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ISBN 978-0-626-27024-7

SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

The design and manufacture of commercial


kitchen extraction systems

Published by SABS Standards Division


1 Dr Lategan Road Groenkloof * Private Bag X191 Pretoria 0001
Tel: +27 12 428 7911 Fax: +27 12 344 1568
www.sabs.co.za
SABS

SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2
Table of changes
Change No.

Date

Scope

Acknowledgement
Standards South Africa wishes to acknowledge the valuable assistance derived from publications
by the Building and Engineering Services Association of the UK.

Foreword
This South African standard was approved by National Committee SABS SC 21C, Fire safety
Kitchen fume extraction, in accordance with procedures of the SABS Standards Division, in
compliance with annex 3 of the WTO/TBT agreement.
This document was published in xxxxx 2013.
This document supersedes SANS 1850:2003 (edition 1).
Annexes A and B form an integral part of this document.

SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2

Contents
Page
Foreword
1 Scope ................................................................................................................................

2 Normative reference ..........................................................................................................

3 Definitions..........................................................................................................................

4 Requirements for design of extractor systems ...................................................................


4.1 Canopies...................................................................................................................
4.2 Baffle filters ..............................................................................................................
4.3 Grease draws ...........................................................................................................
4.4 Height .......................................................................................................................
4.5 Ducting system..........................................................................................................
4.6 Joints ........................................................................................................................
4.7 Integrity .....................................................................................................................
4.8 Route ........................................................................................................................

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5
6
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9
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5 Fire dampers .....................................................................................................................

6 Risers ...............................................................................................................................

7 Solid fuel oven extraction (pizza or tandoori oven)..............................................................

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8 Fan .................................................................................................................................

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9 Attenuators ........................................................................................................................

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10 Make-up air........................................................................................................................

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11 Fire extinguishing system ..................................................................................................

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Annex A (normative) Notes to purchasers ...........................................................................

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Bibliography ........................................................................................................................

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SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2
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SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2

The design and manufacture of commercial kitchen extraction systems

1 Scope
This standard specifies the requirements for the design, manufacture, installation, maintenance and
inspection (including fire safety requirements) for commercial kitchen extraction systems both public
and private.
The standard does not apply to cooking equipment located in a domestic residence or dwelling
house.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For
dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the
referenced document (including any amendments) applies. Information on currently valid national
and international standards can be obtained from the SABS Standards Division.
SANS 10400 (SABS 0400), The application of the National Building Regulations.

3 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply.
3.1
access panel
panel cut in the duct system for the purpose of cleaning
3.2
attenuator
device to reduce sound level in the system
3.3
baffle filter
device that is designed to remove grease contamination particles between 5 microns and
10 microns from the extracted air before the air enters the ducting system
3.4
canopy
equipment that is designed to capture cooking fumes

SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2
3.5
extraction system
system that consists of the canopy and baffle filters, the ducting, fan, and silencer
3.6
fire damper
device that, when actuated by an appropriate detector, will automatically close an air duct and
restrict the passage of fire, hot gases and smoke
3.7
fire suppression system
system that is designed to suppress fires and which has an acceptable approval
NOTE acceptable standards are ISO, EN, BS, NFPA, UL, FM and SABS

3.8
fusible link
two metals strips that are connected by a material designed to melt at a specific temperature and
that holds the fire damper open
3.9
grease draw
drawer usually mounted within the canopy to catch any dripping of oil and grease from the baffle
filters
3.10
grease tight
Should not permit the passage of any liquid at any temperature.
3.11
make-up air
air that replaces the air extracted; the replacement can be either natural or mechanical
3.12
plenum box
area in the system that balances air from the canopy spigot
3.13
riser
ducting that transports the exhaust air to the top of the roof
3.14
spigot
duct between the canopy and ducting or plenum box

SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2

4 Requirements for design of extractor systems


General
All systems shall be designed, installed and commissioned by suitably competent person

