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ERRORS ANALYSIS ON THE SECOND GRADE STUDENTS

OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN USING TYPE TWO OF


CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AT SMA DUA MEI CIPUTAT
A Skripsi Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers Training in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Strata 1 (Bachelor
of Arts) in English Education Department

BY:
MUHAMAD RIDHO PRATAMA
NIM: 107014000699

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT


FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
JAKARTA
2011

ERRORSANALYSIS ON THE SECONDGRADE STUDENTS


OF SENIOR.HIGH SCHOOI-IN USING TYPE TWO
OF COI{DITTONALSENTENCES
AT SMA DUA MEI CIPUTAT
A ,skripsi'presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and TeachersTraining in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degreeof Strata L (Bachelor of Arts) in English
Education DePartment

MUHAMAD RIDHO PRATAMA


NIM: 107014000699

ApprovedbY:
Advisor,

Or. Altk i\{lPd'

200901
tgogogtz

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT


FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
SYAzuFHIDAYATULLAH
JAKARTA
20ll

BNDORSEMBNTSHEET

The Examination Committee of the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers'


Training Certifies that the "Skripsi" (Scientific Paper) entitled "Errors Analysis on
the Second Grade Students of Senior High School in Using Type Two of
Conditional Sentencesat SMA Dua Mei Ciputat." Written by Muhamad Ridho
Pratama, Student's Registration Number 107014000699was Examined by the
Committee on 21" of December 2011, and Declared to have passedand therefore,
Fulfilled one of the Requirementsfor the Academic Title of 'S.Pd.' (Bachelor of
Arts) in English Education Department.

Jakarta,21 December,
2011
EXAMINATION COMMITTEE

Chairman

: Drs. Syauki.M.Pd.
NrP. 196412121991031,002

Secretary

: NenengSuneqgsih.
M.Pd.
NrP. 197306251999032 001

Examiners

: l. Drs. H. BahrulHasibuan.M.Ed. (

2. Drs. Syauki.M.Pd.
NIP. 196412t2t99t03 |

Acknowledged by
Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers' Training

D r. NurlenaRifa'i. Ph.D.
NIP. 19591020
198603
20A1

KEMENTERIAN
AGAMA
UINJAKARTA
FITK

FORM(FR)

Jl. lr. H. Juanda No 95 Ciputat 15412 tndonesia

No.Dokumen :
Tgl.Terbit
:

FITK-FR-AKD-089
1 Maret2010

No. Revisi:
Hal

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ABSTRACT
Pratama, Ridho. 2011. Error Analysis on the Second Grade Students of
Senior High School at SMA Dua Mei Ciputat
Advisor

: Dr. Alek, M.Pd.

Key Words

: Errors Analysis on students Error, Type Two of Conditional


Sentences, SMA Dua Mei Ciputat

Skripsi entitled ERRORS ANALYSIS ON THE SECOND GRADE


STUDENTS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN USING TYPE TWO OF
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AT SMA DUA MEI CIPUTAT. The research is
aimed at obtaining clear information about the students errors and knowing the
reason why the students make errors in using type two of conditional sentences at
SMA Dua Mei Ciputat. The population of the research is 30 students of SMA Dua
Mei Ciputat. Data were collected through test and interview. The collected data
was analyzed by using descriptive analysis by describing students errors and
quantitative analysis by the formula of percentage. The findings of the research
are as follows: (1) Based on the explanations on research findings, so the errors
made by the students consisting of word choice with 55.8%, verb tense with
39.8%, omit a word with 1.94%, add a word with 0.97%, meaning not clear with
0.97%, and word form with the percentage 0.48%. (2) The reason why the
students make errors in using type two of conditional sentences caused by interlingual transfer in which the system, rules, and patterns of the students native
language distract their target language with the percentage 46.61%. Next, the
students make the errors caused by context of learning in which either the
teachers, textbooks, or the patterns are improperly contextualized with the
percentage 38.83%. There are 14.07% of the students make the errors caused by
intra-lingual transfer in which the students create hypotheses, that are not related
to their first and target language. At last, 0.49% of the student makes the errors
caused by communication strategies in which the student has own way to do with
the mother tongue and target language inappropriately.

ii

ABSTRAK
Pratama, Ridho. 2011. Error Analysis on the Second Grade Students of
Senior High School at SMA Dua mei Ciputat
Advisor

: Dr. Alek, M.Pd.

Key Words

: Errors Analysis on students Error, Type Two of Conditional


Sentences, SMA Dua Mei Ciputat

Skripsi yang berjudul ERRORS ANALYSIS ON THE SECOND GRADE


STUDENTS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN USING TYPE TWO OF
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AT SMA DUA MEI CIPUTAT dimaksudkan
untuk mendapatkan informasi yang jelas tentang kesalahan siswa dan untuk
mengetahui alasan mengapa siswa melakukan kesalahan dalam menggunakan tipe
dua conditional sentences di SMA Dua Mei Ciputat. Populasi penelitian adalah 30
siswa SMA Dua Mei Ciputat. Data dikumpulkan melalui tes dan wawancara. Data
yang dikumpulkan dianalisa menggunakan analisa deskriptif dengan
menggambarkan kesalahan siswa dan analisa kuantitatif dengan rumus persentase.
Hasil penelitian adalah sebagai berikut: (1) Kesalahan-kesalahan yang banyak
dibuat oleh siswa terdiri dari: word choice dengan persentase 55.8%, verb tense
dengan 39.8%, omit a word dengan 1.94%, add a word dengan 0.97%, meaning
not clear dengan 0.97%, dan word form dengan persentase 0.48%. (2) Alasan
mengapa siswa melakukan kesalahan dalam menggunakan tipe dua conditional
sentences disebabkan karena inter-lingual transfer dimana system, aturan, dan
pola bahasa asli siswa mengganggu bahasa yang sedang siswa pelajari dengan
persentase 46.61%. Selanjutnya, siswa membuat kesalahan karena context of
learning yang mana guru-guru, buku teks, atau pola-pola tidak kontekstual dengan
persentase 38.83%. Ada 14.07% siswa yang membuat kesalahan disebabkan oleh
intra-lingual transfer dimana siswa membuat hipotesa yang tidak ada
hubungannya dengan bahasa pertama dan bahasa yang mereka sedang pelajari.
Terakhir, 0.49% dari siswa membuat kesalahan disebabkan karena communication
strategies dimana siswa memiliki cara sendiri terhadap bahasa asli mereka dan
bahasa yang sedang dipelajari dengan tidak tepat.

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise be to Allah,


Lord of the world, who has blessed the writer in completing this skripsi. Peace
and Blessing be upon the Prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, his companion,
and his followers.
In this opportunity, the writer would like to express his greatest honor to
his beloved family; his parents, Wasirun, BA. and Anna Hamimi, BA. and his
sister; Rahmatia Andaruni, who always give their support and moral
encouragement in finishing his study. Also, he would like to address his greatest
thanks to his advisor Dr. Alek, M.Pd for his time, guidance, valuable helps,
correction and suggestion during completing this skripsi.
The writer realizes that if there were no support and motivation from
people around him, he could not finish this skripsi. Therefore, he would like to
give his deepest appreciation to:
1. All lecturers in English Education Department who always give their
motivation and valuable knowledge and also unforgettable experience
during her study at State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
2. Drs. Syauki, M. Pd; the chairman of English Education Department and
Neneng Sunengsih, S. Pd; the secretary of English education Department.
3. Prof. Dede Rosyada, M. A; the Dean of faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers
Training of State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
4. Yayat Ruhiat, S. Pd. The Headmaster of SMA Dua Mei Ciputat who has
allowed the writer to observe there. Also, the second grade students of
class XI Social and class XI Science, who helped the writer by doing the
test given. If there were no their help, this skripsi would not be
accomplished.

iv

Hopefully, this skripsi can be useful to the readers, particularly to the


writer. Also, the writer realized that this skripsi is far from being perfect.
It is a pleasure for him to receive constructive critics and suggestion from
anyone who read his skripsi.
Jakarta,

The Writer

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ENDORSEMENT SHEET ............................................................................................................ i


ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................... iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................ vi
LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................................... ix
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................1
A. The Background of the Research .............................................................................1
B. The Limitation and Scope of the Problems .............................................................4
C. The Formulation of the Problems ............................................................................4
D. The Objectives of the Research ...............................................................................4
E. The Significances of the Research ..........................................................................5
CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .....................................................................6
A. Errors Analysis ......................................................................................................6
1. The Differences between Errors and Mistakes ................................................6
2. The Causes of Errors ........................................................................................7
3. The Classification of Errors ...........................................................................10
4. The Procedures of Errors Analysis ................................................................11
B. Grammar...............................................................................................................12
1. The Definition of Grammar ...........................................................................13
2. The Types of Grammar ..................................................................................13

vi

C. Sentences ..............................................................................................................14
1. The Definition of Sentences ...........................................................................14
2. The Types of Sentences .................................................................................15
D. Conditional Sentences ..........................................................................................16
1. The Definition of Conditional Sentences .......................................................16
2. The Types of Conditional Sentences .............................................................18
3. The Functions of Conditional Sentences .......................................................25
4. The Usages of Conditional Sentences ............................................................26
E. Type Two of Conditional Sentences ..................................................................27
1. The Form of Type Two of Conditional Sentences .........................................27
2. The Function of Type Two of Conditional Sentences ...................................31
3. The Usages of Type Two of Conditional Sentences ......................................31
4. The Difficulties in Using Type Two of Conditional Sentences .....................34
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ....................................................................36
A. The Purpose of the Research .................................................................................36
B. The Time and Place of the Research .....................................................................36
C. The Population of the Research ............................................................................36
D. The Method of the Research .................................................................................37
E. The Instrument of the Research ............................................................................37
F. The Technique of Data Collecting ........................................................................38
G. The Techniques of Data Analysis .........................................................................38
CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS .................................................................................40
A. The Data Description ...........................................................................................40
B. The Data Analysis ................................................................................................77
C. The Data Interpretation ........................................................................................85

vii

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ........................................................87


A. Conclusions ..........................................................................................................87
B. Suggestions ...........................................................................................................87
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES

viii

LIST OF TABLES

1. Table 2.1 (The Examples of the Procedures of Errors Analysis) .............. 12


2. Table 2.2 (The Formula of Type One of Type Two of
Conditional Sentences Started from If Clause Ended with
Main Clause) .............................................................................................. 19
3. Table 2.3 (The Formula of Type One of Conditional Sentences
Started from Main Clause Ended with If Clause) ...................................... 19
4. Table 2.4 (The Formula of Type Two of Conditional
Sentences Started from If Clause Ended with Main Clause) ..................... 22
5. Table 2.5 (The Formula of Type Three of Conditional
Sentences Started from If Clause Ended with Main Clause) ..................... 23
6. Table 2.6 (The Formula of Type Three of Conditional Sentences
Started from Main Clause Ended with If Clause) ...................................... 23
7. Table 2.7 (The Brief Explanation of Usages of Type Two of
Conditional Sentences)............................................................................... 26
8. Table 2.8 (The Brief Explanation of Affirmative Statements in
Type Two of Conditional Sentences) ......................................................... 28
9. Table 2.9 (The Brief Explanation of Short Answer in
Type Two of Conditional Sentences) ......................................................... 28
10. Table 2.10 (The Brief Explanation of WH-Questions in Type
Two of Conditional Sentences) .................................................................. 28
11. Table 2.11 (The Brief Explanation of Negative Statements in
Type Two of Conditional Sentences) ......................................................... 29
12. Table 2.12 (The Brief Explanation of Yes/No Questions in
Type Two of Conditional Sentences) ......................................................... 29
13. Table 2.13 (The Tense Combination of Present Unreal)............................ 34
14. Table 3.1 (The Tense Area and Each Item) ............................................... 37
15. Table 3.2 (The Average Errors Formula) ................................................... 39
16. Table 4.1 (The Students Response Distribution on Each Item of
Test in Part I) ............................................................................................ 40
17. Table 4.2 (The Students Response Distribution on Each Item of
Test in Part II) ............................................................................................ 41
18. Table 4.3 (The Students Response Distribution on Each Item of
Test in Part II) ............................................................................................ 41
19. Table 4.4 (The 1st Identification of the Students Errors) ........................... 42
20. Table 4.5 (The 2nd Identification of the Students Errors) .......................... 44
21. Table 4.6 (The 3rd Identification of the Students Errors) ......................... 45
22. Table 4.7 (The 4th Identification of the Students Errors) .......................... 46
ix

23. Table 4.8 (The 5th Identification of the Students Errors) .......................... 47
24. Table 4.9 (The 6th Identification of the Students Errors) .......................... 48
25. Table 4.10 (The 7th Identification of the Students Errors) ........................ 49
26. Table 4.11 (The 8th Identification of the Students'Errors).......................... 51
27. Table 4.12 (The 9th Identification of the Students Errors) ........................ 52
28. Table 4.13 (The 10th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 54
29. Table 4.14 (The 11th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 55
30. Table 4.15 (The 12th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 56
31. Table 4.16 (The 13th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 57
32. Table 4.17 (The 14th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 59
33. Table 4.18 (The 15th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 60
34. Table 4.19 (The 16th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 61
35. Table 4.20 (The 17th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 62
36. Table 4.21 (The 18th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 63
37. Table 4.22 (The 19th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 64
38. Table 4.23 (The 20th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 65
39. Table 4.24 (The 21st Identification of the Students Errors) ....................... 66
40. Table 4.25 (The 22nd Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 67
41. Table 4.26 (The 23rd Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 69
42. Table 4.27 (The 24th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 70
43. Table 4.28 (The 25th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 71
44. Table 4.29 (The 26th Identification of the Students Errors) ..................... 73
45. Table 4.30 (The 27th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 74
46. Table 4.31 (The 28th Identification of the Students Errors) ..................... 75
47. Table 4.32 (The 29th Identification of the Students Errors) ...................... 75
48. Table 4.33 (The 30th Identification of the Students Errors ) ..................... 76
49. Table 4.34 (Table of Number of Classification of Errors Explanation) .... 77
50. Table 4.35 (Table of Number of Causes of Errors Explanation) ............... 78
51. Table 4.36 (The Frequency and Percentage of the Students
Errors in the Form of Type Two of Conditional Sentences in
Part I).......................................................................................................... 79
52. Table 4.37 (The Frequency and Percentage of the Students Errors in the
Form of Type Two of Conditional Sentences in Part II) ........................... 81
53. Table 4.38 (The Frequency and Percentage of the Students
Errors in the Form of Type Two of Conditional Sentences in
Part III) ...................................................................................................... 83

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. The Background of the Research
English is the most common language used throughout the world.
Christopher Brumfit states that English is an International Languge in that it is
the most widespread medium of international communication, both because of the
number and geographical spread of its speakers, and because of the large number
of non-native spekers who use it for part at least of their international contact.1
As a foreign language in Indonesia, English has an important position and
clearly needed by many learners to deliver thought and interact in a variety of
situations. Therefore, people realize without mastering the language interaction
and all kinds of activities among the people will breakdown. Because when we
learn a language, we learn to communicate through the language we have learned.
But with mastering English, the student can develop their knowldge; science,
technology, art and relations with other countries.
In Indonesian Schools, English is determined as a compulsory subject in the
national curriculum. It is taught at the beginning from Elementary School up to
the university. As we know, the goal of teaching English in Indonesia is to enable
students to use English as a means of communication. Hence, if the students want
to master English well, they have to master four basic language skills. They
should have a capability of Grammar. Grammar is needed even in conmunication
because it can avoid misunderstanding.
Grammar is one of the language aspects which are taught to every language
learners. It is the basic knowledge and important role in underestanding the
English language. Also, it consists of rules set either in writing some English
sentences, in listening English voices, in reading several passages, and in having
English conversation.

