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communication technologies and

communication cultures
an introduction to an introduction

what is mass
communication?

radio
television
newspapers

magazi nes

film

the big
five
books
?

the internet ?

mass audiences

popular music

?
quantity & anonymity

historically
modern
for profit businesses

art ?

fashion?

involve industrial technology


one way communication cell
phones ?
public, community, or underground media
?

the big
five

"The medium is the message"


Marshall
McLuhan

commun1 cat1
on culture

commun1 cat1
on

technology
oral culture

speech

written culture
writing/ alphabet
print culture moveable type/printing press
electronic culture
telegraph
digital culture

computer

technological determinism

the bias of communication


time bias

Harold Innis

"Media that emphasize TIME are those that


are durable in character, such as
parchment, c ay, or stone.''

space bias
"Media that emphasize SPACE are apt to be
less durable and light in character, such
as papyrus and paper.''

oral culture
based in speech
interaction is face to face or

generati on to generati on
flleaning in language is local and
specific
fllefllory is crucial

poetry plays a central role


fllyth and history are intertwined

written culture
met with distrust
"Ifmen learn [writing], it will implant
forgetfulness in their souls; they will
cease to exercise memory because they
rely on that which is written, calling
things to remembrance no longer from
within themselves, but by means of
external lllarks '
Socrates in Plato's
Phaedrus

written culture
met with distrust
two kinds of writing

ideogrammic

syllabic/phonetic

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written culture
met with distrust
two kinds of
writing
meaning and language become
more uniform
communication crosses distance
and time
memory, history, and myth are
recordable
rationality over poetry

print culture
moveable type (Korea? China?)
Gutenberg revolution ( 1446)
Protestantism
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Luther's 95 Theses (1517)

print culture
moveable type (Korea? China?)
Gutenberg revolution ( 1446)
Protestantism
reading becomes less a luxury
and more of a necessity
standardization & preservation
of knowledge
of ideologies
l'V

electronic culture
separation of communication from
transportation
altered human sense of space and time
altered language
changed the nature of information
news becomes a commodity
previously unprecedented speed of
production & organization
a new brand of imperialism

digital culture
more of the same
or something different ?

the technological
sublime horror
"a swift winged messenger of
destruction''
Rev.Ezra Gannett

aw
e

"[We] border on a spiritual harvest


because thought now travels by steam
and magnetic wires"

Rev.Gardner Spring

The human brain is a curious object and operates in ways that we can't fully comprehend. That
said, you can't possibly write down every single word that you see on these slides when they
appear and listen carefully at the same time. Besides, not everything that say will end up on one
of these slides. Don't be fooled by the glitz and glamour of so-called "new technology." This is
basically just a fancy chalk-board. There were lecture classes at Pitt well before the computer
and many classes continue
to use chalk-boards and even over-head projectors-which must have been viewed as a brilliant
new technology at some earlier period. Ancient peoples' no doubt gave lectures using
hieroglyphics and stone carvings. Medieval scholars once copied books by hand and seemed to
learn things in the process. Socrates didn't need any tools of writing at all; for him, writing was
apharmakon, a kind of drug that had a seductive affect on people, not to mention making it so
people didn't have to memorize things in order to bring them to mind. Ifwriting was the new
technology of Socrates' age, today our world seems overtaken by screens-computers, cell phones,
high definition television sets,
GPS units-and the more these dominate our lives the more it seems like the screen is the best
source of knowledge and information. Why bother learning your way around Pittsburgh when
you can simply plug an address into your GPS unit and follow the screen? While these screens
have their uses, we should also think critically about them and what they mean for our culture.
How are our lives different than those of people in Socrates' time, and
how much of that has to do with our different technologies?
How much
of your life has been spent looking at a tiny screen in your hand, not to mention larger screens
like this one? How is a class that uses powerpoint different from one that uses a chalkboard?
How do students learn or think differently when they look at a
powerpoint slide than when they see other sorts of things? Do they? If a powerpoint slide clicks

and no one is there to hear or see it does it matter ? In any case,


promise not
to overdue it with the special effects and not to let the slides take the place of good preparation
or talking in an organized, interesting way, if you promise to pay attention to me and not just
this big flashy screen.

all\
NBC

defining communication
& culture

what is mass communication


?

what is
communication?
transmission
model

channel----

N BC
sender
message

feedba
k

recei v
er

transmission model
PONY
EXPRESS
-:" ......

iif .

..........
,
_.. ....J

linear
sender focused
efficiency and clarity
centered
denotational
techno-centric

ritual model

meanings circulate
around Qifferent
cultural texts or
artifacts

ritual model
culture-centered
historical
dialogic
meaning is liminal
meaning is flexible

transmission model
V o

ritual model

what is culture ?

5 conceptions of
culture
Hoch Kultur/High Culture
"the best that's been thought and said in
the world"

Matthew Arnold Culture &Anarchy

5 conceptions of
culture
Hoch Kultur/High Culture
culture as a whole way of life

"

kntuc

5 conceptions of
culture
Hoch Kultur/High Culture
culture as a whole way of
life
culture as a prison house of language

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5 conceptions of
culture
Hoch Kultur/High Culture
culture as a whole way of life
culture as a prison house of language
culture as community

5 conceptions of
culture
Hoch Kultur/High Culture
culture as a whole way of life
culture as a prison house of language
culture as community
culture as a site of struggle

5 conceptions of
culture
Hoch Kultur/High Culture
culture as a whole way of life
culture as a prison house of language
culture as community
culture as a site of struggle
The

Ci

OlU lltlTU

Breakfast

zeitgei
st

zeitgeist
possibilities

constrai nts

modern
postmodern

celebration of the
individual

modern

'' think thereforeIam''


Rene Descartes

modern
celebration of the
individual belief in
rational order
Tab! .5 ll'b.t lo111c "r..lly' J,kc (il>mu. I. f'ttut<l (t'rom On 1971)

P. R A M I D I A L E C T l C
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celebration of the
individual belief in rational
order working efficiently

modern

modern
celebration of the
individual belief in rational
order working efficiently
rejecting tradition

modern
celebration of the
individual belief in rational
order working efficiently
rejecting tradition

postmodern
celebrating populism
rejecting
hierarchy

TOMA TO
postmoder
n
..

celebrating
populism
diversifying and recycling culture

postmoder
n

celebrating
populism
diversifying and recycling
culture questioning scientific
reasoning

celebrating
populism

postmoder
n

diversifying and recycling


culture questioning scientific
reasoning acknowledging
paradox

media and identity


in a POSTMODERN
age

modern
celebration of the
individual belief in rational
order working efficiently
rejecting tradition

postmodern

celebrating
populism diversifying and
recycling culture questioning

scientific reasoning
acknowledging paradox

postmodern

cyn1 c1 sentiments
sm
1 c.&9a
29 : 1

....... ....

o ,. .,.

....,"''"',....

Stock Market Invincible


'Buy , Buy, Buy! ' Expe rts Ad vise

New Brain.Surgery Techniques


:Cbange Faceof Modem Medkine

Wa ll St ree t ,
Spirits Soaring
u..s.

..... .. , .. .

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Jelif..c.w

()pulet Cnah111 with SIW, Nol Hammer,


Bold Step ronnn1, SA)' Dottoro

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postmodern

cyn1 c1 sentiments
sm

ant1 -flletanarrat1 ve
Jean-Fran<;ois Lyotard

cyn1 c1 sm excess

postm
odern
senti
ments

information

postmodern

cyn1 c1 sentiments
sm
excess

S..dl

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facebook

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Emn

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l

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S91,.,-lnOllCJ CA

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Address, State Phone Number Web Site

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postmodern

cyn1 c1 sentiments
sm
excess

.
,

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symbols
floating signifiers

postmodern

cyn1 c1 sentiments
sm
excess
fragmentation

....
..
"....
I

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...._.,...
"
IP

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cyn1 c1

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excess

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. _,...
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postmodern
sentiments

fragmentation

glocalization
relative to the past, we are becoming
more attached globally and less
, attached locally

postmodern

cyn1 c1 sentiments
sm
excess

fragmentation
pastiche

postmodern

cyn1 c1 sentiments
sm
excess

fragmentation
pastiche

postmodernism ?

two views of
postmodernism
hyperreality

Jean
Baudrillard
hyper-reality and
simulacra

we have lost touch with ''The


Real''
the
processi
on of
simulacr
a
hyper-reality
simulacrum

Jean
Baudrill
ard
FAN

hyper-reality and
simulacra

a copy with no original


SEX

hyper-reality
simulacrum

Nowoman Has Had


to TIJThis on Him'- He1
GoTotal)' 1t11t$ W1!ef1 Do

@instant

Confidence
Boosters

Could
Your Man
Be Gay?

The fllprool Sign

cg.;4 .u.1:140
A New Kind of Date
Rape You KnowAbout

HIS#l

lfil1TI

cosmopolitan.corn

Jean
Baudrillard
hyper-reality and
simulacra

Jean-Franois
Lyotard

and others...

ant1 -metanarrat1 ve
the fragmentation of the human
subject

Jean-Franois
Lyotard

and others...

ant1 -metanarrat1 ve

signifyin(g)
"a repetition with a difference"
James Russell Potter

C.JBSESSIO

Jean-Franois
Lyotard

and others...

ant1 -metanarrat1 ve

signifyin(g)
"a repetition with a difference"
James Russell Potter

turning

conswnpt1 on i nto
production

Jean-Franois
Lyotard

and others

antt -metanarrat1 ve
signifyin(g)
"a repetition with a difference''
James Russell Potter
"It was right out
of Gorillas in
the Mist"
LAPD
radio transmission

MASS COMMUNICATION research


and MASS COMMUNICATION effects

How does

mass commun1 cat1


on
shape our lives?

behavioral effects
individualistic
cause-effect oriented

psychologistic
biological

cultural effects
large-scale
world-view oriented

sociological
narratival

hypodermic needle model

foundations of media
research

propaganda analysis

Prop '!lganda Technique in the

II

TO VRYONE
IN 'l'HIS
PI,ANT:

'l'HIS PLANT IS NGAGISD


UPON GO'V:RNMENT WORK
E.VERY
P1lSON
HRE
OWES

THE 11NITED S'l'A'rES


A DVTY TO DO HI$ U'l'MOS"r

TO MA!n MAnDIAL FOR


oun SHIPS AnFVX.X.Y
AND SPDILY

J,T THIS DE YOVD PART

OUR COVN'I'RY IS
DEPENDIN& ON YOV
EMERGENCY FLEET CORPORATION

World Hil r
Harold Lasswell ( 1927)

''If the tnass will be free


frotn chains of iron, it must
accept its chains of silver''

foundations of media
research

propaganda analysis

Office of War Information (OWI)- 1942

When you ride ALONE


you ride with Hitler !

foundations of media
research

propaganda analysis
public opinion research

How can the media help to


create an informed public?

foundations of media
research

propaganda analysis
public opinion research

Walter Lippmann's "Disenchanted Man"


"The Private Citizen today has come
to feel rather like a deaf spectator in
the back row,who ought to keep his
mind on the mystery off there, but
cannot quite lllanage to stay awaK1_.e.''
The Phantom Public (1925)

foundations of media
research

propaganda analysis
public opinion research

Walter Lippmann's "Disenchanted Man"


Lippmann celebrates the social
scientist, who can make "unseen facts
intelligible to those -who have to make
decisions''

Public Opinion ( 1922)

foundations of media
research

propaganda analysis
public opinion research
John Dewey

"Tillthe Great Socie is converted into

a Great Community, the Public will


remain in eclipse.Communication can
alone create a eat commun1.cy."

The Public &Its Problems ( 1927)

foundations of media
research

propaganda analysis
public opinion research

Walter Lippmann: better experts


John Dewey: more communication

foundations of media
research

propaganda analysis
public opinion research
social-psychology
studies

Payne Fund Motion


Picture Studies
(1933)

foundations of media
research

propaganda analysis
public opinion research
social-psychology
studies marketing
research

11e se1i_

proprietary
research

eeoca-coia

Lid.

PYCD......I-.CDm

public
research

selective exposure
selective retention

minimal effects
models

agenda setting
"The press may not be successful much of the
time in telling people what to think, but it is
stunningly successful in telling people what to
think al:iout"

salience

Bernard Cohen

How important does an issue


appear to be ?

agenda setting
"The press may not be successful much of the
time in telling people what to think, but it is
stunningly successful in telling people what to
think al:iout"
Bernard Cohen

the CNN
Effect

uses &
gratifications
asks not W"hat MEDIA DO TO
PEOPLE but what PEOPLE DO

WITH MEDIA

uses &
gratifications
the audience is conceived of as active
-media use is seen as goal directed
believes that links between need
gratification and media use depend on
audience choice
assumes that the media compete with other
sources of need satisfaction
assumes people are a good jud ge of their
own media use and need
gratifications
believes researchers should suspend value

judgment s about media use


Katz, Elihu, Jay G. Blumler, and Michael Gurevitch. "Uses and Gratifications Research."
The Public Opinion Quarterly 37, no. 4 (1974): 509-23.

uses &
gratifications
needs satisfied by the media:
strengthening information, knowledge, and
understanding (cognitive needs)
strengthening aestlietic, pleasurable, and
emotional experiences (affective
needs)
strengthening credibility, con6dence,
stability, and status (integrative needs)
strengthening contact with family, friends,
and the world (integrative needs)
escape or tension relief (weakening of

contact with self and one's social roles)


Katz, Elihu, Hadassah Haas, and Michael Gurevitch. "On the Use of the Mass Media
for Important Things."American Sociological Review 38, no. 2 (I 973): 164-81.

two-step
flow
PersonalInfl uence: The PartPlayed by
Peop le in tbe Flow ofMass
Communication
Elihu Katz and Paul Lazarsfeld (1955)

two-step
flow

opinion leader

spiral of
silence
"Fear of isolating oneself "is a crucial component
of the process of public opinion fortnation.

"The mass media have to be seen as creating


public opinion: they provide the environmental
pressure to which people respond with alacrity,
or with acquiescence, or with silence."
Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann (1974)

cultivation
theory
What kinds of attitudes do the llledia
cultivate over tillle ?

