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Organized Retailing

NVEQF Level 3 Class XI

Students Workbook

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PSS Central Institute of Vocational Education, NCERT, Bhopal

PSS Central Institute of Vocational Education, 2012

Copyright protects this publication. Except for purposes permitted by the
Copyright Act, reproduction, adaptation, electronic storage and communication to
the public are prohibited without prior written permission.

The National Curriculum Framework, 2005, recommends that children's life at school
must be linked to their life outside the school. This principle makes a departure from
the legacy of bookish learning which continues to shape our system and causes a gap
between the school, home, community and the workplace.
The student workbook on "Business Communications" is a part of the
qualification package developed for the implementation of National Vocational
Education Qualification Framework (NVEQF), an initiative of Ministry of Human
Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India to set common principles and
guidelines for a nationally recognized qualification system covering Schools,
Vocational Education and Training Institutions, Technical Education Institutions,
Colleges and Universities. It is envisaged that the NVEQF will promote transparency of
qualifications, cross-sectoral learning, student-centred learning and facilitate
learner's mobility between different qualifications, thus encouraging lifelong learning.
This student workbook, which forms a part of vocational qualification package
for student's who have passed Class X or equivalent examination, was created by a
group of experts. The Retailer's Association of Skill Council of India (RASCI), approved
by the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) organized Retailing Industry
developed the National Occupation Standards (NOS). The National Occupation
Standards are a set of competency standards and guidelines endorsed by the
representatives of organized retailing Industry for recognizing an assessing skills and
knowledge needs to perform effectively in the workplace.
The Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education
(PSSCIVE), a constituent of National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT) in association with SKSDC has developed modular curricula and learning
materials (Units) for the vocational qualification package in organized retailing sector
for NVEQ levels 1 to 4; Level 3 is equivalent to Class XI. Based on NOS, occupation
related core competencies (knowledge, skills and abilities) were identified for
development of curricula and learning modules (Units).
This student workbook attempts to discourage rote learning and to necessary
flexibility in offering of courses, necessary for breaking sharp boundaries between
different subject areas. The workbook attempt to enhance these endeavour by giving
higher priority and space to opportunities contemplation and wondering, discussion in
small groups and activities requiring hands on experience. Hope these measures will
take us significantly further in the direction of a child centred system of education
outlined in the National Policy of Education (1986).
The success of this effort depends on the steps that school Principals and
Teachers will take to encourage children to reflect their own learning and to pursue
imaginative and on the job activities and questions. Participation of learner in skill
development exercises and inculcation of values and creativity is possible if involve
children as participant in learning, and not as receiver of information. These aims
imply considerable change in school routines and mode of functioning. Flexibility in
the daily time table would be a necessity to maintain the rigour in implementing the
activities and required number of teaching days will have to be increased for teaching
and training.

List of Contributors
1. Prof. R.B. Shivagunde, Joint Director, PSSCIVE, NCERT, Bhopal.
2. Prof. R.K. Shukla, Head, Department of Business & Commerce, PSSCIVE, NCERT,
3. Dr. V.S. Mehrotra, Associate Professor & In-charge Curriculum Development and
Evaluation Center (CDEC), PSSCIVE, NCERT, Bhopal.
Material Production Group
A. Working Group Meeting for Development of Instructional Material in the area of
Retail Marketing Management for NVEQF Level 1 held from 28th May to 15th
June, 2012 at Central Institute of Educational Technology, NCERT Campus, New
1. Dr. K. Sambashiva Rao, Professor, Department of Commerce & Management
Studies, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam 530 003 (A.P.).
2. Dr. R. Saibaba, Professor in Commerce and Business Management, Lal Bahadur
P.G. College, Warangal 506 007(A.P.).
3. Dr. T. Srinivasa Rao, Professor, MBA Section, School of Distance Learning and
Continuing Education, Kakatiya University, Vidyaranyapuri, Warangal 506 009
4. Prof. S. N. Borhade, Department of Commerce and Management, Bharathi
Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Yashwantrao Mohite College, Pune 411 038.
5. Mr. Sunil S. Desai, Vocational Teacher, Jagruti Jr. College, Gadhingiaj, Dist:
Kolhapur (Maharashtra).
6. Mr.Rajeev Khare, Course Coordinator (Organized Retail), Bharathi Airtel
Office, Malvya Nagar, Bhopal 462 001 (M.P.).
7. Dr. Dalbir Singh, Assistant Professor, Haryana School of Business, Guru
Jambeshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125 001 (Haryana).
8. Dr. Shipra Vaidya, Associate Professor, Department of Secondary Education,
CIET, NCERT, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016.
9. Dr. Biswajith Shaw, CBSE, New Delhi.
10. Mrs. Deepa Singh, Consultant, NSDC, New Delhi.
11. Dr. V. S Mehrotra, Associate Professor and Resource Person, Department of
Agriculture & Animal Husbandry, PSSCIVE, Bhopal.
12. Dr. P. Veeraiah, Assistant Professor and Programme Coordinator, Department
of Business and Commerce, PSSCIVE, Bhopal
13. Dr. Amarender P. Behera, Associate Professor and Honorary Director, CIET,
NCERT, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016


Working Group Meeting (WGM) for Development of Instructional Material in the

area of Retail Marketing Management for NVEQF Level 1 (PhaseII) was held at
Department of Commerce, SNDT, Women's University, Mumbai from 9 to 13
July, 2012.
1. Dr. Dalbir Singh Assistant Professor, Haryana School of Business, GJU,
Hisar (Haryana).
2. Prof. T. Srinivasa Rao, Professor of Commerce & Business Management,
SDLCE, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009 (A.P.).
3. Mr. Sunil S. Desai, Lecturer (Vocational), Jagruti Jr. College, Godhinglaj,
Distt. Kolhapur (Maharashtra).
4. Mr. Ashok M. S., Lecturer Trainer, Open Minds Institute, Bengaluru
5. Dr. Dinakar, G., Prof. & Head, Rajarajeshwari College of Engineering,
Kumbalagodu, Mysore Road, Bangaluru 560 074.
6. Mrs. Yadav, K.P., Lecturer (Vocational), Camp Education Society Junior
College Camp, Pune 411 001 (Maharashtra)
7. Prof. K.S. Rao Professor & Head, Department of Commerce and
Management Studies, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, (A.P.).
8. Mr. Pradip D. Powar, Lecturer (Vocational), Janata Vidyalaya & Junior
College, Satpur, Nasik (Maharashtra).
9. Dr. S. N. Borhade, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Bharati
Vidyapeeth University, Yashwanthrao Mohite College, Pune 411 038.
10. Mrs. K.S. Fulmali, Associate Professor, M.L. Dhanukar College, Vile Parle,
Mumbai 400 029.
11. Mr. M.S. Dhanawade, Associate Professor, Singhad Institute of
Management, Pune (Maharashtra).
12. Dr. Kinnary V. Thakkar, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce,
University of Mumbai, Mumbai.
13. Mr. Sugam Chaubal, Consultant with Retail Organizations, Mumbai.
14. Mr. Ravindra M. Chiplunkar, Principal, Consultant with Retail
Organizations, Mumbai.
15. Dr. G.Y. Shitole, Honorary Director, Professor & Head, Department of
Commerce, SNDT Women's University, New Marine Line, Mumbai.
16. Dr. P. Veeraiah Assistant Professor & Programme Coordinator, PSSCIVE,
NCERT, Bhopal 462 013.
17. Mr. Ashok Kumar, Assistant Librarian, PSSCIVE, NCERT, Bhopal 462 013.
18. Mr. Durgesh K. Satankar, Computer Operator Gr. II, PSSCIVE, NCERT,
Bhopal 462 013.

Editing and Coordination

1. Dr. P. Veeraiah, Assistant Professor & Programme Coordinator, Department of
Business and Commerce, PSSCIVE, NCERT, Bhopal 462 013.
2. Dr. V.S. Mehrotra, In-charge, Curriculum Development and Evaluation Centre
(CDEC), PSSCIVE, NCERT, Bhopal 462 013.
3. Dr. Nidhi Gupta, Assistant Professor (Contractual), Department of Business and
Commerce, PSSCIVE, NCERT, Bhopal 462 013.

About Workbook
This workbook is to assist you with completing the Unit of Competency RS308NQ2012: Business Communication. You should work through the workbook in the
classroom, at the workplace or in your own time under the guidance and supervision
of your teacher or trainer. This workbook contains sessions which will help you to
acquire relevant knowledge and skills (soft and hard) on various aspects of the unit of
competency. Each session is small enough to be easily tackled and digested by you
before you move on to the next session. Animated pictures and photographs have
been included to bring about visual appeal and to make the text lively and interactive
for you. You can also try to create your own illustrations using your imagination or
taking the help of your teacher. Let us now see what the sections in the sessions have
for you.
Section1: Introduction
This section introduces you to the topic of the Unit. It also tells you what you will
learn through the various sessions covered in the Unit.
Section 2: Relevant Knowledge
This section provides you with the relevant information on the topic(s) covered in the
session. The knowledge developed through this section will enable you to perform
certain activities. You should read through the information to develop an
understanding on the various aspects of the topic before you complete the
Section 3: Exercise
Each session has exercises, which you should complete on time. You will perform the
activities in the classroom, at home or at the workplace. The activities included in
this section will help you to develop necessary knowledge, skills and attitude that you
need for becoming competent in performing the tasks at workplace. The activities
should be done under the supervision of your teacher or trainer who will guide you in
completing the tasks and also provide feedback to you for improving your
performance. To achieve this, prepare a timetable in consultation with your teacher
or trainer and strictly adhere to the stipulated norms or standards. Do not hesitate to
ask your teacher or trainer to explain anything that you do not understand.
Section 4: Assessment
The review questions included in this section will help you to check your progress. You
must be able to answer all the questions before you proceed to the next session.

Communication is an integral part of the
Communication is used to inform the
Communication is certainly essential in
communities, homes or anywhere where
people deal with one another.