Christopher Brumfit, English for International Communication, (Oxford: Pergamon Press


Ltd., 1981), p. 1.

According to Paul Robert, he states that Grammar is a body of


generalization about how people says thing in order to make generalization, we
must agree on the meaning of terms for the things we wish to talk about. Grammar
accuracy is only part of communication to convey a message, where grammar is
merely a tool.2
By learning grammar, we can communicate our message clearly and learn
about the rules to construct the good sentences. Then, it is expected that we can
share the information and be confident to express the idea when we have a
communication with other people. If we are good in saying the words, other
person who listen to us will understand about the things that we want to share.
Especially, for the students from non-English background, who learn
English encounter the same problems in learning conditional sentences. They may
understand the syntactic changes of each type, but they may have difficultiers in
grasping the semantic of all types. Conditional sentence of type one may be easier
to understand since it has same meaning in Indonesian, but both type two and
three of conditional sentencesmay cause problems since according to the students,
these types do not exist in Indonesian language.
The students of Indonesia do not realize that unlike type one of conditional
sentences, both type two and three can not be translated as jika, but seandainya.
As in If I had wings I would fly to the moon, which should be translated as
seandainya (not jika) saya punya sayap, saya akan terbang ke bulan. Students on
awareness of the differences in the meaning of the conditional sentences that can
be seen through the way they translate the conditional sentences might be seen
through the way they translate the conditional sentences.
There are two clauses in conditional sentences, they are subordinate clause
and main clause; therefore, they are syntactically more complex than many other
structures. Furthermore, the students must have mastered the system of English
tense-aspect as good as the modal auxiliaries and negation. 3 It might be not easy
2

123.

Paul Robert, Understanding Grammar, (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1954), p.

Marianne Celce Murcia and Diane Larsen Freemans, The Grammar Book, 2nd Edition.,
(London: Newbury House Publishers, 1999), p. 545.

for most students to share their expressions by using type two of conditional
sentences because it is harder to write sentences in English language rather than to
do it in Indonesian language since English language distinguishes a lot from their
mother tongue due to its grammar, systems, patterns and rules.
From that situation, in the process of making type two of conditional
sentences, the students may do some errors and mistakes. While errors and
mistakes are two different things as defined by some experts; Errors cannot be
self-corrected by the students while mistake can be.4 Hence, errors analysis takes
an important role to identify what kinds of errors that the students do the most in
using type two of conditional sentences, the causes of errors and mistakes happen
in students language learning.
Globalization era that demands people to be competitive has constantly
changed the students today become open minded and more critical than their
preceding generations. SMA Dua Mei Ciputat set up type two of conditional
sentences in syllabi to the second grade students.
This fact enhances not only the need to fulfill the writers curiosity of how
good the students use type two of conditional sentences, but also the need to know
how well the students whom called critical in their thoughts. Therefore, the writer
would like to do the field research at the place.
Based on the research the writer did at SMA Dua Mei, he found so many
problems faced by the second year students who were able to understand what
kind of modal and tense they had to use in type two of conditional sentences. As a
matter of fact, the students errors in using type two of conditional sentences may
be caused by the situation and condition that the students often face in classroom
as the teacher delivers the materials; lack of games while the students are getting
bored, no appraisal while the students are very bright in a lesson, lack of creativity
in developing teaching method in classroom in order that the students might be
more attractive and curious with every single thing the teacher says, students
mother tongue, but there is still a national examination), limited facilities,
4

Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 4th Edition (New York:
Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.,2000), p. 217

uncontrolled classroom situation, too many students in one class, low motivation
from the students, no sufficient facilities available, and also none of supporting
environment which help the students develop their ability.
From the explanations above, the writer is interested in analyzing students
errors in using type two of conditional sentences. The writer would like to carry
out a research under the title ERRORS ANALYSIS ON THE SECOND GRADE
STUDENTS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN USING TYPE TWO OF
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AT SMA DUA MEI.

B. The Limitation and Scope of the Problems


In this study, the writer focused on analyzing the second grade students
grammatical errors on using type two of conditional sentences at SMA Dua Mei
Ciputat. To be more focused, the problem is limited on analyzing the students
grammatical errors on using type two of conditional sentences that are based on
Betty Azars grammatical error classification. Here are the classifications:
singular-plural, word form, word choice, verb tense, add word, omit word, word
order, incomplete sentence, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, article, meaning
not clear and run on sentence.5

C. The Formulation of the Problems


Based on the background of the study, the writer formulates her problem as
follows:
1. What are the students errors in using type two of conditional sentences?
2. Why do the students make errors in using type two of conditional sentences?

D. The Objectives of the Reseacrh


In order to guide the analysis in the research, the objectives are to obtain
some clear information about the students errors, and to know the reason why the
students make errors in using type two of conditional sentences. In addition, the
5

Bety Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar, 2 nd Edition, (New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992), p. A29.

writer expects that this skripsi will be useful for the English teachers in teaching
type two of conditional sentences and for the senior high school students in
second year to anticipate the mastery level that the may face in learning the type
two of conditional sentences.

E. The Significances of the Reseacrh


Theoretically, the research can hopefully be useful for english teachers to
know the students errors in using type two of conditional sentences and to make
them easier to understand using type two of conditional sentences.
Not only that, the students may also know the right formula of type two of
conditional sentences. Besides, the writer is able to recognize some students
errors in using type two of conditional sentences, and the way out to solve them.
Practically, the research can be a good reference for the teachers who teach
type two of conditional sentences in order to be able to minimize a number of
errors and mistakes the students generally do by the simple way. However, the
students may correctly apply what they have been taught in terms of type two of
conditional sentences. Also, the writer are going to able to make the students
easier to understand in using type two of conditional sentences well.

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Errors Analysis
W. R. Lee first introduced errors analysis in 1957, and it gained popularity
in the 1970s. Although, the field of errors analysis in Second Language
Acquisition was established in the 1970s by S. P. Corder and colleagues, errors
analysis was an alternative to contrastive analysis.1
According to David Crystal, Error analysis in language teaching and
learning is the study of the unacceptable forms produced by someone in learning a
language, especially foreign language.2 Besides, Pit Corder states in his book
that error analysis is carried out in three successive stages, they are:
1) Recognition of Errors
It is crucially dependent upon interpretation of the learners intentions.
2) Description of Errors
In this step, one tries to show they have failed to realize the intended message.
3) Explanation of Errors
Explanation is still largely speculative because of our limited knowledge of the
psychological and neurological process involved in language learning.3
So the writer tries to conclude that the errors analysis is a way of looking at
errors made by the learners of the target language, as a source of information to
the teachers, which in turns helps them correct the students errors, and improves
the effectiveness of their teaching.
1. The Differences between Errors and Mistakes
Learning a language is fundamentally process that involves making of
mistakes or errors. The mistakes include with vocabulary items, grammatical
pattern, and sound patters as well.

1
2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/second language acquistion. 12 September 2011


David Crystal, An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Languages, (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), p.

125.
3

http://teaching stylesonline.com/stages of error analysis. Html. 20 May 2011

James (1998) differentiates between errors and mistakes. He defines errors


as a systematic mistakes due to lack of language competence while mistakes
refers to performance errors because of a random guess or slip. While errors
cannot be self-corrected, mistakes can be self-corrected if the deviation is pointed
out to the speaker.4
Meanwhile, Edge (1989) offers simpler definitions that are especially
important for classroom teachers to keep in mind. He states that a slip or mistake
is what a learner van self-correct.5 Furthermore, Corder (1967) defines mistakes
as a random performance caused by fatigue, excitement, etc; therefore, it can
readily be self-corrected. Errors are systematic deviation made by learners who
have not yet mastered the rules of the target language. Consequently, learners
cannot self-correct an error because it is a product reflective of the learners stage
of target language development, or underlying competence.6
To sum up, mistakes are failure to use language because of slip of the
tongue, or spelling. The learner easily corrects this failure since they conceptually
understand the language system. On the other hand, errors are mistakes that the
students make due to lack of competence. They are not able to do self-correction
because they do not know the concept.
2. The Causes of Errors
Errors occur for many reasons. One obvious cause is interference from the
native language. The learners may make errors because they assume that the target
language and their native language are similar. While in fact they are different,
they generalize the similarity between the target language and their mother tongue
known usually as overgeneralization.
Another obvious cause is simply an incomplete knowledge of the target
language. The students are asked to produce words or sentences that they have not
yet learnt in grammar; therefore they often might made several mistakes. For

Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 4th Edition., (New York:
Longman, 2000), p. 217.
5
Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 4th Edition., ......p. 217.
6
Diane-Larsen Freeman, and Michael H. Long, An Introduction to Second Language
Acquisition Research, (New York: Longman. 1991), pp. 5960.

example, English has different tenses to indicate time of happening, such as


present, past, and future, while Indonesian language does not. Therefore, these
differences obviously cause many Indonesian learners make errors in tenses.
John Norrish exposes three types and causes of errors:
a. Carelessness: it is often closely related to lack of motivation. Many
teachers will admit that it is not always the students fault if he loses
interest; perhaps the materials and/or the style of presentation do not
suit him.
b. First language interference: It was commonly believed until fairly
recently that learning a language (mother tongue or a foreign language)
was a matter of habit formation. The learners utterances were thought
to be gradually shaped towards those of the language he was learning.
For instance, in English some and any are used in different ways.
c. Translation: it should be made clear at this point that the distinction
between interference is that what takes place is largely unconscious in
the mind of the learner.7
Meanwhile, Brown (2000) states that Causes of errors are inter-lingual
transfer, intra-lingual transfer, context of learning, and communication
strategies.8 For more details, please look at the explanations below:
a. Inter-lingual transfer
Inter-lingual transfer is cause of error from transferring knowledge or
grammar into the target language. It means the native language interference the
target language in terms of patterns, system or rules.
b. Intra-lingual transfer
Intra-lingual transfer refers to errors caused by the lack competence of the
language being learnt (TL). There are items produced by the learner that does not
reflect the structure of the mother tongue, but generalizations based on partial
exposure to the target language. The learner tries in this case to derive the rules
behind the data to which has been exposed by the learner, and may develop
hypotheses that correspond neither to the mother tongue nor to the target
language.

John Norrish, Language Learners and Their Errors, (London: Macmillan, 1983), pp. 21

26.
8

Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 4th Edition., (New York:
Longman, 2000), pp. 223227.

c. Context of learning
A third major source of error, although it overlaps both types of transfer, it
is the context of learning. Context refers, for example, to the classroom with its
teacher and its material in the case of school learning or the social situation in the
case of untutored second language learning. In a classroom context, the teacher or
the textbook can lead the learner to make faulty hypotheses about the language.
Students often make errors because of a misleading explanation from the teacher,
faulty presentation of a structure or word in a textbook, or even because of a
pattern that was rottenly memorized in a drill, but it is improperly contextualized.
In addition, teacher may provide incorrect information-not an uncommon
occurrence-by way of a misleading definition, word, or grammatical
generalization. Another manifestation of language learned in classroom contexts
is the occasional tendency on the part of learners to give in contracted and
inappropriately formal forms of language. The sociolinguistic context of natural,
untutored language acquisition can give rise to certain acquisition that may itself
be a source of error. For example, a Japanese immigrant who lived in a
predominantly Mexican American area of a US city produced a learner language
that was an interesting blend of Mexican American English and the standards
English colored by his Japanese accent.
d. Communication strategies
Communication strategies are a means whereby a learner can express
himself in the language he is learning, using some sort of inter language as a
half-way house between his own and his target language.9
In conclusion, there are some aspects that may lead errors in learning the
target language. The cause of errors may come from the interference of native
language to the target one, the lack of competence of the target language, the
learning environment, and the personal learning strategies.

John Norrish, Language Learners and Their Errors, (London: Macmillan, 1983), p. 27.

10

3. The Classification of Errors


Azar in her book explains that there are thirteen kinds of errors that the
students frequently make in their writing, as follows:
a. SINGULAR-PLURAL
The sentence He have been here for six months should be replaced by He
has been here for six months.
b. WORD FORM
The sentence I saw a beauty picture should be replaced by I saw a
beautiful picture.
c. WORD CHOICE
The sentence She got on the taxi should be replaced by She got into the
taxi.
d. VERB TENSE
The sentence He is here since June should be replaced by He has been
here since June.
e. ADD A WORD
The sentence I want __ go to the zoo should be replaced by I want to go
to the zoo.
f. WORD ORDER
The sentence I saw five times that movie should be replaced by I saw
that movie five times.
g. INCOMPLETE SENTENCE
The sentence I went to bed. Because I was tired should be replaced by I
went to bed because I was tired.
h. SPELLING
The sentence An accident occured should be replaced by An accident
occurred.
i. PUNCTUATION
The sentence What did he say. should be replaced by What did he say?

11

j. CAPITALIZATION
The sentence I am studying english should be replaced by I am studying
English.
k. ARTICLE
The sentence I had accident should be replaced by I had an accident.
l. MEANING NOT CLEAR
The sentence He borrowed some smoke. ( ? ? ? ).
m. RUN-ON SENTENCE
The sentence My roommate was sleeping, we didnt want to wake her up
should be replaced by My roommate was sleeping. We didnt want to wake her
up.

10

4. The Procedures of Errors Analysis


In the language teaching, either a native language or a second language
teaching, study about the students errors is very important. Theo Van Els and
friends states that there are some procedures in errors analysis, namely;
a. Identification of errors
b. Description of errors
c. Explanation of errors
d. Evaluation of errors
e. Preventing/correction of errors11
The first step in the process of analysis is identification of errors. In this
step, teachers recognize the students errors from the task given. The second step
is the description of errors begun when identification stages have taken place. The
description of the students errors involves classification of sort of errors made by
the students.
The third step is explanation of errors that can be regarded as a linguistic
problem. This step attempts to account for how the errors can happen and why the
10

Bety Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar, 2 nd Edition, (New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992), p. A29.
11
Theo Van Els and friends, Applied Linguistics and the Learning and Teaching of Foreign
Languages, (London: A Division of Hodder & Stoughton, 1983), p. 47.

