MATERIALS & PRACTICES; ME-201 Submitted by;
Name: Muhammad Riyaz- ul- Islam Semester: Fall-2007 Program: B.S.T.E Batch: 4th ID: 06313241

Submitted to;
MS. NAZIRA USMANI Course Advisor. Lecturer of B.S.T.E Department. CITY UNIVERSITY.

Date of Submission: 13 th NOVEMBER, 2007

Shearing strain:


It is defined as the angular change between perpendicular faces of differential element. It is denoted by gamma.(γ) δs γ L

Shearing strain, tan γ = δs/L Tan is negligible for very small angle, γ = δs/L Assuming Hooke’s law applied to shearing stress & shearing strain. Shearing stress α Shearing strain τ α γ where, τ = Shearing stress γ =Shearing strain G= Modulus of rigidity.

 V/As = G. δs/L

δs =VL/G.As

Poisson ratio: It is the ratio of lateral strain to the axial strain. It is denoted by “nue” (υ). Poisson ratio = I lateral strain/axial strain I Poisson ratio for steel 0.25 to 0.30 Poisson ratio for Concrete 0.20 Poisson ratio for most other metals is 0.33 Torque – Turning moment:

The product of the turning force & distance the point of application of the force & the axis of the shaft known as torque – turning moment or twisting moment. In during the torsion formula some assumptions are: a) The material of the shaft is uniform. b) The twist along the shaft is uniform. c) Normal sections of the shaft are plane of circular after twist. d) Shaft is loaded by twisting couples in plane that is perpendicular to the axis of the shaft. e) Stress does not exit the proportional limit. Formula for math: Angle of twist, θ = TL/GJ (in radian form) Or, θ = 180°/п * TL/GJ (in degree form) Where, T = Torque. L = Length. G = Modulus of rigidity. J = Polar moment of inertia. For solid shaft = J = п.d4/32 Where, d = diameter of the shaft. Problem: An aluminum shaft with a constant diameter of 50mm is loaded by torque applied to gears attached to it as shown in figure. Using G = 28GPa diameter the relative twist of gear D relative to gear A.





D 2m Solution: D C

C 3m

B 2m


B 900Nm

A 600Nm

800Nm 1100Nm

TDC = 800Nm (clock wise) TCB = 1100(ACW) – 800(CW) = 300Nm (Anti clock wise) TBA= 800(CW) + 900(CW) – 1100(ACW) = 600Nm (clock wise) Angle of twist of gear D relative to gear A. θ D/A = ∑ TL/GJ (radian) 1*32 28×109*п* (0.05)4 = 0.11085 (cw) (radian) = 0.11058* 180º/ п = 6.3363º (cw) Ans: For solid shaft = J = п.d4/32 TDC * LDC + TBC * LBC + TBA *LBA = 800 * 2 – 300 * 3 + 600 * 2 = 1600 - 900 + 1200 = 1900 Nm2 (cw)


Problem: A shaft with a constant diameter of 2 inch is loaded by torques applied to gears fastened to it. Using G = 12×106 PSI, compute in degrees the relative angle of twist between gears A relative to gear D.





D 4ft Solution: D 600lb-ft C

C 3ft

B 5ft



A 500lb-ft

1000lb-ft 900lb-ft

TAB = 500lb-ft (clock wise) TBC = 900(ACW) – 500(CW) = 400lb-ft (Anti clock wise) TCD= 1000(CW) + 500(CW) – 900(ACW) = 600lb-ft (clock wise) Angle of twist of gear A relative to gear D.


θ A/D = ∑ TL/GJ (radian) 32*T 12×106*п* (2)4 = 5.31×10-8*532800 = 0.0283 (cw) (radian) = 0.0283* 180º/ п = 1.62º (cw) Ans:

For solid shaft = J = п.d4/32 TAB * LAB + TBC * LBC + TCD *LCD = (500*5) – (400*3) + (600*4) = 2500 - 1200 + 2400 = 3700 lb-ft2 (cw) = 3700*12*12 lb-inch2 (cw) = 532800 lb-inch2 (cw)

REFERENCE BOOKS:  Andrew Pytel & Ferdinand L. Singer; Strength of Materials; Fourth Edition; Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc; India; 2001; Page: (01-73)

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