Communication in retail organizations is very much needed. Retail jobs exist in many
functional areas, including information systems, human resources, finance and
accounting. However, when retail job skills are discussed, the conversation typically
centers on skills specific to in-store retail sales and service associate positions. These
are the employees who interact at the store level directly with customers. Retail job
skills include a combination of soft skills and technical talents.
Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact
information or idea that the sender intended to transmit. Communicating in an
effective manner, irrespective of the mode of communication used is an important
and very useful skill. The process of conveying a message is complete only when the
person receiving it has understood the message in its entirety. Better communication
helps better job performance. Effective and timely communication promotes better
relations and work culture among the employees.
Business Communication is any communication used to promote a product, service, or
organization with the objective of making sale. In business communication, message
is conveyed through various channels of communication including internet, print
(publications), radio, television, outdoor, and word of mouth. In business,
communication is considered core among business, interpersonal skills and etiquette.
Learning communication is important and it is essential in the retail business process.
In the retail business you have to communicate with in your firm with your team
members, fellow workers, higher authorities and subordinates. You also communicate
with your external participants like customers, suppliers, competitors and service
providers outside of your retail firm.
In this unit, you will be learn the basics of communication, forms of communication,
communication equipments, elements of business communication and preparation of
project report, which are relevant in the workplace of retail workers, employees and





Session 1: Elements of Communication

Relevant Knowledge

Punctual Communication
Every interaction starts with some form of greeting. The way we greet, the tone and
the language, changes according to our familiarity with the person being greeted.
Following are some sentences we generally use whenever we greet someone:
1. Hello!
2. Good morning/afternoon/evening
3. Hello! How are you doing?
4. Hello! How are you doing now?
5. Hows life?
6. Alls well?
7. Whats up?
Introducing Oneself
Read the following phrases loudly:
1. I would like to introduce myself. I am
2. Hello\Hi!, I am...
3. Hello\Hi! My name is
4. I live at
5. I am from
6. I am working as a
7. I studied at
8. I am/came here to
9. My hobbies are
10. I like

Framing of Questions and sentences

While framing questions, the sentences should begin with the question words.
Which student was absent yesterday?
Is he present today?
Did he bring his leave report today?


Study the list of Question Words given below:

1. What are you doing tonight?
2. What are we having for dinner?
1. When is the match starting?
2. When are we leaving?
1. Where is my diary?
2. Where will the World Cup be held this year?
1. Which one is your book?
2. Which color should we buy?
1. Who is that girl?
2. Who stole the cell-phone?
1. With whom did you go to see the movie?
2. Whom did you meet at the party?
1. Whose towel is this?
2. Whose dog is barking this late at night?
1. Why didnt you do your homework?
2. Why are we visiting her?
1. How are we going to tell him about the situation?
2. How is the book that you are reading?
1. Are you Akankshas sister?
2. Are you going to see him again?
1. Is she doing her homework?
2. Is Manisha ill?
1. Am I really going to take that chance?
2. Am I happy?
1. Have you seen the new movie?
2. Have I done the right thing?
1. Has she completed her shift?
2. Has it started boiling?


Will/ Would



1. Do we need to confirm the time and place?

2. Do you have to go to the bank today?
1. Does he ever knock before entering a room?
2. Does the cat often steal from your kitchen?
1. Can I go to the mall?
2. Could you give me that magazine?
3. Can you play chess?
1. Will you be there on my wedding?
2. Will my book be published?
3. Would you sing if they ask you to?
1. Shall we go now?
2. Shall I do the job for you?
3. Should you leave early to reach on time?
1. May I come in?
2. May I go out for a moment?

Questions usually start with words like what, when, how, where, why, is, can, do,
did, will, would, could, etc. And that they are always placed at the beginning of the
Read the following sentences:
1. When do we have to meet Mr. DSouza?
2. What time is the appointment?
3. When is he going to come?
Framing Complete Sentences
A complete sentence is one that has a subject and a verb. For example, the sentence
I a good dancer is not a complete sentence as it does not have a verb. Now, if we
added the verb am to this sentence, it would be complete:
I am a good dancer.
Similarly, the sentence Am a good dancer is not complete as a subject is missing.
Therefore, we should add a subject to complete the fragment. For example:
I am a good dancer.
We have an English class today.
I go to office every weekday.
She likes oranges.

Every sentence must have a subject, a verb and although it is not necessary, an
object. And the sentence must make complete sense. For example,
1. I eat: Subject + Verb
2. I eat vegetables: Subject + Verb + Object
In order for a sentence to be meaningful, a sentence must have its parts in the above
orders. For example:
1. I eat vegetables is a sentence
2. I vegetables eat is not a sentence
3. I like dancing.
4. I am here.
5. You go to school.
6. She has a nice smile.
Dealing with Customers while they are shopping or goods
Whenever a customer shops for items, there is a conversation exchange. Some
standard sentences used at the time of shopping will be discussed in this session.
Read aloud following sentences:
1. I am searching for kissan Jam; do you have any idea where it is placed?
2. Can you weigh me a kilo of potatoes?
3. I want a packet of harvest Gold Brown bread.
4. I want a dozen of bananas. Are these fresh?
Asking the price
The customer in a retail environment use to enquire about product price from the
sales person at the counter on the floor.
1. Excuse me how much does this jeans cost?
2. Is there any offer available with this bad sheet?
3. Do you offer discount on products?
4. Is this shirt available on discount?
5. How much discount you can offer?
Read aloud following Some examples of phrases are used while negotiating on different occasions.

1. This is too costly

2. Can you give me a discount
3. That is not possible
4. Look at the quality of the paper. It is the best quality
5. I know but
6. I am buying a large number of cards
7. Okay, let me see
8. That is the maximum discount I can give you
9. Is that your last price
10. Ok, let us settle for
Communication is the process of transforming
information, thoughts, opinion, messages,
facts, ideas and understanding from one
person, place to another person, place.
The communication, which gives life to an
organizational structure and so, it can be
linked with life blood of an organization.
Effective communication is 20 per cent what
you know and 80 per cent how you feel about
what you know. It is a thread that holds the
various interdependent parts of the organization together.
Communication is one of the basic functions of management in any organization and
its importance can hardly be overemphasized. Good and effective communication is
required not only for good human relation but also a good and successful business.
Indeed it establishes and disseminates the goals of an enterprise. It helps in arriving
at vital decisions, planning and co-ordination.
Communication Cycle
Communication is understood and acted upon at different degrees of effectiveness. A
communication is effective when the experience of both the communicator and
receiver is satisfying and the goal of the interaction is achieved and vice-versa.
Therefore, communication should be simple, clear, accurate and precise. To
understand the communication process better we need to familiarize ourselves with
the communication cycle (Fig.1). Let us now try to understand what we mean by
communication cycle.

The communication cycle in essence

is the process of communication. The
sender encodes the message
into words and sent the coded
message as he/she speaks or writes
the message out. Messages are
conveyed through channels including
letters, emails, meetings, memos,
records and reports. It is then
decoded by the receiver by
hearing or reading the message in
order to understand what the sender
wants to convey.
Communication has three important
parts transmitting, listening and
feedback. The sender is transmitting
the message through one medium or
another. The receiver listens to the
message and then conveys his
understanding of the message to the
sender in the form of feedback to
complete the communication cycle.

Fig.2.1: Communication cycle

Principles of Communication
There are 7 Cs of effective communication which are applicable to both written as
well as oral communication.
1. Completeness: The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts
required by the receiver. A complete communication has the following features:
No crucial information is missing from the message.
It gives additional information wherever required.
It leaves no questions in the mind of the receiver.
It persuades the receiver.
2. Conciseness: Conciseness or shortness means that minimum words without
forgoing the other Cs of communication should be used to communicate. For
instance saying, Sir, I want to bring to your notice that two men entered the

premises at 3 pm. is too long. The

same information can be briefly said
as, Two men entered the premises
at 3 pm. Concise communication has
the following features:
It is time-saving as well as costsaving.
It underlines the main message
It is more appealing to the
3. Consideration: Consideration implies
that the audience view points,
background, mind-set, education level, their specific requirements, emotions, etc.
should be considered while communicating with them. You need to modify your
words in the message to suit the audiences needs.
4. Clarity: Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather
than trying to achieve too much at once. Clarity ensures that communication is
simple and intelligible. Enunciating syllables clearly, accurate word stress and
speaking slowly improves clarity. Clarity in communication has the following
It makes understanding easier.
Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message.
Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words.
5. Concreteness: Concrete communication implies being particular than general. For
example, saying Two men entered the premises at 3 pm. is more appropriate
than saying Two people entered the premises at 3 pm or Two men entered the
premises around 3 pm. Concrete message has the following features:
It is supported with specific facts and figures.
It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation.
6. Courtesy: Courtesy in message implies that the message should show the senders
expression as well as respect the receiver. Courteous message has the following
It uses terms and feelings of the receiver of the message.
It is positive and focused on the audience.
It is not biased.

7. Correctness: Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical

errors in the communication. Correct communication has the following features:
The message is exact, correct and well-timed.
It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.

Exercise: Assignment
Read aloud the following sentences:
1. My name is __________ (include your name). And you are?
2. I am a Sales Manager. I work at ABC Store.
3. It is a pleasure to meet you.
4. She is a Store Manager. She works at XYZ mall.
Frame a question for the following situations:
1. You want to ask a person his/her name.
2. You want to ask a person where he/she lives.
3. You want to ask what he/she is doing presently.
4. You want to ask why he/she is here.
5. You want to ask how he/she goes to office.
6. You want to ask when he/she is going back.
Case Based Problem on Communication Cycle in Retailing
Mr. Ramesh (Customer), entering into XYZ Retail Store, Good morning, Mr, Somesh
(Salesman) replied Good morning Sir! Can I help you? I want to buy a branded
product is it available. The salesman, politely replies, Sir which product you
required, Customer told I required Peter England Shirt. The salesman locates the shirt
and sends to the billing counter. Mr. Somesh informed to the customer you kindly
pay the amount in the counter and take the product sir.
Based on the above case, answer the following questions:
1. How does the person communicate at retail outlet (clue: verbal or non-verbal)
with the gentleman?


2. Draw the communication cycle which will represent the above case.

Activity: Role Play

Objective: This activity will be facilitated by your teacher or trainer. At the end of
this activity, you will be able to greet friends, neighbours and strangers confidently.
The following 3 situations may be used for a role play:
Situation 1: You have met a friend after a long time. The last time you saw him was
in school. How would you greet each other?
Situation 2: You meet your local grocer while you are taking
your morning walk. You ask him if his shop will be open today.
Situation 3: You see a person come down the stairs of your
building. You have not seen him before, but you guess that the
person may be your new neighbour. You want to greet him and
introduce yourself.

A. Fill in the blanks
1. One of the best ways to greet a stranger is a ________________. (How are you)
2. If it is morning, you can say _________________ as a form of greeting. (good
3. One of the favorite ways of greeting people is ________________. (Whats up?)
4. No form of greeting is as popular as _________________. (Hello!)


5. Could you tell me the _________________ of the blue dinner set over there?
6. How much does an oven _________________? (cost)
7. What is the ________________ of a liter of mustard oil? (price)
8. How ________________ do I have to pay for a kilo of onions? (much)
9. How much _________________ are you offering for the brand new plasmascreen TV at the back? (discount)
B. Tick the correct question from the given statement
1. It is the name of a person.
a) Is it the name of a person?
b) The name of a person is it?
2. The person is male.
a) Is the person male?
b) The person is male?
C. Tick the correct statement
1. (a)

It rained yesterday.
It raining yesterday.
Yesterday it raining.

2. (a)

It was very cold.

It very cold.
It cold.