4.1 Canopies
4.1.1 Types of canopy
The only material to be used in the fabrication of canopies in accordance with this specification shall
be stainless steel.
There are a number of types and style of extract canopy that have been developed; these can be
broadly classified as follows:
a) Overhead wall type canopy - wall or island mounted
b) Overhead island type canopy
c) Low level wall type canopy

d) Passover type canopy


e) Counter type canopy
f)

Eyebrow canopy

g) Condensation canopy
Most styles of canopy can be provided with anintegral make-up air facility; these can take the
form of:
a) Front face perforated diffuser
b) Front face grille
c) Internal slot - Induction, entrainment, capture, compensating or short circuit.
d)

Grille or louvres for spot cooling

Examples of the various types and combinations available are shown in Figs.9-11:

SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2
4.1.2 Size
4.1.2.1 The dimensions of a canopy are invariably determined by the size of the catering
equipment that it is serving.
4.1.2.2 Unless restricted by walls, the plan dimensions of the canopy shall always exceed the plan
dimensions of the catering equipment by a minimum of 250mm on each free side, and by 250mm at
the front and rear. It shall be noted that the overhang dimensions are to the inside of the
condensation or stiffening channel, or the supply plenum, the appropriate dimension shall be added
when specifying the overall canopy size. Where restricted by the wall the canopy shall be fitted
against the wall.
4.1.2.3 For certain types of baking ovens and combi steamers the overhang at the front should be
increased to a minimum of 600mm to cope with the steam or fumes released when the doors of the
appliance are opened.
4.1.2.4 Canopies less than 400mm high will be less efficient than normal because of a reduced
collection volume and therefore, where there is a restricted soffit height, consideration should be
given to increasing the face velocity to compensate irrespective of design duty calculated. It is also
recommended to increase the size of the canopy to aid capture when the ideal flow rate cannot be
achieved
4.1.2.5 Deep fryers shall be so positioned that there is at least 600 mm overhang from any free
side

4.1.2 Material thickness


Canopies shall be constructed of stainless steel of minimum thickness 1 mm or 1,2 mm if the length
of the canopy exceeds 3 m.
NOTE The grade of stainless steel used should be compatible with any corrosive products either from the
cooking process or the environment in which the system is located.

4.1.3 Joints and seams


4.1.3.1 All internal components shall be adequately sealed against grease and liquid.
4.1.3.2 All external corners shall be fully seam welded and polished to original grid.

4.1.3.3 All joints over which air will flow shall be made as smooth as possible to prevent grease
build-up and to enhance cleaning.
4.1.3.4 Recesses that accumulate grease shall be avoided.

4.2 Baffle filters


4.2.1 Baffle filters shall be the standard cyclonic type stainless steel baffle filter to remove grease
contamination particles between 5 microns and 10 microns from the extracted air before the air
enters the ducting system.

4.2.2 Baffle filters shall be accessible for maintenance from the front of the canopy.

SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2
4.2.3 Baffle filters shall be designed and installed in such a way as to prevent any grease from
dripping onto the cooking surface.

4.2.4 The downstream face of the baffle shall show no evidence of flaming that extends beyond
500 mm. Refer to Annex A (LPS 1263)[d1] David to contact Schalke at SABS

4.2.5 The velocity of air flow through the baffle slits shall be not less than 1,2 m/s.
4.2.6 The frame size of baffle filters shall not exceed 500 mm 500 mm.

4.3 Grease draws


All canopies shall be fitted with an internal gutter and grease draw of capacity large enough as to
not require constant attention, or some other device to contain any run-off safely. Such a device
should have a maximum capacity of 500 mL.

4.4 Height
4.4.1 The height of the canopy is often governed primarily by the ceiling height. The underside of
the front part of the canopy should be located between 2m and 2,1m above the finished floor level,
the top should project into the ceiling by a minimum of 25mm to allow the false ceiling trim to be
fitted.

4.4.2 Where a canopy is installed at a level higher than 2,1m, the overhang dimension shall be
increased at minimum rate of 1:1, i.e.. 100mm vertical + 100mm horizontal
4.4.3 The distance between the lowest edge of the grease filter and top of the cooking surface
should be a minimum of 900mm. This is to avoid the risk of excessive temperatures or fire in the
filter which could cause the extracted grease to vapourise and pass through the ductwork. This
dimension may vary with the type of cooking appliance and may be reduced where a fire
suppression system is fitted.

