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ECE 402

Microwave Engineering
Laboratory Manual

School of Electronics Engineering (SENSE)


VIT University-Chennai Campus
Chennai, Tamil Nadu

Microwave lab Experiment List


B.Tech (ECE), SENSE
a) Hardware
1. V-I Characteristic of Gunn diode.
2. a) Measurement of VSWR and Determination of the Guide wave length .

b)To measure unknown impedance using Smith chart.


3. Study of Power divider, Waveguide TEE and Circulator characteristics.
4. To study the gain and radiation pattern of horn antenna (E-Sector and H-Sector
and Pyramidal)
5. Study of circulator and determination of the S-matrix.
6. Study of Reflex Kystron Characteristics.

B) Software experiment
1. Design and modulation of Microstrip line and modulation using AWR.
2. Design and modulation of power divider using AWR.
3. Design and modulation of Microstrip antenna. (Using AWR simulator, VNA)
4. Design and simulation Branch line coupler using AWR.
5. Design and simulation single-stage microwave FET amplifier using ADS tool.
6. Design and optimization of Resonator using AWR.
Faculties:
1. Dr. Usha Kiran K.
2. Prof. Chandrasekaren
2. Prof. Niraj Kumar
3. Prof. Sailaj V
4. Prof. Ravi Prakash Dwivedi

1. V-I characteristic of Gunn diode


Aim : To study the V-I characteristics of Gunn diode.
Components and equipments:
Gunn power, Gunn oscillator, PIN modular, Isolator, Frequency meter, variable
attenuator, slotted line, detector mount and VSWR meter.

Theory:
The Gunn oscillator is based on negative differential conductivity effect in
bulk semi-conductors which has two conduction bands minimum separated by an
energy gap (greater than thermal agitation energies). When applied the supply a
high field region is which travels towards anode. When this high field domain
reaches the anode, it disappears and another domain is formed at the cathode and
starts moving towards anode and soon. The time required for domain to travel from
cathode to anode (transit time) gives oscillation frequency.
In Gunn oscillator, the Gunn diode is placed in resonant cavity. In this case
the oscillation frequency is determined by cavity dimension rather than by diode
itself. Although Gunn oscillator can be amplitude-modulated with the bias voltage,
a separate PIN modulator through PIN diode for square wave modulation is used.
The ideal I-V charactertics of the Gunn diode is as shown in Fig. 2

Fig. 1: Set-up for study of GUNN oscillator.

Fig. 2: V-I characteristics of the GUNN oscillator.

Procedure:
1. Set the components and equipments as shown in Fig.1.
2. Initially set the variable attenuator for minimum attenuation.
3.Keep the control knobs of Gunn power supply as below
VSWR Meter switch OFF
Gunn bias knob Fully anti clock wise
PIN bias knob Fully anti clock wise
PIN mode frequency any position
4.Set the micrometer of Gunn oscillator for required frequency of
operation.
5 . Sw itc h O N t he G u n n p o w e r s u p p ly .
6.Measure the Gunn diode current to corresponding to the various Gunn
bias voltage through the digital panel meter and meter switch. Do not exceed the
bias voltage above 10 volts.
7. Plot the voltage and current readings on the graph.8.Measure the threshold
voltage which corresponding to max current.
8. Measure the Threshold Vothage (V th ) at maximum amplitude of
current.
Note: Do not keep Gunn bias knob position at threshold position for more
than 10-15 sec. readings should be obtained as fast as possible. Otherwise due to
excessive heating Gunn diode burns.

Observation:

Results: V-I characteristics of the Gunn diode is measured.


Inferences: The threshold voltage is measured is 3.5 V and threshold

current is 510 mA.

2. MEASUREMENT VSWR, FREQUENCY AND


GUIDE WAVELENGHT AND UNKOWN
IMPEDANCE
AIM: a) To measure VSWR, Reflection coefficient, Return loss using slotted
section.
b) To measure frequency and guide wavelength.
c) Measurement of unknown impedance

Components:
Gunn power supply, Gunn oscillator, PIN modular, Isolator, Frequency
meter, Variable attenuator, Slotted section waveguide, Tunable probe, VSWR
meter, Waveguide stand, Movable short/matched termination.