3. (a)

It is not cold today.

It not cold today.
It cold not today.

D. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Communication should be(a)


All the above

2. One of the principles of effective communication is(a)

3. Two men entered the premises at 3 pm is a statement that indicates
__________ of the communication.
4. Completeness of the message implies that(a)
No crucial information is missing from the message
It gives additional information wherever required
It leaves no questions in the mind of the receiver
All of the above
5. The following is not related to clearing principal of communication(a)
It makes understanding easier
It is a positive and to cussed on abundance
Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas
Cot ear message
E. Short Answer Questions
1. What is communication?
2. What are the important parts of communication?
3. Explain the elements in communication cycle?
4. How to get feedback?
5. State the principles of communication?


Checklist for Assessment Activity

Use the following checklist to see if you have met all the requirements for assessment
Part A
Difference between personal and impersonal greetings.
How questions can be framed?
What is complete sentence?
Describe how you will deal with customer queries.
Differentiated between Sender, Message, Medium, Receiver and Feedback.
Described the various principles of effective communication.
Part B
Discussed in class the following:
Discuss personal and impersonal greetings.
What are the ways to frame questions?
What are question words?
What are the standard sentences customer use when have query while
How communication cycle is important in effective communication?
How to apply various principles for making communication effective?
What is the difference between clarity and concreteness?
Part C
Performance Standards
The performance standard may include, but not limited to:
Performance standards



Able to introduce his/herself.

Able to greet others.
Able to frame questions according to situation.


Able to identify elements of complete sentences.

Able to identify complete sentences.
Able to deal with customers.
Able to draw a diagram of communication cycle.
Able to differentiate




Able to differentiate between the various principles of



Session 2: Forms of Communication and

Communication Equipments

Relevant Knowledge
Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
The medium of communication determines the type of communication. Based on the
medium used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadly
classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication.
Verbal communication includes written and oral communication, whereas non-verbal
communication includes body language, facial expressions and pictures. Thus, the
various types of communication are verbal communication (oral and written), nonverbal communication (including body language. pictorial communication, symbolic
communication). Each of these is elaborated below:

Verbal Communication: Verbal communication uses words as the medium of

communication. An effective verbal communication is a two-way process
speaking and listening must occur. Usually verbal communication is in the oneto-one mode or one-to-one interaction.


Non-verbal communication: Communication that uses physical parts of the

body is known as non-verbal communication. It includes facial expressions,
tone of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body movements.


Written Communication: Written communication skill is the ability of an

individual to communicate in writing. It is done in a one-to-one mode or in a
one-to-many mode. Important skills in effective written communication are:
Write clearly and legibly, giving all the essential information needed
Use approved styles and formats for written communication
Prepare and maintain various type of documents.

Thus, effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct
order in sentences and preparing a comprehensive composition of sentences.


Braille is another form of writing system which enables

blind and partially sighted people to read and write
through touch. It was invented by Louis Braille, who was
blind and became a teacher of the blind. It consists of
patterns of raised dots arranged in cells of up to six dots
in a 3 x 2 configuration. Each cell represents a letter,
numeral or punctuation mark. Some frequently used words
and letter combinations also have their own single cell
patterns. People with hearing impairments use lip reading
and sign language to communicate. Sign language systems include finger spelling
(dactylography), sign language and Makaton.
Importance of Verbal Communication
Verbal communication help the individual in different ways i.e., to build and maintain
relationship in our society, to lead in professional career and it is most important for
business people.
For example, while you communicate with family member or friend, you interact with
them with a lot of self confidence. When it comes to business, it is totally different
situation because you may deal with a verity of people throughout the day. i.e., you
may deal with people form different cultures, ages and with different levels of
experience. You may have to deal different background and have lot of experience in
their field or activity. Proper verbal communication skill will help you in dealing with
different people.
Communicative Practices
Communication practice will help the student to speak English language quickly and
effectively. Here are some rules:
Subject Verb Agreement
Rule 1: If two or more singular noun and pronoun are joined with the word and the
verb used will be plural.
1. My bother and I are good friend.
2. 2. Ramesh, his friend and I were plying football.


Rule 2: If tow singular nouns / pronouns are joined by and point out the same thing
the verb used must be singular.
1. Bread and butter are my regular breakfast.
2. Rice and curry is the favorite Indian food.
3. The Collector and Distract Magistrate are away.
Rule 3: If tows subjects are joined by as well as the verb aggress with the first
1. Rita as wells her children is playing.
2. Ram as well as his friends is going to market.
3. Children as well as their mother are eating.
Rule 4: If tow subjects are joined wit either-or, neither-nor, the verbs agree with the
subject near t it.
1. Either my brother or I am to do this work.
2. Either you or your friends have returned my book.
3. Neither Ram more his sister is accused.
Rule-5 If tow subjects are joined by with or together with in addition to etc.,
the verb aggresses with the first subject. Example
a) The boy with his parents has arrived in London.
b) Moths in addition to other science subject are though.
Rule 6: When to subject is joined by not only but also verb must agree with the
second subject.
1. Krishna or her friend was not there.
2. Mohan or Sohan is responsible for all this.
Rule 7: Some noun Plural in form and singular in meaning takes a singular verb.
1. The news was broadcast form All India Radio yesterday.
2. The Jeans pant is expensive today.

Rule 8: Some nouns are singular in form but plural in number take a plural verb.
1. The people are shouting.
2. The cattle are grazing.
Rule 9: When a plural noun denotes some particular quantity or amount consider a
singular verb.

Five hundred rupees is not a big amount.

Hundred miles is a long distance.
20 miters is a long distance for long jump.
Witting 10 minutes on the road is a big issue for a girl.

Importance of Non-verbal Communication

The most important thing in communication is to listen what is being said It is noticed
that there is only 7 to 35% of the spoken language is use in total communication. The
rest of the part is through our feelings and intentions in any situation are sent through
nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communications included the gestures, body
language, facial expressions and postures; etc. Non verbal communication helps the
person to understand when verbal messages are unclear or ambiguous. For example if
you are not able to speak the foreign language, you can still communicate with
people of another region or country by using body language and facial expressions.
In business communication it is important and effective to use your body language.
You can improve your business standards by using good business communication skills
and body language.
By understanding the important aspects of non-verbal communication or body
language, you can learn to read people more easily. Argyle and his associates have
been studying the features of non-verbal communication that convey information. The
following summarizes their findings:


Basics of Non-verbal Communication

Eye Contact: There is a saying in English action speaks louder than the word, so eye
contact is most important part in non verbal communication. Different eye contact
can be interpreted as follows:
Most of the listeners look directly at the speaker between 30% and 60% of the
time while looking more than that shows the person has great interest on the
Once you maintain eye contact with the audience then you will feel a positive
frame of confidence. Once you gain that confidence the people will take more
seriously what you are speaking.
In case the listener is not focuses on you, you should make your point clear and
then maintain eye contact with him, in this way the listener will feel pressure.
Body Language and Lying: Signs of lying have to be avoided to send wrong signal to
the person in front of you. Some of them are listed below:
Less eye contact will sign that the person is lying and he is guilty.
Hands touch their face, throat, nose, mouth or ear.
Physical expression will be stiff and limited.
If a person takes up less space with their hand, arm and leg movement facing
towards their own body then it shows the person is lying.
The Eyebrows: Change in the position of the eye brow can interpret as follows:
If the eyebrows of a person are lowered that shows the person is usually
This shows a sign of worry, criticism or disagreement.
This shows the person is searching the supporting evidence to make up the

The frown may simply mean lack of concentration or confusion.

Raised eyebrows can indicate shock or distrust.
One raised eyebrow implies an element of doubt or challenge.
Raising the eyebrows show a sign of surprise. The people raise their eyebrows
to look better. But it can also mean that somebody is looking at you and that
he likes you.

The Mouth:
If somebody chews the lower lip that shows the sign" of fear, insecurity and
If somebody tightened his or her lips that indicate he is in defensive mode.
The Head:
If the head is straight up that shows the sign of neutral position i.e., J.,
listening carefully and evaluating.
A small nod of head indicates that the information is being received.
Tilting the head shows the sign of developing interest.
If the head of the speaker is downward direction that shows the sign of
nervousness and may be some problem.
The Smile:
We always correlate a smile with happiness 'but there are different kinds of
Sometimes artificial smile comes in the speaker's face when he/she is not
actually agreed but he can't deny directly i.e. called coy smile.
Sometimes the speaker is internally sad but he/she does not want to show to
the audience at that time he or she can show artificial smile.
Some of the body gestures which will help you understand the mental frame of a
person are a follows:
Brisk walk: Confidence
Standing with hands on hips: Readiness, aggression
Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking slightly: Boredom
Sitting, legs away from each other: Open, relaxed
Arms crossed on chest: Defensiveness
Walking with hands in pockets, shoulders bent: Unhappiness
Hand to cheek: Assessment and thinking
Touching, slightly rubbing nose: Refusal, hesitation, doubt and lying
Rubbing the eye: Doubt, disbelief

Hands clasped behind back: Anger, irritation, uneasiness and anxiety

Locked ankles: Worry
Head resting in hand, eyes downcast: Monotony
Rubbing hands: Hope, eagerness
Sitting with hands clasp behind head, legs crossed: Confidence, superiority,
Open palm: Genuineness, honesty, innocence
Pinching bridge of nose, eyes closed: Negative evaluation
Steeping fingers: Commanding
Tilted head: Attention, Interest
Looking down, face turned away: Disbelief, distrust
Biting nails: Lack of confidence, insecurity, nervousness
Dropping eyeglasses onto the lower bridge of the nose and peering over them:
Causes negative reactions in others
Slowly and intentionally taking off glasses and carefully cleaning the lens: That
shows the person wants to take time to think before opposition asking for
Breath faster: Nervous or angry
Inhaling loudly and shortly: Wants to interrupt a speaking person
Loud sigh: Understand the thing that is being told
Twisting the feet continuously: A person is nervous or concerned, but can also
mean that a person is stressed or angry and that he don't want to show that to
Legs wide apart or Sitting straddle-legged: Shows that a person is feeling safe,
and is self-confident. Can also show leadership
A big smile that goes on longer and disappears slower: Unreal or fake smile
Crossed legs with highest foot in the direction of the speaker: Relaxed and selfconfident and they are listening very carefully
Rapidly nodding your head: Shows impatient and eager to add something to the
Slowly nodding: Shows interest and those they are validating the comments of
the interviewer, and this subtly encourages him to continue
Biting the Lips: The person communicates embarrassment when he bites his
lips. He also communicates a lack of self-confidence
Open Hands: This expresses a trust in other. It also invites to sharing of the
other person's view
Clasping the hands: Indicates defense
Firm Handshake: The strong, firm handshake usually shows the high confidence
and self believeness