Insert 900 mm min


dimension

SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2

4.5 Ducting system


4.5.1 Material and thickness
4.5.1.1 All exhaust ducting in kitchen ventilation systems shall be of minimum thickness 1 mm for
galvanized steel or a minimum of 0,9 mm for stainless steel..
4.5.1.2 Galvanized iron is the preferred metal.
Note Stainless steel may be used where it can be seen underneath the ceilings.

4.5.2 Ducting size, shape and installation


4.5.2.1 So as not to unduly increase the fire hazard, all ducts should be located within the kitchen
compartment and lead directly to the exterior of the building. Ducts shall not penetrate any fire
resisting occupancy or division separating element.
4.5.2.2 Duct systems shall not be connected to any other building ventilation or exhaust system.
4.5.2.3 Horizontal ducts should be installed such that low lying areas that may collect residue are
avoided. Drains should be installed at the base of all risers.
4.5.2.4 Ducts should have a minimum clearance of 500mm to combustible contruction. Subject to
approval by the enforcing authority, this may be reduced where suitable non-combustible insulated
or fire resisting barriers are provided.
4.5.2.5 Ducting shall be of minimum dimensions 400 mm 450 mm in order to enable the entry of
personnel for cleaning purposes. (see 4.5.2.7).
4.5.2.6 Access panels shall be installed at a maximum of 3 m centres, at each change of direction
and at the top and bottom of risers to facilitate inspection and cleaning.
4.5.2.7 In the case of dimensions less than those in 4.5.2.1, inspection hatches shall be provided
at a maximum of 2m centres.
4.5.2.8 Access panels should be fitted at the side of ducts, a minimum of 10mm above the base to
minimise the risk of grease leakage.
4.5.2.9 Access panels should be provided on either side of in-line components such as volume
control dampers, attenuaters, horizontal ducts, vertical risers and extraction fans.
4.5.2.10 Due consideration should be given to providing physical unobstructed and safe access to
all access panels. Openings should not be obstructed by other building services, stored equipment
or the fabric of the building. The panel and aperture should also be free of any sharp edges.
4.5.2.11 No spiral ducting shall be used on any extraction system.

4.5.3 Ducting air velocity


Ducting air velocity shall be a minimum of 5 m/s and a maximum of 9 m/s.

SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2

4.6 Joints
Joints, metal flanges and corners shall be folded sheet metal flanges and corners. Suitable gaskets
and seals for all connections, including access panels should be provided that are non-porous,
impervious to grease/cooking oils and are capable of withstanding elevated temperatures, It shall
be the contractors responsibility to ensure that joints are grease tight.

4.7 Integrity
The exhaust ducting shall be completely separate from any other air flow system such as toilet or
parking garage fume exhaust systems.

4.8 Route
4.8.1 The ducting system shall be taken to the closest outside wall or roof.
4.8.2 Each kitchen shall have a dedicated ducting system .
4.8.3 Ducting systems shall be installed in accordance with SANS 10400.

5 Fire dampers
Fire dampers shall not be used in the kitchen canopy.

6 Risers
Risers shall be built in such a way as to ensure that they will not be a nuisance where they exhaust
or they shall extend by 300 mm above the roof top.

SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2

7 Solid fuel oven extraction (pizza or tandoori oven)


7.1

Wood burning ovens shall be provided with a suitable dedicated extraction/ventilation system.

7.2 Where there is a risk of airborne sparks being produced, a suitable spark arrester shall be
fitted to prevent embers entering the extraction duct.

7.3 The cleaning regime for wood burning ovens should include scraping the combustion chamber
to the original surface and inspecting for damage or deterioration as well as the cleaning and
inspection of associated ducting.

7.4 Solid fuel oven ducting shall be manufactured from mild steel, be fully welded and shall have
their own ducting systems.

