half as much to do the same job. Besides. chrome vanadium. 2. hard drawn wire. spring brass. the maximum operating load.

This becomes the suitable diameter of material to be used for the spring manufacture after the design process is completed. then. the force at any deflection can be computed. The various lengths which designer considers are the free length. and installed length. hence. If spring rate is known. A trial wire diameter is computed and compared with the standard wire diameters in a database table (those which are commercially available). It is important to understand the relationship between the length of spring and the force exerted by it. The load at free length is usually zero. solid length. It is necessary to make an estimate for values of some design parameters like stress factor and mean diameter. operating length. The effect of direct shear is more pronounced.Theoretical Background and Design Considerations Design of spring in this study is based on the principle which requires that diameter of spring be commercially available and the maximum stress in the spring be less than the torsional yield strength of the material. a curvature factor is determined to correct for both the curvature effect and shear stress in the spring system during its operation. Condition of active coil 5 . Similarly. it is noted that both bending stresses and shear stresses (torsional shearand direct shear stresses) are present in a helical compression spring when it is loaded. After comparison. The relationship between the force exerted by a spring and its corresponding deflection is an important parameter to consider in spring design. This is confirmed afterward whether the estimated values are within the desired range using some design conditions. the designer will take from the table a value higher than the computed value. Therefore. this is used to determine the maximum stresses in the system. The curvature of the wire has been known to increase the stress inside the spring but decreases it only slightly on the outside. since the free length is the length that the spring assumes when it is exerting no force as if it were sitting on a table. Any change in force accompanied by a corresponding change in deflection is used to compute the spring rate.

This type does not tend to become tangled during the manufacturing process as readily as the plain ends ground. 4 C 16 Spring rate / load and deflection diagram 6 . The following is an approximate rule for finding the active number of coils. Squared and ground ends. As the load is applied. Squared or closed ends. This type of end enjoys the advantage of not becoming readily tangled during manufacturing. subtract a total of 2 turns. Squared or closed ends.5 turns. Regardless of the type of ends used.5. Plain ends ground. the load is transmitted in a perfectly axial direction. This interactive coil must be subtracted from the actual total number no. Plain ends ground. subtract a total of 1 turns. that is Na = nt−1 Critical Design Constraints The critical design constraints are summed as: 8 K s Fo D d 3 Strength conditions is. handling and assembly of spring.The helical spring is the most popular type of spring. the coils move closer together. Helical compression springs are used to exert force on mating parts. In each case. that is Na = nt−2. the coils are separated. that is Na = nt−1. There are three types of ends commonly used for compression springs. when there is on load. Squared and ground ends. This type is better than the plain ends. but do not touch. The three types of ends used for compression springs are described as follows. during storage. In the case. Allowable shear stress Maximum deformation conditions spring index conditions. subtract a total of 1. a partially dead or inactive coil and exists at each end of the spring. It is desirable that compression springs have as such possible with that mating parts at the ends of the springs. of coil to find the number of active coils. the ends tend to become readily tangled. However.

Thus for the ease of calculations and not necessarily getting involved in automotive complexities.The force (N) that each spring is exposed to Ride height .d4/8D3N Where G=11x106 psi So. All the following calculations have the above mentioned design intent. i. d4/D4N=290.e.spring length at axle load when the vehicle is unloaded and parked Free length and rebound length Block length and bump length End seats shape and geometric movement Spring dimensions and weight Design Calculations Design Statement We were to design a spring for the shock absorber for a Honda City having a mass of 1600kg. Calculation K=400 lb.(a) Also Ultimate tensile Strength=100.000 psi 7 . which is not actually the case. as the front suspension is more loaded than the rear suspension. 302 Stainless Steel. The car has 4 shock absorbers so each spring has a load of 400kg. Kerb weight . Also the material used is fixed. the spring rate of the spring is fixed./in.9x10-6………………………. As the car is passenger comfortable and it has to be provide good load to deflection characteristics. We have K=G. loading on all four springs is considered equal.

15 lb.40 1.9 0.(b) Now using the stock sizes of d. Allowable Stress (Assumed) f=100000/1. We get D/d3=31.6 7.45Sut=62.6 2.Ssy/8.5=70000 psi So.inm Sut=A/dm=139.000 psi W=882.d3. D=2 in. we get the following table: d D N C 0.30 0.Factor of Safety=1.Kb.99 11.478 A=90 kpsi. f=2.11……………………….D=1353 lb Clearly Fallow<<<<Load For square and ground ends Na=Nt-2=9 8 .4kpsi Ssy=0.83 48. N=11 C=5 m=0.5 So.294 Fallow=π.40 in.50 3.1 4.75kpsi Kb=4c+2/4c-3=1.76 Keeping in mind the design constraints we get: d=0. and using equations a and b and iterating.766 0.55DW/d3 Where f=70.88 3.

Fmax=3.20 in. L0=4. Ta=41 kpsi Tm=45 kpsi Sut=139. P=L0-3d/Na=0.26 D.80+2.9kpsi (un-peened) Using Goodman Failure criterion: Sse=84.4 kpsi Ssy=0. Fm=880lb. For Buckling L0<<5. which is true For fatigue analysis Fmin=1. Fa=400lb.80 in.98 lb f= 139.15 For Critical Frequency W=1.d=4.7kpsi Ssa=47.4kpsi Factor of safety=47.2=7 in.20x400=480lb. Ls=12.64 in.9kpsi (un-peened) Ssm=54.Y=Fload/K=2.3kpsi Ssa=34.4/41=1.2x400=1280lb.68 Which is safely above the limit 9 .67Sut=93.

“computer aided design for helical compression spring and automobile damping system”. REFERENCES Shigley J. Thiagarajar College of Engineering. G. The parameters d and D were the most constraining parameters of the design. Qu Xian. using material and spring rate as the design constraint for the process. Sozanya. Oxford University Press. India.A. “Optimization Design and Calculation of the Variable Stiffness Coil Spring Applied to Vehicles”. Y. Technical and Sales Training Presentation William F. “Design of Helical Compression Springs”. Engineering and Technology. S. Ikeda.K.Manoj .Ramkumar. Milliken and Douglas L. Kilen. US Army Armament Research and Development Command. Elango. Federal University of Technology Nigeria. “Design of Helical Coil Suspension System by Combination of Conventional Steel and Composite Material”. fatigue and frequency loading characteristics of the coil spring were found to be acceptable.hassan and ad. (1989). “Design and failure mode of automotive suspension springs”. Milliken. Henry P. Several other designing techniques could have been adopted to design the particular case.”Mechanical Engineering Design”. C. 10 . S. Manville. S. International Journal of Science and Research. “Race Car Vehicle Dynamics”. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science. Nishikawa. “Helical Springs. yami. Swieskowski.Manikandan. M. D. S. Prawoto. Engineering Design Guide 08”. The Spring Research Association.Kannan. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Prof. M. The static. Babakano. “Complete Design and Finite Element Analysis of an all-Terrain Vehicle”. Amrit. Engineering Failure Analysis.Kalaivanan. Zhao Shu-en (2012). A. Harale. T.Conclusion The coil spring was designed for the automobile. and Miscke R. Sourabh G. Madurai. Umaru. M.

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