12

errors occur. The fourth step is the evaluation of errors in which the teachers will
give the task to the students.
Finally, the last step is the process of analysis is correction of errors where
the teachers check the result from the task done by the students. Then, they correct
the errors that the students made.
Example:

Table 2.1
The Examples of the Procedures of Errors Analysis
Identification
of Errors
I not go to

Classification Explanation Correction


of Errors
Description
Omit a word
not should I do not go

school every

be preceded

to school

Sunday

by do

every

Causes of
Errors
Inter-lingual
Transfer

Sunday
I am want to

Add a word

buy that
gorgeous stuff

am should

I want to

Context of

be omitted

buy that

Learning

gorgeous
stuff

B. Grammar
For most people, the essence of language lies in grammar. It enables us to
make statements about how to use our language. In brief, grammar represents
ones linguistic competence; therefore it include many aspects of linguistic
knowledge: the sound system (phonology), the system of meaning (semantics),
the rules of word formation (morphology), the rules of sentence (syntax), and the
vocabulary of words (lexicon).
Language without grammar would be chaotic: countless words without the
indispensable guidelines for how they can be ordered and modified. A study of

13

grammar (syntax and morphology) reveals a structure and regularity, which lies at
the basic of language and enables us to talk of the language system.12
1. The Definitions of Grammar
Penny Ur noted that Grammar is defined as words are put together to make
correct sentences it does not only affect how the units of words are combined in
order to make correct sentences but also affects their meaning.13 Besides, Paul
Robert noted that Grammar is a body of generalization about how people says
thing in order to make generalization, we must agree on the meaning of terms for
the things we wish to talk about. Grammar accuracy is only part of
communication to convey a message, where grammar is merely a tool. According
to Scott Thornburry (1999) wrote Grammar is partly the study of what forms (or
structures) are possible in language. Traditionally, grammar has been concerned
almost exclusively with analysis at the level of the sentence formed rules that
govern how a languages sentences are formed.14 In conclusion, grammar is a
field of linguistic that involves all the various things that make up the rules of
language.
2. The Types of Grammar
Grammar may be separated into two common broad categories: descriptive
and prescriptive. Both views of grammar are in wide use, although in general,
linguists tend towards a descriptive approach to grammar, while people are
teaching a specific language; English, might tend towards a more prescriptive
approach.15 David Crystal lists six types of grammar: descriptive grammar,
pedagogical grammar, prescriptive grammar, reference grammar, theoretical
grammar, and traditional grammar.16
Kathryn Riley and Frank Parker state that there are four types of grammar;
prescriptive grammar is primarily interested in constructing rules of usage for the
prestige variety of a language, descriptive grammar is primarily interested in
12

Paul Batstone, Grammar, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1950), p. 4


Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching Practice and Theory, (London: Cambridge
University Press, 1996), p. 75.
14
Scott Thornburry, How to teach grammar, (London: Longman, 1999), p. 1.
15
http://www.answers.com/topic/grammar, 8 Juli 2009
16
http://www.llp.armstrong.edu/5800/types.html. 8 Juli 2009
13

14

describing the basic sentence patterns of all varieties of a language. Then,


generative grammar is primarily interested in discovering those principles of
sentence formation that are part of the human biological endowment, performance
grammar is primarily interested in the effects of context and real-time limitations
on language use.17
In the writers opinion, grammar can be divided into two main points;
descriptive and prescriptive grammar that can be broken down again into many
different points with different point of views.
C. Sentences
Sentence is a set of words expressing a statement, a question or an order,
usually containing a subject and a verb.18 Before the conditional sentences are
discussed, it may be necessary to know about the definition of sentence. A
sentence is a complete meaning. When we speak, our sentences may be extremely
involved or even unfinished, yet we can still convey our meaning through
intonation, gesture, facial expression, etc. When we write, these devices are not
available, so sentences have to be carefully structured and punctuated. In addition,
a written sentence must be begun with a capital letter and with a full stop (.), a
question mark (?), or an exclamatory mark (!).19
1. The Definitions of Sentences
As Hornby states in his dictionary Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary
of Current English is not only the largest grammatical unit consisting of phrases,
but also clause which is used to express a statement, question, command, etc.
Meanwhile, traditional grammar translates a sentence in one of two ways.
First, it is defined by meaning. Sentence is a complete thought. Second, it is
defined by function, stating that sentence consists of a subject and a predicate.
The definition that offers here includes both functional and formal characteristics

17

Kathryn Riley and Frank Parker, English Grammar: Prescriptive, Descriptive,


Generative, Performance, (Boston: A Pearson Education Company, 1998), p. 3.
18
A S Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 7th Edition., (Oxford University
Press, 2005), p. 1383.
19
L.G. Alexander, Longman English Grammar, (New York: Longman Publishing, 1988),
p. 2.

15

of a sentence; a sentence is a full prediction containing a subject plus a predicate


with a finite verb. 20
In conclusion, sentences are defined as group of words consisting of subject
and verb having a complete meaning.
2. The Types of Sentences
There are four types of sentences; simple sentence, compound sentence,
complex sentence, compound complex sentence.
a.

Simple sentence contains one full subject and predicate. It takes the form of:
1) A statement, e.g. He lives in New York.
2) A question, e.g. How old are you?
3) A request, e.g. Please close the door. (The subject you is understood).
4) An exclamation, e.g. What a terrible temper she has!

b.

Compound sentence contains two or more sentences joined by:


1) Punctuation alone, e.g. The weather was very bad; all classes were
canceled.
2) Punctuation alone and a conjunctive adverb, e.g. The weather was very
bad; therefore all classes were canceled.
3) A coordinate conjunction (and, or, but, yet, so, far), e.g. The weather was
very bad, so all classes were canceled.
When such sentences are joined coordinately, they are each called

independent clauses.
c.

Compound sentence contains one or more dependent (or subordinate) clauses.

A dependent clause contains a full subject and predicate beginning with a word
that attaches the clause to an independent clause (called the main clause). Here are
the clauses:
1) Adverbial clause, e.g. All classes were canceled because the weather was
bad.
2) Adjective clause, e.g. Children who are under twelve years must be
accompanied by their parents.
20

Marcella Frank, Modern English: A Practical Reference Guide, (New Jersey: Prentice
Hall Inc., 1972), p. 220.

16

3) Noun clause, e.g. I cant understand why you did such a thing.
d.

Compound complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and


one or more dependent clauses.
All classes were canceled because the weather was bad, and students were
told to listen to the radio to find out when classes would begin again.21

D. The Conditional Sentences


A conditional sentence is used to express something expected or unexpected
which may or may not be occured. It consists of two clauses, a dependent clause
beginning with if clause (or another conjunction performing the general
function), and a main clause which gives the result of the if clause.22 Martin Parott
wrote that conditional sentences consist of two clauses a main (conditional)
clause containing a verb in a form with will or would, and a subordinate clause
that is introduced by if.23
1. The Definition of Conditional Sentences
According to Longman Dictionary, conditionl sentence is one that begin
with if or unless expressing something that must be true or happen before
something else can be true or happen.24 Pamela J. Sharpe defines conditional as
statement with if or unless, they are opinions about the conditional influence
result and opinions about the result.25 In the writers opinion, it can be concluded
that conditional sentences are sentences with if or unless expressing situation
or condition that might come true or happen before something else may happen.
For more details, there are some explanation below:
I will help you if you want; He would come if you called.

21

Marcella Frank, Modern English, Exercise for Nonnative Speakers Part II: Sentences
and Complex Structures, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972), p. 1.
22
George E. Wishon and Julia Burks, Lets Write English, (New York: American Book
Company, 1980), p. 249.
23
Martin Parott, Grammar for English Language Teachers, (New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2000), p. 231.
24
Longman Dictionary of contemporary English, (England: New Delhi: Gobsons Paper
Limited).
25
Pamela J. Sharpe, How to Prepare for the TOEFL, (Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara, 2000), p.
106.

17

What expressed in the main clause, it depends or is conditional on what


expressed in the subordinate if clause;
I will turn on the heating if it gets colder.
The if clause can come first or last in the sentence with no change in
meaning. Notice that when the if clause comes first, it is followed by a comma;
If we did not have to study, we could go out tonight or we could go out tonight if
we did not have to study. 26 Here are alternates to if stating sort of conditions in
conditional sentences:
a. Negatives Conditions
We often use unless to express a negative conditions. It is similar to if ... not
or only if:
1) Unless you have got a doctors note to say you have passed the medicine, they
will not allow you to go on the activity holiday.
(If you do not have a doctors note ..., they will not allow you ...)
2) I would not be willing to help you out again unless you paid me.
(I would help you only if you paid me.)27
b. Necessary Conditions
We use the conjunctions provided/providing (that), so/as long as and on the
condition (that) to emphasize that the condition is necessary to the result. They all
mean only if:
1) The system will not have to be drained provided that antifreeze has been
added.
2) Expenses will be reimbursed on the condition that all receipts are submitted.
To express a necessary condition for something to have happened in the past,
we use but for + noun phrase:
3) They would have all perished, but for the quick thiniking of the driver.
(... if it had not been for the quick thinking of the driver.)28

26

Michael A. Ple and Mar Munoz Page, TOEFL Preparation Guide, (New Jersey: Cliffs
Publishers, 1994), p. 115.
27
Mark Foley and Diane Hall, Longman Advanced Learner;s Grammar....p. 123.
28
Mark Foley and Diane Hall, Longman Advanced Learners Grammar, . p. 124.

18

c. Imaginary Conditions
We use suppose/supposing (that)... and what if ... to talk about imaginary
conditions.
1) Suppose he asked you to go to the cinema with him, would you go?
2) What if the money doesnt arrive on time?
We often use in case to imagine a precaution necessary for a situation:
3) She gave me the key to get in the house in case you were out.
4) In case of (an) emergency, pull the cord above the bath.
d. Unexpected Conditions
We use even if to express a condition that is unexpected in the
circumstances:
e.g. Even if they do go down with flu after they have had the vacation, its likely
to be less serious.
e. Alternative Conditions
We use whether ... or not to express alternative conditions (for conditional
patterns):
e.g. They will deliver the furniture whether there is someone to receive it or not.29

2. The Types of Conditional Sentences


There are three kinds of conditional sentences in English. Each kind
contains a different pair of tenses. Each type contains many varieties that are
possible, but the students who are studying the conditional sentences for the first
time may ignore it and concentrate on the basic forms. In this skripsi, the writer
uses the term if clause and main clause as A.J Thompson and A.V Martinet
stated in their book A Practical English Grammar, although another term also
is used in this clause. Betty Schramfer Azar used term if clause and result
clause.30

29

Mark Foley and Diana Hall, Longman Advanced Learners Grammar, .....p. 123.
Betty Schramfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
1992), p. 389.
30

19

a. Type One of Conditional Sentences


Type one of conditional is defined as a sentence that express a futurepossible condition refers to an action that may not taken place in the future. The
present tense of the verb is used in the if clause, and the future tense is used in the
main clause. The if clause may precede or follow the main clause.31
This conditional type is also called possible conditional in which the if
clause states the condition; the result clause states the result. In addition, simple
present is used in the if clause. The explanation will be described more through
the table on the next page:
Table 2.2
The Formula of Type One of Conditional Sentences Started from If
Clause Ended with Main Clause
If Clause

Main Clause

If + S1 + Verb 1

S2 + will + Verb 1

If it gets colder tonight

I will turn on the heating.

If I learn

I will pass the exam.

Table 2.3
The Formula of Type One of Conditional Sentences Started from Main
Clause Ended with If Clause
Main Clause

If Clause

S1 + will + Verb 1

If + S1 + Verb 1

He will get up early,

If he catches the fast train.

I will go shopping this afternoon

If I have enough time.

This type of sentence implies that the action in the if clause is quite
probable. The meaning here is present or future, but the verb in if clause is in
present, not a future tense.
1) Variation in main clause
Except from if + present +future, it can also be used:
31

George E. Wishon and Julia Burks, Lets Write...p. 249.

20

a) If + present + may/might (to express possibility), for example:


If the rain gets heavier the rice fields may/might be flooded.
If the dry season becomes longer the famine may/might happen.
b) If + present + may (permission) or can (ability or permission), for
examples:
If your documents are in order you may/can leave at once. (permission)
If it stops raining we cn go out. (ability or permission)
c) If + present + must, should (command or advice), for examples:
If you want to lose weight, you must/should eat less bread. (command)
If you want to lose weight you had better eat less bread. (advice)
d) If + present + another present tense
Two present tense are used to express natural laws and habitual reactions,
for example:
If you heat ice it turns to water.
2) Variation of the if clause
The present perfect or present continuous may replace the present tense in
type one:
a) If you have finished that exercises I will show you how to do the next one.
b) If you are staying for another night, I will ask the manager to give you a
better room.32
In this conditional type, modal can also be used in the result clause.
a) If the result of the test is negative, youll receive notification through the
post.
b) If we want to vote, you must register. 33
Also, we can use the first conditional to express a variety of functions,
which are explained on following page:34

32

A.J Thompson and A.V Martinet, A Practical English Grammar 2nd edition., (New York:
Oxford University Press: 1986), p. 218.
33
Majorie Fuchs and Margaret Boner, Grammar Express for Self in Study or the
Classroom, (England: Pearson Education Limited, 2003), p. 283.
34
Mark Foley and Diana Hall, Advanced Learners Grammar...p. 121.

21

- Commands
If you get home late, dont wake us up!
Dont forget to close the windows if you go out, will you?
- Offers
Ill call the hotek if you dont have plenty of time
Ill be there if you want to wait for me in 10 minutes.
- Suggestions
Shall we go out tomorrow if the weathers good?
Shall you join us if your parents come with me for the gathering?
- Warnings
Ill call the police if you dont leave right now!
Note that we use an imperative in the main clause for commands. Actually,
to make this conditional pattern more formal, we can omit if and use should
before the subject, as the example below:
Should you be less than delighted with our product, we will refund your
money immediately.

b. Type Two of Conditional Sentences:


This kind of conditional sentences describes a situation, which does not
exist or is unreal.35 Such conditions are either impossible to realize or are not
likely to be realized in the near future. It does not expect that the condition in the
if clause to become a fact.36
Type two of conditional sentences or second conditional is also known as
the unlikely or improbable conditional which is used to talk about unreal, untrue,
imagined or impossible conditions in present. John Shepherd stated there are four
main points for students to learn, as follows:
1) The pattern is if + past, conditional (or vice versa)
2) After if, we use the past tense.
3) The conditional verb goes in the non-if half of the sentences.
35

Marcella Frank, Modern English, Exercise for Nonnative Speakers Part II: Sentences
and Complex Structures, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,: 1972), p. 33.
36
George E. Wishon and Julia Burks, Lets Write..., p. 250.

22

4) This pattern is used to describe imaginary often impossible events.37


The verb in the if clause is in the past tense; the verb in the main clause is in
the conditional sentences. The formulas will be explained more through the table
below:
Table 2.4
The Formula of Type Two of Conditional Sentences Started from If
Clause Ended with Main Clause
If Clause

Main Clause

If + S1 + V2...

S2 + Would + V1...

If I sold my boat,

I would take you to dinner.

If I were snowing,

I would drive you home

If I lived in Europe,

I would eat pizza often.

There is no difference in time between the first and second types of


conditional sentence. They refer to present or future, and past tense in the if
clause is not true past but a subjunctive, which indicates unreality (as in the first
example above) or improbability (as in the second example above).38 Here are the
explanations below:
1) Variation in Main Clause will be presented below:
Similarly, the past tense can be used with might or could:
If you tried again, you would succeed. (certain result)
If you tried again, you might succeed. (possible result)
If it stopped snowing, you could go out. (ability or permission)39
2) Variation in the if clause will be explained more below:
3) If + past continuous
If I were going by boat, Id feel much happier.
4) If + past perfect
If he had taken my advice, he would be a rich man now.
37

John Shepherd, Multilevel English Grammar Programme, (London: Prentice Hall


Macmillan, 1995), p. 144.
38
A.J Thompson and A.V Martinet, A Practical,.. p. 197.
39
A.J Thompson and A.V Martinet, A Practica,:.. p. 218.

23

Marcella Frank also states in her book Modern English: A conditional


clause containing a past unreal form may be combined by a main clause
containing a present unreal form, e.g. If the boy had listened to his parents last
year, he would not be in trouble now.40

c. Type Three of Conditional Sentences:


This kind of conditional sentences indicates past time, unreal, and
unfulfilled situation.41 The verb in the If clause is in the past perfect tense; the
verb in the main clause is in the perfect conditional. In addition, it explains about
past time and the condition cannot be fulfilled, because the action in the if clause
did not happen.42 The formulas will be explained more through the table below:
Table 2.5
The Formula of Type Three of Conditional Sentences Started from If
Clause Ended with Main Clause
If Clause

Main Clause

If + S1 + had + past perfect

S2 +would +have + past participle

If we had not wasted time

We would not have missed the train.

