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ME 132
Dynamic Systems and Feedback

Lecture 3

Feedback Interconnections
Closed-Loop VS Open-Loop Control

Static and Linear Analysis

Summary
The structure of control systems
Basic control system (open-loop vs closed-loop)
Basic block-diagram algebra static and linear
systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example: Cruise Control for a Car
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Advantages and disadvantages of feedback

The Structure of Control Systems

Basic Control Systems


Open-Loop System

Closed-Loop System

Open-loop system static blocks

controller

Open-loop system linear static blocks

controller

plant

y = Gm

r - reference input
d - disturbance input
y - output
e = r y - error

plant

y = G(u + d)

m=u+d
y = G(u + d)

y = G(Kr + d)

u = Kr

Open-loop system linear static blocks

Closed-loop system static blocks

controller
controller

plant

y = G(Kr + d)

e = (1

GK)r

Gd

e=r

Inputs
r - reference input
d - disturbance input
Outputs
y - plant output
u - controller output
e = r y - error

plant

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Closed-loop system linear static blocks

controller
Plant:

Closed-loop system static blocks

plant

controller

y = G(u + d)

y = G(u + d)

y=

Controller:

u = Ke
e=r y

u = K(r

plant

u = K(r

y)

GKy + GKr + Gd
y=

y)

GK
G
r+
d
1 + GK
1 + GK

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Closed-loop system static blocks

Closed-loop VS Open-loop
We want to make

controller

plant

e=

GK
G
y=
r+
d
1 + GK
1 + GK
e=

1
r
1 + GK

G
d
1 + GK

e=r

1
r
1 + GK

G
d
1 + GK

Making K large,
results in
e being small

e=r

small

e = (1

GK)r

Difficult to select K
K

Gd
Gr

Gd

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Feedback systems algebra

controller

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Feedback systems algebra

plant

Open-loop transfer function


Closed-loop transfer functions
Inputs
r - reference input
d - disturbance input
Outputs
y - plant output
u - controller output
e = r y - error

y=

GK
G
r+
d
1 + GK
1 + GK
| {z }
Gc(r!y)

e=

1
r
1| +{zGK}
Gc(r!e)

{z

Gc(d!y)

G
d
1 + GK

Ge!f = Go = GK

| {z }
Gc(d!e)

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Negative feedback systems algebra

Closed-loop transfer function


Gforward path
Gclosed loop =
1 + Gopen loop

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Negative feedback systems algebra

Closed-loop transfer function


Gforward path
Gclosed loop =
1 + Gopen loop

Gc(r!y) =

Gf p(r!y)
GK
=
1 + GK
1 + Go

Gc(r!e) =

Gf p(r!e)
1 + Go

1
1 + GK

Gc(d!y) =

G
Gf p(d!y)
=
1 + GK
1 + Go

Gc(d!e) =

Gf p(d!e)
1 + Go

G
1 + GK

Example: Cruise Control for a Car

Cruise Open-Loop Control

We want to regulate the linear speed of a car, y, to a


desired value r

Open-loop control:

u = Kol r

Static car model:

disturbance
input

Assume nominal system: G = Go , H = H o , d = 0


speed

Nominal car parameters

control
input

y = Go Kol r

Cruise Closed-Loop Control

Cruise Closed-Loop Control


Objective:

Closed-loop control:

yr

Closed-loop response :

y=
Closed-loop response:

GK
H
y=
r+
d
1 + GKfb
1 + GKfb
| {z }
| {z }
Gc(r!y)

Gc(d!y)

GK
H
r+
d
1 + GKfb
1 + GKfb

{z

Assume nominal system: G = Go , H = H o , d = 0

Cruise Closed-Loop Control


Objective:

Closed-Loop VS Open-Loop - Disturbance Rejection

yr

Closed-loop response :

y=

GK
H
r+
d
1 + GKfb
1 + GKfb

{z

0.01

Kfb &

Assume nominal system: G = Go , H = H o , d = 0


Ho
= 0.01
1 + Go Kfb

Kfb

Ho
&
0.01Go

yol = r

H od

0.01d

Closed-loop system exhibits superior


external disturbance rejection

H o = 5 >> 0.01

Open-Loop Sensitivity to Plant Variations

ycl = r

Ho
0.01Go

Open-Loop Sensitivity to Plant Variations

G
r
Go
yo = r

y=

Assume no disturbances (d = 0).


Question:
what is the variation of the output y around the nominal
output yo when there is a variation of the plant G around
the nominal plant Go?

S=

Go
yo

S=1

@y
@G

=
G = Go
y = yo

Go
yo

G
Go r

@G

G = Go
y = yo

1 percent deviation of the plant G from its


nominal value Go will approximately result in
a 1 percent deviation in the output y

Closed-Loop Sensitivity to Plant Variations

y=

GK
r
1 + GKfb

yo =

S=

G
yo

@y
@G

=
G = Go
y = yo

Go @
yo

Closed-Loop Sensitivity to Plant Variations

Go K
r
1 + Go Kfb

GKff
1+GKfb r

@G

yo =

Scl =
G = Go
y = yo

GK
r
1 + GKfb

y=

1
1 + Go Kfb

0.002

Go K
r
1 + Go Kfb

<< Sol

remember that we chose

Ho
= 0.01
1 + Go Kfb

Closed-Loop VS Open-Loop - Sensitivity

and Ho = 5

Closed-Loop Sensitivity to Noise

H
G

Sol = 1

Scl =

1
0.002
1 + Go Kfb

Closed-loop system is much less


sensitive to plant variations

noise

{z

Gc(n!y)

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Closed-Loop Sensitivity to Noise

Gc(n!y)

GKfb
=
1 + GKfb

Ideally we require
Gc(n!y) << 1

But this is in conflict with high-gain feedback,

|Go Kfb | >> 1

which is necessary for disturbance rejection and robustness


to plan variations. More on this later

Summary
The structure of control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Advantages of feedback :
Closed-loop systems exhibit superior external
disturbance rejection
Closed loop systems are significantly less
sensitive to plan parameter variations
Disadvantages of high-gain feedback
High sensitivity to measurement noise
May destabilize feedback system (dynamic
models)