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Kinetics Lab

Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the total rate law for the oxidation of
iodide ions by bromate ions in the presence of an acid
Hypothesis The hypothesis is that the rate constant can be calculated from the initial rate and
concentration of reactants. The activation energy can also be calculated from graphing the rate
and temperature.
Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.

Find the Volume of One Drop of Solution


Determine the Reaction Rate and Calculate the Rate Law
Determine the Activation Energy
Observe the Effect of a Catalyst on the Rate

Data Tables
Find the Volume of One Drop of Solution
Mass of empty beaker (g)
Mass of beaker plus 5 drops of water (g)
Trial
Mass of first 5 drops of water (g)
1
Average mass of 1 drop of water (g)
Mass of beaker plus 10 drops of water (g)
Trial
Mass of second 5 drops of water (g)
2
Average mass of 1 drop of water (g)
Mass of beaker plus 15 drops of water (g)
Trial
Mass of third 5 drops of water (g)
3
Average mass of 1 drop of water (g)
Average volume of 1 drop of water (L)

29.5017
29.6302
0.1285
0.02570
29.7543
0.1241
0.02482
29.8813
0.1270
0.02540

2.46 10-5

Determine Reaction rate and Rate Law


Experiment No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Trial 1
166
70
46
90
47
23
9

Trial 2
202
100
49

Trial 3
148
85
31
36
101
103
47
49
24
21
9
13
Rate Constant Data
3
4

Experiment
1
2
5
Value of
2.0 102
2.0 102
rate
290
180
240
constant,
Average Value of Rate Constant (M-3.5s-1)
Determination of Activation Energy

Average
172
85
40.5
98
47.67
22.67
10.33

228

Temp. C
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
6

270

220

Approximate

Measured

Measured

Measured

Time of Reaction (sec)


-1

Trial 1

(K)

Temperature ,
( -1
K )

273.15
297.15
314.15

3.66 10-3
3.37 10-3
3.18 10-3

228
166
62

Temperature,

Temperature

Temperature

(C)

0
20
40

0
24
41

Trial 2

202

195
148
59

Observe the Effect of a Catalyst on the Rate


Reaction Time, seconds
Conditions
Tria
l
1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Uncatalyzed Reaction
166
202
148
Catalyzed Reaction
56
62
61

Average
Time
212
172
60.5

Average
172
59.67

Post-Lab Questions
1. The reaction rate changes as concentrations of the reactants change because there is a
direct relationship between the concentrations of the reactants and the reaction through
the differential rate law. This means that the concentration will affect the rate of this
particular solution.
2. To find the rate law you first have to determine the reaction order of each of the reactants
by conducting the trials to see whether increasing the concentration of a particular
reactant will vary the reaction rate. This is done by keeping the other reactants constant
while doubling the reactant you want to find to see how this reactant alone affects the
reaction rate. This will lead to the calculation of the rate constant
3. The reaction rate changes with temperature because as the temperature increases, the
amount of kinetic energy in the molecules and atoms increases. There is a direct
relationship between the temperature as well as the kinetic energy in the reactants. As the
reactants move more and more there are more chances for collision which is explained in
the collision theory.
4. To find the activation energy one must graph the natural log of the rate constant, ln(k), on
the vertical axis vs. 1/T (temperature in Kelvins) on the horizontal axis and determine the
slope of the line using the graphing calculator using a best-fit regression line. The slope is
eqal to Ea/R where Ea is the activation energy while R is 8.314 J/mol. This will
determine the activation energy of the reactants.
5. The reaction rate is the rate at which the moles of a substance changes which varies with
both the temperature and concentration of the reactants. The specific rate constant on the
other hand only varies with temperature.
6. The addition of a catalyst increased the rate of the reaction since the function of the
catalysts in chemical reactions is to lower the activation energy. This lowered the barrier
which helped the reaction to take place faster.

7. The data collected was consistent as the calculated order was very close to the integers
graphed by the straight line in the graph.
8. ln k2/ln k1 = Ea/R * ((1/T1) - (1/T2))
9. The data could be improved if better measuring instruments were used for the lab. The
mass alone differed based on the scales used and the drops could have been increased due
to human error.
Conclusion and Error Analysis
The results from the experiment were skewed, and these results could not be used to prove that
the data is correct. Because of the smallness in scale of the data, adding an additional drop could
have skewed the data greatly. The addition of an extra mL could be magnified when find the rate
constant and rate law of the reaction. This would change the concentration of the solutions and
since all of these values were raised to a power this would increase the rate of some of the
reactants drastically. Also the temperature of the plates was hard to measure which could have
also skewed the data. Although the failure of measuring the solutions could alter the data overall,
this experiment was very insightful. From this lab the volume of a drop of solution, reaction rate,
and activation energy were all able to be calculated. The total rate law of a reaction involving the
oxidation of iodide ions was calculated from the bromate ions in the presence of acid and was
determined to be first order in both K and BrO3 while 2.5 order in the H ions. This equation was
determined by calculating the individual order of each reactant and the rate constant which is
stated in the differential rate law. Although my hypothesis was overall correct, this experiment
was very difficult.