George Gerbner
"Mean World Syndrollle "

Ideological Perspectives on Media


Research:
Ideology and Hegemony

quantitative
research
e.g.lab experiment
controlled conditions

nuniber & statistics


centered

empirical

qualitative
research

e.g.ethnography
natural contexts
language & symbol
centered
1nterpretat 1ve

variables

independent
manipulated by researcher
"causal'' var1.able
dependent
measure of response or outcome
"efect" var1.able

quantitative
research

variables

expert tnent

experimental group
exposed to manipulated independent variable

control group

quantitative
research

variables
experttnent
survey
descriptive
document current conditions
analytical
examine relationships between variables

quantitative
research

variables

expert tnen
t survey

content
analysis

Table 3

'Jjlpes of the Products*Adrertised during the .1920s rout the .1930s


Product Category
Auto or auto related**
Finance and Insurance

Household goods
Personal care
Home electronics
Drink Qiquor and soft)
-Cigarette
Home furniture
Food
Travel
Clothing
Others***

'20s

(O/o)

(%)

'30s

48
t1

27%
6%

55

28
9
10
5

16%

14

5%

7
- 6
17

4%

--- -

--

6%
3%
3%

Total

103
26

31%
8%

42

13%

14
4%
16
10%
21
-5%
8
15
0
0%
6

4%

15

6
16

100/o

11

3%

5
19
10

11%
6%

6
7
16

175

1000/o

159

35%
90/o

(%)

90/o -

30/o

5%
6%
----'

4%

2%

7%
4%
4%
100/o

28
11

3%

26
26

8%
8%

100%

334

100%

8%

Total

Spearman's r = .39, p > .20

Note: *This classification system is modified by the author from pl'oduct

provided by Ad Age,Decembr 11, 2000 Issue


**Auto related products include battery, gas, motor oil, and, most importantly,
tires.
***Others include plumbing, electricity, engine, machinery, tools, publishers,
newspapers , and railroad.

quantitative

research

ethnography
participant observation

qualitative
research

ethnography

1 nterv1 ew1 ng

focus groups
textual analysis
historical
analysis

qualitative

research

How does mass


communication
get us to think and behave the
way we are supposed to ?

Karl
Marx
base & superstructure
Karl
bas mode
Marx
e

of production
agricultural

hunter gatherer

bas mode
e of production

industrial capitalism

Karl
Marx

superstructure
structure of social
relationships

Karl Marx
mode of production
superstructure
structure of social relationships

etermines

hunter gatherer

agricultural

industrial capitalism

Karl Marx
mode of production
superstructure
structure of social relationships

etermines

Karl Marx
mode of
production
superstructure
structure of social relationships

etermines

In order to change the


superstructure, you have to change
the base

Karl Marx
"The class which has the means of material
production at its disposal, has control at the same time
over the means of mental production, so that thereby,
generally speaking, the ideas of those who lack the means
of mental production are subject to it:'
Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels The German
Ideology

Louis
Althusser
How does the State get people to behave ?

Louis
Althusser
repressive state apparatuses (RSAs)
function primarily through force or violence

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion

education ISA
religious ISA

family ISA

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion

COMMUNICATIONS ISA

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion
are relatively autonomous

dominant ideology

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion
are relatively autonomous

dominant ideology

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion
are relatively autonomous

dominant ideology

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion
are relatively autonomous
function together in interpellation

Louis
Althusser

Louis
Althusser

interpellation

Louis Althusser

transforms individuals into subjects

you are ALWAYS-ALREADY a subject

Louis Althusser

interpellation
transforms individuals into subjects

you are ALWAYS-ALREADY a subject


"bad subjects"

Ideological Perspectives on Media


Research:
Ideology and Hegemony

quantitative
research
e.g.l ab experiment
controlled conditions

nuniber & statistics


centered

empirical

qualitative
research

e.g.ethnography
natural contexts
language & symbol
centered
1nterpretat 1ve

variables

independent
manipulated by researcher
"causal'' var1.able
dependent
measure of response or outcome
"efect" var1.able

quantitative
research

variables

expert tnent

experimental group
exposed to manipulated independent variable

control group

quantitative
research

variables
experttnent
survey
descriptive
document current conditions
analytical
examine relationships between variables

quantitative
research

variables

expert tnen
t survey

content
analysis

Table 3

'Jjlpes of the Products*Adrertised during the .1920s rout the .1930s


Product Category
Auto or auto related**
Finance and Insurance

Household goods
Personal care
Home electronics
Drink Qiquor and soft)
-Cigarette
Home furniture
Food
Travel
Clothing
Others***

'20s

(O/o)

(%)

'30s

48
t1

27%
6%

55

28
9
10
5

16%

14

5%

7
- 6
17

4%

--- -

--

6%
3%
3%

Total

103
26

31%
8%

42

13%

14
4%
16
10%
21
-5%
8
15
0
0%
6

4%

15

6
16

100/o

11

3%

5
19
10

11%
6%

6
7
16

175

1000/o

159

35%
90/o

(%)

90/o -

30/o

5%
6%
----'

4%

2%

7%
4%
4%
100/o

28
11

3%

26
26

8%
8%

100%

334

100%

8%

Total

Spearman's r = .39, p > .20

Note: *This classification system is modified by the author from pl'oduct

provided by Ad Age,Decembr 11, 2000 Issue


**Auto related products include battery, gas, motor oil, and, most importantly,
tires.
***Others include plumbing, electricity, engine, machinery, tools, publishers,
newspapers , and railroad.

quantitative

research

ethnography
participant observation

qualitative
research

ethnography

1 nterv1 ew1 ng

focus groups
textual analysis
historical
analysis

qualitative

research

How does mass


communication
get us to think and behave the
way we are supposed to ?

Karl
Marx
base & superstructure
Karl
bas mode
Marx
e

of production
agricultural

hunter gatherer

bas mode
e of production

industrial capitalism

Karl
Marx

superstructure
structure of social
relationships

Karl Marx
mode of production
superstructure
structure of social relationships

etermines

hunter gatherer

agricultural

industrial capitalism

Karl Marx
mode of production
superstructure
structure of social relationships

etermines

Karl Marx
mode of
production
superstructure
structure of social relationships

etermines

In order to change the


superstructure, you have to change
the base

Karl Marx
"The class which has the means of material
production at its disposal, has control at the same time
over the means of mental production, so that thereby,
generally speaking, the ideas of those who lack the means
of mental production are subject to it:'
Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels The German
Ideology

Louis
Althusser
How does the State get people to behave ?

Louis
Althusser
repressive state apparatuses (RSAs)
function primarily through force or violence

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion

education ISA
religious ISA

family ISA

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion

COMMUNICATIONS ISA

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion
are relatively autonomous

dominant ideology

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion
are relatively autonomous

dominant ideology

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion
are relatively autonomous

dominant ideology

Louis
Althusser
ideological state apparatuses {ISAs)
function primarily through persuasion
are relatively autonomous
function together in interpellation

Louis
Althusser

Louis
Althusser

interpellation

Louis Althusser

transforms individuals into subjects

you are ALWAYS-ALREADY a subject

Louis Althusser

interpellation
transforms individuals into subjects

you are ALWAYS-ALREADY a subject


"bad subjects"

Pears' Soap

the powers of
advertising:

advertising, zeitgeist, and ideology

Louis
Althusser

Louis
Althusser

Louis
Althusser

Louis
Althusser

subject
position

Louis
Althusser

Louis
Althusser

interpellation

Louis Althusser

you are ALWAYS-ALREADY a subject

"bad subjects"

hegemony

Antonio
Gramsci

a process of winning consent


equilibrium

Antonio
Gramsci
hegemony

1 ncorporat 1 on

Raymond Williams

residual culture
emergent culture

Antonio
Gramsci
hegemony

1 ncorporat 1 on

Raymond Williams

residual culture
emergent culture

Antonio
Gramsci
hegemony

1 ncorporat 1 on

Raymond Williams

residual culture
emergent culture

Antonio
Gramsci
hegemony

1 ncorporat 1 on
Raymond Williams

residual culture
incorporated

hegemon
y

Antonio
Gran1sci

mcorporat1on
Ra ond Williams

residual culture
incorporated

Antonio Gran1sci
hegemony
m corporat1on
Ra ond Williams

residual
culture
incorporated

hegemony

Antonio
Gramsci

1ncorporat1

on
Raymond Williams
makes resistant cultures
safe

Leger1clary

Howli ng i n the ",'.)Os.

Leaendarv
poets.
artists, anarchists who
changed the way we
lhink. AIJ in
t heir r.o(lon khakis.
Casual.
Radical. .Just like 1hosc
\VC

make for )OU . Cnp


k hakis. 'fraditional.
Plai11-front, Eal>v Fit.
Cla:;i;ic Fit.

I
l
'

advertising
i

products

i mages

brand
ing

advertisi
ng

produ
cts

i
m

age
s

advertising
products

i mages

brand
identit
y

utility
HOLCOMB'S PATENT

ACOUSTICSPEAl\INGTELEPHONE.
J. R . HOL COM B & CO.,
M.\KUrACT!ll9$ AND $0l PllOPlttCTbtS,

MALLET CREEK, MEDINA CO., OHIO.


The Only Acoustic Telephone Having a Clear Title .to Patent.

It ernbraees. II tht: 1:,.test improvements in ll\$ulation and Connections, witl new and perfect Vocalizing Chambet, atid

""'""s:t COMPOUND METALLIC DIAPHRAGM.


It is the m0$t elegantly finished Telephone made, and with its

BUR N ISHED NICKEL MOU NTI NGS,


IS AN ORNAMENT TO ANY OFFICE OR PARLOR.

GUARA NTEED TO WORK ON E M ILE.


PRICE REDUCED TO $3.50 PER SET.

GENEBA:C. EEFEB..ENCJDS.

Our Mad11 :i.ud (or1ntr

:!!t : ! :e

3111 :t i i ed i;ri e /ifn::l i:n hi;., 11 ,


: s:e : u

lroflll wm rc-qul11: 110 ru. ht(('\'!.it)'l<: of our rc$pOMihili1y 1han that (urnibcd 1bcm in the prompt :ind

\1 i s j!ii *l tCa!

folJ)' lei>tlfy as lO <>ur good eo1nmereu1J 41:1.liJlng and h1tcgrhy:

\".,

'TVif'-.<i.u.BAN!.'., :-.1 dm:,


As to tli m'r,ill !our i4l'lf:pbo11e11,I 1epntti011, <:le., pl(lle eo:111 11lt tht 1e:-1imonhl nd haM rdercnc:cl<, to be found fo
Anafh1'}'IQ-11Qf 111$ Ctr11)1t.r. (Wh<-11 wntrng lO v11r te11enc udo.;e i.1.amp for rc1)ly,)
J.a. s,.>,\lt.O, p...,.,..,.,o\S$'.odor..,, c1_111.

(1879)

utilit
y

1 860?

i--- --REMINGTON

*''t'iu ' ''i 1


,,
MA:

N'"UFACTUD

ED

RY

R EMINGTON

AGRICULTUR AL CO., ILON, N. Y.


CONSIS'rfNO OF

Patent Carbon, Steel & Gray Iron Plows,


Right and Left Haa.d ror 1, 2 a.nd 3 Bor&e. Also all St7le
1

Shovel and Turning Bl:ldes, Sweeps, Bull Tongues, &c. Shovel Plows and
Horse Moes,

lmlPHilV] IB WIN& MC 1NJ WHEEL lIlKB WES,


Hand le Planter and Garden Steel Hoes and Rakes. Solid Steel Shovels, Scoops and
Spades, with Sockets from same piece of Steel, without weld or rivet, Steel Forks,
CuJtivators, one and t\\ O horse, (fecth aod Points :;peeialtics,) Road Scrapers,

NEEDLE COTTON CINS.


Patent

I ron Beam

CARBON

No. 25.

{1880)

ITo OUR PATRONS A.ND Till?


PUBLIC:

Oa.rbon..
1\1.Ce'ta.1,"
A praetical 1ub:torenf Re6ned Steel, \Vrought Iron , anrl other mtala ca$l i n for1n, harder that Steel
or nny f!ltrt'Ree-chilled Iron,{theo ilted i.ron being filUhjoot to RO ft $potEJ). Jly ou r method the metal

It has bwo ou r ajm tn find


a asuh!;tit ute to take the phtc,:e ar
SI.eel for J>low used in .stony,

unlfor1n aH thrnogh, 'Nery cafl't ibe nit alike; or, by change of C)Ompou ncl, oan t4;!mpe.r to any
I I&
desired. f

I {CravcHy1or any 1.Je&.\ V rnlxed


soil wit.h grit,
and Ly
(:Ontinued
ex1:>eriment
we have
de\'oloped the

Ata Pl1wTrlttl held on the ftu1n or G-overoor Seymour, In Detrfteld , Ont\lda Co- N, Y.,No..em
;bc122'
entered
for oorutltlon
were the
No. 2-S Cilrbon (I1-ou Betun) Plow.
mtiu
rae-.. '1876,
turl.XItbe
bypfowa
RetulngtQ
Agricu
ltural COOlJ>1ll\y,
of Jllon. N. Y. and the Robloson CbtlJed
Iron
Ptow,
nutnu rooturOO. at M,tracusc, N. Y. 'l'be co1omlttff rt-(>Otted In favor of tlte CfirOOn Plow.

, hardneR.._ fo.r other porpos.combln.inn lrnplh. grea u-.ettr and dun:W illfJJ. '1J.bject to .fine pollM, it
' cllliJC()W in aiy eoil. Coat& lesa than StJ, and a trifle more than CMt Iron, but far etlperloi-, and

PJR.:J:O :m

lR. :BJ D "CT O :BJ D.

We War.rant Them ! see One!

Tr

One I

Buy One!

ABSOLUTKL Y PUR E.

utility

! !E CQLTON'Ss E: L E:CT
f"LAVORS.

tUT

(AMcdidnt",notadrilllc,\coa
tai111 Hopt. Cuc;hu, )l.1ni!rn1'e, D.andclion, and the Purc"t And Dest ltcdil Qualitic' or :tll other
l a preventive and curo for
\\"cakneuanJCc:lcr:dDcLility, for rcvcT and As:uc, and all Kidney and Liver Dar.et..
A liule Hop lhttcn savesbir doctors biYls, and ''SJOO will he
d for a cue they will not

HOP

mn
NEVER

FAIL

cure or hclp.1 '


BOP ll1'Tl.q M.PQ, CO
...........T....at..
.W,.O.L

HOPE DEAF
Garmore 'sArtificial Ear Drums
P"F.RF(,TLY Rt..T4'Rt:T11t: Ht:t.Rll O
t nu
1he wu1 I(1>1ttlna.lblf!WOC.h.._.n..
tI' t 1111 Natturnl Urum. All
1f'"'lliu11,

-=-::-to

l\1Ul<l ..Yt-ll 1hlIH.'ll


I

.W. Oooruer trth

\hl4{('l!efrcular.

hl\rtlthe\IUU'tl\', W

j"Jfi T\,\: di't 1'.'


ol.