Theory:
i) VSWR, Reflection coefficient, Return loss
Any mismatch in the transmission line and the load minimum
results in standing wave along the length of the line. The ratio of the
maximum voltage to the minimum voltage of the standing wave is called
VSWR.

Where |EI| and |ER| are respectively the amplitudes of the incident and
reflected electric field strengths. Further, the ratio of the reflected to the
incident electric field intensities is defined as reflection coefficient, i.e.,


Where ZL is the load impedance and Z0 is the characteristic impedance.
The return loss is given by = -20 log ()

Fig. 1: VSWR measurement set-up.

ii) Frequency and guide wave length:


For dominant TE10 mode in rectangular waveguide o, g, and c are
related as below:

where
o is free space wavelength, g is guide wavelength and
c is cutoff wavelength For TE10 mode,
c = 2a where a is broad dimension of waveguide.

Procedure:
1. MEASUREMENT OF LOW AND MEDIUM VSWR (VSWR<10)
1. The probe is moved along the slotted line for maximum deflection in the
VSWR meter.
2. The gain control knob of the VSWR meter or the variable attenuator is adjusted
until the meter indicates 1.00 on normal SWR scale (0- ).
3. Keeping all control knobs as it is, the probe is adjusted for minimum position on
the SWR reading. The VSWR meter reading is recorded ( SWR meter reading at
the minimum, when the maximum is set for 1.00, gives directly the VSWR)
4. The above step is repeated by moving the probe along the slotted line in the
same direction for more number of minimum position and the corresponding
VSWR readings are recorded.
5. If the VSWR is between 3.20 and 10.00, the range db switch is changed to next
higher position and the VSWR reading is taken by the VSWR scale of 3.00 to
10.00.
6. This way the table 1 is completed for the unknown load at different
Frequencies by repeating the above steps 1 to 5.

Table 1: Low and medium VSWR measurement


Sl. No

Frequency
(GHz)

1.

VSWR

RL
(dB)

2.
3.
4.

2. MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY AND GUIDE WAVELENGTH :


1. Set up the components and equipments as shown in Fig. 1.

2. Set the variable attenuator at maximum position.


3. Switch ON the Gunn power supply, VSWR Meter and cooling fan.
4. Keep the Gunn voltage above the threshold voltage.
5. Tune the probe for maximum deflection in VSWR meter.
6. Tune the frequency meter knob to get a dip on the VSWR scale and note down
the frequency directly from frequency meter.
7. Replace the termination with movable short, and detune the frequency meter.
8. Move probe along with the slotted line, the deflection in VSWR meter will
vary. Move the probe to a minimum deflection position, to get accurate
reading; it is necessary to increase the VSWR meter range db switch to higher
position. Note and record the probe position (d1-first minima position).
9. Move the probe to next minimum position and record the probe position again
(d2-second minima position).
10. Calculate the guide wavelength as twice the distance between two successive
minimum position obtained as above. (g = 2 (d2-d1)
11. Measure the waveguide inner broad dimension a which will be around
2.286cm for X-band.
12. Calculate the frequency by following equation:

where c = 3 108 meter/sec. i.e. velocity of light.


13. Verify with frequency obtained by frequency meter.
24. Above experiment can be verified at different frequencies.
15. Record the experimental results in a tabulated form as per format given in
Table 2:
Table 2: Measurement of frequency and guide wave length
Sl
No.

Direct
Frequency
(GHz)

d1

d2

(cm)

(cm)

g = 2 (d2-d1)

Frequency

(cm)

(GHz)

Conclusions: The VSWR, frequency and guide wavelength is measured


Inference: The direct frequency reading is matching with the measured
frequency.