Weak hand shake: People who give these types of handshakes are nervous, shy,
insecure or afraid of interaction with other people
Clearing throat: Nervousness
Biting fingernails: Nervousness
Wring your hands: Nervousness
Paced the floor: Nervousness

Dressing: "Dress' Speak" a lot about a person. For example when you enter into a
room for the first time, it takes few seconds for people to observe you. Your clothes
and body language always speak first. So it is important to dress up carefully to match
the occasion. Some of the perceptions people can judge from your appearance are:
Your professionalism
Your leadership quality
Your aptitude
Your trustworthiness
Being well dressed in a corporate sector can influence your perceptions and
promotions. You should ask the following questions before selecting a dress for the
What would be appropriate for audience?
What would be appropriate for this event?
What role I am going to play?
For my company?
For my department?
For myself?
Forms of Communication
There are many forms of communication. These are as under:
1. Downward Communication
2. Upward Communication
3. Horizontal Communication
4. Vertical Communication
5. Lateral Communication
6. Formal Communication
7. Informal Communication or Grapevine
8. Pictorial Communication
9. Symbolic Communication



Downward Communication: Information flowing from the top of the

organizational management hierarchy and telling people in the organization
what is important (mission) and what is valued (policies). Downward
communication generally provides enabling information which allows a
subordinate to do somethin
something. For example, instructions
nstructions on how to do a task.
Downward communication comes after upward communications have been
successfully established. This type of communication is needed in an
organization to:
Transmit vital information
Give instructions
Announce decisions
Seek cooperation
Provide motivation
Boost morale
Increase efficiency
Obtain feedback
Importance of Downward Communication
Orders and instructions about jobs
Directions about understanding of jobs and its relationships with other jobs
Organizational policies and its procedures
Feedback of subordinates' performance
Reprimands, Criticisms etc.


Upward Communication: Upward communication is the flow of information

from subordinates to superiors, or from employees to management.
management Without
upward communication, management works in a vacuum, not knowing if
messages have been received properly, or if other problems exist in the
By definition, communication
mmunication is a two-way
two way affair. Yet for effective two
twoway organizational communication to occur, it must begin from the bottom.
Upward Communication is a mean for staff to:
Exchange information
Offer ideas
Express enthusiasm

Achieve job satisfaction

ide feedback

Importance of Upward Communication

Subordinates' work performance
Problems relating to work
Performance appraisal of their subordinates (feedback of understanding of
orders, instructions etc.)
Clarifications of orders etc.
Opinion, attitude, feelings etc.
Procedures, methods, practices followed while doing the work
New ideas and suggestions
Personal and family problems


Communication: Horizontal communication normally involves

coordinating information,
tion, and allows people with the same or similar rank in an
organization to cooperate or collaborate. Communication among employees at the
same level is crucial for the accomplishment of work. Horizontal Communication is
essential for:

Solving problems
Accomplishing tasks
Improving teamwork
Building goodwill
Boosting efficiency

It is the formal/informal
individuals/ departments
at the same level of

Enabling horizontal communication in an organization encourages free
information exchange.
Higher information flow between departments is necessary so avoid the
same problems being faced by different departments.
Horizontal communication makes an atmosphere
atmosphere where employees are
comfortable to talk to people in different departments and gain from their
Horizontal communication is a real check on the power of the top leaders.
It is the flow of information between persons of the same hierarchical level.
Sometimes, horizontal communication leads to disputes between individuals/
departments. In such cases higher officials have to step in to resolve the

Vertical Communication
Communication: The definition of vertical communication is the flow
of information both downward and upward through the organizational chain of
command. Some also refer to it as formal communication. Downward
communication kind of speaks for itself; top
level management produces
decisions that are communicated dow
n to tell employees how to perform their
Communication that moves through a chain of command typically is vertical in
nature. Rules and mandates come down from the top leadership to
management and trickle down to the front-line
front line supervisors, eventually reaching
the workers. When workers have an issue, they usually talk first to their
immediate supervisor. The chain of command dictates that supervisors report
the issue to their managers, who then are responsible to carry the information
up to the
he executive offices.


Purpose: The main purpose of operating with a vertical communication system

is to control the flow of information and decision-making. Top-down
communication usually consists of orders, mandates, policy decisions,
directions and instructions. The policies and goals of the organization typically
come from the top and move down through the chain of command.
Communication that flows upward typically involves information from the front
lines to the executives about what's going on at the lower levels. It might
include complaints, suggestions, reports, requests for clarification or news
about trends.
Disadvantages: Information often is filtered as it moves up and down the chain
of command, watering down the message or changing the nature of the
information. Managers receiving a request directed to upper management may
decide the request isn't valid and slow its motion or stop it altogether.
Information meant for distribution down to all the lower levels may become
stalled. Middle management may decide their workers dont need the
information and halt its progress. Information going in either direction may
change or become diluted if not passed up or down in its original form.
Channels: Various channels used to send information up and down the chain of
command also affect the ways its perceived and acted upon. When passed on
verbally, information is tainted by body language, spoken nuances and
personalities of the informant. The person receiving the information brings
various filters to every conversation that can change the intention of the
information. Written communication, on the other hand, when passed on
unchanged, may effectively send a consistent message through an
organizational structure. Although electronic communication can be more
easily manipulated, organizations may utilize a wide range of applications to
get and receive pertinent information.

Lateral Communication: Lateral communication refers to messages conversed

between people on the same hierarchical level. For example, in terms of the
workplace, if two supervisors have a discussion or two board members raise an
issue this is known as lateral communication. It is also known as horizontal
The opposite of this is diagonal communication which refers to messages
conversed between all levels of hierarchy. For example, if a manager has a
discussion with one of their employees then this would be known as diagonal

communication. There are a number of various forms of communication in

relation to business e
nvironments. Internal communication is one particular
example as it is the main term used to describe any form of communication
within a business. In addition, this is not specified to speaking face to face, this
can mean through email, telephone and so on.
on. If a member of one company
converses with someone from another company, it is known as external
communication. So this can refer to activities such as dealing with customers or
contacting a supplier about a product etc.


Formal Communication:
Communication A type of verbal presentation or document intended
to share information and which conforms to established professional rules,
standards and processes and avoids using slang terminology. The main types of
formal communication within a business are, (a)) downward where information
moves from higher management to subordinate employees, ((b) upward where
information moves from employees to management
management, and ((c) horizontal where
information is shared between peers.



Informal Communication: A casual form of information sharing typically used

in personal conversations with friends or family members are called the
a business
communication is sometimes called the grapevine and might be observed
occurring in conversations, electronic mails, text messages and phone calls
between socializing employees.
This communication is based on informal relations (like friendship, membership
of the same club, the same place of birth, etc.) and, therefore, is free from all
the organizational formalities.
The exchange of informal messages usually takes place on the occasion of
community meals, social occasions, parties, etc. On such occasions, the
superiors gather such information from their subordinates as may be difficult to
get through formal communication. Such communication includes comments,
suggestions, etc.

Under this, communication takes place through gesticulation, moving of head,

smiling and by remaining quiet. For example, a superior wants to complain
against his subordinate to his higher officer and at the same time he is afraid of
giving it in writing. This can be conveyed to the higher officer through informal
communication, say during the course of a conversation.


Informal communication is also called grapevine communication because there

is no definite channel of communication. Under it some information passes
through many individuals and covers a long distance making its origin obscure.
This is exactly like a grapevine where it is difficult to find the beginning and
the end.
Formal and informal communication is very straight forward in the sense that
formal conversations refer to the discussion of workplace issue whereas
informal communication is in relation to discussions about activities outside of
work. Informal conversations are only usually acceptable during breaks and
they shouldn't be used to spread rumours about colleagues. Moreover, in
businesses upward communication is the questions and queries that colleagues
aim at their bosses whereas downward communication is the guidance and
orders expressed by the management team to their colleagues. In addition to
that, there is always the possibility of small group communication which is the
term used to describe discussions held in meetings with a number of

Pictorial Communication: Pictorial communication includes communicating

with signs like traffic signals, the 21-gun salute, horns, sirens, etc. For
example, the sign of stop tells you to stop at the given point, the sign of two
children with school bags indicate the school zone, the sign of U-turn tells you
to take a U turn, and the sign of a person crossing the road indicates the place
where you can cross the road.


Symbolic Communication: Symbolic

communication uses symbols that
signify religion, school, status,
affiliation, communication devices,
etc. Given below are the symbols
communication devices.


Communication Media and Equipments

Communication Media
Media: Communication media refers to the means of
delivering and receiving data or information. In telecommunication, these means are
transmission and storage tools or channels for data storage and transmission. The
term is also commonly used in place of mass media or news media.
Different media are employed for transmitting data
from one computer terminal to the central computer
or to other computer systems inside some kind of
network. The most commonly used communication
media include cable, satellite, microwaves and fibre
The communication media acts as a communication
channel for linking various computing devices so that
they may interact with each other. Contemporary
communication media facilitate communication and
data exchange
ange among a large number of individuals across long distances via
teleportation, email, teleconferencing, Internet forums, etc. Traditional mass media
channels such as TV, radio and magazines, on the other hand, promote one
communication. There are
e two forms of communication media:
Analog:: Includes the conventional radio, telephonic and television broadcasts.
Digital:: Computer mediated communication, computer networking and

The most commonly used data communication media include:

Wire pairs
Coaxial cable
Microwave transmission
Communication satellite
Fiber optics
communication tool helps a person to
communicate with other people. Information
and Communication Technology (ICT) is a
general term used for a unified system of
telecommunications including telephone
lines, wireless,
computers, audio-visual
systems, etc. which enable the users to
create, access, store, transmit, and
manipulate information.

Electronic Devices: A range of

electronic devices exist to help
people overcome the constraint in
communication due to distance.
These include electronic devices such
as telephone, mobile, wireless sets,
etc., which are used to send and
receive messages. Technological aids,
such as hearing aids and videophones
are designed to help people with different abilities. Social websites on Internet
and Email are examples of technological aids that promote communication and
social interaction between people.


Telephone: The telephone is a

transmits and receives sounds. Its
communication between two people
separated by a distance. All modern
telephones have a microphone to
speak into, an earphone which

reproduces the voice of the other person, a ringer which makes a sound to alert
the owner when a call is coming in, and a keypad to enter the telephone
number. The microphone converts the sound waves to electrical signals and
then these are sent through the telephone network to the other phone and
there it is converted back into sound waves by an earphone or speaker.

Mobile phone: The mobile phone (also known as a cell phone) is a device that
can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a
wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided
by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network.
Mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services which include text
messaging, popularly known as Short Message Service (SMS), email, Internet
access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, blue tooth), business
applications, gaming and photography.


