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Bio 215 Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition

Ch 41: Animal


Lecture notes
Some of the goals for this chapter:
1) Distinguish among herbivores, carnivores and omnivores.
2) Describe 4 types of feeding methods used by animals.
3) Describe digestion and why it is important.
4) What is the difference between intracellular and extracellular digestion.
5) How does a gastrovascular cavity function.
6) What is peristalsis and what is its role in digestion?
7) List the three types of secretory cells found in the stomach and what substance they secrete.
8) Why does the stomach not digest itself?
9) What are the causes of ulcers and why are they frequently found in the duodenum?
10) List the enzymes ant the order that they are made in the digestion system.
11) List the various adaptations that vertebrates have for digestion.
All animals are heterotrophic and rely on organic compounds in their food to supply energy and raw
materials for the growth and repair of their bodies:
A. Animals are heterotrophs that require food for fuel, carbon skeletons, and essential nutrients.
1) a nutritionally adequate diet provides an animals with
a) fuel (chemical energy) for cellular respiration.
b) raw organic materials for biosynthesis
c) essential nutrients which must be obtained in prefabricated form.
2) Homeostatic mechanisms manage an animals fuel
a) chemical energy is obtained form the oxidation of complex organic molecules
monomers form any of the complex organic molecules can be used to produce energy
although those from carbohydrates and fats are used first
oxidation of a gram of fat liberates 9.5kcal twice that of a gram of carbohydrate or
b) the basal energy requirements of an animal must be met to sustain their metabolic functions.
if more calories are taken in than consumed the excess is stored in the liver and muscle as
glycogen, further excess is stored in adipose tissue in the form of fat.
undernourishment is an animal whose diet is deficient in calories. will start to break down its
own tissue.

000000000 Diets and feeding mechanisms very extensively among animals

0. All animals ingest other organisms (opportunistic, may eat outside of their category)
0. Animals are categorized based on the kinds of food they eat
0. Herbivores eat autotrophic organisms (plants, algae and bacteria)
0. Carnivores eat other animals
0. Omnivores eat animals and autotrophs
0.0 The various mechanisms used by animals to obtain food are
0. Suspension feeders: sift small food particles from water
0. include clams and oysters and baleen whales
0.0 Substrate feeders live on or in their food source and eat way through the food (leaf miners)
0. Deposit feeders: substrate feeder that ingest partially decayed organic materials along with
substrate (earthworms)
0. Fluid feeders suck nutrient rich fluids form a living host (aphids, leaches, hummingbirds
0. Bulk feeders eat large pieces of food include most animals

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Bio 215 Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition

Ingestion, digestion , absorption and elimination are the four main stages of food

0. Ingestion first stage and is the act of eating

0. Digestion: second stage breaking down food into small molecules so the body can absorb them
0. food is composed of macromolecules (proteins fats, carbos) cannot pass the intestinal epithelial
membrane barrier
0. digestion enzymatically cleaves the macromolecules into component monomers that can pass the
0. enzymatic hydrolysis
0.0 Absorption (third stage) is the uptake of the small molecules resulting from digestion of the
0. Elimination: (4th) undigested material passes out of the digestive compartment
0.0 Digestion occurs in food vacuoles, gastrovascular cavities, and alimentary canals
0. Intracellular digestion of food vacuoles
0. Food vacuoles are the simplest digestive compartments
0. protozoa have food vacuoles that form around food by endocytosis
0. hydrolytic enzymes are secreted into vacuole to
processes food by intracellular
c. Macrophage in vertebrate animals are the only cells that use vacuoles to digest particles in the
0.0 Extracellular digestion is within compartments that pass outside of the body
0. most animals use this method (The sponge does not)
0.00 Digestion in Gastrovascular cavities
0. Gastrovascular cavity: digestive sac with a single opening
0. hydra digestion 41.9
0. carnivore that immobilized prey with stings from nematocysts
0. digestive enzymes are secreted and break down prey
0. gastrodermal cells phagocytize small particles and hydrolysis is completed by intracellular
0. undigested material are expelled through the single opening
e. some gastrodermal cells have flagella and move the particles around
f. The combination of intra and extra cellular digestion allows organisms to feed on larger prey
g. Some gastrovascular cavities are extensively branched and help in distribution of nutrients in
the organism. (Planarians)
0.00 Digestion in alimentary Canals
0. animals with more complex body plans than cnidarians and Platyhelminthes have alimentary
a digestive tube running between two openings. Usually extensive specialization has occurred
0. mouth where food is ingested
0. anus when waste are egested
0. food usually moves in one direction