2. c) Measurement of Unknown impedance using smith Chart


Block Diagram:

Theory:
The impedance at any point on a transmission line can be written in the form
R+jX. For comparison SWR can be calculated as

The unknown device is connected to the slotted line and the


position of one minima is d e te r min e d . T h e u n k n o w n d e v ic e i s
re p la c e d b y s h o rt to t h e s lo tte d li n e . Tw o successive minima portions
are noted. The twice of the difference between minima position will be guide wave
length. One of the minima is used as reference for impedance measurement. Find

the difference of reference minima and minima position obtained from unknown
load. Let it be d. Take a smith chart, taking 1 as centre, draw a circle of radius
equal to S. Mark a point on circumference of smith chart towards load side at a
distance equal to d/g. Join the center with this point. Find the point where
it cut the drawn circle. The co -ordinates of this point will show the normalized
impedance of load.

PROCEDURE:
1. Find the distance minima for short as load at Vmin (do).
2. Next find minima position for matched load (dx).
3. From the above 2 steps calculate d = d1~d2
4.W ith the sa me s etup as in ste p 2 but with few numbe rs of
t u r n s ( 2 o r 3 ) . C a l c u l a t e VSWR.
5 . D ra w a V S W R c irc le o n a s mit h c h a r t.
6. Draw a line from center of circle to impedance value (d/g) from which
calculate admittance and Reactance (Z = R+jX)

Reading:
1. Minima with short do = ---------------- cm
2. Minimum with unkown load dx = ..cm
3. Shift in minima d = dx-do =-------------------cm
4. The shift in terms of wavelength = l = d/g = ---------------.
5. With matched load:
First
Frequency

Second

minima minima d= d2-d1


d1

g= 2 d

VSWR

d2

Measurement for unknown impedance:


Frequency

Shift in minima
(cm)

Results: The unknown impedance is measured.

4. DIRECTIONAL COUPLER AND MAGIC TEE


Aim: a) To determine the coupling factor(C), Insertion loss (L), isolation (i) and
directivity coupler.
b) Study the characteristics of waveguide TEE.

Components: Gunn power supply, Gunn oscillator, PIN modular, Isolator,


Frequency meter, Variable attenuator, Slotted section waveguide, Tunable probe,
VSWR meter, Waveguide stand, detector mount direction coupler and magic TEE.

1. Directional Coupler :
Theory:

Fig.1: Measurement set-Up of the directional coupler

A directional coupler is a device with which it is possible to


measure the incident and reflected wave separately. It consist of two
transmission lines the main arm and auxiliary arm, electromagnetically
coupled to each other Refer to the Fig.1. The power entering, in the
main-a r m g e ts d iv id e d b e t w e e n p o rt 2 a n d 3 , a n d a l mo s t n o p o w e r
c o me s o u t in p o r t (4 ) P o w e r entering at port 2 is divided between port 1 and
port 4.
The coupling factor is defined as Coupling (db) = 10 log [P1/P3] where
port 2 is terminated,
Isolation (dB) = 10 log [P2/P3] where P1 is matched.
With built-in termination and power entering at Port 1. The
directivity of the coupler is a measure of separation betwee n incident
wave and the reflected wave. Directivity is measured indirectly as follows:
Hence Directivity D (db) = I-C = 10 log [P2/P1]
Main line insertion loss is the attenuation introduced in the
transmission

line

by

insertion

of coupler,

it

is

defined

as:

Insertion Loss (dB) = 10 log [P1/P2].

Produce:
1. Set the experiment as shown in the Fig. 1.
2. Connect the detector to the O/P of the variable attenuator and adjust
attenuator and VSWR meter gain control to get a convenient reference
full scale deflection of 0 dB on say 30 dB scale. Record the reference
power level as P1.
3. Connect the directional coupler in forward direction and terminate port
P2 with the matched load and connect the detector to port2 and measure
port 3 power level in dB. Record this as P3.

4. Next interchange the terminal at port 3 and measure power level at port 2
as P2.
5. Change the direction of the directional coupler.
6. Apply microwave signal to port 2 and measure power at Port 1 in dB.
(matched load port 3). Calculate for directivity.
7. Interchange the terminations and measure power at Port 3. Calculate for
isolation.