Uti1.'Cl

"tA..Clnolu..U. 0.

MASON &HAMLIN ORGANS.


ELEGANT DRAWING-ROOM STYLES,

(1880)

1.

niticrs.

the rise of the leisure


class
The Theory of the Leisure Class
Thorstein Veblen (1899)
"conspi.cuous consutnpt1.on"
"Since the consumption of these more excellent
goods is an evidence of wealth, it becomes
honorific; and conversely, the failure to
consume in due quantity and quality becomes a
mark of inferiority and demerit:'

identit
y

1ITF. C'O>'fO l'()J ITA="

H E smartest turnout on the fashionable drive is the surest


to be equipped with the:: Kelly-Springfield Tire. It is the::
laot touch of distinction. It represents "good form " and
"ooti l-eniec." The economy of quality is the im port;1Ilt
.l? Pine Srcc", for all tires look al ike and your only guaran tee
cnnsitkration,
Ai..rcti,
is the n.u ne it hl'ars. The l\:dly-Springtield name, branded on
C\ try tire, h.1,; been "first choice " since the ridi ng \\'orld began
to roll on rubber. Take no substitute. \\ rite for booklc..:t.
The Con,;i)liJateJ Rubber Tire Company
'\ w \ k

,,

Ohio

(1905)

identity

(1905)

identity

(1905)

ideology

Ifcs; cs; (Clt


brand identity

AFT&

n;t;!w. CtL'

consun1er identity
hegemony

5""

AT Auu FOUNTti
AND .s<Jl,Q NBO

l"'

zeitgeist

l 1Uf0

case study:
soap and
''wh.tteness''

llARPllB'S JIAIJAZI.\"B ADl'KBTl:<BR.

Over the wa.ters of the world floa.t the ships of our white squadron. They are essentia
Over the waters of thousands of domestic seas float cakes of Ivory Soap, the white sq

'l'hc '"'hi tc M a11 's 13 urdcn


'" through tcachin

t ht> '1rtues o( cleanlm<'!>-'-.

Pears' Soap

j, a potent factor II\ bril{htcn111j! tlw <l;1rk <:ornt'JS of tht earth as


,-ivili....11ion ad"anc-. \\ hilt.unon !\l t he cultun:d of all nation.,
it hoJ rl., tlw hihe,,t pla<' it i-; tlw irlr.11 toilet --oa p.

Whale hand., a pure. clear complesioo, and milization,

Of Alt Sccnlt4 Soap Pc.arsOtto ct Ro.. it th bc1t..

lollow 1f.t. we ol f'EARs 5oAP thr

THE

B1P-Tl-I or Cw1L1ZAT10N - A Mt:sSAG

: cM THE SEA ..

Ti;:.
Ccl'lsu r.-PT 10N c Sc ? : ''r .:. .;.;RE er THt: WEALTH C1v1L1SA':'ICN '"'-'
i- tALTH. ANO Pt.: -" ;-""( =::-=.. .
::i ..

$f c. o:... n r:. - S '-'! . ) :. :.,.... ,..rc:-r1 t<c ..scr PEJ... \sS01\P.

ideology

Ifcs; cs; (Clt


brand identity

l'lw \\ h

..

it( \Ian \ l

unlcn

Pears' Soap

00 ...-..... -..-41_.. _ _

consun1er
identity
hegemony

zeitgeist

case study:
Listerine & social
pressure

TH E BEST ANTISEPTIC.
For "both :tnte=na.l a.na. :External Use.

LISTE R IN E.
FORMULA-Listerine is the csscnt i<ll antiseptic const ituent of Thyme Euc:t1y1t u.B.lptUU. 1
Caultheria and lent ha Arvcnsis, in combination. Each tlu id d raclun a l?!oo coruain.s to

grains o( refi ned a nd pu rified llenzo-ooracic ,\cid.


DOSE-I nternally: One tea>poonlul th ree or more tim es 3 day (as indicated I, either full
mength, or diluted, IS nece>S>I)' for varied cond itions.
LISTER I N E is a "'Cll p O\'C." antieptic ai:c!'t-an anti z,r m<?tic-cspccially adapted to io.

tcrn<\ l usc. :inJ to ntal.c an<l ma1nt31n surg1c:1I cle:1nlines. --ac11s1ti-lO the treat men t o( all
p;1rtsof the hu tnan body, w hether by pr:l)', irrig:.tion, atomization, or sintpl loc:tl nppllc:ition. :.nJ
there fore ch:ir:ict crizcd b its p:.rt icu l:t.r :iid.:iiptibilit) to the ficl<l o{

Preven tive Medicine-Indivi dual Proph ylax is.


Ph)-<icin int e rested in LISTER IK E will plense send 11s their ndd re<. ;, onJ recei ve by ,..
tum ma.ii our new o.od com-rlcle a.ntphlc t of 36 qua rto vaccs.embodying:

A Tabulated Exhlbit of the act ion ol LISTERI N E upon inert Laboratory Compounds;
Full and Exhaustive Reports and Clinic:il observ:it ions from all ,;ourccs,
confirmiAi t he ut ilit y or LISTER IN E OS " General A n t iseptic for both internal and
external use; 2nd p:irticul:\rJy
Microscopic Observations. showini; the compa rat ive v3h1e anJ av3ilability oC.ari011.S
antiseptic:> in tht: treatment of Uica$eS of the Oral Ca\it )". b)" \V. 1>. lILLeH.
A.I.,Ph.D., D .D.S... l'ro(. of Opcr.1li"c nd Cl& nic.al Denti.str}'. U nivcrlly o( Berlin , f
rom \\hose Jcduc tions LIST ERI N!:: appears to be t he most acceptable prophylactic

for the care a nd pr cS vat ion or the teeth.

(1887)

THE BEST ANTISEPTIC

FOR BOTH
USE.

INTERNAL

AND

EXTERNAL

LISTERIN
E.
NonToxlo, Nonlrrltant, NonE1oh1rotlo-Abtolutely Safe, Agreeable and Convenient.
FORMULA.-Lurrsa111a It the eaonllal anttsecuo con1tltuen1or T?iymo, l!ucalyplus,
&pU.alal Gaullherla and lllentha Arven a,1In corublnallon . Eilcb ll11ld drachm
a\lo con alns twograinaor reRiledand punftcd Bcnr.o-boraclo Acjd
DOBE. !ntomally: One teaapoonflll lhreo or more llml!S 11 day (ae ndlcatcd ), either
flllt 11\nllll\h, or diluted, unecesury for varied oondlllona.

(ISERINE is a well proven antiseptic agent-an antizymotic -especially useful in


the management of catarrhal conditions of the mucous membrane, adapted to
internal
use and to make and maintain surgical cleanliness-asepsis-ln 1he treatment of all pa!
U ol lhe hu man body, whether by pray, injection, irrigation, atomization, inhalation, or simple
local application , and therefore characterized by its particular adaptability to the f ield of

PREVENTIVE MEDICINE-INDIVIDUAL PROPHYLAXIS .


LISTERINE destroys promptly all odors emanating f rom diseased gums nnd teeth, and
will be found of great. value when taken inlernall), in teaspoonf ul doeea, to control the
fermentatlvo eructations oC dyapopsia, and to disinrect the mouth,
throat and stomach. It.ia a perfect tooth and mouth wash,
JNl>JSl'SNS&BLB Jl'Oll. TllB DBNTAL TOILBT.

(1895)

FO
R

'r:S::a:J J3ES'r .A.:N"'r:CS:BJ:l?'r:CO

BOTH INTERNAL

AND EXTERNAL USE


NonToxlc,

.Antiseptic:;
Prophylactic,
Deodorant.

ISTERIN
E

Nonl rrltant,
Non-Bscharotlc.

ISTERI NE is a \YCllproven antiseptic ngent-.'ln antiy1notic-espcci3Uy u&e(ul In the rna n ngernent of catarrhnl

ondillop of the mucous mernbrane; adapted to lnternnl use; nnd to make and maintai n surgical clean1inessascpsisin .tliO treatment of all parts of the human body, \Yhether by spr:l.y, irrigation, atomization, or simple loco.I o.pp1icndon,
characterized by its particular adaJ>labihty to t ho ficJd of

a.nd.thcrcfOiO

PREVENTIV .B MSi>iC.INE..:.:..:INDiVIDUAL OPHYLAXIS.


.PR.

LISTERINE d1&ttoy promptly eU odort et"lanati ngf,on\ diseas.ca g'unu' and.le-ih,.and will be found.of gtt 11h.1 when tal"n internally, In tpoon ful do11i, to control .th fctmonto.t:...o e1u ctaticins of dysj,optia .nd to.'ditinfict th o .mou th; thr oat, end lomach.
It is a pe.roct tooth and mouth wsh, INl;>ISP. !"fSABLE FOR TH.E DENTAL:TOILET.

(1895)

cAsk Y-

,
.
,

OUr

bestfri
end
if you
dare!

ou may even

get intimate
enough with
some friends
of yours to swap
the real truth
about
your
income tax and
about
many
other very per
sonal things.
.But how 1nan)
people do
you know well
enough
to.en
able you to get
on the subject of
Halitosis
with
them? Not very
many, probably.
Hali tosis is the
medical
term
mean
ing
unpleasant
breath.
As you know
yourself,
Hali
tosis is one of
the least talked
about
huma.n
afflictions and at
onceone of the
most commonly
prevalent
;
tilments.
Nine out of ten
people suffer

They
say it
behin
d
your
back

For
HALITOSIS

use
LISTERINE

r'fr;!'dsr
=,':Cis;!;i
:;i!

about you.
H:t1icosiJ
(une;luunt

bzath) i.

;':d,f;tt;;

e:!!:1:
::
among clo<e
friends.

Ytt p]J
thewhile,quitt
innoc:wit..

7,{
dy
l> in!i
nt:a=

H21itosi.s
bec:Clil'M! silf
n[, un
mtntio11ed
indictment ch2t
holds back
m::anr a m;tn.
Alld he is the
Jut one t0
know whr.

Everyone ia eenmtive about the little


pe"onal thing. that quickly identify you

from
Halitosis
either now and
then
or
chronically.
Usually
they
are unconc1ous
of
it
themselves.

H:1litosis
may
come
from
smoking, drinking,
eating. Itmay be
due to a disordered
stomach, b:i.d teeth,
lung
trouble
otsomeother organic
disorder.
If
it's
achronic ailment,
of course, then it
i:s a symptom of a
condition
)"our
doctor
or
dentist ought to look
after.
But very often it
is only temporary
and then you may
overcome it by bk

Why

entertain
uncomfortabl
e
doubts
about )"OU.r
brc:1th wMn
ihtte i:S ;i
sirnpl",
<citntilic
prtt.lu.. tion

th.2t will r
thecde and
)'bUOt\

polite-sul<1
1,ista!
ne,the1-popubr,liq
uid

&.a!JS9'UC,

wsU defeat
.most Casc!I

ofhahrosis. lt
iJ
awonderfull
y <f
!ective: Diouth
dfodontnt th:u
quidJy
a.rrest:1

food

ftrmentatiM
.

u a deairable auociate in
busineu or
80cially. Halitoeia
(unpleaaant breath) ia

prevented by the daily uae of Llsterine,

which aleo keeps the teeth clean


and pre

vents fermentation in the


mouth . Pro-

vide yourae!f with a bottle today and re


lieve the uncertainty aa to whether your

breath is alwo.ys sweet. clean and


fresh.
.. Price, per bottle. 23c, 45c.
89c.

Of
irhlitosls is
srmp. tom of
COW"Se,

some more
dcep..se:tted,
Ol'J.anic
disorder you
will wotnt tc

your
physicla11
dentist.
N:itunU.ly
you
aptt:ttrouldn't
:i
mouth
ontRptic to
cure ;i
l'Onlult

ing a very simple


pcrsonn l precaution
that will mean case
of mind for you and
comfort for your
friends.

Listerine,

for

forty yen.rs the safe


household
antiseptic,
is
a
wonderful
comb:unnt
of

Halitosis.

J.ist

use

jiwash
8 Jflrlo
h=
and gargle.
it

otomadl. But
so
ofc.n
h"1itosit
i!
mcrclr Jou!
and ttmpomy.
Th rqular use
of.
rhis
txccllt:n r and
plca.pnt
Antiseptic M
:t mcutll wash
and gargle will
suffi.

T1'f

r..Uterine

hiA
N

W:&)'

tod.lf.

-_.. .

'lh"So

;r-ugCn

ote the dea.n frtsh ftt:ling it


Jves about
your mouth,
ttt:tl
and
throat.
Ac
rhe
s1.
n1c
1ime
fl)(

You prob3.b[y
no\V have Listerine
in the house and
know all about its
many other uses as a
safe antUcptic.

fresh 1'04Jr
br3rhyou
:tte8'J2.rd.
he
thron ;ic:unst

1/you Jon'1,;'11st
stml ttS )Ottr name

1nfec:donc
tha1
o.nticip:ttem2)
more
ilk. 'ttiOUJ

and address and


/iftun cent1 and we
slral/ /Je glad
loforward you a
gmerotts snmplt of
LiJltrint togdhtr with
a tuht of lislerfot
Tooth Paslt sufficimt
for JO dt1ys'
hruihings.
Address Lambert
Pharmacal Com.
pany,214'2.Locu_stSt.
SaintLouis,,Mo.

,,//,,f!
Z/F:,:

Listerin
e

.
,,,-::

21 Store in Calif ornia

111# 1 1 1
,,..

!
;:
i':'!://::
pur
nnm1
GnJ at!Jru1
am/
ji/tu1
emu.miw
IMll hr/U
lofonur,
$OU

tmmus''""P
k
el
U11trim

?{) or

Ha
lit
osi
s
use

- ...-..

tttAtr th a

tuh
UJttrim
Too1A Puu
wfferimt/.,.
JO
J:11

<JQ;

HAilTOSIS
JU

LISTERINE

6nt1Ai1ffS
Address
L:1mbert
Ph:trm;ca
ComP.any,
2168 Lotusr
Srrect Saint
l..oui:,Mis:so
uri.

(1
92
2)

WHAT A MISTAKE TO THINK YOUNG P!OPl! ESCAPE IT

..-t tued to Ulink .llmd.ruff l.rollbkod only oldl'f' iJOOl)le.


Out l,l(lt 4111y loni:tr:Soo1t ftet J J,:<:lt et1;;ai..-.;I, 1dc,-clope<j 1l
1wily (lf Uto0 l11f(>tl i(Jw; lit11l (,f LmJn1tr. 1'110lt1k h'M<c!1lll
I fotuiI

CMlt.1l001lt J,i;tri11ot /\11li"f'!Jt.ie 111\tl tNUWaJ:e!..

