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Design Code BS 8110

ANALYSIS FOR RETAINING WALL


1. DESIGN DATA.
Unit weight of soil

19.0 kN/m3

Angle of internal friction of soil

32.0

Safe bearing capacity of soil

qb

230.0 kN/m2

Surcharge load

Qs

10.0 kN/m2

Co-efficient of friction

0.39

Total height of retaining wall

3.80 m

Depth of base slab below ground level

1.2 m

Width of base slab

3.0 m

Width of heel

2.40 m

Thickness of stem

0.40 m

Thickness of base slab

0.45 m

Grade of concrete

h
fcu

30 N/mm2

Grade of reinforcement

fy

420 N/mm2

Density of concrete

25 kN/m3

Elastic modulus of concrete

Ec

2.60E+04 N/mm2

2. RETAINING WALL ARRANGEMENT


+29.5

W1

2.6

W3

3.80

+26.9

0.40

0.20

2.40

1.2

W2
22.4 kN/m2

T
3.0
A

Earth pressure

3.10
Surcharge
pressure

29.7

kN/m2

100.73
118.5 kN/m2

BASE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION

3. CALCULATION FOR LATERAL FORCES / MOMENTS


Ka
Co-efficient of active earth pressure
=
Lateral pressure due to earth
Lateral pressure due to surcharge

Retaining wall
Prepd. By: Shanti Srinivasan
email:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

=
=

p1

p1

p2

0.31
Kas H

(DBM-3.4.6.2)

kN/m2

22.4
KaQs

3.10

kN/m2

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Design Code BS 8110

Horizontal force due to earth pressure

P1

42.53

kN

Horizontal force due to surcharge

P2

11.78

kN

Total horizontal force

54.31

kN

Moment of earth pressure about toe

P
M1

53.87

kN.m

Moment of surcharge pressure about toe

M2

22.38

kN.m

Total induced moment at base

76.25

kN.m

4. RESTORING FORCES / MOMENT CALCULATION


SL.No

Load due to

Magnitude (kN)

Dist. of CG

Moment about 'T'

W1

33.5

0.40

13.4 kN.m

W2

33.8

1.50

50.6 kN.m

W3

155.0

279.1 kN.m

222.3

1.80
MR

Total

343.1 kN.m

5. CHECK FOR SLIDING


Total horizontal force

Total vertical restoring force

Horizontal frictional resistance

Restoring force

P
WR

54.31

kN

222.29

kN

WR
WHR

86.69

kN

86.69

kN

(Passive resistance of soil above Toe slab is not considered conservatively)


Factor of safety against sliding
= WHR/P
=
1.60
>

1.50

OK

76.2

kN.m

343.1

kN.m

4.50

>

1.80

6. CHECK FOR OVERTURNING


Total induced moment at base

Total restoring moment at base

M
MR

Factor of safety against overturning

OK

7. CHECK FOR BEARING PRESSURE


Distance of the point of application of the
resultant force from "A"

B/2

SUM (V)

1.20

1.50

B/6
The eccentricity

MR-M
m

0.50
=

B/2 - z

0.30

< B/6 No Tension


Gross bearing capacity of soil at fdn. Level
Therefore, the extreme pressure
Maximum soil pressure
Minimum soil pressure

qs(gross)

f1

118.49

kN/m2

OK

f2

29.71

kN/m

OK

axmax

P1H3/15EcI

(Table-26

P2H /8EcI

Reynolds

252.8

kN/m2

(W) {1 + (6e/B)}
B
2

8. CHECK FOR DEFLECTION (STEM)


Deflection due earth pressure
Deflection due surcharge pressure
Retaining wall
Prepd. By: Shanti Srinivasan
email:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

axmax

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Moment of Inertia for 1m wide wall

Retaining wall
Prepd. By: Shanti Srinivasan
email:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

Design Code BS 8110

5.3E+09

mm4

Handbook)

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Design Code BS 8110

P1

42525.8

P2

11780.0

Horizontal force due to earth pressure

Horizontal force due to surcharge


Horizontal deflection due to P1

ax1

1.12

mm

Horizontal deflection due to P2

ax2

0.58

mm

Total Horizontal maximum deflection

axmax

1.70

mm

<

15.20

mm

H/250

9. CALCULATION OF DESIGN FORCES / MOMENTS


9.1 FOR VERTICAL STEM
=

M1

53.9

kN.m

BM due to Surcharge pressure (p2)

M2

22.4

kN.m

Total Maximum moment

Ms

kN.m

Total Maximum shear force

Fs

76.2
P1+P2

54.3

kN

W3 x C / 2

186.0
Qs x C2/2

BM due to Earth pressure (p1)