7.5 A canopy shall be installed over conveyer type pizza ovens.

8 Fan
General
Care should always be taken with the location of the supply and extraction fans to ensure that there
is sufficient space for regular cleaning and maintenance. Limited space should restrict selection of
the correct fan.
Backward curved centrifugal, mixed flow or axial flow impellers are preferred as they are less prone
to unbalance and are more easily maintained and cleaned due to their open construction. Fixed or
adjustable metal impellers with a robust and open construction shall be used.

8.1 Position
Fans shall be placed in a position where they are easily cleanable and safely accessible.

8.2 Removal
Where a centrifugal fan is used, adequate inspection doors shall be installed for cleaning.

9 Attenuators
9.1 Attenuators shall be installed in a horizontal position .
9.2 Attenuators shall be replaced when necessary.

10 Make-up air
10.1 In order for the kitchen extract system to function correctly, it is essential that an allowance
shall be made for the provision of replacement air. This should be achieved either by introducing
mechanical supply air, or by making provision for natural air.

10.2 Where a natural ducted inlet for relief air is selected it should be as short as possible, at high
level and with filtration since incoming air is likely to be contaminated.

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SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2
10.3 Where mechanical input is selected, the system shall provide a maximum of 85% of the total
extracted volume, with the remaining 15% infiltrating naturally into the kitchen from surrounding
areas. The mechanical or fan assisted method should ensure that the kitchen remains under
negative pressure thus preventing the potential transfer of kitchen odours to areas outside the
kitchen.

10.4 Make-up air may be introduced into the kitchen by means of the canopy (make up air type) or
ventilated ceiling, or through the ventilation system or by a combination of the three. If make-up air
canopies are used only 30 to 35% of the total supply air shall be introduced to the canopy and the
rest via low velocity (0,9 to 1.2m/s) down draft ceiling diffusers.

10.5 The fan powered system provides positive control and therefore should be the preferred
method used. With natural infiltration the following problems may occur:
a) Unfiltered air may enter the kitchen;
b) Air may be drawn from dirty areas;
c) Draughts and discomfort may be caused in cold weather;
d) Uncontrolled air movement may affect the cooking process; and
e) Cooling cannot be provided to persons adjacent to the canopy.

10.6 Where a natural make-up air system is selected, the resistance shall be included in the
overall system resistance against which the extract fan will have to operate.

11 Fire extinguishing equipment and suppression systems


When, after risk assessment has been conducted, a fully automated fire extinguishing system (wet
chemical system) for grease related fires is installed in the canopy, it shall be capable of
suppressing fires in areas associated with cooking equipment, such as fryers, griddles and range
tops, upright, natural charcoal, or chain-type broilers, electric, lava rock, mesquite or gas-radiant
char-broilers, and also ventilating equipment including canopies, ducts, plenums, and baffle filters.
Building, water-based fire sprinkler systems shall not be used or fitted on canopies and kitchen
cooking appliances.

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SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2
11.1 The extent of fire protection required should be determined by a fire risk assessment that
addresses the type and extent of hazard and impact on life safety, property protection and business
continuity as identified at the time of the assessment.

11.2 At least one Type F extinguisher shall be supplied for cooking operations involving deep
frying units. The size and rating of the unit should be commensurate with the oil capacity of the
frying unit. Type extinguishers should meet the requirements of ISO 7165 or acceptable equivalent.

11.3 Automatic fire suppression systems shall be of a type recognised for the protection of
commercial cooking equipment.

11.4 The protected area shall include the area under the hood and over the cooking equipment,
the area above or behind the filters and the opening of the hood into the branch duct.

11.5 Automatic fire suppression systems considered shall be listed as suitable for the protection of
commercial cooking operations in accordance with a recognised published standard such as UL
300 Fire testing of fire extinguishing systems for protection of commercial cooking equipment.

11.6 Similarly, the systems should be designed, installed, operated, tested and maintained in
accordance recognised standards. For example, pre-engineered wet chemical systems shall
comply to the NFPA 17A Standard for wet chemical extinguishing systems (in conjunction with the
manufacturers listed installation and maintenance manual) or acceptable equivalent recognised
standard.