SCHOOL CHILDRIN ARf 8Y NO MEANS IMMUNE


Miiy a sclal.'lllb1 a.11cl girl 11-.. l:ll."'11) t.rQ11i)lor.. t:\'tlry
sc:f1ool n1.1:nic know.s bt:>w <olleri oloudt\lff K'!lJ. itehin.i: 111id
irtlJiiml'l:I
,,.,.1,.,i
in ,'-:: "<$ M ot'l,.,llJ( ('1,:14,...,., <f
I 1Sl.Nlb
l Yl'.tlJMNftll l't!:l)' 'ft'Sfl'I Gf -II itl.fl'Clioa.

I'""

IT'S A DUINITE DISADVANTAGE IN THI tUSINllS WOltll)


".\n itd1lll inlb.mcd
lll.'a

p . 11.

t oolbr CO\>erei.I with

and 611k.an: 111() bel11"'lien ;i.uu'rc tr.:1big lo llMl.kc

lhiug oel.liu,s.I O"''t' pkouty to l f""-00 wlw 1.<>ld wu .!


Nv U..tc:rii.c \i.U..eptj;cau J
ll

GET A FTE R IT NOW WITH

LISTERINE

ANTISEPTIC
IT JUST DOESN'T MAKI SENSE TO WASTt TIM! wlon H:> kco nnd '"-"'
give yoo foir war-ni_ng thnt your hnir imd sc.1lp need SJJecia l
ntlentic>n. Diuu.lrufl' is f'CJLUi7.t(I by Oulsltudiu.g llJ iuJ i.i;ls llS orteu
due to gcrm i; t.11( flak<:$ 1.1od Sil'.fllcS OHty be JSignit (,( uo iufec;ti1.>ll.$
cn-.;c.

BEFORE THE TROUBLE GROWS ANY WORSE, tl al onre with Lis


terine AntiSCJllic 1rnd mas.<mgc. Ju.st dou.sc foll strength Listerine Oll the
Sc'.illp. morning and n4tlt then mussugc vigorously uud pcrsilitentl,y.
The lrci1l.m enl is si.mplc, C;)sy. unJ dcJightlul. Yet it .h1t.'1 .<sluJwr1
trulv urunzing rc.sull:s in u subs-t.u.ntinl urnjurity or cliuicuJ lc'.it Cll!ie'<:
lu cme el ni<".iLI Lc..-.t. 16% ol dundrufJ' sufferers wh o lL-;cd
T...isterinc An tiseptic nnd Jl)!ISSIJgc twice t1 <luy:\\'ithin t month
showed co111pletc disi1>vcnn1o<;Q. or or m11rktd itnPN"<"IUCUt in
U:1c symptoms of duodrutr.
t\1)J thousuud r cnthu:sinsLie letters frvm 11.ll 1n1rts of the oou.nt.ry
give outstnndin.g C\'idruwc or the SUL'\.'.\'S:S of Listtrino A..utiplic nnd
1
MtlWl#;tC: llS ttn Nisy home lrttment. 0)n L delay ir you lil've tlte
slighLt& symptom ol 1t dunclru fr (:Qndition. You ron.y have l.l re.11
iofe<: tion-.;o heght at oo<-.e with Listerine Antisuptic:. Be..suro to buy
th e la.fb'C size bottle <.>f Listerine Aot..i$Cpl ie, l.iooot1uJSC it. uclu1.1J.ly
&i.vc. you money.
l...A.MJJt:t<T Pu.ut>.tA<.:.At. ComANY-, SI. /,rmid . Mo.

""""' .........._..
- ...=-.-.=r..::.-

readin ads:

the semiotics o desire

advertising in
practice
fllarket research

demographics
psychographics
VALS (values and lifestyles)

advertising in
practice
fllarket research

persuasi ve

strategi es
famous-person testimonial

advertising in
practice
fllarket research

persuasi ve

strategi es

famous-person testimonial
plain-folks pitch

advertising in
practice
fllarket research

persuasi ve

strategi es
famous-person
testimonial plain-folks
pitch
snob-appeal approach

advertising in
practice
fllarket research

persuasi ve

strategi es
famous-person
testimonial plain-folks
pitch
snob-appeal
approach bandwagon
effect

advertising in
practice
fllarket research

persuasi ve

strategi es

famous-person testimonial
plain-folks pitch
snob-appeal
approach bandwagon
effect hidden-fear
appeal

advertising in
practice
fllarket research

persuasi ve

strategi es

famous-person testimonial
plain-folks pitch
snob-appeal
approach bandwagon
effect hidden-fear

appeal irritation
advertising

gender advertising
Erving Goffman

dismemberment

eweryone's invited..

Jaw-dropping.

"1 rJ

I\
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clowning

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First, Biore cleaned the pores on your nose.

Now we're onto the rest of the neighborhood .

Introducing Blore Pore Perfect Face strips.

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canting

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lo

MR G

IAL

t .. ..

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l --

MARCJ ACOBS

domination

Jef goes all 1nale 1nodel onus.

When genius Alan Cumming cheekily re-created iconic fragrance ads (like the ones below) to promote his Cumming body products, we promptly ripped him of and had our Je
Lauder's Youth Dew Amber Nude. Tom Ford, we hope you're flattered by Jef's take on it: "It's a bit absurd that prior to this photo shoot someone in the office punned that the
Slightly misguided crusaders, but Iget it (despite me looking like a melting stick of adobe-colored butter)! Ball's in your court, Cumming. Can you top this?"

sem1 ot1 cs
the study of SIGNS

si gn

Ferdinand de
cat
Saussure

signi
fier
TL .
word or image

/kret/

air 1trary

signified
concept
culLe unral conventtio1l1l

Ferdinand de
Saussure

signifier signified

si gn

Ferdinand de
Saussure

text
a collection of signs

signifier signified

si gn

LOlfDON

PriclblfJf.a 1d1t11<ibt (c.1d i1Piltii


yvic

tlic,1nfih1C1h:o.. ol.

print and democracy


the newspaper and the public sphere

The First
Amendment
"Congress shall make no law respecting
an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or
abridging the freedom of speech, or of
the press; or the right of the people
peaceably to assemble, and to petition
the Government for a redress of
grievances '

The Jeffersonian
Ideal
''Were it left to tne to decide whether we
should have a government without
newspapers or newspapers without a
government,
should
not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter '
Thomas Jefferson to Edward Carrington 1787

The Jeffersonian
Ideal
free
press

cr1 t1 c1

stn

government

infortnation

---.------ people
voting

- -_- _ John Peter Zenger


trial
1735
William Cosby
Governor of New York Province

John Peter Zenger trial


...
T lI E

no

1735
William Cosby
New York WeeklyJournal

New - Yor-ki,eeIyJ O
t[i.e frejhcft Advicu, Foreign,

1111d

1'-tr.
'lrt1g, rm
;.at the fame Time 10 form a Jurlgmenc of h
Coniplemcnt ; e who ;.affront<:<! al th rea<liug ofthe Tt>\ Commaoclmcnrswould mali:e the J)ccaltiguc a Libel; if he clmft, buc
he Tempts
;f 1 Libd;t /""" Ill Pre/ml t& </Of ick
I hafe long thought, that the World arc
t l.;tbut
i.<1bo[e
uw:11U;d
l-01!1
"' Cour f mrd a
11ery much milbken in t h dr Idea .and nifiin.!tion of Liheb, it h r.i been hitherto gtnerall\' uodedlcod. that there was no 01Jicr Libels
,:.g.tinn
Mar,ifmres
11.011x tbt,,;. /> op/( I IJIJlft /J({. yo u <JJ;JI
iufm fit1"'"'rnal; l bt f f..
lo:.in li't/iJi111tpQlot .tbdl
Subj.t t,"1!dJ... .
lourthe
i 'lor ;Lil>..in.IJ
Lihl
not
.true, tn1s my fcem a Cont r<liCl>' on ; but ir is 11cir her one in bw. tlr'
(ornm"n Sq>ie. Tllefe ar e fome T1u1hs

"The loss of liberty in general would


soon follow the suppression of the liberty
of the press; for it is an essential branch
of liberty, so perhaps it is the best
preservative of the whole. Even a
restraint of the press would have a fatal
influence. No nation ancient or
modern has ever lost the liberty of freely

!.

110t Ii i co be tulcl "; 'llerc. for E.tam1lle,


lh'c i)ifcovery of a fmall' Fult mllf '<lo
ancl .thof

gainft

;or 'tlbr:re.the Dircnver .of- .a great


Fault can Jo 110
tliere
ought
l>efull
noasclifC<1
me thero.fuc111s
10 good.
be 'Ihird
.fu.i:t
oi to
Li Is,
OE'ftr
But chis l}>Ciri 110 011lv h1>Jtls t ri1c asAt10icns
private
ller lonal
; aml Mf
ic is
oth erw
irc whe
n the
C1iines.of
Men com
Af!<andand
Rome,
wherefail
ihci11gs
parciculu
n, qoite
nd CYCn
gr<:at
Men,
were
often tm11ed
wit hto
much
F
'mifcni

speaking, writing or publishing


their

an nnthi11g uu ht to come iu .Compet wirh rhe ntmofr Regard and :lleverence.


!Tbt Sncre.J: fi iwill'4_gl .,( tbr Pcoplt,
itiun
rhr
\vi1h its l111crefl$. E'/Cry erimc agaiuft
/,,-,;alahlr M11r'tfli of tbe Ptop/e, tbt
the J>Oblkk, is a grc;i.t crime, tho'
there he fomc greater 1lie11 <>lhers.
11<0f u/
Ji;11ouir1cc aud folly ma y l>e pleacled
'.1u1krir:r 'of tbt PfPJ>lt, mid t/Jr
in Alle1iation
1<1ra;
,r f<1blf Jmlv111n1 of tltt P1oflt, were

n!prl"11t e0ftt:nces ; but \\'ben 1heycom1: ]1hrafos Common in thefe wife, grea.t and
o public!< Offences? 1'1cy h1fc all B::,. frqeCiries.
.
, ,..
ncfit of fuch a .('lea ; <ve are !hen 110 Ion &;me w ill 'tell us, tliis isfcttingnp-t
er to confider, to wha! Cau f<!'l they
Mob for St tesmen, and rouheunfdrers
are
owin, but what Evils they my produce, 1f Srarcs. Theword Mob. dotS nol at all
Mid
here \ve lha)l r<!idily ftncl , that Folly .move 'me,' on cthis fio1r, nor weaken
hasovenurn ed &ates, nnd -priv3te liuecdl 'the GtC>ttml I !;O upon, it ;, ccttain that

sentiments, but forthwith lost their


liberty
in general and became
slaves:'

been the parenr of publick


Confot1ou.

the whole

ople, wno are tbc. publidr,

The J (>nli11g therefore ofpublick Wick arc the befl Judges, whe1her Things go i ll
ed11 . as'it i a l>nl\' which every Man or well,IV ith the i111blick.: It is true
.,we$ to Tmth and his "Gi>un r rv, can ne rhey can't allof them foe difianl
Darigcrs, vcr be a l..i I in the Narure of Thi11g 1 nor watch the'Motiinu,"nor
guefs the and they who call it fo, maIce thcmfelvcs dcligns of neighbouring
States: llilt every

:Oiblc

John Peter Zenger trial


1735

T T-I E "

J O U.RNA L
,

William Cosby
New York
WeeklyJournal

t[J.t frejhcft Advicu, Foreign, 1111d Do111ftick.

1'-tr. 'lrt1g,r ;.

no Coniplemcnt ;he who;.affront<:<! al th

of J)ccaltiguc
the Tt11 Commaoclmcnrs
;f1 Libd;t /((ml Ill Pre/ml t& </Of ick rea<liug
mali:e the
a Libel,if he would
clmft,
tl.;t i. uw:11U; l- 1!1
Courf mrd a
< d
"'
11 011.( th(,;. /> op/( I IJIJlft /J({. you
but he Tempts m at the fame Time to form

<JJ;JI

seditious
libel

iufm fit""''"

j..

rnal;

l bt

lo:.in li't/iJi11

11pQlot

Subj.tt, "1!dJ,.

lour

. .

.lh<1l

Lihl

ap1>rifc us l)f his ""11 Cllataac.-, ai1d


Arms us.with Caution !lgainfrhis
Dcligns.. ..;

'

a Jurlgment of his Life a11<1 Monls, nut


at all to his Advant.gc : WhQCvet calls
puhlick anil nccoffary Trnchs Libels, docs

!.

not thelor ;Lil>


..in.

thought, that the World arc

I hafe
longmilbkcn in thdr Idea .and
11ery
much

IJ
ContrJiCl,..:
.

true, tn1s my fcem a

oil ; but ir is 11cirher one in bw. tlr'fn


"(01nm"n Sq>ie. 'f hefe are fome T1u1hs

1mt Iii co be tulil ; "'llerc. for E.tam1lle,


lhe i)ifcovery of a fmall' Fult mllf
'<lo
"mifcni;or 'tlbr:re.the Dircnver .of-

.a great Faull can Jo 110 good. tliere


ought to l>e no clifC<1vet}' ar all,
a1\d to ma e fults where ih::rc tc none
is !\ill 1vu1fe.
But chis l}>Ciri110 011lv h1>Jtls tri1c as
to private and llerlonal faili11gs ; aml
ilis qoite otherwi rc when th C1iines-of
Men com to Af!<-'.t .the Puhlick. Nothi
"g our.ht to be fod<r to 11s as c,ur
Cm111try,_ an nnthi11g ouht to come
iu.Competitiun

\v

gr

!Tbt Sncre.J: fii will'"._gl .,( tbr Pcoplt, rhr


ni1li11.!tion of Lih eb, it hr.i been hitherto gt!lera ll\' u11der!lccxl. that th.re was no ot)icr Libels but rbofe ,:.g.tinn Mar,ifmres ancl .thof gainft priVlltc Men. Now to me
/,,-,;alahlr M11r"tfli of tbe Ptop/e, tbt 11<0fu/
tro.fuc111s ro beThird .!OJ:t oi Li
Is, full as OE'ftruaive anriy of th fOr.
'.1u1krir:r 'of tbr PfPJ>lt, mid 1/Jr '"'"F
,rf<1b/( Jmlv111n1 of tltt P1oflt, were
mer <:an probably be, Imnt1 Libel1 agai1)1l: the People. It 1vao c>thcrwife at Atiens and Rome, where the particulu Mf n, nd eYcn grrat Men, were often tmtted with much
Fre.eilom ancl Se11eriry, wlien they defervccl. 1t l yet the eople; the body of the People, were fpolien'c:i wirh rhe ntmofr Regard and 1leverence.
n!prl"11te0ftt:nces ; but \\'lien theycom1: ]1hrafos Common in thefe wife,great and
, ,.o public!< Offences? they h1fc all B::,. frqe Ciries. .
ncfit of fuch a Plea ; <ve are !hen 110 Ion , &;me will 'tell us, tliis is fcttingnp-t
er to confider, to wha! Cauf<!'.l they are Mob for St tesmen, andfouhe-renf.irers
owin, but what Evils they my produce , 1f Stares. Theword Mob. dotS not at all
fio1r, nor weaken
Mid here \ve lha)l r<!idily find, that Folly .move 'me,' on cthis
has overturn ed &ates, nnd .priv3te litrecdl -the GrC>ttml I !;O upon, it ;, ccttain that
been the parenr of publick Confot1ou .
the whole ople, who are tbc. publidr,
The J[>nli11g therefore ofpublick Wick arc the befl Judges, whether Things go ill
ed11 . as'it i a l>nl\' which every Mao or well,with the i111blick-.: It is true
.,we$ to Tmrh and his "0Junr rv, can ne they can't allof them foe difianl
Darigcrt, vcr be a l..il in the Nature of Thi11g 1 nor watch the'Motiinu,"nor
gucfs the and they who call it fo, maIce themfelvcs deligns of neighbouring
States: llitt every
:Oiblc

- -_- _ John Peter Zenger


trial
1735
William Cosby
New York WeeklyJournal
seditious libel
"traduce, scandalize, and vilify"
"Supposing they were true, the law
says that they are not the less

libelous for that. Nay, indeed the law


says their
being true is an aggravation of the
cri.me.''