9.2 FOR HEEL SLAB


Moment due soil over heel slab

Mh1

Moment due to Surcharge pressure

Mh2

=
=

Moment due to selfweight of toe slab

Mh3

28.8
kN.m
(C x h x c)C/2

32.4

153.7
kN.m
Mh1+Mh2+Mh3-Mh4

Mh4

Net moment for Heel slab

Mh

Shear due to soil over heel slab

Fh1

Moment due to upward soil pressure

=
=
=
=

Fh2

Shear due to selfweight

Fh3

Shear due to upward earth pressure

Fh4

Total design SF for Heel slab

Fh

Shear due to surcharge

=
=

10. ABSTRACT DESIGN VALUES (SERVICE)


Thickness (mm)
Component

kN.m

93.5
W3

kN.m

155.0
P2

kN

11.8
kN
(C x E x c)

27.0

=
=

156.5
kN
Fh1+Fh2+Fh3-Fh4

37.3

kN

kN

Max.BM (kNm) Max.SF (kN)

Stem

400

76.2

54.3

Heel slab

450

93.5

37.3

Retaining wall
Prepd. By: Shanti Srinivasan
email:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

kN.m

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Design Code BS 8110

I. RETAININGWALL -BASESLAB - DESIGN FOR MAIN REINFORCEMENT


1. DESIGN DATA.
Ms
Design service moment
=
=
93.5 kN.m
Design ultimate moment
=
M
=
149.6 kN.m
Design ultimate shear force
=
V
=
37.3 kN
Assumed width of slab
=
B
=
1000.0 mm
Thickness of slab
=
D
=
450.0 mm
f
Grade of concrete
=
=
30 N/mm2
cu
fy
Grade of reinforcement
=
=
420 N/mm2
Ec
Elastic modulus of concrete
=
=
2.6E+04 N/mm2
Es
Elastic modulus of reinforcement
=
=
2.0E+05 N/mm2
Clear cover to main reinforcement
=
c
=
70 mm
Design allowable crack width
=
w
=
0.30 mm
2.0 DESIGN
2.1 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE.
Effective depth

k
z
z - Max.
(As)req.
(As)Prov.

Safety index

2.2 CHECK FOR SHEAR


Design shear stress

0.8[Sqrt(fcu.)]
100As / bd
(400/d)
Therefore 400/d
Design concrete shear stress

2.3 CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH


Rebar spacing
Steel ratio

=
=

Diameter
Spacing
1340
1061

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

D-c-(Dia/2)
372
mm
2
M / bd fcu

1.26

0.036
d [ 0.5 +( 0.25 - k/0.9)0.5]
356
mm
353
mm
M / 0.95 fy z
1061
16
150
1340

mm2
mm
mm
mm2
> 1

= V / bv d
= 0.10
N/mm2
= 4.4
N/mm2
< 0.8[sqrt(fcu.)] & 5 N/mm2
= 0.360
%
= 1.08
= 1.08
vc
= 0.49
N/mm2
> Design shear stress.
Hence no shear reinforcement required

OK

=
=
=

150
mm
(As)Prov. / bd
0.0036

Base slab of Retaining wall


by: Shanti Srinivasan
email:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

OK

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Design Code BS 8110

Modular ratio

=
=

e *
X /d
Depth of neutral axis
Lever arm

=
=

X
Z

Concrete compressive stress

fcb

Tensile stress on steel

2.3.1 Check stress levels


Allowable comp. stress in concrete

Allowable tensile stress in steel

Elastic strain at surface

fs

fcb'

fs

'

E1

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
>
=
=
>
=
=

Stiffening effect of concrete


(For bending only)

=
=
=
=
=
=

Em
Acr

Crack width

Es / (Ec/2)
2.0E+05
1.30E+04
15.38
0.055
e*{[(1+ (2 /e* - 1}
0.282
104.9
mm
d - X/3
337.0
mm
2Ms / Z b X
5.3
Ms / Z As

N/mm2

207.0

N/mm2

0.45 fcu
13.5
fcb
0.8 fy

N/mm2

336.0
fs

N/mm2

OK

OK

(h-x) * fs
(d-x) * Es
1.34E-03
bt * (h-x) * (a' - x)
3*Es * As * (d-x)
5.54E-04
E1 - Stiffening effect of concrete
7.828E-04
[(S/2)2+(c+ Dia./2)2]0.5 - Dia /2
100.2
mm
3 * Acr * Em
1+2[(Acr-Cmin.) / (h-x)]

=
<

0.200
mm
Allowable crack width.