Table 2.6
The Formula of Type Three of Conditional Sentences Started from
Main Clause Ended with If Clause
Main Clause

If Clause

S + would + have + past

If + S1 + had + past perfect

participle
I would have been more
sympathetic,
H

40

If she had not accused me of


lying.

Marcella Frank, Modern English, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1972), p. 37.
George Wishon and Julia Burks, Lets Write..., p. 251.
42
A.J Thompson and A.V Martinet, A Practical English......, p. 200.
41

24

Here we know that the conditional sentences can not be fulfilled, because
the sentence refers only to past event. Also, there is variation in the basic form in
this type of conditional sentences. More explanation will be conveyed below:
Variation in the Basic Form
Might or could can also be used in these following sentences:
a. If we had found him earlier, we could have saved his life. (Ability)
b. If we had found him earlier, we might have saved his life. (Possibility)
c. If our documents had been in order we could have left at once. (Ability or
permission)
There are some additions in conditional sentences forms likeinversion of
subject and auxiliary, with if omitted and if only;
1) Inversion of Subject and Auxiliary, with if omitted
Where if is followed by an auxiliary verb, e.g. by were, had, or should, it is
possible to invert auxiliary and omit the if :
a) If I were rich = were I rich (were must be used with this contraction, never
was).
b) If he had known = had he known.
c) If war should break out = should war break out.
2) Inversion of Subject and Auxiliary, with if omitted
Only can be placed after if which indicates hope, a wish, or regret according
to the tense to be used with.
If only + present tense/will expresses hope:
a) If only he comes in time = we hope he will come.
b) If only he will listen to her = we hope he will be willing to listen.
If only + past/past perfect express regret (it has same meaning as wish + past/past
perfectly):
a) If only he did not smoke! = we wish he did not smoke or we are sorry he
smokes.
b) If only (= I/We wish) Tom here!

25

If only + would express regret about a present action as an alternative to if only +


past tense
c) If only he would drive more slowly = we are sorry that he is not willing to
drive more slowly!
As Penny Ur states that the use of conditonal sentences (any type) to
describe result of actions, transformations, and also some free composition; oral
and written.
The first conditional is used to describe superstitions; free composition of
single sentences, oral or written. For example:
a) You will have bad luck, if you walk under a ladder.
b) If you walk under a ladder, you will have bad luck.
The second conditional is used to express fulfilled desires; free
composition of sentences; mostly written, and to describe hypothetical situations;
written and spoken responses. For example:
a) I would take more exercise if I were good at sports.
b) If I were good at sports, I would take more exercise.
The third conditional is used to describe contrary to fact past
situations; written work as basis for discussion.43 For example:
a) I would have got a better job if I had gone to University.
b) If I had gone to University, I would have got a better job.

3) The Function of Conditional Sentences


In grammar, conditional sentences are sentences discussing factual
implications or hypothetical situations and their consequences. Languages use a
variety of conditional constructions and verb forms (such as the conditional
mood) to form such sentences.
Full conditional sentences contain two clauses: the condition or protasis,
and the consequence or apodosis.
If it rains [condition], (then) the picnic will be cancelled [consequence].
43

Penny Ur, Grammar Practices: A Practical Guide for Teachers, (Cambridge University
Press, 1988), pp. 7882.

26

Syntactically, the condition is the subordinate clause, and the consequence


is the main clause. However, the properties of the entire sentence are primarily
determined by the properties of the protasis (condition) (its tense and degree of
factualness).

4) The Usages of Conditional Sentences


Conditional sentence may be used in three kinds of types; therefore it must
be appropriate in meaning and form that is explained by a table below:
Table 2.7
The Brief Explanation of Usages of Conditional Sentences
Meaning of the Verb

Verb form

if clause

Form in

in the

the if

Result

clause

Clause

True in the

Simple

Simple

present/future

Present

Present

a. If I have enough time, I write


to my parents every week.
b. If

have

enough

time

tomorrow, I will write to my


parents.

Simple
Future
a.

If I had enough time, I would

Meaning of the

Verb

Verb form

if clause

Form in

in the

write to my parents. (the truth

the if

Result

is that I do not have enough

clause

Clause

time, so I will not write to

Untrue in the

Simple

Would +

them).

present/future

Past

simple form

Untrue in the

Past

Would have

past

Perfect

+ past
participle

a. If I had had enough time, I


would have written to my
parents yesterday. (the truth is
that I did not have enough
time, so I did not write to my
parents).

27

E. Type Two of Conditional Sentences


This kind of conditional sentence describes a situaation which does not exist
or is unreal.44 Type two of conditional sentences are sometimes called
thesecond.hypothetical or unreal conditional. We actually use them to refer
to or speculate about something that is (or that we perceive to be) impossible or
contrary to fact.45 The verb in the if clause is in the past tense; the verb in the
main clause is in the conditional sentences.
For example:
- If I had a map, I would lend it to you.
- If someone tried to blackmail me, I would tell the police.
There is no difference in time between the first and second types of
conditional sentences. Type two, like type one, refers to the present or future, and
the past tense in the if clause is not a true past but a subjunctive, which indicates
unreality (as in the first example above) or improbability (as in the second
example above).46 In this type of conditional sentences, the subjunctive were is
used for all persons: if I were (instead of If I was), if he were, if we were, if you
were, etc.47

1. The Form of Type Two of Conditional Sentences


The form of type two of conditional sentences will be explained by the
following table below:

44

Marcella Frank, Modern English (New Jersey: Prentice Hall: 1972), p. 33.
Martin Parrot, Grammar for English Language Teachers (London: Cambridge University
Press, 2000), pp. 233234.
46
A.J Thompson and A.V Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1986), p. 198.
47
George E. Wishon and Julia M. Burks, Lets write English Grammar, (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 198.
45

28

Table 2.8
The Brief Explanation of Affirmative Statements in Type Two of
Conditional Sentences

Affirmative Statements
If clause:

Result Clause: Would + Base Form of Verb

Simple Past
he loved
If

he would get married.

her,
he were

he would get married.

in love,

Table 2.9
The Brief Explanation of Short Answer in Type Two of Conditional
Sentences

Short Answer
Affirmative

Negative

Yes, I would

No, I would not.

Table 2.10
The Brief Explanation of WH-Questions in Type Two of Conditional
Sentences

WH-Questions
Result Clause
What would you do

If Clause
If

You loved her?


You were in live?

29

Table 2.11
The Brief Explanation of Negative Statements in Type Two of
Conditional Sentences
Negative Statements
If Clause: Simple Past

Result Clause: Would


+ Base Form of Verb

he did not love


If

he would not get

her,

married.

he were not in

he would not get

love,

married.

Table 2.12
The Brief Explanation of Yes/No Questions in Type Two of Conditional
Sentences
Yes/No Questions
Result Clause
Would I get married

If Clause
If

I loved her
I were in love?

Look at the explanations below, possible variation of the basic form of type two
of conditional sentences:
a. Variation of the main clause
1) Might or could may be used instead of would:
If you tried again, you would succeed (certain result).
If you tried again, you might succeed (possible result).
If I knew her number, I could ring her up (ability).
If he had a permit, he could get a job (ability or permission).
2) The continuous conditional form may be used instead of the simple
conditional form:
Tom: Peter is on holiday; he is touring Italy.
Ann: If I were on holiday, I would/might be touring Italy too.

30

3) If + past tense can be followed by another past tense when we wish to


express automatic or habitual reactions in the past:
If anyone interrupted him, he got angry.
(whenever anyone interrupted him).
4) When if is used to mean as or since, a variety of tense is possible in
the main clause. If + past tensehere has a past meaning. The sentence is
not a true conditional.
Tom: I knew she was short of money.
Ann: If you knew she was short of money, you should have lent her some!
Why did not you lend her some?
b. Variation of the if clause
Instead of if + simple past we can have:
1) If + past continuous
We are going by air and I hate flying. If we were going by boat, I would
feel much happier.
2) If + past perfect
If he had taken my advice, he would be a rich man now.
(this is a mixture of type two and three).48
3) Even though the time reference in the if clause is the present or future,
past verb forms are used in the if clause.
Correct

: If we had money, we would buy a car today.

Incorrect

: If we have money, we would buy a car today.

Would can be used in the if clause only when the meaning is be willing
to.
If you would take the time to study (If you were willing to take the time to
study), you could be an excellent student.
4) The subjunctive were is used for all persons.
If I were rich, I would quit my job immediately.
If she were rich, she would quit her job immediately.
If they were rich, they would quit their jobs immediately.
48

A.J. Thompson, A Practical English Grammar,.... p. 190.

31

5) The modals in the independent clause are in the form they take in indirect
speech.
6) Remember that with type two of conditional sentences, you are stating
the opposite of present truths.
(Present truth: I dont have any money, so I cant lend you any.)
If I had some money, I could lend you some.
(Present truth: Im not concentrating, so this page is difficult to
understand.)
If I were concentrating, this page would not be difficult to understand.
7) If may be omitted in the if clause when it is followed by an auxiliary verb
such as should and were. Note that the auxiliary precedes the noun when
if is omitted.
Should I see him today, Ill tell him to call you. (If I should see him
today,...)
Were he home now, you could call him. (If he were home now,...).49
2. The Function of Type Two of Conditional Sentences
This kind of conditional sentence describes a situation which does not exist
or is unreal.50 Type two of conditional sentences are sometimes called
thesecond.hypothetical or unreal conditional. We actually use them to refer
to or speculate about something that is (or that we perceive to be) impossible or
contrary to fact.51
3. The Usages of Type Two of Conditional Sentences
As stated before, every type of conditional sentences has a specific form and
usage. The writer will try to describe usage of type two of conditional sentences.
Which is basically used:
a) When the supposition is contrary to known facts:
If I were you, Id plant some trees round the house.

49

Carroll Washington Pollock, Communicate What You Mean, (New Jersey, Prentice Hall
Inc, 1982), p. 229.
50
Marcella Frank, Modern English (New Jersey: Prentice Hall: 1972), p. 33.
51
Martin Parrot, Grammar for English Language Teachers (London: Cambridge University
Press, 2000), pp. 233234.

32

(In fact I am not you.)


b) When we do not expect the action in the if clause to take place:
If a burglar came into my room at night. Id throw something at him.
(In fact I do not expect a burglar to come in.)
Some If clauses can have either of the above meanings, as the example
below:
If he left his bicycle outside, someone would steal it.
If he left his bicycle could imply but, he does not (present meaning, as in
I above) or but, he does not intend to (future meaning, as in two). After
all, the correct meaning is usually clear from the text.
At one time ambiguity of this kind was avoided by using were + infinitive
instead of the past tense in type two:
If a burglar were to come ...
If he were to leave ...
Nowadays, this use of were is considered rather formal, but it is sometimes
found in written English.52
c) It can describe an improbable future event or situation. The condition is
unlikely to be fulfilled, because the future event is unlikely to happen:
If the result of the test were positive, we would call you within two days.
d) It can also describes a hypothetical current situation or event, i.e. one
which is contrary to know facts. Therefore, it is impossible to fulfill the
condition:
If the police were confident of their case against Skykes, surely they
wouldnt hestitate to take him into Custody?
(The police is not confident of their case.)
The choice between the first conditional and the explanation in point c of
the second conditional above often depends on how possible the speakers believes
in an event to be:
If Mike rings the travel agent tomorrow, he might get ccancellation.
(The speaker thinks that it is likely that Mike will ring the travel agent.)
52

A.J. Thompson, A Practical English Grammar, ....p. 188.

33

We use type two of conditional sentences to express a variety of functions:


1. Giving Advice (with were)
If I were you, I would take her out to have a candle-light dinner.
2. Polite request
If you could deal with this matter. Id be very grateful.
3. Desires/regrets
If we didnt have to work so hard, we could spend more time together.
We can use should + infinitive or were to + infinitive in the second conditional
to emphasize that the condition is unlikely to happen, as the example below:
4. If the printer should break down within the first year, we would repair it at our
expense.
5. If you were to listen more carefully, you might understand a little more.
We can put was/were (to) before the subject in order to sound more formal, as
the example below:
a) Were you to accept our offer, we could avoid the costs of a court case.
We can make this condition more formal by placing should before the
subject:
b) Should the tickets fail to arrive before the departure date, we would
arrange to have duplicates waiting at the airport.
The explanation of tense combination of present unreal will be described in
the table on the next page:

34

Table 2.13
The Tense Combination of Present unreal53

Dependent (Subordinate) clause

Independent (Main) Clause

Simple Past

would, could, might, should +


main verb

Past Continuous

could, had to + main verb

* would
Example:
If John studied, he would pass the test
If John were studying, he might pass the test
If John could study, he could pass the test
* If John would study, he could pass the test
* Note: Neither will nor would can be used in
the if clause when they are used with
a future meaning.

e) The Difficulties in using Type Two of Conditional Sentences


The conditional sentences are provided by the students textbooks and
reference grammars with information which is difficult to grasp by the students.54
In line with preceeding sentence, Marianne C. Murcia wrote that the second
conditional sentences or imaginative conditional sentences are perhaps the most
problematic of three main types.55

53

Caroll Washington Pollock, Communicate What You Mean, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Inc., 1982), p. 213.
54
Marianne C. Murcia, The Grammar Book,... p. 545.
55
Marianne C. Murcia, The Grammar Book,... p. 551.

35

There are two subtypes of imaginative conditional hypothetical and


counterfactuals. Hypothetical conditionals express unlikely yet possible events or
state in the if clause:
If Joe had the time, he would go to the mexico.
The if clause is not strongly negated here. There is an outside chance that
Jope has (or will have) the time. On the other hand, counterfactual conditionals
express impossible events or states in the if clause:
If Napoleon were alive today, he would be fighting the Soviets.
The If clause is strongly negated (i.e., Napoleon is not alive today nor will
he be alive in the future).
Occasionally, the difference between using a future conditional and a
hypothetical conditional is a matter of speaker choice:
Future

: If it rains, I will stay at home.

Hypothetical

: If it (were to/should) rain, I would stay home.56

The choice reflects the degree of confidence in the speakers mind comcerning the
fulfillment of the condition; the future conditional expresses a greater degree of
confidence that the condition is a real possibility than does the hypothetical
conditional.
Besides, another problem is that ESL/EFL students, who have learned to
associate past tense with past time, often find it hard to believe that in type two of
conditional sentences refers to present and not past time. Therefore, they get
confused, because they hear and read many types of conditional sentences which
are not included in three structures usually taught.
To avoid many of these problems, present and practice conditional in
realistic context is necessary.

56

Marianne C. Murcia, The Grammar Book..., p. 552.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. The Purposes of the Research


The purposes of this research are toobtain clear information about the
students errors and to know the reason why the students make errors in using
type two of conditional sentences in using type two of conditional sentences at
SMA Dua Mei Ciputat.

B. The Time and Place of the Research


The research took place at SMA Dua Mei Ciputat located at Jl.H. Abdul
Gani No. 135 Cempaka PutihCiputat TimurTangerangBanten. The research
was carried onSeptember 12th September 29th2011.