Tabular Column:
1. Forward direction:
Frequency

Input
power
P1 (db)

P2
(dB)

P3
(dB)

Coupling
Insertion
Co-efficient
Loss
C = P3-P1 L = P1-P2
(dB)
(dB)

2. Reverse direction:
Frequency

Input
power
P2 (db)

P1
(dB)

P3
(dB)

Directivity
D = P2-P1
(dB)

Isolation
I = P2-P3
(dB)

ii Magic Tee:
Theory:
\

The device Magic Tee is a combination of E and H plane Tee. Arm 3 is the
H-arm and arm 4 is the E-arm. If the power is fed, into arm 3 (H-arm) the
electric field divides equally betweenarm1 and 2 with the same phase and no
electric field exists in the arm 4. If power is fed in arm 4 (E-arm) it divides
equally into arm 1 and 2 but out of phase with no power to arm 3,
further, if the power is fed in arm 1 and 2 simultaneously it is added in arm 3 (Harm) and it is subtracted in E-arm i.e., arm 4.
Isolation: The Isolation between E and H arm is defined as the ratio
of the power supplied by the generator connected to the E-arm (port 4) to the
power detected at H-arm (port 3) when side arm1 and 2 terminated in matched
load.

Isolation (dB) = 10 log10 [P4/P3]


Similarly, Isolation between other ports may be defined.
Coupling Factor: It is defined as Cij = 10 /20
Where is attenuation / isolation in dB when i' is input arm and j is
output arm. Thus, = 10 log10 [j/i] Where P3 is the power delivered to arm i and
P4 is power detected at j arm.

Fig.2: Wave guide Tee Measuring set-up

Procedure: (Magic Tee)


1. Setup the components and equipments as shown in figure. 2.
2. Energize

the

microwave source

for particular frequency of

operation and tune the detector mount for maximum output (Pin) .
3. With the help of variable frequency of operation and tune the
detector mount for maximum output at P3 a, set any reference as input
power.
4. Without disturbing the position of the variable attenuator, carefully place the
Magic Tee after t he s lo t te d lin e , k e e p in g H -a r m to s lo tte d l i n e ,
d e te c to r mo u n t t o E -a r m a n d ma t c he d termination to Port-1 and
Port-2.
5. Note down the power at E-arm i.e P4.
6. Determine the Isolation between Port-3 and Port-4 as I = P3-P4

7. Determine the coupling co-efficient from the equation given in


theory part.
8. The same experiment may be repeated for other Ports also.
Tabular column:
Sl. No:

Input arm

Output arm

Coupling

(db)

(dB)

Coefficient

P1=

P2=

C12=

P3=

C13=

P4=

C14=

P2 =

P1=
P3=
P4=

P3=

P1=
P2=
P4=

Results: The Isolation, coupling co-efficient, insertion loss and


directivity of the direction coupler is measured.
The isolation and the coupling co-efficient of the Magic Tee
is measured.

5. Radiation pattern and gain of the Horn antenna


Aim: To measure the gain of the Horn antenna and plot the radiation pattern.

Components: Gunn power supply, Gunn oscillator, PIN modular, Isolator,


Frequency meter, Variable attenuator, Slotted section waveguide, Tunable probe,
VSWR meter, Waveguide stand, detector mount, horn antenna, turn table.

Theory:
Many microwave communications, the transmission and reception of
microwave power to/from space is done through an antenna. The basic
characteristics of the antenna are bandwidth, gain and radiation pattern. A
transmission line shall act as an antenna if its output end is well matched to space.
Such an antenna because of having shapes like horns are known as horn antenna.

Radiation pattern:
The radiation pattern of an antenna is a diagram of the field strength in the
respective direction (degrees). The radiation pattern is measured in far flied at a
distance R = 2D2/o, Where D is the broader dimensions of the wave guide and o
is the free space wave length.

Gain of the antenna:


The gain of the antenna is given by

4R
o

Pr
Pt

Where Pr receiving power


Pt Transmitting power
R- is the distance between the transmitting and receiving antennas.
The gain G(dB) = 10 log 10 (4r/o)+[(1/2) 10 log10 Pr]+[(1/2) 10 log10 Pt]

Beam width:
It is the angle between the two points of the main lobe at which radiated
power density is half of the total received power. Generally gain is highest when
beam width is less or narrow.

Fig. 1: Radiation pattern set up for horn antenna.

Procedure:
1. Measured the transmitted power (Pt) by keeping the detector

mount at the attenuator near the transmitting end.


