You are on page 1of 7

May 01, 2011

RE: High Bay Lighting Fixtures using Occupancy with Light Sensor Control

Passive Infrared Occupancy Sensors- Operation

This section of the document will cover three different aspects of Occupancy Sensors PIR technology for all
manufacturers: Coverage area, Field of view, and Coverage patterns.
Coverage Area
Coverage area is represented in square feet and maximum floor spacing. While we specify this detail in our
literature the coverage is dependent on mounting location and height, size or amount of motion being detected,
direction of motion compared to placement, ambient temperature, temperature of environment, and sensitivity
adjustment.
General Rules: Higher than recommended mounting increases coverage area and increases the size of the
detecting segments at floor level. In layman terms the PIR sensors divide an area into zones of coverage
detection zones. A higher mounting height increases the coverage area and size of gaps in detection
zones. As a result distances between detection zones will grow throughout the coverage area, requiring
larger motion to activate the sensor. Large spaces may require more sensors in order to accurately detect
motion throughout the area. To more accurately define and control the detection zones from false triggering,
multiple lenses are required for different coverage patterns and mounting heights.
Field of view
Refers to the angle within which the occupancy sensor will detect motion. The OSFHU type sensors have a
360 degree horizontal field of view. Most are concerned with the vertical field of view angle. The ratio between
the vertical field of view and the height of the ceiling equates to the sensors coverage area. This is represented
with a conical FOV, in other words, the shape is like a cone.

Example: The OSFHx low bay sensor (lens) has a 2:1 spacing to mounting height at 8ft. to 20ft with a
coverage area of 16ft to 40ft.
Coverage Pattern
A coverage patterns are determined by lens on the infrared sensor and segment masking. The coverage
patterns have a direct affect on the field of view and coverage patterns relationships. Examples of coverage
patterns include omni-directional or 360 degrees for open areas and bi-directional or xxx degrees in two
directions for aisle way. With all coverage patterns, there is an hourglass effect, PIR 2 element lenses will
always work better in 2 directions (longer distance).
Leviton Manufacturing Co., Inc.

tel 631-812-6000

201 North Service Road

www.leviton.com

Melville, NY 11747

PIR Operational Variables


Temperature
The environmental temperature of an application will impact operation of passive infrared sensors. Traditional
PIR technology detects movement of a heat source between detection zones. In colder environments, PIR
sensors will detect a heat signature more readily than in hotter environments.
Application Considerations
Coverage patterns should be staggered and overlapped to assure optimal coverage. Staggering the sensors
mounting location assures that moving objects will cross a detection zone. Overlapping coverage areas is a
good way to assure ample coverage.
Narrow aisles need special consideration. For example, a five foot wide aisle requires more fixtures for most
reliable field of view detection. An object could move within the five feet and still be inside of a single detection
zone, and motion would not be sensed.
Occupancy Sensor Testing (Walk Test)
This section of the document will cover the testing parameters for occupancy sensors: Standard Field of View
Walk Test, and Two/one Walk Test.
Standard Field of View Walk Test
To conduct an industry standard field of view walk test, the walk test must be completed by walking around the
perimeter (circumference) of the coverage pattern. This is the most precise way to measure the accuracy of the
PIR sensor. Passive Infrared technology divides an area into detection zones and functions by detecting the
movement of a heat signature from one zone to another. The size of the detection zones of the Field of View
is directly related to the mounting height. The higher the mounting height the larger motion required to cross
the detection zones and active the sensor.
Two/one Walk Test
Another method for walk testing is to start at the outer edge of the field of view and take two steps towards the
sensor and the take one step back from the sensor until you walk directly under the sensor. This is repeated
around the entire 360 degree field of view. This demonstrates the difference between the radial and
tangential capability of the sensor. For example, the larger the Field of View or coverage area the greater
each of these zones grows. This could be a dramatic impact for radial detection especially for aisle way
implementations.

Leviton High Bay Occupancy Sensor (Shared) Features


Single, Dual and Alternating Relay (OSFHP & OSFHD) model only

This section will cover the operational features of the high bay occupancy with light sensors:
Variable Lenses
A variety of lenses are available for specific applications. By use of the lenses, the user may precisely tailor the
coverage area to the mounting height assuring optimal function. Masking labels are also included with PIR
sensor products to allow installers or customers to create custom coverage patterns by blocking masking a
portion of the lens to meet the application requirement.