C. The Population of the Research


The population of the research is the entire second grade students of SMA
Dua Mei Ciputat in which there are 30 students from two classes; XI Social and
XI Science Class. Actually, there are 54 more students at the school, but 24
students were out of town when the writer conducted the research to attend
training for selected students at Puncak. The writer took the whole studentswho
came to the class because the subject of the study is less than 100, so the research
is called population research. Moreover, if the sum of the subject is bigger, a
researcher can take 15%, or 20-25% and more, depending on the researchers
ability in terms of fund, time, and energy. Also, whether the research area from
each subject is wide or narrow is the factor and the risks that can be carried on by
the researcher might be considered.1

SuharsimiArikunto, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan; 4th Revised Edition, (Jakarta:


Bumi Aksara, 2009), p. 134.

36

37

D. The Method of the Research


The writer used the descriptive analysis method and used the procedures of
errors analysis itself. The method was intended to analyze problems or cases
happened. Next, it involved accumulating, analyzing, and classifying data with
various techniques, also interpreting data. On the final step, the writer had to
conclude the result of research. The study was also based on field research.
Through field research, the writer explained the use of type two of conditional
sentences in the classand examinedthe second grade students of SMA Dua Mei
Ciputat by delivering the test to the students to get some data. In addition, it was
also supported by many books related to the topic.

E. The Instrument of the Research


To get the data, the writer gave a test to the second grade students of SMA
Dua Mei Ciputat. Before making the test, the writer made kisi-kisisoal focused
on the use of type two of conditional sentences. Here is the table:
Table 3.1
The Tenses Area and Each Item
No.

Tenses area

Number of
item

1.

The form of type two of conditional

Part I

sentences
a) Irregular verb
b) Modal + base form of verb

1,3,4,6,10
2,5,8,9,11,12
13,14

c) Inversion
2.

7,15

The sentences of type two of

Part II

conditional sentences

1- 5

38

No.

Tenses area

Number of
item

3.

True False questions regarding the

Part III

positive and negative forms of type

1-10

two of conditional sentences

After making the test, the writer made the items of test referring to it. There
were 30 test items given to the students.

F. The Technique of Data Collecting


To collect data, the writer used some techniques such as book literature and
test instrument. Before conducting the research, the writer searched for some
books and other references related to the research. Then, the writer conducted a
test to investigate the students errors in using type two of conditional sentences.
The writer enclosed the test on the appendices section.

G. The Techniques of Data Analysis


After collecting the data from the test, the writer analyzed the students
errors by focusing on their grammatical errors in using type two of conditional
sentences from the students answer sheets. The techniques of data analysis used
by the writer in this research are descriptive analysis technique because the writer
describes some students errors and quantitative because the writer uses numerical
data in this skripsi. Here is the table of average errors formula on the next page:

39

Table 3.2
The AverageErrors Formula
P=

P = Percentage
F = Frequency of Errors
C = Correct Answers

F
x 100%
C+F

CHAPTER IV
RESESEARCH FINDINGS

A. The Data Description


The writer conducted the field research at the second year students of
SMA Dua Mei Ciputat. There were three types of test given to the students to
take their score in using type two of conditional sentences containing fifteen
items with the short essay form of five items in regular verb, eight items in
modal + base form of verb, two items in inversion form. Also, five items might
be completed by the students in making sentences in type two of conditional
sentences and ten last items in the last part. Here are the tables explaining the
studentss response distribution on every item in each part, as follows:
Table 4.1
The Students Response Distribution on Each Item of Testin Part I
No.

Numberof Items

Right

Wrong

1.

Item no. 1

16

14

2.

Item no. 2

30

3.

Item no. 3

29

4.

Item no. 4

30

5.

Item no. 5

22

6.

Item no. 6

28

7.

Item no. 7

21

8.

Item no. 8

24

9.

Item no. 9

26

10.

Item no. 10

27

11.

Item no. 11

24

40

41

No.

Numberof Items

Right

Wrong

12.

Item no. 12

24

13.

Item no. 13

28

14.

Item no. 14

23

15.

Item no. 15

28

Table 4.2
The Students Response Distribution on Each Item of Test in Part II
No.

Numberof Items

Right

Wrong

1.

Item no. 1

27

2.

Item no. 2

24

3.

Item no. 3

24

4.

Item no. 4

22

5.

Item no. 5

25

Table 4.3
The Students Response Distribution on Each Item of Test in Part III
No.

Numberof Items

Right

Wrong

1.

Item no. 1

15

15

2.

Item no. 2

15

15

3.

Item no. 3

24

4.

Item no. 4

16

14

5.

Item no. 5

24

6.

Item no. 6

24

7.

Item no. 7

21

8.

Item no. 8

20

10

42

No.

Numberof Items

Right

Wrong

9.

Item no. 9

20

10

10.

Item no. 10

29

In addition, here are the identification of the students errors, which are
focused on the use of type two of conditional sentences, as follows:
Table 4.4
The 1stIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

1.

If I teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

5.

Sandy
wouldphone
me, if he was at
home at this
moment.

Word choice

8.

If she were
here, she would
knew what to
do.

11.

12.

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The word
teached
should be
replaced by
taught.
The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were.

If I taught this Intra-lingual


class, I would Transfer
not give tests
soon.
Sandy would
phone me, if
he were at
home at this
moment.

Context of
Learning

Word choice

The word
knew should
be replaced by
know

If she were
here, she
would know
what to do.

Context of
Learning

He would study
for the final
test, if he was a
bright student.

Word choice

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were

Context of
Learning

If she was at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Word choice

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were

He would
study for the
final test, if
he were a
bright
student.
If she wereat
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Context of
Learning

43

Test
Identification of Classification
Numbers
Errors
of Errors
Description
13.
I would helped
Word choice
you if you
wanted to follow
the main rules.

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The word
helped
should be
replaced by
help.
The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were

I would
helpyou if
you wanted
to follow the
main rules.
Rizky is at
the office. He
would save
his data if
there were
much time to
do.
If I drank
milk , I
would be
strong.

Intra-lingual
transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

14.

Rizky is at the
office. He would
save his data if
there was much
time to do.

Word choice

Context of
Learning

2
(Part II)

If I drink milk , I
would be strong.

Verb tense

The word
drink should
be replaced by
drank

3
(Part II)

If I learn, I
would be smart.

Verb tense

The word
learn should
be replaced by
learnt

If I learnt, I
would be
smart.

1
(Part III)

I do not have a
pen, but if I do, I
would lend it to
you.

Verb tense

Do should be
replaced by
did.

I do not have Inter-lingual


a pen, but if I Transfer
did, I would
lend it to you.

2
(Part III)

He is busy right
now, but if he is
not, he would
help us.

Verb tense

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

4
(Part III)

I do not have
enough money,
but if Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Word choice

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

He is busy
right now,
but if he were
not, he would
help us.
I do not have
enough
money, but if
I had, I
would go
swimming.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Context of
Learning

Intra-lingual
Transfer

44

Table 4.5
nd

The 2 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

1.

If I teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The word
teached
should be
replaced by
taught.

If I taught
this class, I
would not
give tests
soon.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Wish I can
make them
calm down
with such a
bad condition.

Verb tense

The word can


should be
replaced by
could.

Wish I could
make them
calm down
with such a
bad
condition.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

1
(PartII)

If I were smart
student, I
would college
in Harvard.

Omit a word

The word
college
should be
preceded by a
verb study
and in

If I were
smart
student, I
would study
at college in
Harvard.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

2
(Part II)

If I were
student, I
studied in the
class this now.

Omit a word

3
(Part II)

I would played
good game
basketball

Meaning not
clear

The word
studied
should be
replaced by
study , and
the word now
is omitted
-

1
(Part III)

I do not have a Verb tense


pen, but if I do,
I would lend it
to you.

7.

Do should be
replaced by
did.

If I were
student, I
would study
in the class.

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

I do not have Inter-lingual


a pen, but if I Transfer
did, I would
lend it to you.

45

Test
Numbers
2
(Part III)

4
(Part III)

Identification
of Errors

Classification Explanations
of Errors
Description
He is busy right Verb tense
Is not
now, but if he is
should be
not, he would
replaced by
were not
help us.
I do not have
enough money,
but if Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

Word choice

Corrections

He is busy
right now, but
if he were not,
he would help
us.
I do not have
enough
money, but if I
had, I would
go swimming.

Causes of
Errors
Context of
Learning

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.6
The 3rdIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

1.

If I teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

He would
study for the
final test, if he
was a bright
student.

Verb tense

12.

If she was at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Verb tense

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The word
teached
should be
replaced by
taught.
The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were.

If I taught
this class, I
would not
give tests
soon.
He would
study for the
final test, if
he were a
bright
student.
If she were at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were.

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

46

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Verb tense

1
(Part III)

I do not have a
pen, but if I do,
I would lend it
to you.

2
(Part III)

He is busy
right now, but
if he is not, he
would help us.

4
(Part III)

I do not have
Word choice
enough money,
but if Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Verb tense

Explanations

Corrections

Do should be
replaced by
did.

I do not have Inter-lingual


a pen, but if I Transfer
did, I would
lend it to you.

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

He is busy
right now,
but if he were
not, he would
help us.
I do not have
enough
money, but if
I had, I
would go
swimming.

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

Causes of
Errors

Context of
Learning

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.7
th

The 4 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Numbers
1.

7.

1
(Part III)

Identification
of Errors

Classification Explanations Corrections


of Errors
Description
If I teachedthis
Word choice
The word
If I taught this
class, I would
teached
class, I would
not give tests
should be
not give tests
soon.
replaced by
soon.
taught.
Wish I canmake Verb tense
The word
Wish I could
them calm down
can should
make them
with such a bad
be replaced
calm down
condition.
by could.
with such a
bad condition.
I do not have a
Verb tense
Do should
I do not have a
pen, but if I do, I
be replaced
pen, but if I
would lend it to
by did.
did, I would
lend it to you.
you.

Causes of
Errors
Intra-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

47

Test
Numbers
2
(Part III)

4
(Part III)

Identification
of Errors

Classification Explanations Corrections


of Errors
Description
He is busy right Verb tense
Is not
He is busy
now, but if he is
should be
right now, but
not, he would
replaced by
if he were not,
were
not
he would help
help us.
us.
I do not have
Word choice
Haved
I do not have
enough money,
should be
enough
but if Ihaved,I
replaced by
money, but if I
would go
had
had, I would
go swimming.
swimming.

Causes of
Errors
Context of
Learning

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.8
The 5 Identification of the Students Errors
th

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

1.

If I teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

7.

Wish I can
make them calm
down with such
a bad condition.

1
(Part III)

I do not have a
pen, but if I do,
I would lend it
to you.

2
(Part III)

He is busy right
now, but if he is
not, he would
help us.

Classification Explanations Corrections


of Errors
Description
Word choice
The word
If I taught this
teached
class, I would
should be
not give tests
replaced by
soon.
taught.
Verb tense
The word
Wish I could
can should
make them
be replaced
calm down
by could.
with such a
bad condition.
Verb tense
Do should
I do not have a
be replaced
pen, but if I
by did.
did, I would
lend it to you.
Verb tense

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

He is busy
right now, but
if he were not,
he would help
us.

Causes of
Errors
Intra-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Context of
Learning

48

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

4
(Part III)

I do not have
enough money,
but if Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Classification Explanations Corrections


of Errors
Description
Word choice
Haved
I do not have
should be
enough
replaced by
money, but if I
had
had, I would
go swimming.

Causes of
Errors
Intra-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.9
The 6thIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Number
1.

5.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.

Identification
of Errors

Classification Explanation
of Errors
Description
If I teachedthis
Word choice
The word
class, I would
teached
not give tests
should be
soon.
replaced by
taught.
Sandy would
Word choice
The helping
phone me, if he
verb was
was at home this
should be
moment
replaced by
were.
He would study Word choice
The helping
for the final test,
verb was
if he was a
should be
bright student.
replaced by
were
If she was at
Word choice
The helping
home right now,
verb was
I would visit
should be
her.
replaced by
were

Correction

Causes of
Errors

If I taught this
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Sandy would
phone me, if
he were at
home this
moment.
He would
study for the
final test, if he
were a bright
student.
If she wereat
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Context
ofLearning

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

49

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification Explanations Corrections


Causes of
of Errors
Errors
Description
Word choice
The helping
Rizky is at the Context of
verb was
office. He
Learning
should be
would save his
replaced by
dsta if there
were
was much time
to do.

14.

Rizky is at the
office. He
would save his
data if there was
much time to
do.

1
(Part III)

I do not have a
pen, but if I do,
I would lend it
to you.

Verb tense

Do should
be replaced
by did.

I do not have a
pen, but if I
did, I would
lend it to you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

2
(Part III)

He is busy right
now, but if he is
not, he would
help us.

Verb tense

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

Context of
Learning

4
(Part III)

I do not have
enough money,
but if Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Word choice

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

He is busy
right now, but
if he were not,
he would help
us.
I do not have
enough
money, but if I
had, I would
go swimming.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.10
The 7thIdentification of the Students Errors 7
Test
Numbers
1.

Identification
of Errors
If I teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

Classification Explanations Corrections


of Errors
Description
Word choice
The word
If I taught this
teached
class, I would
should be
not give tests
replaced by
soon.
taught.

Causes of
Errors
Intra-lingual
Transfer

50

Test
Number
5.

3
(Part II)

5
(Part II)

1
(Part III)

Identification
of Errors

Classification Explanation
Correction
of Errors
Description
Sandy would
Word choice
The helping
Sandy would
phone me, if he
verb was
phone me, if
was at home at
should be
he were at
this moment.
replaced by
home at this
were.
moment.
If I drink coffee, Verb tense
The word
If I drank
I would be fresh.
drink
coffee, I would
(Students own
should be
be fresh
sentence)
replaced by
drank
If I pinch, I
Verb tense
The word
If I pinched, I
would be sad.
pinch
would be sad.
(Students own
should be
sentence)
replaced by
pinched
I do not have a
Verb tense
Do should
I do not have a
pen, but if I do, I
be replaced
pen, but if I
would lend it to
by did.
did, I would
lend it to you.
you.

2
(Part III)

He is busy right
now, but if he is
not, he would
help us.

Verb tense

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

4
(Part III)

I do not have
enough money,
but if Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Word choice

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

He is busy
right now, but
if he were not,
he would help
us.
I do not have
enough money,
but if I had, I
would go
swimming.

Causes of
Errors
Context of
Learning

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Context of
Learning

Intra-lingual
Transfer

51

Table 4.11
The 8thIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

1.

If I teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

7.

Wish I know
make them
calm down
with such a
bad condition.
If Faris had
studiedhard,
he would have
passed

5
(Part II)

Classification Explanations
Corrections
of Errors
Description
Word choice
The word
If I taught this
teached
class, I would
should be
not give tests
replaced by
soon.
taught.
Verb tense
The word
Wish I could
know
make them calm
should be
down with such
replaced by
a bad condition.
could.
Verb tense
The phrase
If Faris
had studied studiedhard, he
should be
would pass
replaced by
study, and
have passed
should be
replaced by
pass
Verb tense
Do should
I do not have a
be replaced
pen, but if I did,
by did.
I would lend it
to you.

1
(Part III)

I do not have a
pen, but if I
do, I would
lend it to you.

2
(Part III)

He is busy
right now, but
if he is not, he
would help us.

4
(Part III)

I do not have
Word choice
enough
money, but if
Ihaved,I would
go swimming.

Verb tense

Causes of
Errors
Intra-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Context of
Learning

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

He is busy right
now, but if he
were not, he
would help us.

Context of
Learning

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

I do not have
enough money,
but if I had, I
would go
swimming.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

52

Table 4.12
th

The 9 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Numbers
1.

5.

6.

7.