Telephone etiquette: Etiquette is defined as manners that are acceptable,

pleasing and courteous. The different elements of etiquette are to do with
appearance, choice of words and body language. The following etiquette
should be followed while talking on telephone:
Pick up or answer the telephone before the third ring.
Some words that you should use in your conversations on telephone are:
Hello! Good Morning/Good Afternoon/Good Evening.

Speak clearly and identify yourself.

If the caller does not introduce himself/herself, say, May I know who is
In case the caller does not tell to whom he/she wants to talk to, then you
may ask questions like May I know to whom you want to talk to?
In case you have to take a message then you may say I'm sorry, he's busy at
the moment. May I take a message? or May I take your name and number
and have him/her call you back? (Be sure to write down the name, phone
number, time the caller had called and the message).
Ask the caller to wait while you acquire the information required.
Dont make the caller wait for more than 02 minutes. It is better to return a
call than to keep someone on hold too long. Do not forget to return the call.
At the end of the waiting period, please express your gratitude for callers
Keep your conversation to the point.
End the conversation with gratitude.
Always use a pleasant and friendly tone.
Before placing a caller on hold, ask his/her permission first. For example,
could you please hold the line, while I call the person.
Do not interrupt the person while he/she is talking to you.
Do not answer the phone if you are eating. You should mention that you are
having your meal and you will call back after you have finished.
When hanging up the phone, make sure the caller hangs up first.
Avoid leaving long messages.


Electronic Media: Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange (EPABX)

system: It is an instrument used to place telephonic calls to various people in
the premises to check on the availability of the residents/officials and check
the authenticity of the visitors claims.


Walkie talkie: A walkie-talkie (known as a handheld

transceiver) is a hand-held, portable two-way radio
transceiver. Typical walkie-talkies resemble a
telephone handset, with an antenna sticking out of
the top. Walkie-talkies are widely used in any setting
where portable radio communications are necessary,
including business, public safety, security and



Fax machine: Fax (short for facsimile) is the

telephonic transmission of scanned printed
material (both text and images) from a fax
machine through a telephone line connected
to another fax machine. The original
document is scanned with a fax machine,
which processes the contents (text or
images) as a single fixed graphic image,
converting it into a bitmap image. The
information is then transmitted as electrical
signals through the telephone system. The
receiving fax machine reconverts the coded image printing a paper copy.


GPS navigation device: It is any device that receives Global Positioning

System (GPS) signals for the purpose of determining the device's current
location on Earth. GPS devices are used in military, aviation, marine and
consumer product applications.


Computers: Computers has now

become an important and rapidly
expanding medium of communication,
as it offers the possibility of rapid
through e-mail, e-forums, searchable
educational websites, etc.

Barriers in Communication
No matter how good the communication system in an
organization is, unfortunately barriers can often occur.
This may be caused by a number of factors, which can
usually be summarized as being due to physical
organizational attitudinal, emotional barriers and
physiological barriers.

Physical Barriers: These are often due to the nature of environment. Thus, the
natural barriers, which exist, are located in different buildings or on different
sites, others are:
Poor outdated equipment

Failure of management
Lack of new technology
Staff shortages
Distractions like background noise,
Hostile environment (too hot or too cold)


All the above-mentioned barriers affect people's morale and concentration,

which in turn interfere with effective communication.


Organizational Barriers: It refers to the faulty system design. These include;

Complexity in organizational structure.
Ineffective organizational supervision or training.
Unclear organizational rules, policies and regulations.
Lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities which can head to staff being
uncertain about what is expected of them.
Status relationships.


Attitudinal Barriers
(i) Attitude of superiors
Lack of consultation with employees (Ignoring communication)
Personality conflicts, which can result in, people delaying or refusing
to communicate
Lack of time
Lack of awareness
Resistance to change due to interchanged attitudes and ideas
Lack of trust in subordinates
Fear of challenge to authority
(ii) Attitude of Sub-ordinates
Unwillingness to communicate
Lack of proper incentive


(iii) Emotional Barriers: Psychological factors such as people's state of mind

are important tools for proper communication. We all tend to feel happier
and be more receptive to information when the sun shines equally. If
someone has personal problems like worries about health or marriage,
then this will probably affect their communication skills and work power
gradually. Some emotional barriers are:
Premature evaluation
Loss by transmission and poor retention
Undue reliance on the written words
Distrust of communicator
Failure to communicate
Semantic Barriers
- Different language
- Different context for words and symbols
- Poor vocabulary
(iv) Physiological Barriers: Physiological barriers may result from individual's
discomfort caused by ill health, poor eyesight or difficulties. We have
studied several barriers that affect the flow of communication in an
organization. These barriers interrupt the flow of communication from the
sender to the receiver, thus making communication ineffective. It is
essential for managers to overcome these barriers.
Methods of Overcoming the Barriers

It is imperative that organizational policy must be clear and explicit and

encourage the communication flow so that people at all levels realize the full
significance of communication. This organizational policy should express in
clear unambiguous term that organization favors the promotion of communication in the organization.


This policy should also specify the subject matter to .be communicated which
is determined by the needs of the organization.


The system of communication through proper channel serves the purpose

adequately so far as routine types of information warrants, this has to be
overlooked and persons concerned need to be told explicitly.


A successful communication system will only be achieved if top management

shares the responsibility of good communication and check from time to time
that there are no bottlenecks.


Organization should have these adequate facilities for promoting

communication. This needs being carefully looked into and the responsibility of
superior managers in encouraging the use of these facilities through the
adoption of supportive attitude and behavior needs to be emphasized.


Communication being an inter-personal process, the development of interpersonal relationships based on mutual respect, trust and confidence is
essential for its promotion.


There should be continuous programme

communication in different directions.






Essentials of Good Communication

Find out the real purpose of your communication.
See that your ideas ate clear before communication.
Where appropriate, consult others in planning communication.
Be sincere and honest in your communication.
Communication is a simple, clear and effective way.
Know the basic content of your message and consider any possible overtones.
Study all the conditions, physical and human wherever/whenever/whatever
you communicate.
Whenever possible, convey something of help or value to the receiver.
"People who learn effective communication skills will improve their work and personal
relationship". It is important to learn effective communication skills to be successful
at work and to deal with conflict. Both verbal and non-verbal communication skills
are critical to effective communication. Effective and powerful communication skills
give self-confidence. It is the alchemy that can at times transform very ordinary
speech into a success. But a self-confident speaker having other attributes as well
remains a winner throughout.
Elements of Effective Communication
In terms of coverage (i.e. type of messages flowing in various direction)
In terms of quantity of various types of messages.
Perfectly timed words and sentences are very important.
Organization of content/matter in such a manner that one idea heads to
another, finally evolving into a logical and satisfactory conclusion.

Simple and common words should be used
Short and Simple sentences
Proper punctuation
Logical sequence.

Exercise: Assignment
1. At a social function, you meet the CEO of an important company. After a brief
chat, you give him your business card. Is this correct?
2. Testing verbal communication skills.
Pair up with your friend and test your verbal communication skills using the
following checklist. You can take turns and test your friends communication skills.
Your Name: _____________________________________
Name of Your Friend: _____________________________

Verbal Communication


Opening Greeting
Good morning Sir/Madam.
May I help you?
Good afternoon Sir/Madam.
May I help you?
Good evening Sir/Madam.
May I help you?
Closing Greeting
Have a good day Sir/Madam.
Have a good evening Sir/
Good night Sir/Madam.
Seeking permission
May I come in Sir/Madam
or Excuse me Sir/Madam


Could speak Good


Too fast

Too soft



May I frisk you Sir/Madam?

May I check your baggage Sir/
Requesting time for response
Please wait Sir/Madam
Please have a seat Sir/Madam
Give me a moment Sir/Madam
or A moment please Sir/Madam

3. Assignment on Non-verbal Communication

Observe people and their body language at a public meeting/place (could be
Panchayat, conference, platform of a railway station, shopping mall, etc.) and
write in your notebook on what is your interpretation about the gestures or
postures of the people.
4. Visit a store and write a report about what kind of communication is used for what
purpose in the store between employees and between customers. (Note: use
pictures to make report effective).

A. Shorts Answer Questions
1. What is verbal communication?
2. What do you mean by non-verbal communication?
3. Write short note (50 words) on the following topics:

Fax Machine
4. Name five equipments used for communication.
5. Write down one advantage and one disadvantage of using communication
equipments (for each equipment).
6. What is the difference between informal and formal communication?
7. Identify the main barriers that you have encountered during the
communication with your teacher.
8. Write the solution to overcome the barriers that you faced during the
communication with your teacher.
9. List all the barriers that you have faced while communicating with your friends
in a birthday party.
10. What are the communication barriers?
11. State any two physical barriers in communication.

12. Write short note (25 words) on how the following barriers affect effective
a) Poor communication equipment.
b) Cultural barriers

Fill in the blanks

1. Verbal communication uses _____________ as the medium of communication.
2. Communication that uses ________________ parts of the body is known as
_______________ communication. (physical non-verbal)
3. The most important thing in communication is to _________________. (listen)
4. In business communication, use of _______________ is important and effective.
(body language)
5. When verbal communication is ambiguous ______________ help to understand.
6. Downward communication general provides enabling information in the form of
________________. (instructions)
7. ________________ is a casual form of information sharing typically used in
personal conversation. (Informal communication)
8. __________________ communication includes communicating with signs.
9. Informal communication is also called __________________ communication.
10. __________________ refers to messages conversed between all levels of
hierarchy. (diagonal communication)
11. A telephone is an ____________________ device.
12. A telephone has a ____________________ to speak into and an earphone which
reproduces the voice.
13. _____________ is the equipment that is used to contact officials in the
premises from the gate to check on their availability.

14. _________________ of management is the form of ________________ barrier.