The mammalian digestive system

0.The digestive system includes alimentary canals and accessory glands that secrete digestive juices
0. mucosa: lines lumen and covers smooth muscle with and outer layer of serosa
0. peristalsis: rhythmic smooth muscle contractions that pushes food along the tract
0. sphincters: ringlike smooth muscle valves that occur at junctions (esophagus to stomach)
0. Accessory glands: 3 pair of salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gall bladder
0.00 The oral cavity
0. Physical and chemical digestion begins in the oral cavity
0. presence of food stimulates the salivary glands to secrete saliva, promotes hydrolysis of starch
0. Tongue forms food into a bolus which is swallowed

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Bio 215 Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition

0.0 Pharynx
0. intersection of digestive and respiratory systems
0. epiglottis blocks the glottis preventing food form going into the lungs
0.00 The esophagus
0. Moves food from the pharynx to the stomach by peristalsis (swallowing is voluntary)
0.0 The Stomach
0. Large saclike structure located just below the diaphragm on the left side of abdominal cavity
functions in
0. Food storage (2 liters)
0. Churning and mixing, converts food to acid chyme
0. pyloric sphincter regulates food passage into intestine
0. secretion (3 types of cells)
(*) mucous cells secrete Munich and gastrin (hormone)
(*) chief cells: secrete pepsinogen: a zymogen an inactive protease (pepsin)
(*) parietal cells secrete HCl (pH 1-4)
0.0 Protein digestion occurs in the stomach by the action of pepsin and HCl
f. Pepsin is an endopeptidase that splits peptide bonds next to some amino acids
2. Modifications that prevent the enzymes of digestion from destroying the stomach.
a. Different kinds of cells secrete the acid and pepsingoen, so the two ingredients do not mix
until their release into the lumen of the stomach.
b. a coating of mucus secreted by epithelial cells helps protect the stomach lining form being
c. Even with this protection the epithelial layer of the stomach is rapidly eroded. The dermis of
the stomach divides rapidly to replace the cells that are lost. The cells of the epithelium of
the stomach are completely replaced every three days.
d. if the stomach lining is not replaced as fast as it is worn away an ulser will occur.
0.00 The small intestine
0. 6M in length
0. sight of most enzymatic hydrolysis of food and absorption of nutrients
0. accessory glands include pancreas, liver , gall bladder release digestive products into the duodenum
(first 25 cm of small intestine)
0. pancreas: hydrolytic enzymes that break down all major classes of macromolecules
(carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, bicarbonate that neutralize the acid chyme
0. Liver: produces bile stored in the gall bladder, has salts that emulsify fats, also the breakdown
products of red blood cells
0.0 hormonal control of digestion
0. gastrin: released in response to food, stimulates
release of gastric juice
0. secretin: released form duodenum by acid chyme, signals pancreas to release bicarbonate
0. Enterogastrone: released by duodenum to presence of fat, slows peristalsis down
0. Cholecystokinin : signals gall bladder to release bile
0.0 Carbohydrate digestion:
0. salivary amylase in mouth
0. continued in duodenum with pancreatic amylases
0. disaccharides on duodenal epithelium hydrolyze disaccharide's
0. sugars are absorbed by duodenum
0.0 Protein digestion
0. digestion by Pepsin starts in stomach
0. In the lumen of duodenum enteropeptidase converts trypsinogen to trypsin, that self converts
and hydrolyses protease
c. Trypsin is also involved in the activation of Carboxypeptidase and chymotriypsin from
inactive zymogens
d. Trypsin and chymotrypsin digest large polypeptides into shorter chains by breaking internal
peptide bonds.