8.

11.

Identification
of Errors

Classification Explanations Corrections


of Errors
Description
If I teachedthis Word choice
The word
If I taught this
class, I would
teached
class, I would
not give tests
should be
not give tests
soon.
replaced by
soon.
taught.
Sandy would
Word choice
The helping
Sandy would
phone me, if
verb was
phone me, if
he was at
should be
he were at
home at this
replaced by
home at this
moment.
were.
moment.
If I has enough Verb tense
The word
If I had
time now, I
has should
enough time
would write to
be replaced
now, I would
my parents.
by had
write to my
parents.
Wish I was
Word choice
The helping
Wish I could
make them
verb was
make them
calm down
should be
calm down
with such a
replaced by
with such a
could.
bad
bad condition.
condition.
If she were
Verb tense
The word
If she were
here, she
knew
here, she
would knew
should be
would know
replaced by
what to do.
what to do.
know
He would
Word choice
The helping
He would
study for the
verb was
study for the
final test, if he
should be
final test, if he
was a bright
replaced by
were a bright
student.
were
student.

Causes of
Errors
Intra-lingual
Transfer

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

53

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

14.

Rizky is at the
office. He
would save his
data if there
was much time
to do.

9.

We would go
to the zoo, if
the weather
was nice
today.
If she was at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Word choice

1
(Part III)

I do not have a
pen, but if I
do, I would
lend it to you.

Verb tense

2
(Part III)

He is busy
right now, but
if he is not, he
would help us.

4
(Part III)

I do not have
enough
money, but if
Ihaved,I would
go swimming.

12.

Classification Explanations Corrections


Causes of
of Errors
Errors
Description
Word choice
The helping
Rizky is at the Context of
verb was
office. He
Learning
should be
would save his
replaced by
dsta if there
were
was much time
to do.
The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were
The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were
Do should
be replaced
by did.

We would go
to the zoo, if
the weather
were nice
today.
If she were at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Context of
Learning

I do not have a
pen, but if I
did, I would
lend it to you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Verb tense

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

Context of
Learning

Word choice

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

He is busy
right now, but
if he were not,
he would help
us.
I do not have
enough
money, but if I
had, I would
go swimming.

Word choice

Context of
Learning

Intra-lingual
Transfer

54

Table 4.13
th

The 10 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Identification Classification
Numbers
of Errors
of Errors
Description
1.
If I
Word choice
teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.
7.
Wish I can
Verb tense
make them
calm down
with such a
bad condition.
1
If I were
Verb tense
(Part II) singer, I will
make a good
song.
2
If I were
Verb tense
(Part II) football
player, I want
to be CR7.

Explanations

1
(Part III)

I do not have
a pen, but if I
do, I would
lend it to you.

Verb tense

2
(Part III)

4
(Part III)

Causes of
Errors

If I taught this
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Wish I were
make them
calm down
with such a bad
condition.
If I were
singer, I will
make a good
song.
If I were
football player,
I wanted to be
CR7.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Do should
be replaced
by did.

I do not have a
pen, but if I
did, I would
lend it to you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

He is busy
Verb tense
right now, but
if he is not, he
would help us.

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

Context of
Learning

I do not have
enough
money, but if
Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

He is busy
right now, but
if he were not,
he would help
us.
I do not have
enough money,
but if I had, I
would go
swimming.

Word choice

The word
teached
should be
replaced by
taught.
The word
can should
be replaced
by could

Corrections

The word
will should
be replaced
by would
The word
want should
be replaced
by wanted

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Intra-lingual
Transfer

55

Table 4.14
th

The 11 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

1.

If I teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

5.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The word
teached
should be
replaced by
taught.
The word
went should
be replaced by
were

If I taught
this class, I
would not
give tests
soon.
Sandy would
phone me, if
he were at
home at this
moment.
Wish I were
make them
with such a
bad
condition.
If Justin had
studied hard,
he pass.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Sandy would
phone me, if
he went at
home at this
moment.
Wish I know
make them
with such a
bad condition.

Verb tense

Verb tense

The word
know should
be replaced by
could

4
(Part II)

If Justin had
studied hard,
he would have
passed.

Verb tense

1
(Part III)

I do not have a Verb tense


pen, but if I do,
I would lend it
to you.

The phrase
would have
passed should
be replaced by
pass
Do should be
replaced by
did.

2
(Part III)

He is busy
right now, but
if he is not, he
would help us.

7.

Verb tense

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

Context of
Learning

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Context of
Learning

I do not have Inter-lingual


a pen, but if I Transfer
did, I would
lend it to you.
He is busy
Context of
right now,
Learning
but if he were
not, he would
help us.

56

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

4
(Part III)

I do not have
enough money,
but if Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

I do not have
enough
money, but if
I had, I
would go
swimming.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.15
The 12thIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Identification
Numbers
of Errors
5.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Sandy would
phone me, if
he was at
home at this
moment.
He would
Word choice
study for the
final test, if he
was a bright
student.

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were
The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were

Sandy would
phone me, if
he were at
home at this
moment.
He would
study for the
final test, if he
were a bright
student.

Context of
Learning

12.

If she was at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Word choice

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were

If she wereat
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Context of
Learning

14.

Rizky is at the Word choice


office. He
would save
his data if
there would
be much time
to do.

The phrase
would be
should be
replaced by
were

Rizky is at the
office. He
would save his
data if there
weremuch
time to do.

Context of
Learning

11.

Context of
Learning

57

Test
Identification
Numbers
of Errors
4
(Part II)

Classification
of Errors
Description
If she was me, Word choice
I would give
this book.

Verb tense

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were
Do should
be replaced
by did.

If she were
me, I would
give this book.

Context of
Learning

I do not have a
pen, but if I
did, I would
lend it to you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

1
(Part III)

I do not have
a pen, but if I
do, I would
lend it to you.

2
(Part III)

He is busy
Word choice
right now, but
if he is not, he
would help
us.

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

He is busy
right now, but
if he were not,
he would help
us.

Context of
Learning

4
(Part III)

I do not have
enough
money, but if
Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

I do not have
enough
money, but if I
had, I would
go swimming.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Word choice

Table 4.16
The 13thIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Identification
Numbers
of Errors
5.

8.

Sandy would
phone me, if
he was at
home at this
moment.
If she were
here, she
would knew
what to do.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Verb tense

Explanations

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were
The word
knew
should be
replaced by
know.

Corrections

Sandy would
phone me, if
he were at
home at this
moment.
If she were
here, she
would know
what to do.

Causes of
Errors
Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

58

Test
Identification
Numbers
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

11.

He would
Word choice
study for the
final test, if he
was a bright
student.

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were.

He would
study for the
final test, if he
were a bright
student.

Context of
Learning

14.

Rizky is at the Word choice


office. He
would save
his data if
there would
be much time
to do.

The phrase
would be
should be
replaced by
were.

Rizky is at the
office. He
would save his
data if there
were much
time to do.

Context of
Learning

4
(Part II)

If she was me, Word choice


I would give
this book.

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were.

If she were
me, I would
give this book.

Context of
Learning

1
(Part III)

I do not have
a pen, but if I
do, I would
lend it to you.

Do should
be replaced
by did.

I do not have a
pen, but if I
did, I would
lend it to you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

2
(Part III)

He is busy
Word choice
right now, but
if he is not, he
would help
us.

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

He is busy
right now, but
if he were not,
he would help
us.

Context of
Learning

4
(Part III)

I do not have
enough
money, but if
Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

I do not have
enough
money, but if I
had, I would
go swimming.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Verb tense

Word choice

59

Table 4.17
th

The 14 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Identification
Numbers
of Errors
1.

12.

If I
teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.
If she was at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The word
teached
should be
replaced by
taught.
The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were.
The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were
Do should
be replaced
by did.

If I taught this
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

If she were at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Context of
Learning

If she were me
, I would give
this book.

Context of
Learning

I do not have a
pen, but if I
did, I would
lend it to you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

4
(Part II)

If she was me
, I would give
this book.

Word choice

1
(Part III)

I do not have
a pen, but if I
do, I would
lend it to you.

Verb tense

2
(Part III)

He is busy
Word choice
right now, but
if he is not, he
would help
us.

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

He is busy
right now, but
if he were not,
he would help
us.

Context of
Learning

4
(Part III)

I do not have
enough
money, but if
Ihaved,I
would go
swimming.

Haved
should be
replaced by
had

I do not have
enough
money, but if I
had, I would
go swimming.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Word choice

60

Table 4.18
th

The 15 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Numbers
5.

8.

12.

13.

15.

1
(Part II)

2
(Part II)

Identification
of Errors
Sandy would
phone me, if
he was at
home at this
moment.
If she were
here, she
would knew
what to do.
If she was at
home right
now, I would
visit her.
I would helped
you if you
wanted to
follow the
main rules.
Have I enough
time right now,
I would
accompany my
mother to the
market.
If she were
teacher, she
would __
happy.
If they were
dancer_, they
would be
famous.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Verb tense

Word choice

Word choice

Word choice

Omit a word

Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were
The word
knew should
be replaced by
know.
The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were.
The word
helped
should be
replaced by
help
The word
have should
be replaced by
had

Sandy would
phone me, if
he were at
home at this
moment.
If she were
here, she
would know
what to do.
If she were at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Context of
Learning

I would help
you if you
wanted to
follow the
main rules.
Had I enough
time right
now, I would
accompany
my mother to
the market.
If she were
teacher, she
would be
happy.
If they were
dancers, they
would be
famous.

Context of
Learning

The word be
has to be
added before
happy
The letter s
has to be
added after
dancer

Causes of
Errors

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

61

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

3
(Part II)

If he were
manager, he
would be
success__.
If we were
finish__, we
would be chef.

4
(Part II)

5
(Part II)
1
(Part III)

2
(Part III)

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word form

Word choice

If we were be
Add a word
rich, I would
be doctor.
I do not have a Verb tense
pen, but if I do,
I would lend it
to you.
He is busy
right now, but
if he is not, he
would help us.

Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The suffix ful


has to be
added after
success
The suffix ed
has to be
added after
happy
The word be
should be
omitted
Do should be
replaced by
did.

If he were
manager, he
would be
successful
If we were
finished, we
would be
chef.
If we were
rich, I would
be doctor.
I do not have
a pen, but if I
did, I would
lend it to you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

He is busy
Context of
right now,
Learning
but if he were
not, he would
help us.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Context of
Learning
Inter-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.19
The 16thIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

1.

If I teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.
5.

Sandy would
phone me, if
he was at
home this
moment.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The word
teached
should be
replaced by
taught.
The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were

If I taught
this class, I
would not
give tests
soon.
Sandy would
phone me, if
he were at
home this
moment.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

Context of
Learning

62

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Verb tense

8.

If she were
here, she
would knew
what to do.

14.

Rizky is at the
Word choice
office. He would
save his data if
there could
much time to
do.

4
(Part II)

If she was
fame, she
would be exist.

Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

The word
knew should
be replaced by
know
The word
could should
be replaced by
were

If she were
here, she
would know
what to do.
Rizky is at
the office. He
would save
his data if
there were
much time to
do.
If she
werefame,
she would be
exist.

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were

Causes of
Errors
Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

Table 4.20
The 17thIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

11.

He would
study for the
final test, if he
was a bright
student.

12.

If she was at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were.

He would
study for the
final test, if
he were a
bright
student.
If she were at
home right
now, I would
visit her.

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were.

Causes of
Errors
Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

63

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

14.

Rizky is at the
office. He
would save his
data if there
could much
time to do.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

2
(Part II)

If she were
Word choice
doctor, I would
be rich.

3
(Part II)

They could
have gone for
a ___
If I drink milk,
__ would be
sad.

4
(Part II)

Meaning not
clear

Explanations

Corrections

The word
could should
be replaced by
were.

Rizky is at
the office. He
would save
his data if
there were
much time to
do.

Context of
Learning

The subject I
should be
replaced by
she.
-

If she were
doctor, she
would be
rich.
-

Communicati
on Strategies

Omit a word

Causes of
Errors

Table 4.21
The 18thIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Identification
Numbers
of Errors
3.

If I send you
the letter, I
would be so
happy and
hilarious.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Verb tense

Explanations

The word
send should
be replaced
by sent.

Corrections

If I sent you
the letter, I
would be so
happy and
hilarious.

Causes of
Errors
Inter-lingual
Transfer

64

Test
Identification
Numbers
of Errors
8.

If she were
here, she
would knew
what to do.

4
(Part II)
5
(Part II)

They would
-

Classification
of Errors
Description
Verb tense

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

If she were
here, she
would know
what to do.

Context of
Learning

The word
knew
should be
replaced by
know
-

Table 4.22
The 19thIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

9.

We would go
to the zoo, if
the weather
was nice
today

10.

If I has
Verb tense
enough
money, I
would be with
you to go to
the beach.
Rizky is at the Word choice
office. He
would save
his data if
there was
much time to
do.

14.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were

We would go
to the zoo, if
the weather
were nice
today

Context of
Learning

The word
has should
be replaced
by had

If I had enough Context of


money, I
Learning
would be with
you to go to
the beach.

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
were

Rizky is at the
office. He
would save his
data if there
were much
time to do.

Context of
Learning

65

Test
Numbers
5
(Part II)

Identification
of Errors
If I were
loved you,
you would
love me.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Add a word

Explanations

The phrase
were loved
should be
replaced by
were

Corrections

If I were you,
you would
love me.

Causes of
Errors
Context of
Learning

Table 4.23
The 20thIdentification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

1.

If I teachedthis
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

6.

If I has enough
time now, I
would write to
my parents.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Verb tense

7.

Wish I was
Word choice
make them
calm down
with such a
bad condition.

15.

Has I enough
Verb tense
time right now,
I would
accompany my
mother to the
market.
If I were
Word choice
director, I will
be rich.

2
(Part II)

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

The word
teached
should be
replaced by
taught.

If I taught this
class, I would
not give tests
soon.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

The word has


should be
replaced by
had

If I had enough Context of


time now, I
Learning
would write to
my parents.

The helping
verb was
should be
replaced by
could.
The word
had should
be replaced by
had

The word
will should
be replaced by
would

Wish I could
make them
calm down
with such a
bad condition.

Context of
Learning

Had I enough
time right now,
I would
accompany my
mother to the
market.
If I were
director, I
would be rich.

Context of
Learning

Context of
Learning

66

Test
Numbers
3
(Part II)

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description

If I have
Verb tense
enough money,
I would go to
the Paris.

Explanations

The word
have should
be replaced by
had

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

If I had enough Inter-lingual


money, I
Transfer
would go to
the Paris.

Table 4.24
The 21th Identification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

3
(Part III)

The weather is
cold today, but
if it is not, I
would go
swimming.

5
(Part III)

I always pay
my bills. If
Iam not, I
would get in
may troubles.

6
(Part III)

7
(Part III)

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The weather is
cold today, but
if it were not, I
would go
swimming.

Context of
Learning

Am not
should be
replaced by
were not

I always pay
my bills. If
Iwere not, I
would get in
may troubles.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Helium is
Word choice
lighter than air.
If it is not, a
helium-filled
balloon would
not float
upward.

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

Helium is
Inter-lingual
lighter than air. Transfer
If it were not, a
helium-filled
balloon would
not float
upward.

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iam, I would
make many
great films.

Am should
be replaced by
were

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iwere, I would
make many
great films.