- -_- _ John Peter Zenger


trial
1735
William Cosby
New York WeeklyJournal
seditious libel
Andrew Hamilton

- -_- _ John Peter Zenger


trial
"It is natural, it is a privilege, I will go farther, it is a right, which
all free men claim, that they are entitled to complain when they are
hurt. They have a right publicly to remonstrate against the abuses
of power in the strongest terms, to put their neighbors upon their
guard against the craft or open violence of men in authority, and to
assert with courage the sense they have of the blessings of liberty,
the value they put upon it, and their resolution at all hazards to
preserve it as one of the greatest blessings heaven can bestow:'

- -_- _ John Peter Zenger


trial
"The question before the Court and you, Gentlemen of the jury,
is not of small or private concern. It is not the cause of one poor
printer, nor of New York alone, which you are now trying.No!
...It is the best cause. It is the cause of liberty.And I make no
doubt but
your upright conduct this day will not only entitle you to the love
and esteem of your fellow citizens, but every man who prefers
freedom to a life of slavery will bless and honor you as men who
have baffled the attempt of tyranny, and by an impartial and
uncorrupt verdict have laid a noble foundation for securing to
ourselves, our

posterity, and our neighbors, that to which nature and the laws of
our country have given us a right to liberty of both exposing and
opposing arbitrary power ...by speaking and writing truth:'

newspapers and the


public
partisan subje
ctivity

partisan
presses

_,. " T IIE


-

..

Nev - YorJ{,- Wee


.
<XittJ

--::-

'

1
ly
J O U.R NA L

jng tilt;fref/;eft A4vicu, Foreign, a11d Domefri ck.


':lif JL -

..
tr Un::r ;

Ai /,;M ;t fu m1 at Pu/rut tlx 'lO'


fi<k
'"'' ;, r1ru-:f!DLJ Nib di C6llrt ad

nO Complement ;hewho it afffon1cd ar

the rfalSog ofthe Ten Commandmc:nu


would malrl: iM llccalogue Libtl, i
he dmll, bat ile Tcmptt us- at
thefameTimtf oform

rb,.f' otlt I l1Ul/i


b.'t."",,,;11
mf <1t Ii< ,.,,,..
a,lrnal; ti;, fd J1dgmeot o his life :tnd Morau, nut
lt:.oi.f rt1J in
up.. 1&11
>t :di to his AdvQtltage : Whocvtr
Subj.It,.urJ 7
callo publ ick and ne<;e{f:ary Tnuhs
Libtls.. c!ocs s{lp:ife ns(lf his O\\ll
J otct
;_ 't'?,,
CfuitailC'l", and Arms os "ith Caution
,gah\fr
his
l)c:tignt.
:
A Liblt' is not the lefs
Ihatt 16ng thought, 1hat the \\'oild
;Lihliiri\in
arc f7 much mlfi. kcn in rheir ldt-a
.i. \... tcue, this J TI:'!Y fc-em a
and l:lifiintticm of Lihtb, it h;u bct1\
hi1hc:rto
gc:l rall v undeificod , tha<
Corltrdid
there w as n o QtjJt( Libds but 1boft
c>n ; hut ir is ncir hcr one in L". w
;againtl. 1'b1iQr:ucs 8nd .1hofc sgainft

3TSO

private Men. Now ro

<om1non &ofe. 'fhere ar fu1ne


Tlutr.s 11.,t lit co be tultl ; where., for
E.Jam,)}e; the l)i((:overy or fmall

fault mr o

mirchi;' ot wbcre .1he Di(Qlve T-' f..a .me.h<ro.fe<111S<o bcThir!I .lbrtot Li

g eat Fault cao Jo no good there


OJJgbt
tc. be no tli(C(IVtl'}'1at all, :t1\d to
1nal.:e

F';.uh& where there arc 11one is 1liil"

\ll'01fe. Uut ihis l)aChi111? onlv fiohls


trur: a$ to

f'

})rivatc e:nd per(ona l fitiHngs ; antl it


iS
q11ite01hcr\\ir(
\,litn
thec;d1nes.of Mell
c:o1nC toAffC t 'the 1.,uh lick.
Nothi:}g
ou rht to be fo dr.ar to t1s:i.s our
Ol\1ntry;. a1:1:f nnthiogou ht co
coniciu.Con11>eti1ion
\vit
h
its
lutc(cl r\ s.
E''t'ery
t.tio1eagaiuft 1r.c':_.()C1blick. s a
gre<J.t'c rimc, tho"'thcrC be fi 1nc
greatcr'rhcn oi)ler.s. . ,Jguornnr,c

.,d Folly mov l>e pleoded in


Alle,iatiori ot \lflt c Offi:11c.es ;but
uht-Jl they com
,to 'be pub1ick OJfcncc, thi:y loofC
aH s
.n:fit of fuch aPka;'ve a.re J1en no
lon
ff:r to confide(,. to what Ca.ufcs they

ate

b<lst foll

:is li.flruitive ariy of tht


a1)d'R:tverel'l c:c. fT'be.Yntrc.-.J:f iiiilt<tl_JI gf thf Ptoplr, tbt loiolabk Md
itfliof tbe "Ktop/ e, tb< t1<ful
agai11fl thePeople-. It was
'llu1 ?itJ "Y>f th( Pto;lt, a11d tl<t '"'"P
othcrwire at Athens and Rome, \\'here
t11c patticulat Men, . and cc-n gre<\t
fi."''blt ]11tltmm1 of tq, P'of lr,
?.1cn, wete olicn tre.Med\Vith nntch
Wero phr,.rcs Commo11 in thefe
Frecilon\ and Severity',
tviCC',gccat
and freeCi1ies. .
j
\vhtn tl1c-y d('lervr:d. it \ yet 'the P.eoplc.
.9.>mc \\ill tell us, tbi.s is fc.tting op the
]'.Ito) for Statesmen, and fdr rhocenrOrcrs
the body of the People,were Cpoun 'c
witb the tHmoft Regard
oiving'1 but what Evils they nl<l.y pf9dUcc, of S1a10s. The1v<'1rd Mob.does 001t u
':ud hc<e ,, lh.Jl readily find.that 'folly .rito'IC 1-ne, ontlrr, OCO.fiorr, nor wcaJten
lw overturned State$, JtTid -Pri" te
-the Ground I go u n, it is certain thM
l1ltettll
:the whoki><ople, who are the publiclt,
""b cn the pa(ent nf publick c
nft.Jftot1. ;
l'he t'JJ). ftn thcreFvreof publick \Vicka:cthO bell fodRes. whethu Thilt' f!.O ill
r well,\Vii'h ihc pllblick. It ts true
cdntG-,as jc is a l>ut 'I' w.hich every
?.1an oNes to Tnuh and his C?.Ounrrv, they can't allof them f:c <lillanl Daogc11,
ca:n ne
wr be a Li ) in the Nature of Things ; nor w.11ch the" Motio1l'-nor g_ntfs 1),e
dCf;gns "of neighbouring Saa1cl: Btu every
;ind Ibey \V"ho call it fo, nuke

fOr> met. 'can probably' be, Im un


Librl

chemlelvcs

Coble

VOL. J.)
BnsTo:"l,

'\'I L L l \1'1 J,.LOYD GA U R JSON A N D ISAAC KN Af f , P U BLlSH E:llS.


j}fS9CHUIGM't.JOUR COO:rr.'f'&T s TH \VORLO-Otllt cousTaYx'l!s A.a

MA'.CJC.L'.\D.STllR DA1'1A uovST

(NO. 33.

IS, 18$1.

"I am aware that many object to the severity of my


language; but is there not cause for severity? will be as
harsh as truth,and as uncompromising asjustice. On this
subject,
do not wish to think, or to
speak, or write,with moderation. No!no!Tell a man
whose house is on 6re to give a moderate alarm; tell
him to moderately rescue his wife from the hands of the
ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe
from the fire into which it has fallen; --but urge me not to
use moderation in a

cause like the present. am in earnest -- will not equivocate


-- I
will not excuse .... I will not retreat a single inch .... AND I

WILL
BE HEARD."

-e

T H E N O R T tI ST A
R.

f RbO&RU.:: \Klt;OL.1,

M.

n. 1n:L.\'\\,

t..nv11.t.

RIGHT I 01" :\0 :')EX-TRliJ'll l:i OF

o fX)l,Olt-(:ou JS TIU: r.\1'111;1t Ol" n; AI.I., AJ) Al.t. Wi': AIU:

\\ J.Lt.l\'1

c,

JOIJ.\ UWK

)-'.I.I., l'Ur.J...llr:r..

l'1mr11..

nn1'71'HIH:S.

YOL. I. O. 2:3.

RO<'lll TEH. X. Y., FHIDAY. JC'>E 2, J ,sJ8.

WHOLE

:l\0.-23.

., o

r 1

'

"The object of the NORI H STAR will be to kattac


SLAVERY in all its forms and aspects; advocate
UNIVERSAL EMANCIPATION; exalt the standard
of PUBLIC MORALITY;promote the moral and
intellectual improvement of the COLORED
PEOPLE; and hasten the day of FREEDOM to the
THREE MILLIONS of our ENSLAVED FELLOW
CONTRYMEN."
Frederick Douglass 1848

---

partisan subje ctivity

partisan
presses
rational-critical debate

the rise of
objectivity

telegrap
h
telegraphic realism
; 'T'1'bttt,er to be unborn dlM unr":gm ir gOQQCC bciog _cbc modW $(alt
etrwl;bUndl!'$ u Knfn.allCl mial::!fi tlu;..touHnaeblc ti!
'
un.derA:aaL
Ing, :thcf Dtvll1C M Qra.U J O>C lcm f&ot wathe tees, nor '"'
. - tblids whJC
a knoWI IT1mc an IM no ater Ca itl IAatDltilM tlea
,
,bl)f tlf ; '1ufe
Ole and
de.Areys{t/(forwmt Of lmlcigf: :_Hau th
o!id tbn,
R("
Councclsofchc 11lalc wt1tl4; flanto och 9mpl
II

..
1_

_ ._ !u -'-

t'

' - ---

-'e

Pf!ng

r- iL

'

_.

!'.-'

"t j'{ ]Here is King Cb,r/11? Whtt"s become of himThe Rumouri


V V ftrangc variety of opinions leav nothing
: for:
ema"'

lome 6y, when he &w the Scorm commmg after hrm as fat u in
BriJg1J1atn-, he ran a way to his t/114.,.J7 J,t/ov1tl in lr11'111J ; yt,-S
Xing.

they ay he r"" 4'R'>IJ out of his own King,,,, very


M11jefl #.MIJ : Others will have him cred:ing a new
Monie'l"Ch1 in the Hb of A. g l1fa1 : A third fort there
1.re whch &y he huh hid him(elfe. I will not now
determine the muter, beaufe there is uch a dealc
of uncertain ty ; and tht:refore ( f or the fausfa.dion of
my Coan try men) it welt beft to {c.:nd H'"
"""Cr1after him.

the rise of
objectivity

telegraph
telegraphic realism
information economy
news becomes a commodity
transmission over discussion

the rise of
objectivity

telegraph
commercialism
rising costs of news production
from party to audience

wi re servi ces
Associated Press ( 1848)
United Press International ( 1907)
International News Service (1909)

telegraph

the rise of
objectivity

commercialism

middle-american obje ctivity


photographic realism

0?

Lamentdb/ene-wes out of c!Jvfon1nouth...


!hirein Wales.
CO NT'A Y N I N G ,

'l1ie wondcrfuJland moll fearcfull accidents of

thc gtcac ouerflowing ofwaters in thcfaidcCoun rye,


"1Wtri11g illfoitt 1111""7"1efC,1ttP1f J1HnJ.s,lfs Shaft
<Jxt11, Eiad IJ#f,1s,'11'11h others:IO!tl htT

fli th tht l#fo efl#tUIJ 111t1','IPnfJt1' 111J


Clli/Jr111,,,.,,J tluf11611trfio"of x:n;i
PM./&tt ;,, 1AllHAYJ
I

'"ff

LO NDO N

Printed for W.W. nd arcto be fo1dein pau res Cburch


yardc at thc Ggnc ofthc Grcy ho11ud.

A N T H O N YP A I N T I
T HE

'Blafpheming Caryar.
WhoJunkeinto thegr<>UndtVJ> to the neck,antithereflooJ two tidy
tWO nightS:,

and not to bee drawnc out by the l\rcoEth of Hor

or diggcd out bythe help of man: and thercdyc4the

3.ef N#t1116tl'. 1613.


Al{othe punilluncnt of N h#U1 M1k :imoft wicked &Tafthemcr.
Rl11tk it1tA trtr116/,.
PublUhcd bT Alltbodt .

At London printcdfor loh11 Trflml/j i and aretobe fold at


Cbriftdmh Gacc .Jdl4.

Gods Handy-vvorke in
W O N D ER S.

