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Department of Physics

Alvero, Gillian Paulo F. // 2013101315

Abstract

The core viewpoint of this experiment is to illustrate how work, energy and power are

interrelated to each other. A fan cart, smart timer, and a track were used in order to define work

and power as well as the energy conservation principle. Computation was also done on the work

of a motion along a curved path produced. Initial measurement of force and recording of

displacement and time were two primary steps for obtaining work and power. When the fan cart

moves at a longer distance, it produces a greater amount of work. On the other hand, since the

object is moving horizontally, the power is remained constant. Afterwards, work and energy

(gravitation potential energy) was obtained on a much complicated means because it displaces on

a curve path. Continual increase in pulling the object is done in order to raise it at a certain

height. Later in that, it is found out that potential energy and work are of the same magnitude

which can be proven by the law of conservation of energy and work-energy theorem.

Introduction

Aircrafts do normally take off from the deck of ships through catapult system (catapult

mechanism for launching aircraft at a speed sufficient for flight). Large force is applied to the

aircraft as it is displaced across the deck of a ship. Obviously, the purpose of this is to attain a

certain speed before it can remain airborne which the catapult provides. In the language of

kinematics, it is described as the motion of the plane having accelerated. In the language of

Newtons law, it can be explained as the net force of the object is causing it to accelerate.

Nonetheless, another language can be used by physicist to explain this phenomenon. It is through

the concept of work and energy. This experiment intended to explain how work, energy and

power are different and how they are related as well.

One vital concept of physics is the energy. The universe possesses energy and matter. For

simplicity, matter is a substance and energy is used to move these substances. Energy is

appearing in various forms. Among those are kinetic, gravitational potential, elastic potential,

electric potential, thermal, chemical, etc. Work, on the other hand, is the change in energy from

one form to another by means of an external force. When work is done on an object, therefore,

the object is said to have either gained or lost a certain amount of energy of a particular type. The

total work done on a particle by all forces that act on it is equal to the change in its kinetic

energy, also known as the work-energy theorem. On the other hand, Power, which is another

term in physics, is the rate of time at which work is done. Power is a function of time unlike in

work which is a function of displacement. Similarly, power is also a vector dot product of vectors

force and velocity.

Naturally for this case in our experiment, energy being used are both potential gravitational

energy and kinetic energy. According to Law of Conservation of Energy, energy is neither

created nor destroyed, but transform from one form to another. Law of Conservation of Energy

states that the sum of the total energy in the universe is a constant quantity.

In the experiment, we will determine the power of the fan cart by using the definition of work

and energy conservation principle as well as to compute work for a motion along a curved path.

It is also reflected how energy is transformed or conserved.

Methods

The first experiment is generally divided into two parts. For the first half, calculations of work

and power of a fan cart is the primary concern. To do so, materials such as fan cart, track, smart

timer, photogates, pan with loads, etc. are given to us in assembling the set-up. The fan cart has

fan on it which aids it to move. The fan has wooden blades, so we are careful on using it while it

is in motion. We set the track horizontally on the table, as 0 0 as possible to minimize errors.

Initial determination of the force exerted by the fan was determined in a trial and error basis. The

track is assumed to be frictionless for an ideal experimentation. String is attached at the end of

the cart and pan with loads to the other end. The load has varied masses. The fan cart is allowed

to move in such a way that is pulling the pan with loads, moving away from the pan. Loads were

continually added until such a time that the fan cart is not moving an indication that

equilibrium Direction

is achieved.ofAt

this point, the force exerted by weight and the fan cart are of the

motion

same magnitude (See Figure 2).

fan cart

pan + weightdynamics

of mass track

attribute is considered which is time. Fan cart is allowed to travel at a specific displacement

along the track. Photogates 1 and 2 serves as the initial and final positions, respectively, to

determine the length of displacement. Time was measured using a smart timer. Note that before

releasing the fan cart to move, hold it for a while in order to generate the fans full force to avoid

mistakes.