(failure, physical)
15. Status relationship comes under ________________. (organizational barriers)
16. System of communication through _________________ serves the purpose
adequately. (proper channel)
17. People who learn effective _______________ will improve their work and
personal relationship. (communication skills)
18. Successful communication system will only be achieved if _______________
shares the responsibility. (top management)
C. Write the full form of the following abbreviations
1. SMS




3. Email


4. GPS


D. True or False
1. Oral communication is a form of non-verbal communication.


2. Written communication is a form of verbal communication.


3. Body language is a form of non-verbal communication.


4. Gesture is a form of verbal communication.


5. People with hearing impairments use Braille system to communicate.


6. Pointing fingers while talking is a good gesture of communication.


7. Maintaining eye contact while talking or giving speech is a means of effective



E. Multiple Choice Questions

Tick the correct answer
1. You are talking with a group of four people. Do you make eye contact with:
Just the person to whom you are speaking at the moment?
a. Each of the four, moving your eye contact from one to another?
b. No one particular person (not looking directly into anyone's eyes)?
c. All the above
d. Non of the above
2. When you greet a visitor in your office, do youa. Say nothing and let her sit where she wishes?
b. Tell her where to sit?
c. Say "Just sits anywhere".
d. Non of the above
3. You are scheduled to meet a business associate for working lunch and you
arrive a few minutes early to find a suitable table. 30 minutes later your
associate still hasn't arrived. Do youa. Order your lunch and eat?
b. Continue waiting and fuming that youre associates isn't there?
c. Tell the head waiter you're not staying and give him your card with
instructions to present it to your associate to prove you were there?
d. After 15 minutes call your associate?
4. Upward communication is a means for staff toa. Exchange information
b. Increase efficiency
c. Speaking face to face
d. None of these
5. Horizontal communication is essential fora. Accomplishing task
b. Boost morale
c. Control decision making
d. All the above


6. Lateral communication refers to message conversed between peoplea. On the same level
b. All levels
c. Both the above
d. None of the above
7. The main types of formal communication within a business
a. Downward
b. Lateral
c. Diagonal
d. None of the above
8. Informal communication involvesa. Smiling
b. Gesticulation
c. Both the above
d. None of the above

Checklist for Assessment Activity

Use the following checklist to see if you have met all the requirements for Assessment
Part A
Differentiated between the verbal and non-verbal communication.
Described the important rule in verbal communication.
Explain the communicative practices in non-verbal communication?
Described the various types of communication.
Describe the various communication equipments.
Described the various types of barriers.
Part B
Discussed in class the following:
How to practice verbal communication effectively?
How to apply various rules for verbal communication?
What are the different practices available for non-verbal communication?
What is pictorial communication?

What is informal and formal communication?

What is lateral communication?
What is the importance of upward and downward communication?
Difference between informal and formal communication.
Importance of various logbooks and reports in security industry.
How communication cycle is affected by the barriers?
How one can overcome the various types of barriers in communication?

Part C
Performance Standards
The Performance standards may include, but not limited to:
Performance standards



Able to follow the rules for verbal communication.

Able to differentiate between the practices of verbal and nonverbal communication.
Able to perform non-verbal communication.
Able to differentiate between types of communication.
Able to describe the purpose and demonstrate the use of
communication equipment.
Able to demonstrate communication etiquette.
Able to differentiate between different use and requirement of
different communication equipments.
Able to differentiate between the various types of barriers in


Session 3: Elements of Business Communication

Relevant Knowledge
Business Communication is any communication used to promote a product, service, or
organization with the objective of making sale. In business communication, message
is conveyed through various channels of communication including internet, print
(publications), radio, television, outdoor, and word of mouth. In business,
communication is considered core among business, interpersonal skills and etiquette.
The arrangements between individuals and groups in human society that structure
relationships and activities which are Business, Political, Religious or social. A group
of people identified by shared interests or purpose, for example, a Bank.
Lifeblood of an Organization
Communication is the lifeblood of an organization. If we could somehow remove
communication flows from an organization, we would not have an organization.
It is needed for:
Exchanging information
Exchanging options
Making plans and proposals
Reaching agreement
Executing decisions
Sending and fulfilling orders
Conducting sales
When communication stops, organized activity ceases to exist. Individual
uncoordinated activity returns in an organization. So, communication in an
organization is as vital as blood for life.
Types of Business Communication
There are two types of business communication in an organization:
1. Internal Communication
2. External Communication


Internal Business Communication:

Communication Communication within an organization is
called Internal Communication. It includes all communication within an
organization. It may be informal or a formal function or department providing
communication in various forms to employees. Effective internal
communication is a vital mean of addressing organizational concerns. Good
communication may help to increase job satisfaction, safety, productivity, and
profits and decrease grievances and turnover. Three types of Internal Business
Communication are;;
a) Upward Communication
b) Downward Communication
c) Horizontal/Literal communication
The types of internal business communications are described in Session 2.


External Business Communication

Communication: Communication with people outside the
company is called external communication. Supervisors communicate with
sources outside the organization, such as vendors and customers.
It leads to better;
Sales volume
Public credibility
Operational efficiency
Company profits
It should improve
Overall performance
Public goodwill
Corporate image
Ultimately, it helps to achieve
Organizational goals
Customer satisfaction

Elements of Business Communication

There are seven essential elements to successful business communication:
1. Structure
2. Clarity
3. Consistency
4. Medium

5. Relevancy
6. Primacy/Recency
7. Psychological Rule of 72
If you are going to communicate effectively in business it is essential that you have a
solid grasp of these seven elements.

Structure: How you structure your communication is fundamental to how easily

it is absorbed and understood by your audience. Every good communication
should have these three structural elements:
a) opening
b) body
c) close
This structural rule holds true no matter what your communication is -- a
memo, a phone call, a voice mail message, a personal presentation, a speech,
an email, a webpage, or a multi-media presentation.
Remember - your communication's audience can be just one person, a small
team, an auditorium full of people or a national, even global, group of millions.
In this instance size doesn't matter -- the rules remain the same.
An opening allows your communication's audience to quickly understand
what the communication is about.
Short, sharp and to the point, a good opening lets your audience quickly
reach a decision of whether or not to pay attention to your message.
Time is a precious resource, after all, and the quicker you can 'get to the
point' and the faster your audience can make that 'disregard/pay attention'
decision the more positively they will view you --- which can be VERY
important if you need or want to communicate with them in the future.
Here's where you get to the 'heart' of your message.
It is in the body of the message that you communicate all of your facts and
figures relative to the action you want your communication's audience to
take after attending to your message.
Keep your facts, figures and any graphs or charts you might present to the
point. Don't bog down your audience with irrelevant material, or charts with
confusing, illegible numbers and colours.

The Close is where you sum up your communication, reminds your audience
of your key points, and leaves them with a clear understanding of what you
want them to do next.
The more powerfully you can end your communication, the more easily
remembered it will be by your audience.

Be clear about the message you want to deliver, as giving a confused
message to your audience only ends up with them being confused and your
message being ignored.
If you are giving a message about, say, overtime payments don't then add in
messages about detailed budget issues or the upcoming staff picnic -UNLESS they ABSOLUTELY fit in with your original message.
It's far better and clearer for your audience if you create a separate
communication about these ancilliary issues.


Nothing more upsets a regular reader of, say, your newsletter than
inconsistency of your message.
Taking a position on an issue one week, only to overturn it the next, then
overturn THAT position the following week, only breeds distrust in your
And distrust in you!
People who distrust you are exceedingly unlikely to take the action you wish
them to take. They are also highly unlikely to pay any attention to your
future messages.
As well as consistency amongst multiple messages, be aware that
inconsistency within your message can be just as deadly to audience
At the risk of sounding like the Grouchy Grammarian, please make sure that
your tenses remain the same, that your viewpoint doesn't wander between
the 1st and 3rd person and back again (unless you deliberately want to
create a linguistic or story-telling effect be careful with this!) and that
your overall 'theme' or message doesn't change.


If the only tool you have in your tool bag is a hammer, pretty soon
everything starts to look like a nail.

Similarly, if all you believe you have as a communications tool is Power

Point then pretty soon all you'll do is reduce every communications
opportunity to a Power Point presentation. And as any of us who have sat
through one too many boring slideshows will attest, "seen one, seen 'am all"
There are a myriad of ways you can deliver your messagethe trick is to use
the right one.

There's absolutely no value in spending the least amount of money if the

medium you choose doesn't deliver on any of the other criteria. So what media
are available? You have a choice from any one or combination of the following:
Paper-based memo
One to-one face-to-face presentation
One to-one phone presentation
One to-many personal presentation
One to-many phone presentation
Voice email
Television broadcast
TV/ film commercial

Plain text email
Text + graphics email
Radio broadcast
Press release

Choosing the right medium or media is obviously critical, as the fiscal costs of
some in the above list are higher than others. Get the media mix wrong and
you could end up spending a whole lot of time and money on a very visually
attractive business communication that delivers next-to-zero ROI (return on

Relevancy: It never stop to amaze that business managers still believe that
everyone would be interested in their messageand then proceed to subject
any and everyone they can find to a horrendous PowerPoint slideshow put
together by a well-meaning but aesthetically-challenged subordinate. Screenafter-screen of lengthy text, in a small barely legible font size (because a small
font size is the only way to fit all of the words onto the slide), which the
manager duly and dully reads verbatim.
The psychological reality is that unless a person is interested in the subject of
the message they are highly unlikely to pay any attention. This means that if
you force them to attend to your message, you will actually turn them against
you and be even less likely to receive their attention in the future.

Save your in-depth budget and performance analysis Excel-generated charts for
those who genuinely care and need to know about such things. If your business
communication needs to touch on several areas that might not be of interest to
your entire audience, let them know of alternative resources that more fully
address each of these additional areas. You can do this by, for example,
providing them with an easily-remembered and written link to a webpage
where a greater depth of information can be stored.

Primacy/Recency: It is essential to know that, one week later, a business

communication is remembered by one or both of two things:
the power and memorability of its opening
the power and memorability of its close
Psychologists call the effect of remembering the first few items presented as a
'Primacy Effect'. Similarly, they call the effect of remembering the last few
items presented to you as a 'Recency Effect'. Since individuals differ in which
Effect is the most dominant for them, it is best to 'cover your bases' and make
an effort to have both a powerful and memorable opening and a powerful
close. A powerful opening can be anything that captures the audience's
a quote,
a joke,
a loud noise,
a preposterous statement.


The Psychological Rule of 7 2 (seven plus or minus two): Psychologists have

long known that the human brain has a finite capacity to hold information in
short-term or 'working' memory. Equally, the brain is also structured to retain
information in 'clusters' or groups of items. These clusters or groups average,
across the whole of mankind, at seven items, plus or minus two. Which means
that your audience is only able to hold on to between five and nine pieces of
information at any one time?
Similarly, your audience will group your business communication's message with
between four and eight other messages in their long-term memory. Now do you
see the importance of clarity of message and of having a distinctive and
memorable opening and close? If you want your key points to be remembered
even five minutes later, it is essential that you limit your business
communication to between just five and nine key points. Equally, if you want
your key action points to be remembered five weeks later, ensure that your

communication is amongst the five to nine most memorable messages your

audience has attended to in the last five weeks.
The human brain 'chunks' information together, so if you have a long document
or communication that you want to deliver, especially on paper, then structure
your document so that you have:
72 'chapters' or sections
72 sub-sections in each section
If you find that you end up with 10 or 11 sub-headings in a chapter, or subsections in a section, see if you are able to either consolidate two or three subsections in to, or create a new main section out of them.
Business Communication Strategies
Retailers' communication strategies evolve as consumer media changes. Traditionally,
retailers run advertisements and promotions to attract customers to the store. The
introduction of loyalty cards gave retailers an opportunity to communicate regularly
and build relationships with customers. The growth of social media and mobile
communications is opening up new channels to interact with customers and make
timely offers when they are close to your store.
The most important communications strategy is to make potential customers aware of
your store and the products you offer. By advertising in local newspapers and printed
directories, like the telephone book, you can make it easy for customers to locate
your store. The online version of a traditional directory, as well as online consumer
review sites and city-based business guides, provides local information for consumers
who prefer to search online. You can also set up your own website with details of your
location, opening times and product range to communicate with Internet users.
To protect your customer base and increase repeat sales, adopt a communications
strategy based on a loyalty program. Major retail groups operate programs that utilize
loyalty cards. Customers swipe their cards at the checkout and earn reward points to
use against future purchases. The cards also enable retailers to capture data on
individual customer's purchasing preferences and make personalized offers on
products that the customer buys regularly, encouraging their repeat business. You can
adopt the principles of a loyalty program, without the database element, by offering
customers vouchers or discounts against future purchases.

