Assignment

Present trends of man made fibre production & their economic & social aspect.
Course code: Tex-201 Course title: Textile Raw Materials-II

On

th Submitted Date: 6th January, 2010.

MUHAMMAD KAMRUZZAMAN LECTURER OF BSTE CITY UNIVERSITY

Submitted To:

Group Members:
SERIAL NO.
01 02 03 04 05 06

NAME

ID

MD. FAZLUL HAQUE RASEL HOSSAIN MD. KHAIRUK AHSAN Md. Musa ali md. alomgir Bipul shah

06313219 07215050 07316009 08117105 09120231 09322001

Acknowledgement:
At first we give our thanks to Allah. And then we also give our respectful thanks to our course advisor, Muhammad Kamruzzaman for his important advises which are very helpful for us to produce this assignment.

Table of Content

Topic Name
Introduction

Page No. 01-02 02 03 04 05 05 05-06 07 07 08 08

Definition History Classification of Manmade Fibres Man-made Fibre Industry Man-made Fibre Industry in Bangladesh
Driving Factors behind Rapid Growth of Manmade Fibre Industry

Present Trends
Conclusion References Reference links

Introduction

The important new trends noted in recent years in the evolution of man made fibre production significantly alter the possibilities of satisfying the demands for textile materials and articles. Today, the properties of traditional kinds of man made fibres are deliberately modified and new fibres and fibre materials are appearing. The high social, technical, and economic efficacy of using chemical fibres and textiles made from them is indisputable, and production is increasing from year to year for this reason. Production of natural fibres- cotton, jute, flax, hemp, wool, and natural silk has now reached a total of 27-28 million tons. No significant increase in production is projected since cultivated areas, water resources, and the possibility of improving agricultural practices are limited to a significant degree. In addition, cultivated areas will be required in the future for growing agricultural food products. For this reason, natural fibre production is gradually approaching its limit, estimated at 32-35 million tons a year. The total volume of fibres manufactured and processed into textiles is close to 60 million tons a year, and the world population is almost 6.1 billion people. Each inhabitant of the planet thus consumes 9-10 kg of fibre materials. As a function of the climate, level of development of the countries and other reasons, this “norm” is unevenly distributed .it is much higher in developed countries and countries with colder climates. According to the projections of sociologists, the planet’s population will approach 10-11 billion by the middle of the 21st century, and the demand for fibres and fibre materials per capita (including the needs of developed technology) could reach 12-15 kg and higher, which corresponds to the current level of demand in the most developed countries. Based on the above, the interest in the prospects for development of chemical fibres and textiles made from them, the appearance of new kinds, and the possible substitution of certain kinds of fibres by others is completely understandable. For this reason, the analysis and prediction of the evolution of production and an evaluation of the technical and economic problems in this area are very important. Man made fibres used for manufacturing domestic, industrial, hygienic, medical, and other articles can be divided into several groups. Generalpurpose fibres and filaments, including modified fibres; elastomeric fibres, high-strength fibres, including films manufactured by fibrillation; ultra strong and ultrahigh-modulus fibres; thermo stable and difficult-to-ignite fibres; fibres with specific physical, physicochemical, and chemical properties. In addition, nonwoven fibre materials manufactured by direct melt spinning and acetate and other kinds of cigarette twist not undergoing textile processing should be distinguished. Of the listed groups of generalpurpose fibres and filaments, high-strength fibres and direct-spun nonwoven materials belong to large-tonnage types of production, while the remainder is medium and small tonnage products.

Definition
A fibre or staple fibre is a substance which is usually at least 100 times longer than its diameter. Usually fibres are several thousand times longer than they are thick. Most apparel fibres are about 15 to 150 mm long and 10 to 50 μm (μm = 0.001 mm) thick but the length of a filament fibre may be several kilometers. Staples offered opportunity to blend with natural fibres and ensures a greater economy in manufacturing (machines are 10 times more efficient). Fibres that are not found in nature in fibre form are called man-made fibre. The fibre forming substances have to be manufactured by chemical method instead of growing them in fields. Because of this, man-made fibres are also called chemical or manufactured fibre. The fibre forming substances are usually made from wood pulp, cotton linters, petrochemicals or natural gas.

History
1664 1855 1884 1891 1905 1921 1938 1941 1950 1953 1959 1963 1981 1992 1998 English physicist Robert Hooke suggested the possibility of extruding artificial silk by a mechanical imitation of the silkworm. A patent was issued to French scientist Georges Audemars for the manufacture of nitrocellulose (gun cotton). Extreme flammability made them unacceptable for textile use. Count Hilaire de Chardonnet in France produced regenerated cellulose (de-nitrated) fibre from nitrocellulose at the same time as Sir Joseph Wilson Swan in Britain. Manufacture of the first commercially produced man-made fibre known as Chardonnet Silk began. Viscose Rayon was discovered by CF Cross and EJ Bevan. First commercial production of Viscose Rayon by Courtaulds. First commercial production of Acetate (Celanese®) by British Celanese. First Synthetic fibre Nylon was discovered by WH Carothers at Du Pont. He also discovered neoprene synthetic rubber and aliphatic polyester. Commercial production started in 1939. Polyester was discovered by JT Dickson and JR Whinfield at Calico Printers Association, UK. Commercial production of Acrylic (Orlon®) by Du Pont. Commercial production of Polyester by ICI (Terylene®) in UK and Du Pont (Dacron®) in USA. Commercial production of Spandex (Lycra®) by Du Pont. Commercial production of Aramid (Nomex®) by Du Pont. Genesis by Courtaulds started, leading to the discovery of Lyocell (Tencel®). Full commercial production of Lyocell (Tencel®) by Courtaulds. Commercial production of PBO (poly-para-phenylene bisoxazole) by Toyobo (Japan).