Word choice

Word choice

Causes of
Errors

Inter-lingual
Transfer

67

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Verb tense

8
(Part III)

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I have not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

9
(Part III)

The earth is
Word choice
round. If it is
not, the ocean
would have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Have not
should be
replaced by
had not

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I had not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The earth is
round. If it
were not, the
ocean would
have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.25
th

The 22 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

3
(Part III)

The weather is
cold today, but
if it is not, I
would go
swimming.

5
(Part III)

I always pay
my bills. If
Iam not, I
would get in
may troubles.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The weather
is cold today,
but if it were
not, I would
go
swimming.
I always pay
my bills. If
Iwere not, I
would get in
may troubles.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Am not
should be
replaced by
were not

Inter-lingual
Transfer

68

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

6
(Part III)

Helium is
lighter than air.
If it is not, a
helium-filled
balloon would
not float
upward.

7
(Part III)

I am not a good
movie maker,
but if Iam, I
would make
many great
films.

8
(Part III)

9
(Part III)

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

Helium is
Inter-lingual
lighter than
Transfer
air. If it were
not, a heliumfilled balloon
would not
float upward.

Word choice

Am should
be replaced by
were

Inter-lingual
Transfer

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but if
I have not, I
would go
downtown with
you.

Verb tense

Have not
should be
replaced by
had not

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iwere, I
would make
many great
films.
I have to go
to class this
afternoon,
but if I had
not, I would
go downtown
with you.

The earth is
round. If it is
not, the ocean
would have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Word choice

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The earth is
round. If it
were not, the
ocean would
have the
certain limit
to be seen.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

69

Table 4.26
rd

The 23 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The weather
is cold today,
but if it were
not, I would
go
swimming.
I always pay
my bills. If
Iwere not, I
would get in
may troubles.
Helium is
lighter than
air. If it were
not, a heliumfilled balloon
would not
float upward.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iwere, I
would make
many great
films.
I have to go
to class this
afternoon,
but if I had
not, I would
go downtown
with you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

3
(Part III)

The weather is
cold today, but
if it is not, I
would go
swimming.

5
(Part III)

I always pay my
bills. If Iam not,
I would get in
may troubles.

Word choice

Am not
should be
replaced by
were not

6
(Part III)

Helium is
lighter than air.
If it is not, a
helium-filled
balloon would
not float
upward.

Word choice

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

7
(Part III)

I am not a good
movie maker,
but if Iam, I
would make
many great
films.

Word choice

Am should
be replaced by
were

8
(Part III)

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but if
I have not, I
would go
downtown with
you.

Verb tense

Have not
should be
replaced by
had not

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Inter-lingual
Transfer

70

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

9
(Part III)

The earth is
round. If it is
not, the ocean
would have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The earth is
round. If it
were not, the
ocean would
have the
certain limit
to be seen.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.27
The 24th Identification of the Students Errors
Test
Number

Identification
of Errors

3
(Part III)

The weather is
cold today, but
if it is not, I
would go
swimming.

5
(Part III)

I always pay
my bills. If
Iam not, I
would get in
may troubles.

6
(Part III)

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanation

Correction

Causes of
Errors

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

The weather is
cold today, but
if it were not, I
would go
swimming.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Word choice

Am not
should be
replaced by
were not

I always pay
my bills. If
Iwere not, I
would get in
may troubles.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Helium is
Word choice
lighter than air.
If it is not, a
helium-filled
balloon would
not float
upward.

Is not
should be
replaced by
were not

Helium is
Inter-lingual
lighter than air. Transfer
If it were not, a
helium-filled
balloon would
not float
upward.

71

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

7
(Part III)

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iam, I would
make many
great films.

8
(Part III)

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I have not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

9
(Part III)

The earth is
Word choice
round. If it is
not, the ocean
would have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Am should
be replaced by
were

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iwere, I
would make
many great
films.
I have to go
to class this
afternoon,
but if I had
not, I would
go downtown
with you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

The earth is
round. If it
were not, the
ocean would
have the
certain limit
to be seen.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Have not
should be
replaced by
had not

Verb tense

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.28
The 25th Identification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

3
(Part III)

The weather is
cold today, but
if it is not, I
would go
swimming.

5
(Part III)

I always pay my
bills. If Iam not,
I would get in
may troubles.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The weather is
cold today, but
if it were not, I
would go
swimming.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Am not should
be replaced by
were not

I always pay my
bills. If I were
not, I would get
in may troubles.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

72

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

6
(Part III)

Helium is
lighter than air.
If it is not, a
helium-filled
balloon would
not float
upward.

7
(Part III)

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iam, I would
make many
great films.

8
(Part III)

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I have not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

9
(Part III)

The earth is
Word choice
round. If it is
not, the ocean
would have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

Helium is
Inter-lingual
lighter than air. Transfer
If it were not, a
helium-filled
balloon would
not float
upward.

Word choice

Am should
be replaced by
were

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iwere, I would
make many
great films.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Verb tense

Have not
should be
replaced by
had not

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I had not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The earth is
round. If it
were not, the
ocean would
have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

73

Table 4.29
th

The 26 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

3
(Part III)

The weather is
cold today, but
if it is not, I
would go
swimming.

5
(Part III)

I always pay
my bills. If
Iam not, I
would get in
may troubles.

6
(Part III)

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The weather is
cold today, but
if it were not, I
would go
swimming.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Am not
should be
replaced by
were not

I always pay
my bills. If
Iwere not, I
would get in
may troubles.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Helium is
Word choice
lighter than air.
If it is not, a
helium-filled
balloon would
not float
upward.

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

Helium is
Inter-lingual
lighter than air. Transfer
If it were not, a
helium-filled
balloon would
not float
upward.

7
(Part III)

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iam, I would
make many
great films.

Word choice

Am should
be replaced by
were

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iwere, I would
make many
great films.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

8
(Part III)

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I have not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

Verb tense

Have not
should be
replaced by
had not

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I had not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Word choice

74

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

9
(Part III)

The earth is
round. If it is
not, the ocean
would have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The earth is
round. If it
were not, the
ocean would
have the
certain limit
to be seen.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.30
The 27th Identification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

7
(Part III)

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iam, I would
make many
great films.

8
(Part III)

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I have not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

9
(Part III)

The earth is
Word choice
round. If it is
not, the ocean
would have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Verb tense

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Am should
be replaced by
were

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iwere, I
would make
many great
films.
I have to go
to class this
afternoon,
but if I had
not, I would
go downtown
with you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

The earth is
round. If it
were not, the
ocean would
have the
certain limit
to be seen.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Have not
should be
replaced by
had not

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

Inter-lingual
Transfer

75

Table 4.31
th

The 28 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

7
(Part III)

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iam, I would
make many
great films.

8
(Part III)

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I have not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

9
(Part III)

The earth is
Word choice
round. If it is
not, the ocean
would have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Am should
be replaced by
were

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iwere, I
would make
many great
films.
I have to go
to class this
afternoon,
but if I had
not, I would
go downtown
with you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

The earth is
round. If it
were not, the
ocean would
have the
certain limit
to be seen.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Have not
should be
replaced by
had not

Verb tense

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.32
The 29th Identification of the Students Errors
Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

7
(Part III)

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iam, I would
make many
great films.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Am should
be replaced by
were

I am not a
good movie
maker, but if
Iwere, I
would make
many great
films.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

76

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Verb tense

8
(Part III)

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I have not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

9
(Part III)

The earth is
Word choice
round. If it is
not, the ocean
would have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Have not
should be
replaced by
had not

I have to go
to class this
afternoon,
but if I had
not, I would
go downtown
with you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The earth is
round. If it
were not, the
ocean would
have the
certain limit
to be seen.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Table 4.33
th

The 30 Identification of the Students Errors


Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

Classification
of Errors
Description
Verb tense

8
(Part III)

I have to go to
class this
afternoon, but
if I have not, I
would go
downtown
with you.

9
(Part III)

The earth is
Word choice
round. If it is
not, the ocean
would have the
certain limit to
be seen.

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Have not
should be
replaced by
had not

I have to go
to class this
afternoon,
but if I had
not, I would
go downtown
with you.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

The earth is
round. If it
were not, the
ocean would
have the
certain limit
to be seen.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

77

Test
Numbers

Identification
of Errors

10
(Part III)

Albert Einstein
is really
brainy. If he is
not, he could
not create the
E=Mc2
formula.

Classification
of Errors
Description
Word choice

Explanations

Corrections

Causes of
Errors

Is not should
be replaced by
were not

Albert
Einstein is
really brainy.
If he were
not, he could
not create the
E=Mc2
formula.

Inter-lingual
Transfer

B. The Data Analysis


After the writer did the research, he got the English test score, the
frequency and percentage of the students errors in the form of type two of
conditional sentences; he would like to analyze what errors existing on all
items, and why the errors occurred in Part I, II and III. The table below
explaining the errors explanation in entire parts, as follows:
Table 4.34

Table of Number of Classification of Errors Explanation


Types

Number of

Percentage of

of Errors

Errors

Errors

1.

Word form

0.48%

2.

Word choice

115

55.83%

3.

Verb tense

82

39.8%

4.

Add a word

0.97%

5.

Omit a word

1.94%

6.

Meaning not

0.97%

No.

clear

78

From the table 4.34 above, there is 1 error committed in word form with
0.48% because the students might be influenced by mother tongue in forming
word. There are 115 errors committed in word choice with 55.83% because the
students put inappropriate words to be used in sentences. Also, There are 82 errors
committed in verb tense with 39.8% because the students might not know the
correct tense in the use of type two of conditional sentences. There are 2errors
committed in add a word with the percentage 0.97% because the students add
inappropriate words in type two of conditional sentences. Also, there are 4 errors
committed in omit a word errors with 1.94% because the students omit wrong
words items that should not occur in sentences on the test. At last,there are 2
errors committed in meaning not clear with the percentage 0.97% because the
students do not write meaningful sentences in terms of type two of conditional
sentences. Here is the explanation regarding causes of errors described in the table
below:
Table 4.35

Table of Number of Causes of Errors Explanation

No.

1.

Causes
of Errors
Inter-lingual

Number of

Percentage of

Causes of

Causes of

Errors

Errors

96

46.61%

29

14.07%

80

38.83%

0.49%

Transfer
2.

Intra-lingual
Transfer

3.

Context of
Learning

4.

Communication
Strategies

79

Based on the table 4.35 above, there are 96 errors caused by inter-lingual
transfer with 46.61% because the students might be influenced by their mother
tongue influences in terms of patterns, systems, or rules. Then,there are 28 errors
caused by intra-lingual transfer with 13.6% because the students might striveto
derive the rules behind the data to which has been exposed by the students, and
may develop hypotheses related neither to their mother tongue nor to their target
language.
. Also, There are 81 errors caused by context of learning with 39.3%
because the teachers or the textbooks may lead the students to create faulty
hypotheses about the language. Students might make errors because of a
misleading explanation from either the teachers, textbooks, or patterns memorized
rottenly. Next, there is 1 error caused by communication strategies with 0.49%
because the student might express the meaning of the sentence incorrectly. Here is
the explanation about frequency and percentage of the students errors in part I
below:
Table 4.36
The Frequency and Percentage of the Students Errors in the Form of
Type Two of Conditional Sentences in Part I
Students

Number of

Correct

Frequency

Percentage

Number

Test Items

Answers

of Errors

of Errors

1.

15

8.9%

2.

15

13

2.53%

3.

15

10.12%

4.

15

13

2.53%

5.

15

13

2.53%

6.

15

11.39%

7.

15

13

2.53%

8.

15

13

2.53%

80

Students

Number of

Correct

Frequency

Percentage

Number

Test Items

Answers

of Errors

of Errors

9.

15

11.39%

10.

15

13

2.53%

11.

15

12

3.8%

12.

15

11

5.06%

13.

15

11

5.06%

14.

15

13

2.53%

15.

15

10

6.32%

16.

15

11

5.06%

17.

15

12

3.8%

18.

15

13

2.53%

19.

15

12

3.8%

20.

15

11

5.06%

21.

15

15

0%

22.

15

15

0%

23.

15

15

0%

24.

15

15

0%

25.

15

15

0%

26.

15

15

0%

27.

15

15

0%

28.

15

15

0%

29.

15

15

0%

30.

15

15

0%

371

79

100%

TOTAL

81

To find out thepercentage of the students errors in part one of the test, the
writer used the formula below:
P=

Frequency of Errors
x 100%
Frequency of Errors + Correct Answers
=

79
x 100%
79 + 371
=

7900
450

=17.56%
From the data above, the writer can conclude that the average of the
students errors in using type two of conditional sentences is 17.56%, and it can
be concluded that the rest is 82.44%, which means that the majority of the
students did not do errors on the test.
After the writer got the description of Part I above, he would like to analyze
the data description of the students errors in Part II, as follows:

Table 4.37
The Frequency and Percentage of the Students Errors in the Form of
Type Two of Conditional Sentences in Part II
Students

Number of

Correct

Frequency

Percentage

Number

Test Items

Answers

of Errors

of Errors

1.

5.71%

2.

8.57%

3.

0%

4.

0%

5.

0%

82

Students

Number of

Correct

Frequency

Percentage

Number

Test Items

Answers

of Errors

of Errors

6.

0%

7.

5.71%

8.

2.86%

9.

0%

10.

5.71%

11.

5.71%

12.

2.86%

13.

2.86%

14.

2.86%

15.

14.3%

16.

11.42%

17.

8.57%

18.

8.57%

19.

2.86%

20.

11.43%

21.

0%

22.

0%

23.

0%

24.

0%

25.

0%

26.

0%

27.

0%

28.

0%

29.

0%

30.

0%

115

35

100%

TOTAL

83

To find out the percentage of the students errors in part two of the test, the
writer used the formula:
P=

Frequency of Errors
x 100%
Frequency of Errors + Correct Answers
=

35
x 100%
35 + 115
=

3500
150

=23.33%
From the data above, the writer can conclude that the average of the
students errors in using type two of conditional sentences is 23.43%, and it can
be concluded that the rest is 76.67%, which means that the majority of the
students did not do errors on the test.
After the writer got the description of Part II above, he would like to analyze
the data description of the students errors in Part III, as follows:

Table 4.38
The Frequency and Percentage of the Students Errors in the Form of
Type Two of Conditional Sentences in Part III
Students

Number of

Correct

Frequency

Percentage

Number

Test Items

Answers

of Errors

of Errors

1.

10

3.26%

2.

10

3.26%

3.

10

3.26%

4.

10

3.26%

5.

10

3.26%

6.

10

3.26%

84

Students

Number of

Correct

Frequency

Percentage

Number

Test Items

Answers

of Errors

of Errors

7.

10

3.26%

8.

10

3.26%

9.

10

3.26%

10.

10

3.26%

11.

10

3.26%

12.

10

3.26%

13.

10

3.26%

14.

10

3.26%

15.

10

2.17%

16.

10

10

0%

17.

10

10

0%

18.

10

10

0%

19.

10

10

0%

20.

10

10

0%

21.

10

6.52%

22.

10

6.52%

23.

10

6.52%

24.

10

6.52%

25.

10

6.52%

26.

10

6.52%

27.

10

3.26%

28.

10

3.26%

29.

10

3.26%

30.

10

3.26%

208

92

100%

TOTAL

85

To find out the percentage of the students erors in part three of the test, the
writer used the formula:
P=

Frequency of Errors
x 100%
Frequency of Errors + Correct Answers

92
x 100%
92 + 208

9200
300

=30.67%
From the data above, the writer can conclude that the average of the
students errors in using type two of conditional sentences is 30.67%, and it can
be concluded that the rest is 69.33%, which means that the majority of the
students did not errors on the test.