With increasing numbers of consumers using mobile phones to get information on
stores, products and local deals, you can develop a mobile merchandising strategy to
communicate with consumers in your area. By participating in a service such as
Foursquare, you can attract and reward customers by offering mobile coupons, prizes
or discounts when they check in at your store using a mobile phone to register their
identity. According to the Foursquare website, an offer like a 5 percent discount on
their next purchase will encourage Foursquare members to shop with you. Discount
programs, including Group on and Living Social, also have mobile applications to
attract on-the-go customers into your business with a special offer. According to
Living Social, 87 percent of customers who use a Living Social deal to visit a
restaurant, plan to return to that business.
A social media communication strategy can help you increase dialogue with your
customers and get valuable feedback on your products and standards of customer
service. You can set up a forum or comments page on your website where customers
can share their views. You can also use techniques such as blogs to provide customers
with news about your store and its products. "PR Week USA" described how a major
entertainment retailer provides customers with a special newsroom where they can
find news about entertainment, events at the store or recommendations on
entertainment products.
Don't forget to include employees in your communications strategy. By keeping them
informed on developments in the store, special customer offers and other product
news, you can be confident that they are communicating the right messages to your
customers, according to Chetochine Consulting Group. An electronic newsletter keeps
employees up to date, while an employee forum on your website encourages
employees to share views and tips on improving customer service.


Exercise: Assignment
1. Prepare a presentation imagine you are sales representative of Hypermarket and
you need to present your sales data and growth of last month?
2. Visit to two retail stores to study the organizational procedures.
3. Visit to a retail store and write a report about what kind of business
communication is used for what purpose in the store between employees and
between customers. (Note: use pictures to make report effective).

A. Shorts Answer Questions
1. What is business communication?
2. What are the types of business communication?
3. Explain the internal business communication?
4. Analyze the external business communication?


5. State the elements of business Communication?

6. What is the difference between internal and external business communication?
7. Explain how to apply Psychological rules applied while using business
8. Identify the business communication strategies?
B. Fill in the blanks
1. Every good communication should have an _____________, a ______________
and a close. (opening, body)
2. An ____________ allows your communication is audience to quickly understand.
3. The more functually you can end your ______________, the more easily
____________ it will be by your audience. (communication, remembered)
4. The trick to communicate your message is right one that communicates your
____________ with the greatest _____________. (message, accurately)
5. One of the right ways to communicate message should be at the ____________
time cost. (lowest)
6. Downward communication generally provides enabling information in the form
of ________________. (instructions)
7. Upward communication is the flow of information from ______________ to
superiors, or from employees to ______________. (subordinates, management)
8. Retailers' communication _____________ evolve as consumer media changes.
9. The growth of social ____________ and ______________ communications is
opening up new channels. (media, mobile)

10. You can develop a mobile merchandising _____________ to ________________

with consumers in your area. (strategy, communicate)
11. A social media ________________ strategy can help you increase dialogue with
your customers. (communication)
12. Your website ________________ employees to share views and tips on
improving _______________ service.( encourages, customer)
B. True or False
1. The right one way to communicate message is not with the largest likelihood of
audience comprehension.
2. One of the essential elements to successful business communication is medium.
3. The heart of the message is clarity of message.


4. A business communication will be remembers by one thing the power and

memorability of its close.
5. The business communication will not be remembered by only one thing, the
power memorability of its opening.
6. To protect your customers and increase repeat sales adopted communication
strategy should be loyalty based programmes.
C. Multiple Choice Questions
Tick the correct answer
1. Communication flows from an organization would need fora) Exchanging information
b) Exchanging options
c) Making plans and proposals
d) All the above
2. External business communication includesa) Upward Communication
b) Downward Communication
c) Horizontal/Literal communication
d) Non of the above


3. Which of the following is allows your communication's audience to quickly

understand what the communication is about.
a) Closing
b) Opening
c) Body
d) All the above
4. Upward communication is a means for staff toa) Exchange information
b) Increase efficiency
c) Speaking face to face
d) None of these
5. Horizontal communication is essential fora) Accomplishing task
b) Boost morale
c) Control decision making
d) All the above

Checklist for Assessment Activity

Use the following checklist to see if you have met all the requirements for Assessment
Part A
Describe the elements of communication.
Explain the types of business communication.
Differentiate between external and internal business communication.
Find out the strategies required for business communication?
Part B
Discussed in class the following:
Discuss the types of business communication.
Analyze the benefits of the business communication.
Concepts of business communication.
Business communication strategies.
What is external business communication?
What is internal business communication?
Difference between internal and external business communication.

Part C
Performance Standards
The Performance standards may include, but not limited to:
Performance standards



Able to identify the types of business communication.

Able to differentiate between the internal and external
business communication.
Able to identify the elements of business communication.
Able to find out strategies of business communication.


Session 4: Preparation of Project Report

Relevant Knowledge
A project report is a record of any sort of project, whether it is a school
project, business project, or research project. Most commonly, project reports are
written to record the beginning, middle and end of specific project events, such as
business initiatives or school experiments. A project report can be written about
almost any topic, in fields such as science, marketing, education, or engineering.
However, to fulfill the standardized and formal requirements of teachers or
executives, professional project reports must have certain characteristics; these will
include specific sections of the project report, which are usually as follows:
Table of Contents
Main Sections
To create a polished and impressive business report, a person or group must track
the timeline of a specific subject, experiment, or business initiative. For example,
a marketing department might be asked to write a project report on their latest
Internet-based ad campaign. If the marketing executives "rolled out" a new
website or social networking service, they will announce the occurrence during the
Introduction, and then detail the rollout during the main Section(s). In their
Conclusion, they will summarize exactly how successful or unsuccessful the project
was, in relation to their initial projections and goals. This Conclusion should be
supported by evidence prepared in the Main Sections; such evidence may include
tables, pie charts, graphs, and spread sheet excerpts.
Details are the heart of soul of any effective project report; dates, times, facts, and
figures must be used to build credibility. Whether a project report is written about a
new housing development, a science experiment, or an ad campaign's rollout, it
should be based on quantifiable information that is easy for a layman to understand.
The best project reports will be written according to a formal template, and they will
be completely honest reckonings of all of the good and bad things that transpired
during the central event's timeline. From the Introduction to the Conclusion, the role

of the project report is to provide a factual record of the event that may later be
used to make decisions about planning similar events or initiatives in the future; this
is one reason why a project report can be a valuable tool in the business world.
Preparation of Project Report
Your company seeking financial assistance for implementation of its business idea is
required to prepare a Project Report covering certain important aspects of the
project as detailed below:
Promoters background/experience
Product with capacity to be built up and processes involved
Project location
Cost of the Project and Means of financing thereof
Availability of utilities
Technical arrangements
Market Prospects and Selling arrangements
Environmental aspects
Profitability projections and Cash flows for the entire repayment period of
financial assistance
Spreadsheets formats attached with this document will help you prepare a Detailed
Project Report for your Bank. You may omit the manufacturing related information in
case you are applying for a non-manufacturing project.
Since the appraisal of the Project involves evaluation of the Project in the following
areas, your company/you would be required to submit certain documents/information
in the matter.
Management Evaluation
Memorandum and Articles of Association: Object, authorized and paid-up share
capital, promoter's contribution, borrowing powers, list of directors on the
Board, terms of appointment of directors.

Your company as the Promoter: Corporate plan of the Company, projects

promoted/implemented/under implementation, Bankers' report on dealings
and repayment of past loan assistance, details of group companies, operations,
balance sheet and profit & loss account of the promoter company.

New Promoters: Educational background, any industrial experience, family

background, sources of income, details of personal properties, banker's
reference, income tax/ wealth tax returns.

Management and Organization set up: Broad composition of the Board, details
of full time directors and their responsibilities, details of Chief executive and
functional executives including qualification, experience, organization set-up
for existing company and during project implementation for new company.

Technical Feasibility
Technology and manufacturing process: Proven/new technology, basis of
selection of technology, competing technologies, performance data of plants
based on the technology, details of licensor of technology, process flow chart
and description.

Location of the Project: Location advantage, availability of raw material and

other utilities, infrastructure facilities, availability of labour, environmental

Plant and Machinery: List of machinery & equipment, details of suppliers,

competitive quotations, technical & commercial evaluation of major

Raw material, Utilities and Manpower: Details of raw materials and suppliers,
electricity and water supply, basis of manpower estimates, details of
manpower e.g. managerial, supervisory, skilled/unskilled, training needs.

Contracts: Agreement with contractors detailing on know-how, engineering,

procurement, construction, financial soundness and experience of contractors.

Project monitoring and implementation: Mode of implementation, details of

monitoring team, detailed schedule of implementation.

Environmental Aspects: Air, Water and Soil Pollution, list of pollutants/

Hazardous substances, their safety, handling and disposal arrangements,
compliance with national and International Standards, Clearances and No
objection certificates required and obtained etc.

Commercial Viability
Existing and potential market demand and supply for the proposed product in
respect of volume and pattern.

Share of the proposed product of the company in the total market through
marketing strategy.

Selling price of the product and export potential, if any.

Buy-back arrangements, if any.


Financial Appraisal
Cost of the Project: This includes the cost of land & site development,
building, plant & machinery, technical know-how & engineering fees,
miscellaneous fixed assets, preliminary & preoperative expenses,
contingencies, margin money for working capital. Your company is expected to
submit realistic estimates and reasonableness of the cost of the project will be
examined with reference to various factors such as implementation period,
inflation, various agreements, quotations etc.

Means of Financing: Means of financing shall have to conform to proper mix of

share capital and debt. This includes share capital, unsecured loans from
subsidy/grant. Reasonableness of Promoters' contribution in the form of equity
and interest-free unsecured loans, if any, is ascertained in view of commitment
to the Project.