2. Next place the horn antennas at the transmitting and receiving ends

as shown Fig. 1. The distance between the antennas should be


more than R = 2D2/o
3. Align the antennas at 0 degree. Note that the antenna is of same

polarization.
4. Record the receiving power (Pr) at the 0 degree near receiving

end.
5. Calculate gain G dB
G(dB) = 10 log 10 (4r/o)+[(1/2) 10 log10 Pr]+[(1/2) 10 log10 Pt]
6. Rotate the turntable at the receiving end from 0 to 180 degree in

steps of 5 degree and note the respective powers from power


meter.
7. Take the normalized values of the received power and plot a graph.
8. Measure the beam width form the graph at the half power (3 dB)

points.

Tabular column: radiation pattern


The input power Pt = ---------dB
Angle in Degrees

Received power (Pr)


(dB)

Normalized power
(dB)

Results: The horn antenna gain is measured and the radiation pattern is plotted.
Inference: The gain of the horn antenna is .dB
The beam width is

7. SCATTERING PARAMETERS OF THE CIRCULATOR


Aim: To Study the scattering parameters of the Circulator
i) Insertion loss of circulator
ii) Isolation of circulator.
Components: X-band source, Isolator, Frequency meter, Variable attenuator,
Slotted section waveguide, Tunable probe, VSWR meter, Waveguide stand,
detector mount and circulator.

Theory:
1. ISOLATOR: The isolator have very small insertion loss in forward
direction and large in reverse direction.
2. CIRCULATOR: The circulator is a multi-port device which allows flow of
the signal in certain direction as shown in Fig. 1. A wave incident in Port1 is
coupled to port2 only, wave incident at port2 is coupled to port3 only and
So. The following are the basic parameters of isolator and circulator for
study.
3. ISOLATION: It is the ratio of power fed into input arm to the power
detected at uncoupled port with other port terminated in the matched load.
4. INPUT VSWR: The input VSWR of an isolator or circular is the ratio of
the voltage maximum to voltage minimum of the standing wave exiting on
the line when one port is terminated to the line and others have matched
loads.

Fig. 2: The Measurement of VSWR

Fig. 3: The measurement of insertion loss and isolation of the circulator.

Observation:
Frequency

VSWR

Power at
P1 (dB)

Power at
P2 (dB)

Power at
P3 (dB)

Isolation Insertion
(P3-P1) loss (P2-P1)

Result: Insertion loss and isolation of the circulator is measured.


Inference: Insertion loss is less and isolation is more.

6. REFLEX KLYSTRON CHARACTERISTICS


Aim: To verify the characteristics of Reflex Klystron tube and to determine the
electronic tuning range.
Apparatus: Klystron Power Supply Klystron Tube, with Klystron, Isolator ,
Frequency Meter , Variable Attenuator , Detector Mount, Wave Guide Stand ,
VSWR Meter, Oscilloscope, BNC Cable.
Theory:
The Reflex Klystron makes the use of velocity modulation to transform continuous
electron beam energy into microwave power. Electrons emitted from the cathode
are accelerated and passed through the positive resonator towards negative
reflector, which retards and, finally, reflects the electrons and the electron turn
back through the resonator. Suppose an RF- Field exists between the resonator, the
electrons traveling forward will be accelerated or retarded, as the voltage at the
resonator changes in amplitude. The accelerated electrons leave the resonator at an
increased velocity and the retarded electrons leave at the reduced velocity. The
electrons leaving the resonator will need different time to return, due to change in
velocities. As a result, returning electrons group together in bunches. As the
electron bunches pass through resonator, they interact with voltage at the resonator
grids. If the bunches passes the grid at such time that the electrons are slowed
down by the voltage then energy will be delivered to the resonator and the
Klystron will oscillate. Fig. 2 & 3 shows the relationship between output power,
frequency and reflector voltages. The frequency is primarily determined by the
dimensions of the resonant cavity. Hence, by changing the volume of resonator,
mechanical tuning of Klystron is possible. Also, a small frequency change can be
obtained by adjusting the reflector voltage. This is called electronic tuning.