Diameter
Spacing

=
=
=
=

585
12
150
754

mm2/m
mm
mm
mm2

754
585

1.29

> 1

OK

2.4 DESIGN FOR DISTRIBUTION REINFORCEMENT


Min. % of steel required
(As)Prov.

Safety index

=
=
=

Astmin

Base slab of Retaining wall


by: Shanti Srinivasan
email:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

OK

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Design Code BS 8110

I. RETAININGWALL -STEM - DESIGN FOR MAIN REINFORCEMENT


1.0 DESIGN DATA.
Ms
Design service moment
=
=
76.2 kN.m
Design ultimate moment
=
M
=
121.9 kN.m
Design ultimate shear force
=
V
=
54.3 kN
Assumed width of slab
=
B
=
1000.0 mm
Thickness of slab
=
D
=
400.0 mm
fcu
Grade of concrete
=
=
30 N/mm2
fy
Grade of reinforcement
=
=
420 N/mm2
Ec
Elastic modulus of concrete
=
=
2.6E+04 N/mm2
Es
Elastic modulus of reinforcement
=
=
2.0E+05 N/mm2
Clear cover to main reinforcement
=
c
=
70 mm
Design allowable crack width
=
w
=
0.30 mm
2.0 DESIGN
2.1-DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Effective depth

k
z
z - Max.
(As)req.
(As)Prov.

Safety index

2.2-CHECK FOR SHEAR


Design shear stress

0.8[Sqrt(fcu.)]
100As / bd
(400/d)
Therefore 400/d
Design concrete shear stress

2.3. CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH


Rebar spacing

Diameter
Spacing
1340
999

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

D-c-(Dia/2)
322
mm
2
M / bd fcu

1.34

0.039
d [ 0.5 +( 0.25 - k/0.9)0.5 ]
307
mm
306
mm
M / 0.95 fy z
999
16
150
1340

mm2
mm
mm
mm2
> 1

= V / bv d
= 0.17
N/mm2
= 4.4
N/mm2
< 0.8[sqrt(fcu.)] & 5 N/mm2
= 0.416
%
= 1.24
= 1.24
vc
= 0.53
N/mm2
> Design shear stress.
Hence no shear reinforcement required

OK

150

Stem of Retaining wall


by: Shanti Srinivasan
email:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

mm

OK

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Design Code BS 8110

Steel ratio

Modular ratio

=
=
=

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

e *
X /d
Depth of neutral axis
Lever arm

=
=

X
Z

Concrete compressive stress

fcb

Tensile stress on steel

2.3.1 Check stress levels:Allowable comp. stress in concrete

Allowable tensile stress in steel

Elastic strain at surface

fs

fcb'

fs

=
=
>
=
=
>

'

E1

=
=

Stiffening effect of concrete


(For bending only)

=
=
=
=
=
=

Em
Acr

Crack width

=
=
<

(As)Prov. / bd
0.0042
Es / (Ec/2)
2.0E+05
1.30E+04
15.38
0.064
e*{[(1+ (2 /e* - 1}
0.300
96.4
mm
d - X/3
289.9
mm
2Ms / Z b X
5.5
Ms / Z As

N/mm2

196.1

N/mm2

0.45 fcu
13.5
fcb
0.8 fy

N/mm2

336.0
fs

N/mm2

OK

OK

(h-x) * fs
(d-x) * Es
1.32E-03
bt * (h-x) * (a' - x)
3*Es * As * (d-x)
5.08E-04
E1 - Stiffening effect of concrete
8.118E-04
[(S/2)2+(c+ Dia./2)2]0.5 - Dia /2
100.2
mm
3 * Acr * Em
1+2[(Acr-Cmin.) / (h-x)]

0.204
mm
Allowable crack width.

2.4. DESIGN FOR DISTRIBUTION REINFORCEMENT


Min. % of steel required
(As)Prov.

=
=
=

Astmin
Diameter
Spacing

=
=
=

520
12
150

Stem of Retaining wall


by: Shanti Srinivasan
email:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

mm2/m
mm
mm

OK

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Safety index

Design Code BS 8110

754
520

754

1.45

Stem of Retaining wall


by: Shanti Srinivasan
email:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

mm2
> 1

OK

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Design Code BS8110


33400mm

A
C
A
New Retaining wall
(Existing bund wall to be
demolished)

Access stair over the existing bund


PLAN
Existing Bund
(To be retained)
D
SECTION A-A
0.40

+29.5

3.80
+26.9
1.2

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS

16

150

12

12

150
(Both faces)
150
Earth side

12

150
(Top & Bottom)

By: Shanti Srinivasan


emailto:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

http://www.civildesignhelp.info

Design Code BS8110


16

@ 150
(Top & Bottom)

By: Shanti Srinivasan


emailto:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com