White High Bay lens: used for mounting heights from 20 to 40 feet.
Black Aisle lens: used for mounting heights from 20 to 40 feet, masked for use in Aisle applications.
Blue Low Bay lens: used for mounting heights from 8 to 20 feet.

Instant ON Design
The product is designed to start up within 5 seconds of initial power-up and this is specifically important for
fixture assembly lines and increasing productivity by decreasing the test time.

Power not required for sensor configuration


The time delay and daylighting set-point configurations are external manual knobs that do not require power to
set. This provides significant labor and time saving advantages by reducing the ladder time or multiple ladder
trips for initial configuration.
Flashing Green LED
The Green LED flashes infrared heat signature is detected, after detection the relay will close, which turns the
load ON. The LED will flash twice at a rate of one (1) time per second.
Sensitivity Adjustment
This has been calibrated at the factory for optimal sensitivity and is located on the back of the sensor under the
product label. This sensitivity adjustment is for minor (fine tuning) sensitivity within coverage area. This may be
used to decrease sensitivity if false triggering is occurring or to increase sensitivity for PIR is not detecting
quick enough.
Power Interruption Design
Leviton deploys this design specifically as a return-to-last-known-state, this is optimal for both Safety and
Energy Efficiency and is used to define what happens when power is restored after an outage. The return to
last known state, will assure that if the relay was closed at the time of the power outage then the relay will be
closed when the power is restored. Likewise, if the relay was open at the time of the power outage, the relay
will be open when the power is restored. The theory for the use of this in lighting systems is to provide safety
for occupied buildings during an outage and energy savings for unoccupied buildings during an outage.
Fail-Safe Circuit Design (Patent pending)
Leviton specific intellectual property An engineering term used to describe a fault-tolerant design. A faulttolerant design is a design that enables a system to continue operation, possibly at a reduced level (also
known as graceful degradation), rather than failing completely. Fail-safe is also used when discussing power
outages and emergency situations in lighting systems, when power outage occurs then the relay will be in a
closed state.

Leviton High Bay Occupancy with Light Sensor Features


Single Relay (OSFHP) model only

Performance Daylighting
Enhanced design algorithms assure lights will not cycle during brief moments of low light (ie. cloud cover), or
varying light levels. This is very important for end users to understand due to the fact that lights will be turning
OFF and ON automatically. We take into consideration the customer who is using the space and we will not
turn the lights OFF until after five (5) minutes has passed. On the reverse, when the sensor is making a
decision to turn the lights ON, the customer probably requires the light quickly so we turn the lights ON within
one (1) minute. (No more daylight = load turn OFF in +/-5 minutes, Daylight returns = load will turn ON +/- 1
minute)
Rotating Light Sensor
Optimal for best performance in locating light measurements the light sensor can be directed to detect up,
down, and side lighting. This sensor is best suited for closed loop applications and should be pointed towards
the lighting space it is to be controlling.
Manual Calibration
Available for open and closed loop applications, this feature is flexible for those customers or scenarios where
more specific calibration is desired. Manual mode uses the current ambient light level at the time of
configuration and is initiated by turning the dial to SET/OFF position and then adjusting to the desired

percentage. The DDL Set-Point is now the 100% marker. (Manual DDL = Current Luminance X selected %
Level)

Auto Calibration (Patented feature)


Available for closed loop (light sensor is monitoring the interior light) applications, this feature is convenient for
reduce installation set-up time by allowing the installer to power-up the sensors and set them to AUTO. Once in
AUTO, the sensor will force the lights ON for 24 hours and during those 24 hours of all lights ON, will monitor
the lighting level and capture and hold the lowest luminance level as the DDL Set Point.

Leviton High Bay Occupancy with Light Sensor Features


Dual Relay (OSFHD-IT) models only
Operation
The dual relay versions uses a stepped implementation (second relay follows the first relay) which provides
both reduced lighting functionality for safety and energy savings when occupancy is not detected. Each time
the dual relay sensor detects motion, both relay will close, turning both loads ON. The light sensor is only
connected to the primary relay and therefore daylight harvesting features only apply to the load connected to
Relay 1. Relays will time-out in the following ways.
First Relay Time Delay
The primary time delay shall start counting (or restart) from the timer countdown each time motion is detected.
The time delay will expire after no motion is sensed for the entire primary time delay. (example: Primary Time
Delay is set to 10 minutes = relay 1 will expire after 10 minutes of zero motion detection)
Second Relay Time Delay
The secondary time delay shall start counting from zero when the primary time delay expires. The time delay
will expire after no motion is sensed for the entire primary plus secondary time delay. [example: Primary time
delay is set to 10 minutes, Secondary time delay is set to 1 hour = relay 1 will expire at 10 minutes and relay 2
will expire 10 minutes + 1 hour (1 hour and 10 minutes) after no motion is detected]. The infinity marker is used
for bypassing the secondary time delay and enabling the second relay to stay closed keeping lights ON all the
time. The 0 hour marker is used for when you wish the second relay to open and turn the lights OFF at the
same time as the Primary relay.