M'tramlofJj1J fo ewen "1pon t1'o Wome>1, late!J dtliuered of t1Po


Monficrs :with a moll firange and cerri ble Earthqltakc, by
whkh,Field1411J Pthtr gro"11dt, were qH1te
re:moued to other places :

'The prodigious births,being at aplace called Perre-.farmt, within a


'11'4rler oj' 11 111ik o/ Feuerihamin Kenc, the i5.if luly
Sall, being S, 14111tt his day. 1611.

--

--=-==- =-

-::

the rise of
objectivity

telegra
ph
commercialism

middle-american obje ctivity


photographic realism
daguerreotype
(1840s)

the rise of
objectivity

telegra
ph
commercialism
middle-american obje ctivity
photographic
realism
daguerreotyp
e (1840s)
celluloid
film (1880s)

half-tone
(1880s)

the rise of objectivity


telegraph
commercialism
middle-american obje ctivity
photographic realism
daguerreotype (1840s)
celluloid film (1880s) halftone (1880s)
the rhetoric of the photograph

the rise of objectivity

telegraph

commercialism

middle-american obje ctivity


photographic realism
the transformation of the public

sensationalism

1 nvest1 gat1 on
JVUA'I

JOSEPH PU Ul'ZLR

Pulitzer,New York World

yellow
journalism

Hearst, New Yorkjournal

models of
j ournalism

American
Journalistic
Professionalism

"obj ectivity"

inverted pyramid
Most important, newsworthy, or dramatic
information answer who,what when, where, why,
and how questions
Key quotes, supporting evidence &
details
Supporting facts &
explanations more quotes

Supporting quotes and


alternative explanations
Least
tmportant details

..<t

.DE..A.DLY PRE M..d.:J.' UBB


BO UR

MX N KILLltD
A ND Fl"'nil
SR RIOULY WOUMJ>liQ..

New .JOrk
Times (1891)

;1JLAST.
MORE

ROCIIEST&R, N. .
Dao. Sl.-;-AD
.!,Ocldent oc

f'tLtTed ntiar the vf llago


of 8'81f9l'd. :.tonr mllea
we
at
ot
Ler
oy,
GPt
n11
1ee
Co
unt
y;
la
aft
ern
oon
, by
wh
Joh
tou

r men wcro
1Datantly l:llled, tour o her meD TeOelvecl
iDjurJea which "lll"Jll probably re11ult fa,ally, 11.nd a foreman
wiw aerioualy hurt.
The acof dent hsppene1on '4)Ugb 87ten alo11, whero
tl:e men we.ro
DlJl.
blaattng tho trov=.n
ee-.rth. Tho witncafle9 of the aooldent
-wLo can apeiuc .EngUah are so bM1.IY1J!Cl't that I& is
im1088ible to obtain an AOOW"O? c\oaorlp::!rin ot tbe mlt.Cll er
ID whloh'be exploalon ooourred, but enouirh.. baa 'been
go.tberod io a11.ow'bat clll'el11aan11& bad a 1004 deal to clo
wlU. it. From tb.e facts obtainable Co-nigh t ft GJt
pe11ra that a blaat had been axploded and 11rep&raUon e
were at 01100 mode for a110\hor.
.r1.te blsettng J>OWdor was put too near the phtce wbero
the
Jo11c e:r.11101Jon had boon. and nt"rrllto report
tollowtkl.
The rooks and earth wcro toru up ond deDtbde11llog wlullea
were burled tbrouirh tbe otr ln every
direC1tlon. IC la tbouirht tbat some or tho t!N rrom the tlrot
e::i:- 1lo1tun bacl rewoiood 1n the irrouud, and that it lu&d.
lgat
tbe powder plaoed tor \be second bl111t. Tlu,
acoic.lent too plaoo fD o Cleep cat, W.'Dtl'h e doalS aud
SoJu1ed were ooTered by eanh nt.d 11nu.,.
Tbe orlea ao.d
ln'Olllllll ot the dfinit a11<1 the ehrloks or tile maimecf.were
.beArtrend
lnic.
.
., tb
Tbt: work ot reooverlng
lajllred
and
bo1tle11 or tbe c.lec.d tro:i1 the ddrie jl 'OOW under
way,
aud It!11wlll
tbO.Jlrht
tbat
tliroe Of t.hb
SDJu redTho
meumen
1VU1die.
a.u.
1nqaoat
'be
11ld
to-morrow
morning.
killed
WCJX'O
:&:drew
HWlt
and tiu.,., Huogarlau. 1abori!tl.'trbuae 1.nmea
the !ltoall unknowo Buogarl11u1
woTe not learned. Tbe 11>.)ured
e.rce;t
Deuul qwl&AD, lhe r:ire J:llDbl!ho bad tile
an,ors blo'WD
from or.e hand
and
erc1'11bt probably mined.

inverted pyramid
Most important, newsworthy, or dramatic
information answer who,what when, where, why,
and how questions
Key quotes, supporting evidence &
details
Supporting facts &
explanations more quotes

Supporting quotes and


alternative explanations
Least
tmportant details

Limits of the professional objectivity


model

reliance on official sources


"balanced"points of view

"a fl.gleaf for covert prejudice"


The
SPECTATOR

'ft18 Future of
Wildernes
5PCW. Ml'l.ll
S
P
M
l<
S
I.
P
l.
Jl
(S
l'
j!
JO
Y
N
IS

.......
(;.t- ,,,Ni._-

From Teen to
Time:

magazines and American


culture

alternatives to
objectivity

interpretive
journalism
responsibilities of the press (Walter
Lippman)
1) "to make a current record"
2) "to make a running analysis of it"
3) "on the basis of both to suggest plans"

Tom
Wolfe

new
journalism

Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test


4 Characteristics of New
Journalism scene by scene
construction realistic dialog
manipulation of point of view to put
readers inside the mind and
emotional reality of characters
recording of everyday gestures,
manners,
habits, and other symbolic details
Tom Wolfe

new
journal
ism
Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test
4 Characteristics of New Journalism :
scene by scene construction
realistic dialog
manipulation of point of view to put
readers inside the mind and
emotional reality of characters

recording of everyday gestures,


manners,
habits, and other symbolic details

contemporary issues

corporate concentrati on
loss of diversity

fewer multiple paper towns


from small market to large market

contemporary issues

corporate concentrati on
declining subscriptions

contemporary issues

corporate concentrati on
declining subscriptions

economi c pressures
the newshole

contemporary issues
corporate
concentrati on declining

subscriptions economi c
pressures news dot com

SECTIONS

Q.

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Arts

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F'ood

Home

Travel

Magazine

EXPAND T

Siftin g
Through
'Utter
Chaos'in
Wake of
Fatal Train
Crash

OP TALK
4

By MA1TFLEGENHEIMER
9:01 PM ET

Thequestion persisted 24
hours after an inferno
had engulfed the first car
of a Metro-North train in
Westchester County, N.Y.,
killing six people: What
was the S.U.V. doing on
the tracks?

Recalling Victims
of
.L _ T..- - /"'..-_
L

OUT THERE

Living With a Volatile Neighbor


By DENNIS OVERBYE

Even a slight change in the precariously controlled


violence of
tho c:nn ;i;n onnrmnnc: thormnnnrlo;i;r fnrn::iro r;i;n h::ivo
rlr::iidir

The Opinion Pages


EDITORIAL NOTEBOOK

How Movies Can


Change Our Minds

Wait, What, I'm a


Millennial?

ByJOHN GUIDA

ByJUUET LAPIDOS

Research suggests that


Americansbringtheir
ambivalenceabout
government to the
multiplex. Sometimes
they come away with
less of it.

Neither digital-world
natives nor victims of
the Great Recession,the
children of the early
'Bos deserve adifferent
label.

Edsall:The Problem
With Middle-Class
Populism
Room for
Debate :Treating the
Internet Like a Utility
Taking Note:No, tlhe
F.C.C. Isn't Destroying
the Internet

The Stone: Philosophy's


Lost Body and Soul
Editorial: Bill de
Blasio's Big Plansfor
New York
Friedman: A Bad Mistake
Op-Ed:150 Years of
Working on the Railroad

contemporary issues

corporate concentrati on
declining subscriptions

economi c pressures
news dot com

dail
local
shared

a brief history of
magazines

elite
The SPECTATOR

mass

specialized

THE SJlTUl{D.flY

EVENIRPOST

An llluatrate.t Wekay Mga1!:ine


Poundd A D 1728 6.JI Benj.Franklin
tIVt. Ct NT'> THF. COPY

T J-f
T H tr. C: U M. 't' I

f' U I 1 '11 1:.; (", C O tl l>A N 'I' , P H l l, A D l'. 1. f' H I A

Rodrigo y Gabriela
Nylon.Slrln!J Rock

The Spe ctator


( 1711) Joseph
J-lll.-ll
Addison
Richard
Steele

elite magazines

The SPECTATO

elite magazines
The Spe ctator
(1711)
"The Mind that lies fallow but a single Day,
sprouts up in Follies that are only to be killed by a
constant and assiduous Culture.It was said of
Socrates, that he brought Philosophy down from
Heaven, to inhabit among Men; andIshall be
ambitious to have it said of me, that have
brought Philosophy out of Closets and Libraries,
Schools and Colleges, to dwell in Clubs and
Assentblies, at Tea-tables, and in Coffee-houses:'

Joseph Addison (March 12,


1711)

general interest
magazines
democratization of education
late 19th century
rising literacy
rates

THE READER'S
DIGEST

f111:STY OMI' ilnKl.m UUI

-"'*"'

..0.L Cllt u..al".AlhR -r UiDI


.tll'ft.tU Of .........: y., I .tlM
ATl'llQT lS It.:l"h

-er"*'

'
PS.BUAk't

LPJl

general interest
magazines
democratization of education
postal act of 1879
2nd class mailing rates for

magazi nes

THE READER'S
DIGEST

f111:STY OMI' ilnKl.m UUI

-"'*"'

..0.L Cllt u..al".AlhR -r UiDI


.tll'ft.tU Of .........: y., I .tlM
ATl'llQT lS It.:l"h

-er"*'

'
PS.BUAk't

LPJl

general interest
magazines
democratization of education
postal act of 1879
advances in production
lowered costs

mass commun1 cat1 on

THE READER'S
DIGEST

f111:STY OMI' ilnKl.m UUI

-"'*"'

..0.L Cllt u..al".AlhR -r UiDI


.tll'ft.tU Of .........: y., I .tlM
ATl'llQT lS It.:l"h

-er"*'

'
PS.BUAk't

LPJl

specialized
magazines
magazines meet
television niche
marketing
targeted demographics
less money in exchange for targeted
ads

Cut Your

CarbonInHal
f
GreenGear
That Really
Works

Aans to
Brighten

Your Life

-=j

Fat.111.Fur i.\ ::;t -

Perception.

Perception.

Perception.

Reality.

complementary copy

Ifyou think you need a team


of pros to go high style, get aload of
these real-life makeovers-and
discover
15hot looks straight from the runways
that'll work with y:our reality. i
By Allison Schwartz Photographs by Keith Lathrop

the sexy short cut

ti

Thisseason'schopped shapes are lo-o-ong on style.The key: "They're not perfect-they look like they've grown out
a bit," says Coby, astylist at New York City's Bumble and Bumble salon.Our reader at right, Cristy
Salvi,wanted
11
swingy hair; haphazard, taperedlayers did the trick, whileextralength around the chinand the soft edgesgive
her tonsof ways to play. STYLESTRATEGY: Suds upwith a gentle body bui der like Neutrogena Clean
Volume Body
Enhancing Shampoo ($4, at drugstores), thenstrokein pomadeto definelayers.Other new takes for short strands:

i
e

I
i

i
h

rod
pure pixie
making waves what about bob?
s.
STYLE STRATEGY: Part

damp hair to one side,and


wind
one-inch pieces around
flexible

Let
air
dry
unw
ind,
fin

erco
m
b
an
d
w
rk
in

bed. head.

styling

STYLE STRATEGY: Towel-dry,

STYLE STRATEGY:Apply

straightening balm to damp hair from roots toends.Part hair


on the side, and blow straight with a paddle brush (it

cream to create tsunami


waves.
202

rub hair wax between palms


(no worries,it's not sticky)
and spread through hair.
Blow-dry, then tweak the
tendrils around
gives you the most control).
wax.

STYLESTRATEGY: Work in

I
your face witha bit more

a Ping-Pong-ball-size puff of
mousse. Ruffle with hands
while blow-dryingfor
a sexy,
tousledlook.For extra volume,

blast hair from underneath.

Gentle cycle. Part of Oinique'ssimple system

i
.r..o..-o

Cl
"O

iii'

i5'
::i

:gr;.

I..,
5'

"'

na\rcare

therapeutic ethos

HERE'SA
STANDARD
codeamong job inten iewees. When

asked
I<>identifyyowbiggestcharacter
flaw, you
should al\\-ays answer,..rm a
perlectionist." (Sigh.) "I'm just
really banionmyself."InOlherwords;"
never think I'm goQ<I enough, but
myconstant seeond-gueO!ling will be
an
asset
to
your
company.WhendoIswt?"Hrrun,
when did chronic perfectionism
become a selling point? Probably
around the timethe first capitalist
highlighted our inadequacies to
hawk products.Now whene\erwe
think we're goodenough. we're urged
to buy something that's going to make
use,en better...right?

