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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM
Background of the Study
Skin problems are skin flaws which are the result of genetics, viruses and other
causes. These can occur because of age, exposure to environmental elements and a host
of other factors. Skin problems have a serious impact on peoples quality of life, causing
lost productivity at work and school and discrimination due to disfigurement. Skin
changes may also indicate the presence of more serious diseases that need treatment.
Such conditions were ignored or given low priority by health authorities because
mortality rates are generally lower than other conditions. But now there is a big push at
both national and international levels to train health workers to improve diagnosis and
treatment of dermatological conditions. Good skin care practices can help to maintain
firm, smooth, and healthy skin. A cosmetic dermatologist has the advanced training and
expertise necessary to effectively treat skin problem.
There is a need for effective remedies for skin conditions. Though skin problems
are so common, ignoring them is not an option because children in particular, tend to be
affected, adding to the burden among an already vulnerable group. Morbidity is
significant through disfigurement, disability, thus the reduction of quality of life.
Subsequent immobility contributes to social isolation and the relative economic cost to
families treating even trivial skin complaints limits the uptake of therapies. Generally,

families must meet such costs from an overstretched budget, and such expenses in turn
reduce the capacity to purchase such items as essential foods (Hay and others 1994).
Screening the skin for signs of problems is an important strategy, and this basic
knowledge is lacking at the primary health care level. Causes, symptoms and treatments
of skin problems may vary greatly, depending on the disease or condition. Skin bumps,
growth and spots maybe harmless, although skin conditions maybe linked to these marks.
Many people may experience skin problems as they age and women may experience
certain skin conditions during pregnancy. Changes in skin may happen for a variety of
reasons. Freckles or skin growths may be present at birth, or develop with age or they
may develop shortly after birth. Birthmarks may vary in shape, size and color. They may
be raised, on the surface of the skin or under the skin. Most birthmarks may be harmless
and may change, shrink, grow or disappear with age.
Being affected with the disease early may greatly increase the chance of defeating
the disease, so regular checkups may be important. A health care professional may be
helpful in discussing skin problems and monitoring skin health. Health care professionals
may provide further information regarding the causes, treatments and symptoms of skin
problems.
Inmates in the Philippines are a neglected group of society, that even politicians do
not consider them as important constituents because they are not a voting populace. This
condition motivated the researcher to find out the health practices of these inmates
regarding skin problems, hence the conceptualization of this study.

Statement of the Problem


The study aimed to determine the health practices of inmates in BJMP Batac City
regarding skin problems. It specifically aimed to elicit information on the following subproblems:
1. What is the profile of the respondents as to:
1.1 age
1.2 civil status
1.3. highest educational attainment
1.4 monthly family income
1.5 religion
1.6 what are the body parts affected
2. What are the common skin problems experienced by the inmates?
2.1 acne
2.2 athletes Foot
2.3 blackheads
2.4 callus

2.5 dandruff
2.6 eczema
2.7 ringworm
2.8 scabies
2.9 tinea Versicolor
2.10 warts
3. What are the health practices of inmates towards skin problems as to:
3.1. management
Significance of the Study
The study could help in the reduction of the occurrence of skin problems within
the bounds of the detention centers and prevents further suffering of the inmates that
affects their psychological, physical and financial conditions.
It is believed that the following will be benefited:
Respondents. The outcome of the study will serve as guide for the respondents to
know all about skin problems and prevent further complications and , avoid occurrence or
recurrence. Through them, they will serve as agents of change, because health providers
will give them additional information and enough education regarding skin problems.

Researchers. The outcome of the study will enable the researchers to discover
what motivated the respondents to participate in health promoting programs and this will
be the time to start an analysis of the phenomenon.
Nurses. The study will be used as basis for planning of action to minimize the
incidence of skin problems and guide them as they disseminate information and
implement health education, thus improve the health services they need. The outcome of
the study could give implications for advancing nursing research, particularly nursing
theory development and the generation of patient-sensitive nursing intervention.
Caregivers. They will be benefited in such a way that they may know the extent
of practices related to the occurrence of skin problems. A clear understanding of their
situation will make them easier to ultimately provide a balance assistance and guidance,
therefore decreasing the susceptibility to acquire again the skin problems.
Lawmakers. The study will benefit lawmakers to formulate laws, or repeal
existing laws, especially those that concern the welfare of inmates and health workers as
well.
Student Nurses. The study will give them hands-on experience in conducting a
case study, do research, interviews, and gathering of data, analyze the data and finally
writing the summary, conclusions and recommendations. This experience is very
significant in the life of a student nurse for this will serve as a test of her ability to apply
what she learned in all those years earning a bachelors degree. Moreover, this case study

might be of help to future thesis students of nursing as they decide to continue further
research about skin problemsa real self-satisfying significance.
Readers. The results of the study relate directly to the readers everyday
experience and facilitate an understanding of complex real-life situations. They will also
gain knowledge about skin problems.
Scope and Delimitations of the Study
The study was conducted to determine the health practices of inmates regarding
skin problems as to management.
The researcher focused on the health practices regarding

skin problems of

inmates detained at the Bureau sof Jail Management and Penology, Batac City Station.
Skin problems were limited to common ones such as acne, athletes foot,
blackheads, callus, dandruff, eczema, ringworm, scabies, tinea versicolor and warts that
occurred during the inmates imprisonment in prison and these will be determined
through the survey method and interview to the inmates and prison personnel.
The study was conducted in November 2009 to January 2010 in Batac City using
questionnaire-checklist as primary instrument in gathering data.. The respondents were
prisoners who suffered skin problems during their confinement regardless of sociodemographic chracteristics.

The variables in this study were delimited to socio-demographic profile of the


respondents, specifically their age, civil status, highest educational attainment, monthly
family income, religion, body parts affected, as well as the different health practices
regarding skin problems. Data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as
frequencies and percentages.
Definition of Operational Terms:
The following terms have been defined as used in the context of the study.
Health Practices. Refers to the application of management of the respondents
regarding skin problems.
Management- This refers to the measures done by the inmates to treat skin
problems either by themselves or through consultation.
Inmates. Persons detained in prison serving time for an offense.
Personal Hygiene. Refers to the practices of inmates regarding cleanliness of
themselves.
Skin Problem. Is a medical condition involving the integumentary system which
affects the prisoners during their confinement .

Socio-demographic profile. Refers to a set of descriptions and pertinent


information of the inmates regarding their age, civil status, educational attainment,
monthly family income and religion and body part affected.
Age.Refers to the number of years of life of the inmate
Civil Status. Refers to the present status classified as single, married, or
widow.
Educational Attainment. Refers to the highest educational attainment of
inmates.
Monthly Family Income. The National Economic and Development
Authority stated that those families with at least 4 children and a monthly income
of Php8, 000 is considered belonging to the poverty line. Monthly family income
pertains to the accumulated income of the family in one month and classified
according to the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) standard
which are:
-

Php 21,000 or above---------higher rich

Php 16,000 Php20,999---medium rich

Php 11,000 Php15,999------lower rich

Php 6,000 _ Php10,999------upper poor

Php 5,999 _ below------------lower poor