Leviton High Bay Occupancy Sensor Features


Alternating Relay (OSFHD-IA) models only
Operation
The alternating sensor models are used when the application desires to rotate the lamp usage (alternate) each
time a new initial motion is detected. Providing stepped lighting functionality for safety, maximizing energy
savings when occupancy is not detected and optimizing the maintenance of the fixtures lamps. Each time the
alternating relay sensor detects motion, both relays will close, turning both loads ON. The first time the time
delay expires, Load A will turn OFF leaving Load B on longer. The next time the time delay expires, Load B will
turn OFF leaving Load B on longer. The alternating relay models do not have a light sensor model for daylight
harvesting.
Time Delay(s)
Operate in the same way as the Dual Relay Models

Lighting Fixture operations

This section will cover three different aspects of lighting fixtures: Occupancy Sensor, Electronic Ballasts, and
Fluorescent Ballasts
Occupancy Sensors
Sensors are a simple relay device, similar to a light switch. When motion is detected a relay closes completing
the current path to the ballast which then strikes the lamp.
Electronic Ballasts
Ballast selection and operation varies, always consult ballast manufacturer for operation and best practices.

Instant-start electronic ballasts are the most popular type of electronic ballast today because they
provide maximum energy savings and they start lamps without delay or flashing. Since they do not
provide lamp electrode heating, instant-start ballasts generally consume less energy than comparable
rapid-start, program rapid-start or programmed-start ballasts. As a result, they usually provide the most
energy efficient solution. Instant-start ballasts use 1.5 to 2 watts less energy per lamp than rapid-start.
They also have the least amount of output leads, making for easy installation.
Instant-start electronic ballasts provide a high initial voltage (typically 600V for F32T8 lamps) to strike
the lamp. This high voltage initiates discharge between the unheated electrodes of the lamp. However,
the cold electrodes of lamps operated by an instant-start ballast may deteriorate more quickly than the
warmed electrodes of lamps operated by a rapid-start, program rapid-start or programmed-start
ballasts. Lamps operated by instant-start ballasts will typically withstand 10-15 thousand switch cycles.
Instant-start ballasts are typically wired in parallel. This means that if one lamp fails, the other lamps in
the circuit will remain lit.

Rapid-start ballasts have a separate set of windings which provide a low voltage (approx. 3.5 volts) to
the electrodes for one second prior to lamp ignition. A starting voltage somewhat lower than that of an
instant-start ballast (typically 450-550V for F32T8 lamps) is applied, striking an electrical arc inside the

lamp. Most rapid-start electronic ballasts continue to heat the electrode even after the lamp has
started, which results in a power loss of 1.5 to 2 watts per lamp. Lamps operated by a rapid-start
electronic ballast will typically withstand 15-20 thousand switch cycles. Rapid-start ballasts are typically
wired in series. This means that if one lamp fails, all other lamps in the circuit will extinguish.

Programmed-start electronic ballasts provide maximum lamp life in frequent starting conditions
(>50,000 starts). Programmed-start ballasts like the Mark 5TM, Mark 7TM, Mark 10TM, and
OptaniumTM programmed-start family of products use a custom integrated circuit which monitors lamp
and ballast conditions to ensure optimal system lighting performance. Programmed-start ballasts
precisely heat the lamp cathodes to approximately 700C prior to lamp ignition, thus the lamps are
delayed upon startup. This puts the least amount of stress on the lamp electrodes, resulting in
maximum lamp life regardless of the number of lamp starts. Programmed-start ballasts are typically
wired in series, so if one lamp fails.

Fluorescent Lamps
These fluorescent tubes are gas-discharge lamps that use electricity to excite mercury vapor. The excited
atoms produce short-wave ultraviolet light causing a phosphor to fluoresce, producing visible light. Fluorescent
lamps require a ballast to regulate the flow of power through the lamp. A fluorescent lamp converts electrical
power into useful light more efficiently than an incandescent lamp. Lower energy cost typically offsets the
higher initial cost of the lamp.