Wrong,
says
Lisa
Earle
llcLeod, author of the new book
Forget Petfed (Perigee). "Women
tend to think that ifwe're not
perfect,
we'readisappoin
ment
toothers,"McLeod
says."Butthe
whole 'perfect' thing isabout
trying to achieve some image we
think we should be stli>'ing for.It
ha,,nothingI<> do with actually
erijoying life."Sofor the laot time,
stopt.rying tode-quirkify yourself
via

endless

control

tops

and

conceaJe.r sticks, and keep your


rough spotsjust theway they are.
Glamour identified someof the most
common insecurities women face-b g
and littl4>--on thejob. inbedorinfi-ontof
the mirror.Then we found just the riiht
reaoons for you I<> say,"Screw
perlect!" and
lo\'eyourselfferyourimperfections, not
despite them. Here'sMw to st.art.

learn to love
your imperfect
body
Maybe you have a
weirdfeature... Big schnoz,
gangly limbs, bug eyes? Those
sideshow features are part of the
main attraction: you! Get rid of

them and you might end up feel


ing like a generic, mass-market
edi tion of your formerly unique
self. Dirty Dancing star Jennifer
Grey famously regretted ha\"ing her
once prominent. nose whjttJed
down to a
button in 1992."I woke up [after
the surgery] and never looked like
myself again,"she said after what
she referred to as "the accident."
Your bod-ditiesarewhatseparat..e you
from the pack. In fact, while some
studies ha\e found that symmetrical
faces are more attractive, studies
by Ludwig-Boltzmann- Institute for
Urban Ethology in Vienna and the
University of New Mexico found that
those same faces can also be the
most forgettable. What'stheuse
inmakinga good first impression if
no one will remember it? Besides,
the real-you look isin, says celebrity
makeup mtist Sue Devitt."Sometimes
inexpe1ienced models will request
heavy makeup

without realizing how a\\ful it


looks on film,"saysDevitt."Seasoned

actresses know tousealight touch


becausetheir unique features are
fun."
Or maybe you're not a stick
figure... Unless you're a lingerie
model. itsnot your job to look like
a human coat hanger. "'Focus on your
health rather than your weight,"says
Robert Billing ham, Ph.D., associate
professor of applied health science at
Indiana Uni versity. "'Health is

something you can work


toward,"heexplains, "as opposed
toworking againstsomenumber onthe
scale."Thi1ty-twe>-year--0ld beUy dan
cer Nadia Moussa, who has perfonned
with the baad Jane's Addiction, appre
ciates her womanly curves.''What'snot
to lo,e?"she asks. "My body is strong,
and my dan<eisacelebration of female
power.Infact,it'shardto watch skinny
beUy dancers because t.he movements
aren'tsensual."Gyrate, baby, gyrate!

love th

gangly,curvy,odd,

crooked, put me

on the-defectrack physical f
res
that make
you...you!

learn to love being


animperfect mate
Maybe

you're

a!Taid you're not

his fan tasy woman...You're a hot


commodity and he's lucky to ha\'C
you,no damn

Perfect is a great score for an O yrnpic


figure skater,but it's a dull routine for
your life Learnhow to make your socalled
fla sworkfor you so that every da
comes off asyour best performance. By
Jessie Knadler

206

itS Lf! QY.tyou


Sdew alkSurve
i
y

Q.Whatdo
youneed
inlifeto
betruly
happy?

ra:..''Self

confidence.
Itlots me
put

myself
O<rt there
and take
risks toget closer topeople
thanImig;rt ij wereInse
cure. Evetything'sharder
when you're down on)'OU<
sel."-cARRIEMcLAREN,27,
NEWYORK CITY

ll

"f'e<lceond
serenity. I

try to let
go what's
out of my

of
...you've ordered fast food justfor the toys...you feel the wholeidea
control and
of finding The One is for peoplewho think small (why not The
just dothe best Ipossibly
Five)
canwith '#hat is. Imean,
eve<ything else isjust
...you've never thought twice about crying in public...you think
going to happen
anyway."
pajamas and cowboyboots should be wom together out of
MONICA RIC,29.
thehouse.

and up? Face it: You'reweird.


And
that's
wonderful!
Expressmg your nonconformist
streak mayeYen be good for your
ealth,says David

healthy immune system and blood


pressurelevel,
not to mentKlll 11keeps depression at bay."
One woman who'sivingproof of Weeks' theory
1s Erm Brockovich, the self-taught law clerk
who
Joseph Weeks, Ph.D.,a
faced down corporate America and wonconsultant
<:lad in
1ce-mappropr1ate
attire
all
the
neuropsycholog1st at the Royal off
while."People
Ed nburgh Hospital in Scotland and author of
Eccentrics: A Studyof Sanityand Slraf111"11"SS Ml stop themselves from doing what they really
want to do way too often," Brockovich tells
lard). After 10 years of researct, Weeks found
that eccentricslive longer, see their doctors less Glamour. "But 1f you wear that outrageous
outfit or say that outrageous thing, what's the
fre quently,have higherIQs and sufferfewer
psychiatric
worst that can aJ> pen? You might think you'll
become an outcast or peoplewon't like
illnesses than their conformist :ounterparts.
Why? "Curiosity, creativity and not caringwhat
you,but evenif oneor two poople are offended.
the
neigh
bors
think
arethe main
almost everyone else admires you for being
ingredientsinthe
eccentric's
personality,"
aleader. f 'd stuck with the suppQSEd-to path
Weeks explains. "And when you don't in life, I'd be broke and doing nothing. It's
RULE
TOLIVE
muchBY:
better to just go for what moves you.
carewhat other people think,you cutawhole
That's when you really start living!"
-t.tZ
source of anxiety out of your life.That helps
LA/GtEY
maintain a

LONG ISLAND. N V

.,need
lots of

laughs.
and to
keep my
friends
chucking, too.
Laughter is
anallnatural stress
reliever.After Icrack up,
Ifeel so much better!"
SHELLEY EPSTEIN,29,
BOSTON

"Ineed to
be
outside.
Running
outdoon

''Don't compromise yourself. You're all youVe got.''


like Idid
this
mom ingcan be so
beautiful. After
e..ercislng, Ifeel so

peaceful and slable, like


all the clutter n my ife
has gone away."

-JANIS JOPLIN

EILEEN LOVERN.33,
MINNEAPOLIS

117

FEELINGBAD?

Don't
Swallow
It-Wallow in It
You can't
y cheer
up until you face
your
blues.
Here'show.
o one likes to drown
in t pasting a happy
face isn't the
answer. "It's a to just
try to cheer down,"
notes Alan
Downs, Ph.D., author of Why Does
This Keep Happening to Me? (Fire
side). "But facing unpleasant emo
tions 1s the only way to start fixing
what's bothering you." When Alan
Ball-Oscar-winningscreenwriter of American Beauty and creator
of HBO's Six Feet Under-was 13, his older sister was killed in
a car accident whi e driving him to a music lesson. For 25
years, he tried to ignore his sorrow, but it caught up with him.
"Grief is a primal thing, and the only way out of it is through
it," he has said. "Having come out on the other side...really
made me a stronger and richer person." No matter how great or
small }<)Ur pain, healthy wallowingis a crucial part of handling it.
Here,Downs' tips for feeling what's real:

Dig into your dumps. Oon't just dwell on negative feel ngs
if you don't know why you have them. Instead, Downssays toask
your self, What's changed for me recently? Oon't leave
anythingout-the culprit could even be a physical factor like lack
of sleep or exercise.

Ment.alhealthunbulletin

Thediseases feel real, but no HMO will cover them.

ApologitisA needless-blame-takingdisorder signaled by


owruse of the phrase "I'mso sorry." Acute cases have been
known to apolog12eto people who bump into them.The cure:
Try "Oops."

lndecisionism Whenit's 4:30 but there

are stillseven
restaurants under consideration for tonight's dinner,
indecisionism is to blame. The wish to abandon responsibility
isa risk factor. A radicaltreatmentinvolving flipping a coin
isin final testing.

Man-orexia This insatiable hunger for anythingmale

causes the sufferer to put her life on holdwhenever a set of


"t:f

chromosomes crosses her path. One remedyis an all-girl retreat,


but more serious cases may need a few hoursin front of WWF
Smackdo.vn to remember just how unappealing men can be.

Screw-you-enza

More common duringwarm


weather, thisailment prompts sufferers to cancel prearranged
plans "just because."It was once thought to becontagious, but
clingy relatives
and oversocial peers are more likely the cause. Treatment
includes, but is notlimited to, high doses of guilt.
--ALEXANDRA
MARSHALL

118

Because there'sa fine linebetween Oy! and joy.

Hassled
HAVING A
T0-00 LIST

Watch your timing.It's not smart to wallow in the middle of a


meeting, but you can devote your lunch hour to a box of Puffs
Plus. If the cause of your grief is profound, take a mental health
day--0r even a vacation-andgive yourself the OK to do 100
percent nothing.

Don't stew si ently. The point istoidentify what's botheringyou


and get it out. So instead of just letting your feelings circle
around inside your head, write them down or contact a palwho
really lstens.

Slowly

smileagain. limeto

rejoin theliving? Visit a spot


you'resure will make you feel good. "A change of scenery gets your
mind moYing forward," says Downs. But if more than a week
passes and you feel thingswon't get better, it may be timeto seek
counseling.--LESLIE YAZEL

MAKING
THE BED
FULL PLATE
ONION BREATH

vs.
Happy you

you

KEEPING A
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IHAVING

BREAKFAST
IN BED

CLEAN SLATE
THEONION.CDM

TRYING TO
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SCHEDULING
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the early waves:

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radio & t

contemporary issues

corporate concentrati on

contemporary issues

corporate concentrati on

contemporary issues
corporate

concentrati on
alternative voices

1840s

electrical
telegraph

Samuel Morse
1861: coast to coast telegraph
wires 1866: transatlantic cable
limitations:

wi r
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electromagnetic waves
1860s1870s
theoreticalproof of radio waves
James Maxwell
unified theory of electromagnetism

wave propagation
1880s
Heinrich Hertz
transmission and reception of radio wave
spark-gap transmitter
1890s

Gug
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mo
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spark-gap transmitter + telegraph key

Guglielmo Marconi
1890
s
spark-gap transmitter + telegraph key

Guglielmo Marconi
1890
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spark-gap transmitter + telegraph
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British Marconi {1897)


Anne Jameson

Guglielmo Marconi
1890
s
spark-gap transmitter + telegraph
key wireless telegraphy
British Marconi {1897)
American Marconi {1899)
1899:English Channel
1901:Atlantic Ocean ''S''

1902: Atlantic sentence


distance vs. control

Lee De Forest
revolutionizes reception
audion ( 1906)

Reginald Fessenden
revolutionizes transmission
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Brant Rock, MA
December 24, 1906

early issues
patent battles
No. 624,516.

6. MARCONI.

Patented May 9, 1899.

No. 841,386.

L. DE FOREST.

PATENTED JAN. 15, 1907.

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY .

APPARATUS EULOYED IN WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY .

J.PPLIO.&TIO FILED i'UG. 11. itoe

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early issues
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patent battles
business models
amateurs

early issues
goverrunent intervention & regulation
Radio Act of 1912

R.M.S. Titanic, April 14, 1912


''etheric bedlam'' license
system
amateurs assigned to short wave

1 ntercommun 1 cat1 on
Secretary of Commerce
patent battles
business models
amateurs

early issues
goverrunent intervention & regulation
Radio Act of 1912

Navy
WWI
US takes over American Marconi
Radio Corporation of America

RCA

Formed on October 17, 1919


Only US Citizens can be directors/officers No
more than 20% stock for foreigners

Government Representative (Navy Admiral)


GE & AT&T buy stock
David Sarnoff

KDKA

the '20s & the birth


of
broadcasting

November 2, 1920
RCA vs.AT&T

KDKA

the '20s &


the birth
of
KDKA
RCA
vs.AT&T

broadcasting
the '20s & the birth
of
broadcasting

WEAF

AT&T
"toll broadcasting"

KDKA
RCA
vs.AT&T

the '20s & the birth


of
broadcasting

WEAF
New York

WFAA
Dallas

Providence

affiliate
San Francisco

KDKA
RCA vs.
AT&T

the '20s & the birth


of
broadcasting

WEAF
Telephone Group vs.Radio Group
WEAF
GE, Westinghouse, RCA

RCA vs.AT&T
WEAF

KDKA

the '20s &


the birth of

broadcasting

Telephone Group vs.Radio Group


long distance listening
silent night
clear channels

KDKA
RCA
vs.AT&T
WEAF

the '20s & the birth


of
broadcasting

Telephone Group vs.Radio


Group long distance listening
Dr.Brinkley
John Romulus Brinkley
KFKB-Milford, Kansas
radiopersonality
Radio Del Rio
WEAF

KDKA
RCA
vs.AT&T

the '20s &


the birth of

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Telephone Group vs.Radio


Group long distance listening
Dr.Brinkley
WCFL
Chicago Federation of Labor

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1926

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(20%) AT&T controls phone lines, stops
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1926
National Broadcasting
Company

NBC
RCA (50%); GE (30%); Westinghouse
(20%) AT&T controls phone lines, stops
broadcasts NBC buys WEAF network
$1,000,000
AT&T must return $800,000 if
they start broadcasting again

National Broadcasting
Company 1926

NB
C

RCA (50%); GE (30%); Westinghouse


(20%)
AT&T controls phone lines, stops
broadcasts NBC buys WEAF network
NBC-Red (WEAF)
NBC-Blue (radio group)

Announcing the

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N ational radio broadcasting with better
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portant action of the Radio Corporation of
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T:, -

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Jl.d rlit "' ..-11011, irNf fo. tT 11 roou1:x r:lt' rot11t.
IW

1f 01hcr nd10o m.:in11hc.nmna: COtTip&llio.


(Ofnpc:'tllnn af the: Radio Corpnric:m of
tW!,
;\mc.na, i,.h O MX ht: f .ctliilo of
!'ation1I Bro.du..10,i Compa.n (cw tht po.i
thor rn:.cl -cu., 1hc1 ni"'J do 90 on 1hc

umc M u:ecnied

tel

;,(

ma!<it'lf, ltne>..rn to

t.ht 9'1bht

otbu o. 11:t.:nc.W 11of pro>tidicc t.deqntt btOMi..

rue-lng iiappent.The problem of fiadi"lt


the 'best mcui ol doUi, lt lt '(Tt upi..
mental l"hc RM:Sio CC>t"pOnt.tioo (]/ Amtric-a is
makin1 this ttpcrimcnt in ch iacuat af che
a:rt a.nd the furtMn.ntt of the U:iihutry.

A Pwblic Ad..._,. Council


In ordc:t that the NarionaJ 8road<"m.tri111
Camp.anr m11be &dT\xd u to 1M c typt
of
hat d.Ucri.oWa .1Ucn may
bo: uQ4dc-\I, tbt che J*bJ.iC MY bit
1hu tht brmck ..,t"'a "' t:.a,. done iD tk
(1i.rat and bt3:way,
!\umvi fr-Ult &nd hwnao pnfOl'"tn , it
tu,t=roted an Advi.xy Cou.nc-l), ccapcllilCd
of lchc. mutibc.n. to
d.okn u

''"

.u...,..

-.nr11Tt C)f
>,Mia f>( public opil).
toa, )Uc.h .il!fnmi !1mc to tirnt: gin: ii the
bt.net of tha.r judgrn<.n ( aod
ll<llL.

Tht: Cbtnlkn of t.U. C<iune1I .\1l be .,...,


,,oun.cfti u "'" al tber acta:a d..&U
hut" he-en obrut1td.

M. H.A,lcswcrr1h
"' Ii< Prc:sMknt
i4ttit ot the M9' Ntiona.! tlrtlll.d.. c
Comf:",Oy will k M. H.. Arla
W"!)'f'I .for many t:&r:t M..n-c'ns '"::c&or
c! 1b<- iooal Eltttric Llgiu Aacxi1cioo..
He trill r-=-. form tht n hn nd admUn.,..
Hon .ru,ia of the C'Of"porat.ioa.