C. The Data Interpretation


Based on the analysis of the results above, It can be observed that word
choiceerrors are the highest with 115 errors and the percentage is 55.83%. It
means that most students choose words that should not be put in sentences on the
test. Next, there are 82 errors in verb tense with 39.8%, 4 errors in omit a word
with 1.94%, 2 errors in add a word, 2 errors in meaning not clear, and 1 error in
word form with 0.48%.
In addition, it can be concluded that inter-lingual transfer is the cause of
errors that interference the students most with 46.61%, which occur due to the
influences of the students mother tongue in forming type two of conditional
sentences. Then, the context of learning is at the second position with 38.3%, and
there is intra-lingual transfer with 14.7%. At last, there is an error caused by
communication strategies with 0.49%.

86

The writer summarizes that the errors made by the students are word choice
with the percentage 55.83%, verb tense with 39.8%, omit a word with 1.94%, Add
a word with 0.97%, meaning not clear with 0.97%, and word form with 0.48%.
Then, 46.61% of the students make the errors caused by inter-lingual transfer in
which the system, rules, and patterns of the students native language distract their
target language. Next, 38.83% of the students make the errors caused by context
of learning in which either the teachers, textbooks, or the patterns are improperly
contextualized. There are 14.07% of the students make the errors caused by intralingual transfer in which the students create hypotheses which are not related to
their first and target language. At last, 0.49% of the student makes the errors
caused by communication strategies in which the student has own way to do with
the native and target language inappropriately.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

A. Conclusions
1. Based on the explanations on research findings, so the errors made by the students
consisting of word choice with the percentage 55.8%, verb tense with 39.8%, omit a
word with 1.94%, add a word with 0.97%, meaning not clear with 0.97%, and word
form with the percentage 0.48%.
2. The reason why the students make errors in using type two of conditional sentences
caused by inter-lingual transfer in which the system, rules, and patterns of the
students native language distract their target language with the percentage 46.61%.
Next, the students make the errors caused by context of learning in which either the
teachers, textbooks, or the patterns are improperly contextualized with the percentage
38.83%. There are 14.07% of the students make the errors caused by intra-lingual
transfer in which the students create hypotheses, that are not related to their first and
target language. At last, 0.49% of the student makes the errors caused by
communication strategies in which the student has own way to do inappropriately.
B. Suggestions
Based on the students errors using type two of conditional sentences, the writer
would like to deliver some suggestions, as follows:
1. The teacher should give motivation for students in using type two of conditional
sentences because some students assume that English is one of the most difficult
subject matters in their study.
2. The teacher should give more exercises and practices to the students regarding any
kinds of examples of type two of conditional sentences.
3. The teacher should encourage the students to use type two of conditional sentences
in school neighborhood in order that they might be able to get along with how to
use it well.
4. The students remember that the future conditional is likely to happen than the
hypothetical conditional.
5. The students should memorize regular and irregular verbs and do more exercises
by themselves and pay attention more to the teachers explanation regarding type
two of conditional sentences.
87

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brumfit, Christopher, English for International Communication, Oxford: Pergamon


Press Ltd., 1981.
Azar, Bety, Understanding and Using English Grammar, 2nd Edition, New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, 1992, p. A29.
Robert, Paul, Understanding Grammar, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1954.
Murcia, Celce, Marianne, The Grammar Book, 2nd Edition., London: Newbury House
Publishers, 1983.
Crystal, David, An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.
James, Carl, Errors in Language Learning and Use Exploring Error Analysis, New
York: Longman, 1998.
http://abisamra03.tripod.com/nada/languageacq-erroranalysis.html
Brown, Douglas, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 4th Ed., New York:
Longman, 2000
Freeman, Diane, et al, An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research,
New York: Longman. 1991.
Norrish, John, Language Learners and Their Errors, London: Macmillan, 1983.
Els, Theo, et al, Applied Linguistics and the Learning and Teaching of Foreign
Languages, London: A Division of Hodder & Stoughton, 1983.
Batstone, Rob, Grammar, New York: Oxford University Press, 1950.
Thornburry, Scott, How to teach grammar, London: Longman, 1999.
Ur, Penny, A Course in Language Teaching Practice and Theory, London: Cambridge
University Press, 1996
Hornby, AS, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary,7th Edition, Oxford University
Press, 2005.
Alexander, LG Longman English Grammar, New York: Longman Publishing, 1988.
Frank, Marcella, Modern English: A Practical Reference Guide, New Jersey: Prentice
Hall Inc., 1972.
http://www.answers.com/topic/grammar, 8 Juli 2009

http://www.llp.armstrong.edu/5800/types.html. 8 Juli 2009


Frank, Marcella, Modern English, Exercise for Nonnative Speakers Part II:
Sentences and Complex Structures, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972.
Wishon, George, et al, Lets Write English, New York: American Book Company,
1980.
Azar, Betty, Fundamentals of English Grammar, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992.
Thompson, A.J, et al, A Practical English Grammar 2nd edition, New York: Oxford
University Press: 1986.
Fuchs Majorie, et al, Grammar Express for Self in Study or the Classroom, England:
Pearson Education Limited, 2003.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/second language acquistion. 12 September 2011
http://teaching stylesonline.com/stages of error analysis. Html. 20 May 2011
Shepherd, John, Multilevel English Grammar Programme, London: Prentice Hall
Macmillan, 1995).
Ur, Penny, Grammar Practices: A Practical Guide for Teachers, Cambridge
University Press, 1988.
Parrot, Martin, Grammar for English Language Teachers London: Cambridge
University Press, 2000.
Pollock, Carroll, Communicate What You Mean, New Jersey, Prentice Hall Inc, 1982.
Arikunto, Suharsimi, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan; 4th Revised Edition, Jakarta:
Bumi Aksara, 2009.

APPENDICES

Name

School

I.

Test type: Achievement test

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate verbs by referring to the form of type two
of conditional sentences correctly!

1. If I (teach) this class, I would not give some tests soon.


2. They would help us right away, if they (be) here right now.
3. (have) I have a breakfast today, I would do that assignment as good as I did
yesterday.
4. If he (have) a sharp razor, Jack would shave this morning.
5. Sandy would phone me, if he (be) at home at this moment.
6. If I (have) enough time now, I would write to my parents.
7. Wish I (can) make them calm down with such a bad condition.
8. If she were here, she would (know) what to do.
9. If the weather (be) ...... nice today, we would go to the zoo.
10. If I (have) enough money, I would be with you to go to the beach.
11. If he (be) a bright student, he would study for the final test.
12. Kanti isnt home right now. If she (be) at home right now, I would visit her.
13. I would (help) you if you wanted to follow the main rules.
14. Rizky is at the office. He would save his data if there (be) much time to do.
15. (have) I enough time right now, I would accompany my mother to the market.
The answers of part I:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

II. Make five examples of type two of conditional sentences correctly!


1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

III. Match the answers with the alphabet of the following words in the box!*
1. I do not have a pen, but if I .., I would lend it to you.
2. He is busy right now, but if he .., he would help us.
3. The weather is cold today, but if it .., I would buy that interesting book.
4. I do not have enough money, but if I .., I would go swimming.
5. I always pay my bills. If I .., I would get in many troubles.
6. Helium is lighter than air. If it .., a helium-filled balloon would not float upward.
7. I am not a good moviemaker, but if I .., I would make many great films.
8. I have to go to class this afternoon, but if I .., I would go downtown with you.
9. The earth is round. If it .., the ocean would have the certain limit to be seen.
10. Albert Einstein is really brainy. If he .., he could not create the E=Mc2 formula.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

Were not
Did
Were not
Had
Did not
Were
Were not
Were not
Were not
Had not

Note: * this part has its own sheet

INTERVIEW SHEET
Date/Day

Interviewee

Place

1. Apakah kamu senang terhadap pelajaran bahasa inggris sehingga kamu termotivasi?
Jawab:

2. Dalam pelajaran bahasa inggris, cara belajar apa yang kamu gunakan selama ini?
Jawab:

3. Apa dengan cara tersebut, kamu dapat meningkatkan prestasi kamu?


Jawab:

4. Apakah fasilitas untuk belajar bahasa inggris memadai?


Jawab:

5. Apakah ada pujian yang diberikan jika ada siswa yang berprestasi di kelas?
Jawab:

6. Apakah kamu dapat mengerti dan memahami pelajaran guru tentang tipe kedua
conditional sentences?
Jawab:

7. Dimanakah letak kesulitan dalam mempelajari tentang tipe kedua conditional


sentences?
Jawab:

8. Mengapa kamu mengalami kesulitan dalam mempelajari tipe kedua conditional


sentences?
Jawab:

9. Bagaimana pendapatmu tentang suasana belajar bahasa Inggris di kelas?


Jawab:

10. Apakah gurumu selalu memberikan games yang menarik di setiap pertemuan?
Jawab:

No

: Istimewa

Hal

: Pengajuan
JudulSkripsi

Tarigerang,12Mei2011

Lampiran: I (satu)berkas
KepadaYth,
Ketua Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
FITK UIN Jakarta
Di
Tempat

Assalamua laikum Wr. Wb.


Sayayang bertandatangandi bawah ini:
Nama

Muhamad Ridho Pratama

NIM

107014000699

Jurusan : PendidikanBahasaInggrid
Fakultas : Ilmu TarbiyahdanKeguruan
Bermaksuduntuk mengajukan
judul skripsisebagaisalahsatu syaratuntuk menyelesaikan
programS-l (strata1) UfN SyarifHidayatullah
judul yangdiajukanadalah:
Jakarta.Adapun
ERRORS ANALYSIS ON TIIE SECOND GRADE STT'DENTS OF
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN USING TYPE TWO OF CONDITIONAL
SENTENCES AT SMA DUA MEI CIPUTAT

Bersama'ini saya lampirkan satu berkasproposalyang terdiri dari:


L Abstact
i

2. Outfine
3. Temporary references

Demikian surat pengajuan ini disarnpaikan.Atas pertimbangannya,saya


sampaikan terima
kasih.
Wassalamu'alailcum
Wr. Wb.

Menyetyligi.f)/--

>{i

tI

Pengaju,

(Drs. Nasrun Mahmud M.pd)


NIP: 15A041070

NIM: 107014000699

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FORM{FR)

No. Revisi:

:
:

1 Maret 2010
01

J!. 1.. H. JuaNa No 95 Cipulat 15412 ldoNsa

Jl(B!!q
suner BIMBINGAN
201|
Jakata"26 SePternber

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Nomor: Un.0l/F.l/KM.0l .3/...'..../20
Lamp. :
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Hal
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Dr. Alek, M. Pd.
PembimbingSkiPsi
Fakultasllmu Tarbiyahdan Keguruan
UIN SYarifHidaYatullah
Jakarta.
Assalamu'alaikumwr' wb'

menjadi PeqrbimbingVII
Dengan ini diharapkankesediaanSaudarauntuk
(materi/teknis)penulisanskripsimahasiswa:
Nama

MuhasradRidho Pratama

NIM

107014000699

Jurusan

PendidikanBahasaInggris

Semester

IX (Sembilan);

Judul Slcripsi

ERRORSANALY'SISoNTIIEsEco}IDGRADESTUDENTSoF
snmonHlctlScHooLINUSINGTYPETwooFCONDITIONAL
I
SBNTENCESAT SMA DUA MEI CIPT]-TAT
padatanggal 19 Mi.201'
Judul tersebuttelah disetujuioleh Jurusanyang bersangkulan
redaksionalpadajudul
perubahan
Saudaradapatmelikukan
abstaksrloutlineterlampir.
"ep":i1"
';;b*.
substansial dianggap perlu, mohon pembimbing
fiil;r
menghubungiJumsanterlebihdahulu.
u Bimbingan skripsi ini diharapkln selesaidalam waktu 6 (enam) bularU dan dapat
diperpanjangselama6 (enam)buldn berikutnya tanpasurat perpan;angan'
ucapkanterima kasih'
Atas perhatiandan kerja samaSaudara,"kami
Vf/as
salamu'alaikum wr.wb.
a.n.

kan BahasaInggris

Drs.
Tembusan:
l. DekanFITK
2. Mahasiswaybs.

, .,,...-,*;",*-,,,

.:. ..'\*

NIP.I

,:,'_:#:l"t'

M.Pd
t2 199103| 002

KEMENTERIANAGAMA
UIN JAKARTA
FITK

FORM(FR)

t"to.Dokumen :
;
Tol.ferbit

FITK-FR-AKD-O82
1 Maret 2010

Jl. lr. H. Juanda No 95 Ciputat 15412lndonesia

IZINPENELITIAN
SURATPERMOHONAN
Jakarta,3 November2Q11

1
1 1 ........1201
1/K
. M.0.3
N o m o:r Un .0 1 /F
Lamp.'.Outline/Proposal
Hal : Permohonanlzin Penelitian
KepadaYth.
Kepala Sekolah SMA Dua mei
di
Tempat
Assalamu'alaikum wr.wb.
Denganhormatkami sampaikanbahwa,
Nama

: MuhamadRidhoPratama

NIM

:107014000699

Jurusan

: PendidikanBahasalnggris

Semester

: lX (Sembilan)

TahunAkademik

:201012011

JudulSkripsi
ERRORSANALYSISON THE SECONDGMDE STUDENTSOF SENIORHIGH
SENTENCES
SCHOOLIN USINGTYPETWO OF CONDITIONAL
AT SMA DUA MEI CIPUTAT
yang
adalahbenar mahasiswa/iFakultasllmu Tarbiyahdan KeguruanUIN Jakarta
di
sedang menyusun skripsi, dan akan mengadakan penelitian (riset)
yang Saudarapimpin.
instansi/sekolah/madrasah
Untuk itu kami mohon Saudara dapat mengizinkan mahasiswa tersebut
melaksanakanpenelitiandimaksud.
Atas perhatiandan kerjasama Saudara,kami ucapkanterimakasih'
Wassalamu'alaikum wr.wb.
ikan BahasaInggris
.;

"l

Drp.
Tembusan:
1. DekanFITK
2. PembantuDekanBidangAkademik
3. Mahasiswayang bersangkutan

NII*l
"k'".:;'

| 002

YAYASANPENDIDIKANDUA [ilEI
SEKOLAH MENENGA}I ATAS (SMA) I}UA MEI
(TERAKREDTTAST
A)

Jl. H. AMul Gani No. 135 CempakaPutih Ciputat Timur - Kota TangerangSelatan
Telp. 7490034,Fax. 74707557

SURATKETERANGAN
N o : 2 6 2/ s M A / Y P D M/ t x / 2 O 1 L
Yangbertandatangandi bawahini :
Nama

: YayatRuhiat,S.Pd

No.NlP/NPK
Jabatan

KepalaSekolah

TempatTugas

SMADuaMeiCiputat

Denganini menerangkan
bahwa:
Nama

MUHAMAD RIDHOPRATAMA

NIM

107014000599

Jurusan

PendidikanBahasalnggris

Semester

Vlll ( Delapan)

NamaMahasiswatersebutdi atas telah mengadakanriset untuk persyaratanpembuatanskripsi


GRADESTTDENTOf SEiltORHlH SCHOOL
denganjudul : 'ERRORSANALYSFON THESECOND
AT SMADUA MEI CIPUTAT". Padatanggal12
lN USTNG
TYPETWO OFCOt{DffiONAt SENTNCES
2011.
September2O11sampaidengan29 sEPTEMBER

mestinya.
sebagaimana
Demikiansuratketeranganini di buat agardapatdipergunakan

Timur,29September2ALl
DuaMei