On the latter half of the experiment, determination of work and

energy (gravitational potential) was done using an object with

mass which is raised time to time. The object with mass used

is bottle like shape with cylindrical body. This object with

mass is tied on a string. The other end of the string is also tied

into an iron stand. Initial height of the mass and the length of

the string connecting the iron stand and the object were recorded. Repetitive pulling the mass

using a horizontal force was done (See Figure 3).

F

m

<Alvero, Gillian Paulo F. // 2013101315> Page 3

h

ho

hf

The force can be obtained using the spring balance. It is important to do horizontal pulling to

minimize errors. It is also done in order to take the full account of the force exerted. As we pull

it, height is increasing. The final height on each pull was recorded as well. Like in the first

part, it is done in several trials as a technique of diminishing the percentage error. Finally,

gravitational potential energy of the mass as well as the work done by the horizontal force is

computed using the obtained data.

Results

<The purpose of the results section is to describe, but not interpret the results, using text, tables

and or charts. All results should be presented in an appropriate form. Consider which results can

simply be mentioned in the text, and which results need to appear in a table or a chart. Dont

duplicate the presentation of results. Any results that appear in a table or chart need some brief

description in a paragraph that precedes the table or chart.

Table 1

Title of Table.

Time 1

Time 2

Time 3

Variable 1 (units)

Variable 2 (units)

Variable 3 (units)

If you are going to present a graph please make sure you have both axis labelled. It is also

recommended that you use some sort of computer package to present your graphs such as Excel,

as hand drawn graphs will receive a lower mark. Please also include a legend so we know what

data are being presented.

Please note the placement of the title. For a table it goes above the table, for a graph it goes

below.

The interpretation of results often depends on knowing whether there is a difference between two

group means. If you can apply a statistical test (i.e. a t-test), you are likely to earn more marks. If

you dont know how to do any statistical analyses you may want to consider presenting

differences in terms of percentage change or percent difference.>

The experiment aims to determine the power of the fan cart by using the definition of work and

the energy conservation principle. The other objective is also to compute work for a motion

along a curved path.

I conclude that work is related to power. Power can be determined using work by considering the

time. It is from its definition that power is the rate of doing work at specific displacement. The

work has linear relation with displacement. If we increase the displacement twice, work is also

increasing twice. For a horizontal path, power of a certain body moving along this path is

constant. If it is leveled, for example, going up stairs, it may vary because of the influence of

gravity. It is best to hold the fan cart first before allowing it to move because by doing this, we

are letting the fan to generate its natural force. Force which is parallel to displacement is doing

the maximum work. On the other hand, the force cannot affect work if force is perpendicular to

displacement.

I conclude that energy appearing in various forms like for example, mechanical energy, is

conserved. It can be transformed from one form to another. It is known as the law of

conservation of energy. The total work done of an object is merely the change in kinetic energy

or change in potential energy. As object moves away from earth surface, the work needed to do

this against gravitational force is then stored or converted as potential energy.

I also conclude that at circular path, work-energy theorem can still be applied. It is a proof that

the total work done to raise an object is equivalent to gravitational potential energy restored.

Aside from work-energy theorem, law of conservation of mechanical energy can prove total

work is equal to PEg.

The use of the method in first part of the experiment will give you accurate result. In oppose to

the second, which may give us unreliable data. It is due to second part has many measuring steps,

which leads us to make assumptions and uncertainties.

References

[1] http://www.thefreedictionary.com/catapult

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_catapult

[3] http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/work_ en ergy_power.htm

[4] hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/work.html

[5] Young, H., Freedman, R., University Physics with Modern Physics, 11th Edition, 2004

[6] http://www.mathsrevision.net/alevel/pages.php? page=93

[7] http://www.launc.tased.edu.au/online/sciences/Phys Sci/ done/kinetics/wep/Work.htm

[8] http://teacher.pas.rochester.edu/PHY_LABS/Appen dixB/AppendixB.html

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