Classification of Man-made Fibres
Man-made fibres are basically divided into two major groups based on the origin of the fibre-forming substance i.e. natural or synthetic. Another group includes fibres such as Metal (Aluminum/Steel), Carbon and Glass. A detailed classification is given below:

Man-made Fibre Industry
Current world production of textile fibres is about 60 million tons (2003) and about 60% of them are man-made fibres. Among all man-made fibres, Polyester has the highest share (19 million tons in 2000; 57% filament, 43% staple; 75% of production from developing countries; 34 million tons by 2010) and its share is increasing while the share of Nylon (17.5%, 3.9 million tons in 1995; 16% staple, 84% filament including BCF; 5 million tons by 2000) is steady. The share of Acrylic (10.8%, 2.4 million tons in 1995) is slowly decreasing and the share of cellulosics (11.2%, 2.5 million tons in 1995) has started to increase after a few years of minus growth due to environmental problems. Other fibres of importance include Polypropylene (6.7%, 1.5 million tons in 1995; 4 million tons by 2000), Lyocell (18 thousand tons in 1993; 0.3 million tons by 2005) and Elastane (0.1 million tons by 2000). Geographically, USA remains the single largest producer (19% in 1995) while the production share of Western Europe and Japan are 15% and 8% respectively. The growth centre for man-made fiber industry is Asia and the combined production of Taiwan, China, South Korea and India accounts for 33% of world production in 1995.

Man-made Fibre Industry in Bangladesh
Although Bangladesh has a huge demand of man-made fibres for its thriving textile sector, only a few production facilities are available to meet such a requirement. One of the earliest man-made fibre (Viscose Rayon) production facilities in Bangladesh was constructed in Chittagong (Chandragona Rayon Mill, BCCI) which now stands obsolete. Few production plants had also been set-up in the private sector. Beximco Synthetics (20 ton/day) and KSFL are few to name here.

Driving Factors behind Rapid Growth of Man-made Fibre Industry
Natural fibres have been dominating the world fibre consumption for about 6000 years. Ninety nine years after the first commercial production of manmade fibre in 1905, its share of total fibre production now stands more than 50%. The factors contributed greatly to this rapid development are: 1. Ready accessibility of raw materials e.g. wood pulp, petrochemicals 2. Independence of production from climatic conditions and increase of sowing area 3. Stability of market price, free from sudden fluctuation 4. High labour productivity 5. Uniform and constant fibre qualities e.g. length, fineness, strength 6. Means to control fibre parameters during production 7. Easier processing, higher machinery efficiency, greater economy

In addition, man-made fibres satisfy the following growing demand of a modern consumer: # Natural aesthetics • Natural appearance e.g. dull, silky, crimped • Easy care characteristics e.g. wash and go! • High fashion appearance: styling and colorways # Strength e.g. Kevlar® = 26.5 gpd, PBO = 40 gpd, Cotton = 4 gpd [a single fibre of PBO, a mere 1 mm in diameter is strong enough to lift 400 kg (the weight of a cow)]. # Reproducibility to specification # Chemical/biological/thermal resistance # Comfort e.g. second skin with stretch and breathability # Multifunctional end uses i.e. break the boundaries between sports, leisure and casual wears e.g. Jacket

Present Trends
1. Most R&D is devoted to Polyester (mostly used for blends with cotton & wool and to make silk-like fabrics; most existing microfibres are polyesters; FR, anti-bacterial, spun-look Polyester filament proved successful). 2. In apparel sector, development will continue to focus on active sportswear, women’s fashionwear. 3. Development of high-tech fibres e.g. fibres maintaining constant body temperature & change color with temperature, producer-dyed microfibres, biodegradable fibres, super-strong fibres, optical fibres, environmental change responsive fibres etc.

Conclusion
At last we can say man made fiber products are very popular in recent time because these fibers are comfortable for wearing & quality is high. Our country’s man made fiber production is very insufficient. So every year our government loss more foreign currency for importing these man made fibers. But our man made fiber production increase gradually. So it is necessary for our country to increase these man fiber productions. Our government can take & offer to the private sector for developing this site. In this way we can easily full fill our man made fiber demand & save our foreign currency.

References
1. Textiles: Fiber to Fabric, Sixth Edition, 1983 by BP Corbman; McGrahill, USA 2. Textile Science, Second Edition, 1983 by EPG Gohl and LD Vilensky; Longman, UK 3. Handbook of Textile Fibres, Vol II, Fifth Edition, 1984 by JG Cook; Woodhead, UK 4. Polyester: 50 Years of Achievement, 1992 by The Textile Institute, UK 5. Advanced Fibre Spinning Technology, 1994 by T. Nakajima; Woodhead, UK 6. New Fibers, Second Edition, 1997 by T Hongu and GO Phillips; Woodhead, UK

Reference links
1. www.scribd.com 2. www.yahoo.com 3. www.google.com

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