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Bio 215 Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition

e. Carboxypeptidase splits amino acids one at a time off the end of a polypeptide that has a free
carboxyl group.
f. Aminopeptidases split AA of the amino acid end of a protein
g. Dipeptidases split small polypeptides
h. The breakdown of proteins into AA requires the activity of all of these enzymes
0.0 Nucleic acid digestion
0. Hydrolytic enzymes like Nuclease digest DNA and RNA into monomeric molecules
b. other enzymes beak nucleotides into nucleosides and nitrogenous bases, sugars and
0.0 Fat digestion
0. fat reaches the duodenum undigested
0. takes a long time so presence of fat causes the flow to slow down
c. Bile salts emulsify the insoluble fat and preventing them form coalescing. This
emulsification produces many small droplets that collectively have a large surface area
exposed for enzymatic degradation.
d. pancreatic lipase hydrolyses fats into glycerol and fatty acids
0.00 remaining areas of the small intestine
0. jejunum
0. ileum
0. are both specialized for absorption of nutrients
0.0 Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption
0. folds covered with villi covered with microvilli results in a surface area of 300M2 (basketball court)
0. hollow core of each villus has a lymph vessel called a lacteal surrounded by capillaries
0. transport of nutrients by diffusion or active transport through the 2 cells of epithelium and
blood vessels
0. Amino acids and sugars enter the capillaries and enter blood
0. fats are reconstituted into chylomicons and enter the lacteals
0.0 Nutrients are transported to the liver by the hepatic portal vein nutrients are thus regulated and
stored in the liver
a. organic molecules are used stored or converted do different forms
b. toxins are processed
c. blood flow is rapid roughly 1Liter per minute in humans through hepatic portal vessel
0.0 Large intestine
0. feces are produces and liquids and minerals are reabsorbed by the body
0. bacteria produce vitamins used by the host
0. feces stored in rectum and pass thorough the anus for elimination
4. the cecum and appendix occur at the junction of the large and small intestines.

Vertebrate digestive systems exhibit many evolutionary adaptations

associated with diet

0. the assortment of teeth reflects an animals diet

0. carnivores have pointed canines and incisors
0. herbivores have teeth with broad ridged surfaces for grinding vegetation
0. Omnivores have unspecialized dentation
0. other specialized Dentation
0. fangs of poisonous snakes
0.00 a correlation exists between length of vertebrate digestive system and diet
0. the more meat in the diet the shorter time and length of Alimentary canal that is needed
0.0 Many herbivores contain special fermentation chambers, for holding specialized symbiotic bacteria

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Bio 215 Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition

