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OUTLINE IN EXPLAINING A PROCESS

I. Introduction
a. Definition
i. Term: Rubber
ii. Genus: A natural or synthetic substance
iii. Differentia: Characterized by elasticity, water repellence and electrical
resistance
b. Summary
There are four major processes in making a rubber: compounding the raw
rubber with variety of ingredients, thoroughly mixing it, shaping it by extrusion,
calendering, or coating and vulcanizing under high temperature and pressure.
II. Explanation
a. Compounding the rubber with a variety of ingredients is done by adding several
chemical additives.
b. Mixing typically is performed in an internal batch mixer. The internal mixer
contains two rotor blades that cuts the rubber mix. Internal mixing is performed at
elevated temperatures.
c. Shaping processes for rubbers can be divided into four basic categories: extrusion,
calendering and coating.
d. Vulcanizing or cross-linking the rubber under high temperature is the final
process.
III. Conclusion
The time when the cultivation of rubber became very active was the years just
after World War II. In British possessions in India large acres of lands were under
cultivation. Another million acres of rubber plantations in Indonesia completed 9 million
acres of the world acreages that existed before the destruction of many of the plantations
in the Far East during World War II.

COMPOSITION IN EXPLAINING A PROCESS

How Rubber is Manufactured

Rubber is a natural or synthetic substances characterized by elasticity, water repellence


and electrical resistance. There are four major processes in making a rubber: compounding the
raw rubber with variety of ingredients, thoroughly mixing it, shaping it by extrusion,
calendering, or coating, and vulcanizing under high temperature and pressure.
Compounding the rubber with a variety of ingredients is done by adding several chemical
additives. Some additives consist of accelerators (to speed up the vulcanization process) retarders
(to prevent premature vulcanization), antioxidants (to prevents aging), softeners (to facilitate
processing of the rubber), carbon black (to serve as reinforcing / strengthening agents), and
inorganic or organic sulfur compounds (to serve as vulcanizing agents).
Mixing typically is performed in an internal batch mixer. The internal mixer contains two
rotor blades that cut the rubber mix. Internal mixing is performed at elevated temperatures.
Shaping processes for rubbers can be divided into four basic categories: extrusion,
calendering and coating. Extrusion presses force the rubber compound through dies to form flat,
tubular, or specially shaped strips. In calendering, the rubber is passed through a series of
decreasing gaps of rollers. The rollers are spinning in opposite direction. Coating or
impregnating fabrics with rubber is also done by rollers. The rubber and fabric is made in contact
upon passing through a roller.
Vulcanizing or cross-linking the rubber under high temperature is the final process.
Rubber molecules are linked, its effect is to reduce the ability of the rubber to flow. As the
number of cross-links increases, the rubber becomes harder. When vulcanized, the rubber retains
its extensibility.
The time when the cultivation of rubber became very active was the years just after
World War II. In British possessions in India large acres of lands were under cultivation. Another
million acres of rubber plantations in Indonesia completed 9 million acres of the world acreages
that existed before the destruction of many of the plantations in the Far East during World War II.

Visuals in Explaining a Process

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Figure 1. Rubber Manufacturing Process