Th.c.

ff. A)ltt.-onh, hik 001 "icht1't0 i.dc-nt'i Std


\d1, the tt.d10 indu.> try or bn::.iwfr&,Jt.
\f\P., u had public apc:nwc:t '"
ol 11\e Co&or.ido f\iic

Utilities COf'D.mi

''" and, through b1.3 worl

rlth the uso

ua.110"' 'hich "':prn.enci the dtttric-a.I if\


dustry, hu. brQ.ld u nd1uWn1 1>( the
rn:hni.caJ pf'oblc:nu hi(h me tur't the p1
(I(

broad o.ai.itl.i.

One of h;1 m.1jor t'C'IJ'O"'b;IH_H:a .ill be to


in: th1t t*'c optruion o( th.: N1riorl
Broad<a;$t1t\J Co.::np1.111 l'T6ttt c.N'th

n1':'11c opin1, whic.h uprn1a1 iud( IWI


?'Of!lPth th< momint. .Jta _, dTW or
tiut (M' Judfment or de:
ftvim r..i.r
pia;r.

c..,,._, -

Wt Jwk ot 4..1iJMil'f iJt t'tt'OM-..ftl#i11f d:t


BrwJuuriwc

:iMmt.ol

,_p1, oj t4it t""l,UC' Swn

Ir _.lJ _,,.J W lwifJ of .U ltJtnur1. ft nil


-.tri1tdr1.l/ l4r.,-rrilu ..Ji-..J:t b....
t11 .U.t tt W foi.h Qj 1/w rl;MJ ,fr..

t i- ., ,, .

r i . -, ..,.,.,. . .
J t:'T"' """:m#tt.

, . . . ., , " "

. ; J/., ..

w -

RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA


OWEN D. YOUNG, a...;.- I "'- -

}AMES 0. HAR.BORD, l'r"*'-

NB
C

National Broadcasting
Company 1926
RCA (50%); GE (30%);
Westinghouse (20%)
AT&T controls phone lines, stops
broadcasts NBC buys WEAF
network
NBC-Red (WEAF)
NBC-Blue (radio group)

comcast

Arthur Judson
artist
managem
ent

C
B
S

Judson Radio Program


Corporation (1926) rejected
by Sarnoff & NBC
Arthur Judson
United Independent
Broadcasters
Judson & George
Coats January

1927

C
BS

Arthur Judson
United Independent
Broadcasters
Columbia Phonograph Record
Company April 1927
CPBS
Arthur Judson
United Independent
Broadcasters

C
BS

C
BS

Columbia Phonograph Record


Company Columbia pulls out
(CBS)
William Paley
1928
Congress Cigar Company
Arthur Judson
United Independent
Broadcasters

C
BS

Columbia Phonograph Record


Company Columbia pulls out
(CBS)
William Paley
''opti.on ti.me ''
NBC charges affiliates for
"sustaining" programs, but
pays them to broadcast
"sponsore d programs "
Uni
ted
Arthur Judson

Independent
Broadcasters

C
BS

Columbia Phonograph Record


Company Columbia pulls out
(CBS)
William Paley
''opti.on ti.me ''
CBS pays affiliates hourly
fee
CBS offers sustaining
programs for free CBS gets

firm option to all of


affiliate's
broadcast time

Arthur Judson
United Independent
Broadcasters
Columbia Phonograph Record
Company Columbia pulls out
(CBS)
William Paley

C
BS

''opti.on ti.me ''


Paramount Pictures

Radio Act of
1927
Signed by President Coolidge on February 3
"public convenience, interest, or necessity"
Federal Radio Commission (FRC)
5 members appointed by President
no more than 3 from one party
General Order 40

How should radio be paid


for ?
endowment by a "public-spirited
citizen" municipal financing
state financing
"common fund" controlled by elected board
tax on radio receivers
levy on sale of radio equipment
advertising
"It is inconceivable that we should allow so great
a possibility for service to be drowned in
advertising chatter:'

Secretary of Commerce, Herbert


Hoover

Communications Act of
1934
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
includes radio and telephone

Communications Act of
1934
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Commercialism Triumphs
corporate lobbying
National Association of Broadcasters
commercial stations will provide public

servi ce

Communications Act of
1934
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Commercialism Triumphs
Wagner-Hatfield Amendment
Robert Wagner, Senator-NY
Henry Hatfield, Senator-WV
Sets aside 25% of stations for non-profit
defeated in 1935

"the golden age of


radio"
Situation Comedy (Amos
'n'Andy )

Soap Opera ( The Guiding


Light)
Variety Shows ( The Fleischmann
YeastHour)
News (Edward R.
Murrow) Sports
(Ronald Reagan) Horror
( The Shadow)

genre
s

Amos 'n'Andy
Freeman Fisher Gosden
(Amos) Charles].Correll
(Andy) Minstrelsy

Amos 'n'Andy
Freeman Fisher Gosden
(Amos) Charles].Correll
(Andy) Minstrelsy
Sam 'n'Henry
1926
WGN Chicago
The Mutual Broadcasting Network

Amos 'n'Andy
Freeman Fisher Gosden (Amos)
Charles].Correll (Andy)
Minstrelsy
Sam 'n'Henry
Amos 'n'Andy
WMAQ
1928
''chainless chain''

Amos 'n'Andy
Freeman Fisher Gosden (Amos)
Charles].Correll (Andy)
Minstrelsy
Sam 'n'Henry
Amos 'n'Andy
Syndication
July 17, 1928
:'

Edward R. Murrow
CBS

Begins in supervisory role in 1935


Becomes European News Director in 1937
Short wave transmissions
CBS "news roundup"
D-Day broadcast :

The War ofthe Worlds


Orson
Welles
Mercury Theater of theAir
H.G. Wells
October 30, 1938

The War ofthe WOrlds


Orson Welles
Mercury Theater of the Air
H.G. Wells
October 30, 1938
Invasionfrom Mars
Hadley Cantril, 1940
28% surveyed believed it a news bulletin

"I knew it was something terrible and I was frightened.


But I didn't know just what it was. I couldn't make
myself believe it was the end of the world. I've
always heard that when the world would come to an
end, it would come so fast nobody would know-so
why would God get in touch with this announcer ?
When they told
us wliat road to take and get up over the hills and the
children began to cry, the family decided to go out.
We took blankets and my granddaughter wanted to
take the cat and the canary. We were outside the
garage when the neighbor's boy came back and told is
it was a play:'
"Mrs. Ferguson;' Northern NewJersey
housewife

"I went home. My knees were shaking so I could


hardly walk up the stairs.Ifound my nephew had come
home and gone to bed.
woke him up.
looked in the ice-box and saw some
chicken left from Sunday dinnerIwas
saving for Monday night dinner. said to my nephew,
'We
may as well eat this chicken-we won't be here in the
morni.ng.'"
Sylvia Holmes, Newark, NewJersey
housewife

"I thought the best thing to do was go away, so I took


$3.25 out of my savings and bought a ticket. After
had gone 60 miles
heard it was a play. NowIdon't have
any money left for the shoes
was
saving up for. Would you please have someone send
me a pair of black shoes, size 9- B:'
George Bates, laborer,
Massachusetts

The Emergence
of
Recording
Culture

ABC
American Broadcasting Company
( 1943) FCC challenges "chain
broadcasting"
1938-1941
upheld by Supreme court in 1943
challenges "option time"

ABC
American Broadcasting Company (1943)
FCC challenges "chain broadcasting"
RCA must sell NBC-Blue
Edward ].Noble
Lifesavers

amplitude modulation

(AM)
-

.....

..

..._
{a}

... .

/' .. .

CARRI ER WAVc ( CONSTAN T

. .
ENVELOPE ( 1JAR'ilNG AMPLll
UCIE)

.. .

FREQUENCY l

---

- -

--

(b)

VARYING FREOUEHCV

frequency modulation

(FM)

FM
Edwin Armstrong

1933
Experiments with RCA
Sarnoff ''sabotage''
's
W2WMN (1939)
experimental 50,000 watt FM station
Alpine, NewJersey
an FM ''boom''

FM
Edwin Armstrong
1933
Experiments with RCA
Sarnoff ''sab otage''
's
W2WMN (1939)
WWII
In 1948 Armstrong sues RCA
Settles in 1953

radio meets
television

elite

mass

specialized

elite

f
"Wl&LLLss -AND

J. Wo.
lac Ol.Wa!T.ta..S.,.
He: WW S.. De.cu.

W.aba

Htu..

..Sc:M.-&ca:hoc:
Dclcc

.......

N- Yark, Betts-.

BY

mass
Annmmcing the

National Broadcasting Company, me.


National radio broadcasting with bttttt
p
nna.nently a5.'illlld by d\is im
portmt a.cti:on ol the Radio C'fim'ation
of Amaica in tht inrerct oi the list.cuing
public

T:

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RAD10 CORroRATION OP AMElllc.A

specialized

Format

Country
News/Talk/In
fortnation

specialized
Adult Contemporary (AC)
Pop Contemporary Hit Radio
(CHR) Classic Rock
Classic Hits
Rhythmic CHR
Urban AC
Hot AC
Urban Contemporary
All Sports

the birth of recorded


music
talking
machine
1870s

wax cylinder
non-duplicable

Thomas
Edison

Thomas Edison
_
1. Letter writing and
all k inds of dictation withou t the aid of a stenographer. 2. Pho
nographic books,, which would speak to blind peop1c without et!
ort on their part. 3. The teaching of elocution. 1. Repro

duction of music. 5. The ''Family Record "-a registry of


say i11gs, reminiscences , etc., by members of a family, in
their own voices,. and of tl1e last \Vords of dying persons. 6.
Iusic boxes aud toys. 7. Clocks thnt sl1011lcl annonnco in
articulnto spooch tho tin1c for going 11on1c, going to mea1s,
etc. 8. 'l1hc preserva tion of languBgcs, by exnct reprodnction
of the n1anner of pro nouncing. 9. Educatio11al purposes ; such
ns preserving tho ex planations made by a teacher, so that the
pupil can refer to them at any moment, and spelling or otl1er
lessone placed n11on the pl1onograph for convenience in
committing to memory. 10. Connection \Vitl1 the telephone,
s.o as to make that i11vention an auxiliary in the transmission
of p<nn1anent and invaluable rec ords, instead of boing the
recipient of n1omcntnry and fleeting
communications.

Gramophone
1880s
flat disk
record
label
mass
production

Emile
Berliner

1906
Victor Talking Machine
Company
V>' et_,,r Talldnad e Co Camoden.J,

Victrola

wire recording

telegraphon
e 1890s

Valdemar
Poulsen

wire
recording
Magnetoph
on
1940s
Germany
John T. (Jack)
Mullin

magnetic
tape
magnetic
tape

Mullin demonstrates the Magnetophon to the San Francisco Institute


of

Radio Engineers,May 16, 1946

wire
recording
Magnetop
hon
1940s
Germany
John T. (Jack)
Mullin Ampex
Model (1948)

magnetic
tape

wire
recording
Magnetop
hon
Multi-track
Recording
Edison's
cylinder
Berliner's

Disk

Les Paul
&
Amp
ex
(194
0s1950
s)

magnetic tape

wire
recording
Magnetop
hon
Multi-track
Recording
The Recording
Studio

magneti c
tape

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
tin-pan alley
Vaudeville
Minstrelsy
Stephen Foster

,\ J,' 'l'. I i t' P,

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records

1920-1945
Okeh, Paramount, Vocalion,
Columbia, Victor
popularization of
phonograph
copyright act of 1909
''compuIsory
VOCAL BLUES
RELIGIOUS
SPIRITUALS
RED HOT DANCE TUNES
SERMONSNOVELTIES

11cense''

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records

1920-1945
Okeh, Paramount, Vocalion,
Columbia, Victor
popularization of
phonograph
copyright act of 1909
blues

VOCAL BLUES
RELIGIOUS
SPIRITUALS
RED HOT DANCE TUNES
SEP.MONSNOVELTIES

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records
hillbilly music
American Society of
Composers,
Authors, and
Publishers (ASCAP,
1914)
The Carter Family (1920s)

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records
hillbilly music
folk music

John Lomax

--

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records
hillbilly music
folk music
John Lomax
Archive of American Folk Song
(1928) Library of Congress

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records
hillbilly music
folk music
John Lomax
Moses Asch
Folkways Records (1948)
Smithsonian Institution (1987)

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records
hillbilly music
folk music
John Lomax
Moses Asch
Lead Belly
Woody Gutlirie

the roots of popular music


and the Rise of
the culture industry

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records
hillbilly music
folk music

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records
hillbilly music
folk music
electric guitar
Hawaiian Steel Guitar -

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records
hillbilly music
folk music
electric guitar
Dobyera Brothers
"Dobro" (1928)

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records
hillbilly
music folk
music electric
guitar
George
Beauchamp
"frying
pan"

(1934)
magnetic
"pickup"

Aug. 10, 1937.

G.D.BEAUCHAM P

2;089,171

ELECTRICAL STRINGED MJ' SICAL INSTRIJMEll'r

Filed June 2, 1934

3 Sheets-Sheet l

the roots of popular


music
sheet music
race records
hillbilly music
folk music
electric guitar
Gibson ES SO (1936)
Charlie Christian -
'

music &
commercialism
Theodor
Adorno

"On Popular
Music"

the culture
industry

( 1941)
standardizatio
n
pre-digested
''hears 11stener ''
IOr
t he
Theodor
Adorno

the culture
industry

"On Popular
Music"
( 1941)
standardizati
on
pseudo-individualization
''a halo of free choice''

Theodor Adorno

the
culture
industry
"On Popular
Music"
( 1941)
standardizati
on
pseudoindividualizati

on passive
consumption
''The less the mass
discriminates, the
greater the possibility
of selling cultural
commodities
indiscritninately"
Theodor Adorno

the
culture
industry
"On Popular
Music"
( 1941)
standardizati
on
pseudoindividualizati

on passive
consumption
social cement
''consume music in
order to be allowed to
weep"

1947
payola
transi
stors

portability

i ssues

i n pop

musi c
payol
a
transi

stors
fm
radio

1960s
hi-6 craze
''free form''

i ssues

i n pop

musi c
KMPX San Francisco
payola

transi s
tors

fnt
radio

SONY MUSIC

i ssu
es

n pop musi c

corporate

concentrati on

d
.<!ii

Labels
lntomatlooal
COMPANY UNKS

1'--"--1
ARl!mt..

H A

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