Procedure:
A) Carrier Wave Operation
1. Connect the components and equipment as shown in Fig.1.
2. Set the variable attenuator at the minimum position.
3. Set the Mod-switch of Klystron Power Supply at CW position, beam voltage
control knob to fully anticlockwise and reflector voltage control knob to fully
clock wise and the meter Switch to OFF position.
4. Rotate the knob of frequency meter at one side fully.
5. Connect the DC Microampere meter with detector.
6. Switch ON the Klystron Power Supply, VSWR Meter and Cooling Fan for the
Klystron Tube.
7. Put on beam voltage switch and rotate the beam voltage knob clockwise slowly
up to 300V meter reading and observe beam current position, the beam current
should not increase more than 30mA.
8. Change the reflector voltage slowly and watch current meter. Set the voltage for
maximum deflection in the meter.
9. Tune the plunger of klystron mount for the maximum output.
10. Rotate the knob of frequency meter slowly and stop at the position, where there
is lowest output current on multimeter. Read directly the frequency meter
between two horizontal line and vertical marker. If micrometer type frequency
meter is used, read the micrometer reading and use the frequency chart.
11. Change the reflector voltage and read the current and frequency for each
reflector voltage.
B) Square Wave Operation
1. Connect the equipment and components as shown in figure1.
2. Set micrometer of variable attenuator around some position.
3. Set the range switch of VSWR meter at 40dB position, input selector switch to
crystal impedance.
4. Set Mod-Selector switch to AM-MOD position, beam voltage control knob to
fully anticlockwise position.
5. Switch ON the klystron power supply, VSWR meter, cooling fan.
6. Switch ON the beam voltage switch and rotate the beam voltage knob clockwise
up to 300V deflection in meter.
7. Keep the AM-MOD amplitude knob and AM-FRE knob at mid position.
8. Rotate the reflector voltage knob to get deflection in VSWR meter.
9. Rotate the AM-MOD amplitude knob to get maximum output in VSWR meter.
10. Maximize the deflection with frequency knob to get maximum output in
VSWR meter.
11. If necessary, change the range switch of VSWR meter from 30dB to 50dB if

the deflection in VSWR meter is out of scale or less than normal scale
respectively.
Further the output can be also reduced by variable attenuator for setting the output
for any particular position. Find the oscillator frequency by frequency meter as
described in the earlier set up.
C) Mode Study on Oscilloscope
1. Setup the components and equipments as shown in figure1.
2. Keep the position of variable attenuator at minimum attenuation position.
3. Set the mode selector switch to FM-MOD position, FM amplitude and FM
frequency knob at mid position, keep beam voltage knob fully anticlockwise and
reflector voltage knob to fully clockwise position and beam switch to OFF
position.
4. Keep the time/division scale of oscilloscope around 100Hz frequency
measurement and Volt/div to lower scale.
5. Switch on the Klystron Power Supply and Oscilloscope.
6. Switch ON beam voltage switch and set beam voltage to 300V by beam
voltage control knob.
7. Keep amplitude knob of FM Modulator to maximum position and rotate
the reflector voltage anticlockwise to get modes as shown in figure2. on the
Oscilloscope. The horizontal axis represents reflector voltage and vertical axis
represents output power.
8. By changing the reflector voltage and amplitude of FM modulation, any
mode of Klystron Tube can be seen on Oscilloscope.

Fig. 1 Set up for Klystron Oscillator

Fig. 2 Modes of Klystron Oscillator

Tabular Form:
S.No

Repeller
Voltage

Frequency

PowerMeter
reading(dBm)

Result: The characteristics of Reflex Klystron has been studied and modes have been found.

Software Experiments
Objective: To study the performance of different two port networks by
determining their scattering parameters.
Equipment required : AWR Microwave Office software
Specifications :

Characteristic impedance Z0 =
Operating frequency

Substrate thickness

H =

Metal thickness

Dielectric constant

r =

Loss tangent

L =

Theory :
Microstrip lines: The simple microstrip line uses a single strip conductor on the
dielectric that rests on a single ground plane. Generally the ground plane made up
of with good conductor like silver or copper and the material used for the dielectric
is Teflon or Aluminum or Silicon, etc.. It is possible to use several independent
strips with the same ground planes and dielectric. Microstrip lines use quasi TEM
mode of propagation. The ground plane of the microstrip line must be wide
compared with the top conductor, so it appears like a nearly infinite wide ground
plane with only very small electric field fringes at its edges. The characteristic
impedance of a microstrip line depends on the strip line width, thickness, the
distance between microstrip line and ground plane and the dielectric constant of
the dielectric material.