D. functional length (absorptive surface) can be increased by folding or spiraling as in sharks.

An adequate diet provides carbon skeletons for biosynthesis and essential


0. food provides fuel for respiration, raw organic materials for biosynthesis and essential nutrients which
must be obtained in prefabricated form
0. Fuel
0. excess fuel is stored as fat in adipose tissue (fat is 9.5kcal for oxidation of a gram of fat)
0. Undernourished is deficient in calories
(*) lengthy starvation results in breakdown of body own proteins
0.0 risks of obesity include hear attach, diabetes and others
0.0 Raw materials
0. small molecules can be interconverted to produce all the macromolecules in the body, except
for essential nutrients
0.0 Essential nutrients
0. malnourished occurs when one of the essential nutrients is missing from the diet
(*) humans can only produce 12 out of 20 AA
(*) we cannot store AA
(*) Fatty acids are required (linoleic acid to produce Phospholipids) few diets are deficient
(essential fatty acids)
(*) vitamins (coenzymes in enzymatic function)
(0) water soluble
(0) fat soluble held by the body can build up toxic levels
(c) if the body can synthesize a compound it is not a vitamin
(*)0 Minerals from 1mg to 2500mg per day can be structural or parts of enzymes
Multiple choice questions:
1) The main modes of nutrition gathering in multicellular animals is Photosynthesis, Absorption and
Ingestion. As you know animals Ingest their food. Animals can be classified further by the kinds of
food they eat and the mechanism of the food they eat. Which of the following is true.
a) Herbivores can photosynthesize
b) Most animals are bulk feeders and include Herbivores, Carnivores and Omnivores
c) Some herbivores such as aphids can be fluid feeders
d) Suspension feeders tend to be omnivores, because they sift small food particles from the water
and cannot select their meals
e) Herbivores tend to be deposit feeders because they wait until the plant is dead to eat it.
2) Multicellular animals that are omnivores use which of the following
a) After swallowing food the process is called intracellular digestion.
b) A Gastrovascular cavity is a simple sac in which extracellular digestion can occur
c) An Alimentary canal can have specialized areas for the specific treatment of food particles
d) Only a limited number of cells in the animal body are capable of intracellular digestion and these
cells use this process for defense from microscopic organisms rather than nutrition
e) A gastrovascular cavity is contained within each cell of the alimentary canal in order to maximize
surface area and absorb nutrients.
3) The digestive system in an ancient system, so it uses hormones to control the rate and contend to
gastric juices produces. Certain hormones are released from the duodenum by signals within the
chyme that is passing through the duodenum. Which of the following are those hormones
a) Gastrin that stimulates the stomach to release gastric juice
b) Secretin that signals the pancreas to release bicarbonate
c) Cholecystokinin that signals the gall bladder to release bile and the pancreas to release enzymes
d) Enterogastrone that inhibits peristalsis and slows digestion
e) Intestine that speeds up peristalsis and increases elimination

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Bio 215 Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition

4) The uses of food include

a) energy for body functions
b) promotes health
c) raw materials for body function use of carbons, nitrogenous, oxygen etc to build molecules
d) some nutrients cannot be synthesized in the body like vitamin C in primates and is required in

e) All macromolecules can be broken down and used to make other macromolecules.
5) ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is considered a vitamin in humans yet not in rabbits this is because
a) humans can make this chemical in the blood
b) humans cannot make this chemical and it is required in the diet
c) normal rabbit intestinal flora makes this chemical and it is not a required supplement
d) rabbits can make this compound in their tissues
e) humans can make this compound in their tissues
Answers 1)b,c,d 2)b,c,d 3) b,c,d 4)a,c,d 5) b,c



Distinguish among nutrient gathering and processing of

herbivores, carnivores and omnivores. link
a) 3 categories


Describe 5 types of feeding methods used by animals. Based

on the mechanisms or method of obtaining food. link


Describe digestion and why it is important. Is ingestion and

digestion the same thing?
Describe the 4 main stages of food processing by animals.


What is the difference between






5) How does a gastrovascular cavity function.


What is peristalsis and what is its role in digestion?

7) List the three types of secretory cells found in the stomach and
what substance they secrete.
8) Why does the stomach not digest itself?

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Bio 215 Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition

9) What are the causes of ulcers and why are they frequently
found in the duodenum? link
10) List the enzymes and the order that they are made in the
digestion system. link
See figure 41.13 of your text.
11) List the various adaptations that vertebrates have for
digestion. teeth length
12) Where does nutrient absorption occur? small intestine, large intestine
13) What are the hormones that control the Gi system?


14) Why do you think this system uses hormones rather than the
nervous system? Hint thing about the evolution of this system?
15) Follow a piece of food through the digestive system and
describe how nutrients are removed and in what sections this
occurs. Be able to draw a GI system and follow these through.
16) Describe how blood flow and nutrition interact? See figure
41.15 link
17) What is the differnce between fuel and raw materials? link

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