You are on page 1of 7

Rina D.

Acetaminophen (oral) (a SEET a MIN oh fen)
INDICATION: Acetaminophen is used to treat many conditions such as headache, muscle aches,
arthritis, backache, toothaches, colds, and fevers.
MECHANISM OF ACTION: inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), with a predominant effect on COX-2.
Inhibition of COX enzymes prevents the metabolism of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an
unstable intermediate byproduct which is converted to pro-inflammatory compounds. In the central
nervous system, inhibition of COX enzymes reduces concentrations of prostaglandin E2, which lowers
the hypothalamic set-point to reduce fever
CONTRAINDICATION: existing allergy to the drug, liver disease, regular alcohol consumption, and
possible interactions with certain other medications.
Nausea and vomiting
1. Drinking gradually larger amounts of clear liquids.
2. Avoiding solid food until the vomiting episode has passed.
3. Temporarily discontinuing all oral medications (which can irritate the stomach
and make vomiting worse). But, do not discontinue any medication before checking
with your doctor first.
4. Eat small meals throughout the day instead of three large meals.
5. Rest after eating with your head elevated about 12 inches above your feet.
6. Drink liquids between meals instead of during meals and drink at least six to
eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day to prevent dehydration (unless fluid
restricted for another medical condition).

7. Eat foods that are cool or room temperature, as hot foods emit a stronger odor
that may increase your nausea.
8. Avoid caffeine and smoking
9. Require appropriate dietary advice and advice on fluid intake.
10. watch for hydration status

1. Remind patient to use tepid (not hot) water and to shake off excess water and
blot between intertriginous areas (body folds) with a towel.
2. Advise patient to avoid rubbing vigorously with towel, which over stimulates
skin, causing more itching.
3. Instruct patient to avoid scratching and to trim nails short to prevent skin
damage and infection.
4. Advise patient to avoid situations that cause vasodilation (warm environment,
ingestion of alcohol or hot foods and liquids).
5. Lubricate skin with an emollient that traps moisture (specifically after
6. Keep room cool and humidified.
7. Advise patient to wear soft cotton clothing next to skin and avoid activities
that result in perspiration.
8. When the underlying cause of pruritus is unknown and further testing is
required, explain each test and the expected outcome.
9. Maintaining a cool room temperature
10. Taking showers instead of baths

Loss of appetite

1. Eat small frequent meals and healthy snacks that are high in protein and
2. Eat during periods of greatest appetite, rather than at set mealtimes. Be
flexible. Eat whenever you feel hungry.
3. Rest before eating.
4. Indulge in your favorite foods.
5. Make plans to eat with family and friends.
6. Dont drink large quantities of fluids with meals, since this will make you
feel fuller sooner.
7. Exercise as tolerated. A moderate exercise routine helps stimulate appetite.
8. Make mealtime as pleasant as possible
9. Avoid foods that cause bloating and gas, such as cabbage, broccoli, and beans;
or indigestion, such as spicy foods.

Avoid empty calorie liquids

Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

1. Assess and document degree of jaundice of skin and sclera.

2. Intervene to reduce anxiety.
3. Reinforce the health care providers explanation about the cause and expected
outcome of jaundice.

4. Promote adequate nutrition. Assess dietary intake and nutritional status.

5. Encourage the client to adhere to a high-carbohydrate diet, with protein
6. Monitor intake output
7. Assess skin color every 8 hours
8. Give the cause of yellow health education
9. Instruct to avoid eating raw foods
10. Encourage the client to express feelings and concerns about body-image
Trouble breathing

1. Gentle rubbing of the back and stroking of an arm

2. Ensuring the room is well ventilated
3. Distraction can help some patients take their mind off their dyspnea
4. Require oxygen therapy with an oxygen mask
5. Ensure that the pillows are supporting the small of the patients back
6. Leaning forward with their arms resting on a pillow on a bed table.
7. Specific breathing exercises can be highly beneficial for patients with
chronic dyspnea
8. Encouraged to expectorate and dispose of sputum in a tissue or sputum pot
9. Encouraged to drink up to two liters of fluid daily to minimize the risk of

10. Offering several small, regular, balanced meals/snacks throughout the day
can help to reduce discomfort and improve nutritional intake.

1. Instruct patient to hydrate
2. Instruct patient to avoid irritants
3. Emphasize on smoking cessation
4. Instruct to reduce caffeine intake
5. Teach techniques to maximize vocal effectiveness
6. Provide relaxation techniques
7. Provide vocal hygiene
8. Advice on proper diet
9. Emphasize that alcohol intake results to dehydration

Instruct to avoid vocal strain such as shouting and throat clearing

1. Ensure safety by raising side rails
2. Encourage to wear properly fitting non-slip footwear

3. Furniture should be removed with sharp edges

4. Throw rugs should be removed
5. Provide well lighted room
6. Instruct to arise slowly and avoid sudden position changes
7. Please avoid driving or ask help or assistance when driving
8. Instruct that the room should be free from clutter
9. Instruct to avoid strenuous activities

Instruct to sit while doing activities rather than standing.