Figure 1

Design Equations:

The effective dielectric constant is calculated by:

r 1
2

r 1
H
2 1 12

8e A

e2 a 2

forZ 0 44 2 r narrowstrip

r 1
0.61
H 2
B 1 ln(2 B 1
ln( B 1) 0.39


2 r
r

Z0 r 1 r 1
0.11

0.23

60
2
r 1
r
377
B
forwidestrip
2Z 0 r
A

l l

2

l

g
2

W= Width of the microstrip line, l = Length of transmission line, H = Thickness of


the substrate, A,B constants, = Phase shift, g=Guide wavelength.

Sample Observations: The behaviour of a two port network when matched with
50 ohm at both input and output ports for a typical microstrip line with the
following specifications is shown below.
Z0 =

50 , f = 3 GHz , H = 1.6 mm, T = 0.036 mm, r = 4.4 , L = 0.001

Model graph:
Graph 1
0

-50

DB(|S(1,1)|)
TWO PORT NETWORK
DB(|S(2,1)|)
TWO PORT NETWORK

-100

-150
1

3
4
Frequency (GHz)

Practical Observations:

Frequency

Conclusions:

S11

S12

S21

S22

2. MICROSTRIP POWER DIVIDER


Aim: 1. To design and simulation of a Wilkinson power divider for equal and
unequal power divisions.
2. To determine the scattering parameters of Wilkinson power divider.
Equipment required: AWR Microwave Office software
Specifications:

Characteristic impedance

Z0 =

Operating frequency

Substrate thickness

H =

Metal thickness

Dielectric constant

r =

Loss tangent

L =

Figure (1)

Theory: The Wilkinson power divider is generally designed using microstrip lines
as shown in figure 2 and can be made with any number of ports with equal or
unequal power divisions.

Wilkinson power divider has many advantages over

other power dividers and has the following properties

1. Matched at all ports.


2. Large isolation between output ports
3. Reciprocal
4. Lossless when output ports are matched

The S-matrix of a 3-port Wilkinson power divider is given by

j
[S ]
2
j

Figure (2)

Design Equations:

j
2
0
0

PowerdivisionRatio K 2
Z 03 Z 0

P3
P2

1 K 2
K3

Z 02 Z 03K 2 Z 0 K (1 k 2 )
R Z0 (K

1
)
K

R2 Z 0 K
R3 Z 0 / K

Sample Observations: For equal power division, sample results of a Wilkinson


power divider shown below
Z0 =

50 , f = 3 GHz , H = 1.6 mm, T = 0.036 mm, r = 4.4 , L = 0.001

Model graph:

S parameters
0

-20

-40
DB(|S(1,1)|)
Wilknson divider
DB(|S(2,1)|)
Wilknson divider

-60

DB(|S(3,1)|)
Wilknson divider
DB(|S(3,2)|)
Wilknson divider

-80
1

3
4
Frequency (GHz)

Practical Observations:

Frequency

Conclusions:

S11

S21

S31

S32

3. DESIGN AND SIMULATION BRANCH LINE COUPLER


Aim: To Design and simulate branch line coupler using AWR software
Components : AWR Software
Theory:
A branch-line coupler outputs from the coupled port 3 a fraction of the
power presented at the input (pin 1). The remainder of the power is passed
through to the output port (pin 2). At the center frequency the phase difference
between the outputs is 90 degrees, with the coupled port representing the
quadrature (Q) output and the output port representing the in-phase (I) output.
The coupling coefficient specifies the ratio of the input power to the coupled
power (P1/P3). Pin 4 represents the isolated port, and it is typically well isolated
from the input port near the center frequency. The coupling coefficient must be
positive and greater than 3 dB. Best results are obtained for tight couplings of 6
dB or better (C < 6 dB). Choosing the coupling parameter larger than 6 dB often
causes width constraint violations to occur on the MTEE components, resulting
inwarning messages during design and simulation. A coupling coefficient of 3
dB provides an equal power split between the two outputs.