Profitability Projections: Past records of financial performance of your

company will be examined. Your company needs to submit profitability
estimates, cash flow and projected balance sheet for the project and for the
Company as a whole. Based on the projections, various financial ratios such as
Debt - Equity ratio, Current ratio, Fixed asset coverage ratio, Gross profit,
Operating profit, Net profit ratios, Internal rate of return(over the economic
life of the project), Debt Service Coverage ratio, Earning per share, Dividend
payable etc. would be worked out to ascertain financial soundness of your

Economic Viability
Your company will have to take real value of input as against the value
accounted in financial analysis for the purpose of economic evaluation of the

Your company should carry out social cost benefit analysis as a measure of the
costs and benefits of the project to Society and the Economy.

Economic analysis is therefore aimed at inherent strength of the Project to

withstand international competition on its own.


Outline for Preparing Project Report

Arrangement of contents: The sequence in which the project report material should
be arranged and bound should be as follows:
1. Cover Page and Title Page
2. Acknowledgements
3. Bonafide Certificate
4. Abstract
5. Content Page
i. Table of Contents
ii. List of Tables
iii. List of Figures
iv. List of Symbols, Abbreviations and Nomenclature
6. Chapters
i. Introduction
ii. Background
iii. Body of Report
iv. Evaluation
v. Conclusion and Future Work
7. Appendices
8. References
Page Dimension and Binding Specifications: The dimension of the project report
should be in A4 size. The project report should be bound using flexible cover of the
thick white art paper. The cover should be printed in black letters and the text for
printing should be identical.
Preparation Format

Cover Page and Title Page: A specimen copy of the Cover page & Title page of
the project report are given in Appendix 1.


Acknowledgements: It is usual to thank those individuals who have provided

particularly useful assistance, technical or otherwise, during your project. Your
supervisor will obviously be pleased to be acknowledged as he or she will have
invested quite a lot of time overseeing your progress.


Bonafide Certificate: The Bonafide Certificate shall be in double line spacing

using Font Style Times New Roman and Font Size 14, as per the format in
Appendix 2. The certificate shall carry the supervisors signature and shall be

followed by the supervisors name, academic designation (not any other

responsibilities of administrative nature), department and full address of the
institution where the supervisor has guided the student. The term
SUPERVISOR must be typed in capital letters between the supervisors name
and academic designation.

Abstract: The abstract is a very brief summary of the report's contents should
be one page synopsis of the project report typed double line spacing, Font
Style Times New Roman and Font Size 14. Somebody unfamiliar with your
project should have a good idea of what it's about having read the abstract
alone and will know whether it will be of interest to them.


Content page: This should list the main chapters and (sub)sections of your
report. Choose self-explanatory chapter and section titles and use double
spacing for clarity. If possible you should include page numbers indicating
where each chapter/section begins. Try to avoid too many levels of subheading
- three is sufficient.
(i) Table of Contents: The table of contents should list all material following
it as well as any material which precedes it. The title page and Bonafide
Certificate will not find a place among the items listed in the Table of
Contents but the page numbers of which are in lower case Roman letters.
One and a half spacing should be adopted for typing the matter under this
head. A specimen copy of the Table of Contents of the project report is
given in Appendix 3.
(ii) List of Tables: The list should use exactly the same captions as they
appear above the tables in the text. One and a half spacing should be
adopted for typing the matter under this head.
(iii) List of Figures: The list should use exactly the same captions as they
appear below the figures in the text. One and a half spacing should be
adopted for typing the matter under this head.
(iv) List of Symbols, Abbreviations and Nomenclature: One and a half spacing
should be adopted or typing the matter under this head. Standard
symbols, abbreviations etc. should be used.


Chapters: The chapters may be broadly divided into 3 parts, (i) Introductory
chapter, (ii) Chapters developing the main theme of the project work, and (iii)
Conclusion. The main text will be divided into several chapters and each
chapter may be further divided into several divisions and sub-divisions. Each
chapter should be given an appropriate title. Tables and figures in a chapter
should be placed in the immediate vicinity of the reference where they are

cited. Footnotes should be used sparingly. They should be typed single space
and placed directly underneath in the very same page, which refers to the
material they annotate.
Introduction: This is one of the most important components of the
report. It should begin with a clear statement of what the project is about so
that the nature and scope of the project can be understood by a lay reader. It
should summarise everything you set out to achieve, provide a clear summary
of the project's background, relevance and main contributions. The
introduction should set the context for the project and should provide the
reader with a summary of the key things to look out for in the remainder of the
report. When detailing the contributions it is helpful to provide pointers to the
section(s) of the report that provide the relevant technical details. The
introduction itself should be largely non-technical. It is useful to state the main
objectives of the project as part of the introduction. However, avoid the
temptation to list low-level objectives one after another in the introduction
and then later, in the evaluation section (see below), say reference to like "All
the objectives of the project have been met...".
Background: The background section of the report should set the project
into context and give the proposed layout for achieving the project goals. The
background section can be included as part of the introduction but is usually
better as a separate chapter, especially if the project involved significant
amount of ground work. When referring to other pieces of work, cite the
sources where they are referred to or used, rather than just listing them at the
(iii) Body of report: The central part of the report usually consists of three
or four chapters detailing the technical work undertaken during the project.
The structure of these chapters is highly project dependent. They can reflect
the chronological development of the project, e.g. design, implementation,
experimentation, optimization, evaluation etc. If you have built a new piece of
software you should describe and justify the design of your program at some
high level, possibly using an approved graphical formalism such as UML. It
should also document any interesting problems with, or features of, your
implementation. Integration and testing are also important to discuss in some
cases. You need to discuss the content of these sections thoroughly with your


(iv) Evaluation: Be warned that many projects fall down through poor
evaluation. Simply building a system and documenting its design and
functionality is not enough to gain top marks. It is extremely important that
you evaluate what you have done both in absolute terms and in comparison
with existing techniques, software, hardware etc. This might involve
quantitative evaluation and qualitative evaluation such as expressibility,
functionality, ease-of-use etc. At some point you should also evaluate the
strengths and weaknesses of what you have done. Avoid statements like "The
project has been a complete success and we have solved all the problems
associated with ...! It is important to understand that there is no such thing as
a perfect project. Even the very best pieces of work have their limitations and
you are expected to provide a proper critical appraisal of what you have done.
Conclusion and Future work: The project's conclusions should list the
things which have been learnt as a result of the work you have done. For
example, "The use of overloading in C++ provides a very elegant mechanism for
transparent parallelization of sequential programs". Avoid tedious personal
reflections like "I learned a lot about C++ programming..." It is common to
finish the report by listing ways in which the project can be taken further. This
might, for example, be a plan for doing the project better if you had a chance
to do it again, turning the project deliverables into a more polished end

Appendices: Appendices are provided to give supplementary information,

which is included in the main text may serve as a distraction and cloud the
central theme. Appendices should be numbered using Arabic numerals, e.g.
Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc. Appendices, Tables and References appearing in
appendices should be numbered and referred to at appropriate places just as in
the case of chapters. Appendices shall carry the title of the work reported and
the same title shall be made in the contents page also.


References: The listing of references should be typed 4 spaces below the

heading REFERENCES in alphabetical order in single spacing left justified.
The reference material should be listed in the alphabetical order of the first
author. The name of the author/authors should be immediately followed by the
year and other details.


Characteristics of Good Project Report

The market research is normally outsourced to third party agencies by organizations
and in turn they create a professional report to the organization. These reports are
preferably provided to senior officials who are the critical decision makers of the
organization. Hence these reports need to be exclusively efficient and well formatted
and the matter should be limpid, analytical and directive.
The actual facts must be depicted clearly and it is desirable that the data and results
are furnished in graphical or tabular format which could create a substantially good
impression and is unambiguous to understand. The reports must be essentially capable
to compare related information in the report so that conclusions can be derived
potentially and easily. It is necessary for a report to contain following details to be
called a good report:
Report should follow the exact predefined goals and objectives. If there is any
sort of divergence of related information which does not match the goals then
the results are of no use. In fact there is a probability of landing up in making
negative or out of focus strategies, which will be very dangerous.
The report should always contain the executive summary of the work. This is
generally kept before the actual report starts as it shows the summary of the
desired business plan.
Apart from the actual analysis the report should also depict the reasons of
making this report and what advantages and profit it can provide after
successful implementation of business plans described inside the report.
It should also contain the methodology of the research which shows the overall
process adopted to create the report.
It is important that the report contains the possibility of errors in any of the
module or process so that immediate measures could be taken to cope up with
these errors.
The report should contain the description of the questionnaires used in analysis
and the way it has been prepared.
The methodology used in the interviews should also be elaborated and what
was achieved in this should also be described.
If the information show that some aspects needs to predict the future trends
then the reports should depict that prediction. This prediction should have
scale of success so that the accuracy could be judged efficaciously. The report
should also define each and every variable and element used in creating these
predictive analyses.
The report should be flexible enough to be changed accordingly. The analytical
information described inside the report should be maintained in such a way

that there is no extra effort labored if any strategy or process it to be changed

in future. It should necessarily mould the changes without changing the
structure of the report.
The analytical report creation is very important phase of market research
which acts as a blueprint of the business plan which is to be executed. By
following the above guidelines while report generation process can be
efficiently taken care of.

Exercise: Assignment
1. Prepare a project report of selected retail organized stores covering their sales
growth, products offering, method of operations, employees, SWOT analysis and
suggestions to improve the performance of the organization?
2. Prepare a project report of retail store covering their business communication
ways should be improve the qualities of the sales personnel and its impact on
improve the sales?

A. Shorts Answer Questions
What is meaning of report?
What do you mean project report?

What is the format followed for preparation of project report?


(iv) Design front page of the project


Enlist the characteristics of good project report?


(vi) Differentiate between technical feasibility and financial appraisal.

B. Fill in the blanks
1. Bonafied certificate should be in _______________ spacing. (double line)
2. A project report is a ________________ of any sort of project (record)
3. Cost of the project includes the _____________ and ___________ development.
(cost of land, site)
4. In preparation e.g. project report it is desired that data and facts should be
furnished in ______________ and _____________ format (graphical, tabular)
5. The report should always contain the ______________ summary. (executive)
C. True or False
1. Under profitability projections further sales of company will be examined.
2. Economic analysis is aimed at inherent strength of the project.


3. The report should not contain the description of the questionnaires used in the
4. In project report Bonafied certificate comes after acknowledgement.


5. Chapters include introduction, parody of report, conclusion and future work.



Checklist for Assessment Activity

Use the following checklist to see if you have met all the requirements for Assessment
Part A
Discuss preparation of project report.
Discuss meaning of project report.
Describe characteristics of good project report.
Identify the need to submit all the document of project report.
Part B
Discussed in class the following:
Concept of project report.
Characteristics of project report.
Importance of project report.
Format of project report.
Format of front page, Bonafied certificate and, conduct page of the project
Part C
Performance Standards
The Performance standards may include, but not limited to:
Performance standards



Able to identify characteristics of project report.

Able to identify importance of project report.
Able to identify format of project report.
Able to identify need to prepare project report.
Able to identify content arrangement of the project report.