Fig. 1 Branch line coupler


PROCEDURE:
Step1: Open the AWR software.
Step2: Create a new project from the file menu
Step3: Open the Axiem window of AWR.

Step4: Define material and thickness


Step5: Draw branch line coupler in AWR by selecting the co-ordinates.
Step 6: Connect the ports for all the branches as shown below:

Fig. 2: Branch line coupler in AWR


Step 7: Specify the desired frequency range for simulation and press simulation
ICON

Result:
The obtained characteristics of the simulated results of Branch line coupler
is as shown in the Fig. 2. The results graph show that the branch line coupler is
well matched and resonates at 2.59 GHz. The isolation and return loss
characteristics are below 20 dB. The coupled power of 3db is obtained in the
port 3.

Fig. 9 : S-parameters of Branch line coupler.

Conclusion: Branch line is designed, developed and simulated using AWR.

4. DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF MICROSTRIP ANTENNA.


(USING AWR SIMULATOR)

Aim: To Design and simulate Microstrip antenna using AWR Software..


Components: AWR Software
Theory:
Microstrip antenna consists of patch on one side of the substrate and a
ground plane on the other side. The length of the microstrip patch antenna consists
of lambda/2 patch which acts as a open circuited transmission line. The Microstrip
antenna radiates from the edges open ended circuited line. The design formulas
are as follows:

Procedure :
Step1: Open the AWR software.
Step2: Create a new project from the file menu
Step3: Open the Axiem window of AWR.
Step4: Define material and thickness of the substrate used.
Step5: Draw rectangular patch in AWR by selecting the co-ordinates as shown in
below figure.

Fig. 1: Design of Microstrip antenna


Step 6 : Appropriate 50 ohm Microstrip feed to the antenna.
Step 7: Connect the ports for the antenna and terminate the port to the ground.
Step 8: Specify the desired frequency range for simulation and press simulation
ICON

Results:
The simulated results are as shown in the below Fig. 2. For the figure it is
seen that the antenna resonates at 900 MHz. Good Returns loss of -25 dB is
obtained.

Fig. 2: S11 characteristics of MSA

Conclusion: Microstrip antenna is design and develop in AWR. the antenna


resonates at 900 MHz. Good Returns loss of -25 dB is obtained

5. SINGLE STAGE FET AMPLIFIER USING IMPEDANCE


MATCHING NETWORKS
Aim: Study of Single stage FET amplifier using impedance
matching networks for maximum gain.

Components: HFSS designer


Theory: To realize maximum gain, the input and output matching
networks are simultaneously conjugate matched to the transistor from
the following Fig.1

Fig.1: The general transistor amplifier circuit

1. Stability of amplifier.
First the amplifier as to satisfy the stability criteria:

2. Reflection co-efficient calculation:

Where

3. Gains of the amplifier:

Procedure:
1. The matching network used here is open stub.

2. Using smith chart we should find the stub length as shown in the
figure.

Procedure for finding stub length:


1. Start by marking magnitude and phase of s in the smith cart. Find the zl
at that point. We usually find stub length interms of admittance.
2. Compute yl on the smith chart.
3. Draw a circle with radius is equal to zl. Note the point where the circle
cuts the unit admittance circle and mark as y2.
4. For line length l1 move from yl to y2 and measure the distance.
5. For open stub toward y2 from y=0 in clockwise direction.
6. Likewise repeat for L.

3. After finding stub length using HFSS Cad software tool we


simulate transistor as the softer ware as follows:

Results:

From the graph the gain can be calculated using S21 parameter and the
S11 gives return loss
Results: The transistor has resonated at 4.8 GHz with return loss
S11 = -22dB. The transducer gain of the transistor is S21= -3.3dB at 4
GHz.
Inferences: The transistor is matched using open stub impendence and
transistor is a narrow bandwidth amplifier.