11.7 End users shall be supplied with a copy of the manufacturers instruction and maintenance
manual, a suitable schematic isometric diagram of the system and a design, installation and
commissioning certificate/s stating the standards to which the system has been designed and
confirming that the design and installation is in accordance with the relevant standard/s.

11.8 Hoods provided with a listed fire suppression system in a sprinkler protected area are not
considered an obstruction to sprinkler coverage and will not require sprinkler protection below the
hood.

11.9 Where both portable fire extinguishers and a fixed fire suppression system are provided, the
fixed system should be considered the primary means of fire control and portable fire extinguishers
as secondary.

12 Procedures for use, inspection and cleaning of equipment


12.1 Operating procedures
12.1.1 Exhaust systems shall be operated in commercial and industrial kitchens whenever cooking
equipment under the canopy is activated.
12.1.2 Kitchen exhaust systems shall not be operated with the baffle filters removed.
12.1.3 Openings provided for air exhausted through ventilating equipment shall not be restricted
by covers, dampers.

12.1.4 Instructions for the manual operation of the fire extinguishing system shall be posted
conspicuously in the kitchen and shall be reviewed periodically with employees by management.

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12.1.5 Exhaust canopies shall be operated in accordance with the instructions and listed
procedures of the manufacturer.
12.1.6 Cooking equipment shall not be operated while its fire extinguishing system is nonoperational or otherwise impaired.
12.1.7 Staff should receive regular training regarding the hazards associated with commercial
cooking equipment and local fire action procedures.
12.1.8 All cooking appliances used shall be listed/approved as suitable for commercial cooking
operations.
12.1.9 The effect on extraction and any fire suppression system should be considered prior to any
rearrangement appliances under the hood in relation to their positioning at the time of the design of
the extraction and fire suppression system.

12.2 Inspection
12.2.1 The fire extinguishing system and exhaust canopy that contains a constant or fire-actuated
system shall be inspected and serviced in accordance with the manufacturers instructions by
properly trained persons.
12.2.2 All actuation components, including remote manual pull stations, mechanical or electrical
devices, detectors, actuators, and fire-actuated dampers, shall be checked for proper operation
during the inspection in accordance with the manufacturer's listed procedures.

12.2.3 Fusible links (including fusible links on fire-actuated damper assemblies) and automatic
sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least annually, or more frequently if necessary, to ensure
proper operation of the system. Other detection devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance
with the manufacturer's recommendations.

12.2.4 Certificates of inspection and maintenance shall be forwarded to the owner of the system
and shall be kept readily available for inspection.

12.3 Cleaning
12.3.1 Canopy, grease removal devices, fans, ducts, and other appurtenances shall be cleaned to
bare metal at minimum intervals of six months.

12.3.2 After the exhaust system has been cleaned to bare metal, it shall not be coated with
powder or other substances.

12.3.3 After cleaning has been completed, the cleaning contractor shall:
12.3.3.1 place or display, within the kitchen area, a certificate that indicates the date on which the
cleaning was done and the name of the servicing company. It shall also indicate areas that were not
cleaned.
12.3.3.2 provide a report containing the following:

The system(s) cleaned

Pre-clean measurements (as per System Testing)

Post-clean measurements

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Photographic records

Additional works carried out (if any)

MSDS for any chemicals used

Recommendations for future cleaning requirements

Observations on the condition of the ductwork system

A sketch or schematic of the system indicating access panel and testing locations and
highlighting any uncleaned areas with a written explanation as to why the area could not be
accessed/cleaned

12.3.4 Components of the fire extinguishing system shall not be rendered inoperable during the
cleaning process.
12.3.5 Care shall be taken not to apply cleaning chemicals on fusible links or other detection
devices of the automatic extinguishing system.

12.3.6 When cleaning procedures have been completed, all electrical switches and system
components shall be returned to an operable state.

12.3.7 All access panels (doors) and cover plates shall be replaced.
12.3.8 Air flow dampers and diffusers shall be positioned for proper air flow.
12.3.9 No flammable solvents or other flammable cleaning aids shall be used.

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SANS 1850:2012
Edition 2

Annex A
(normative)

Notes to purchasers
The following requirements shall be specified in tender invitations and in each order or contract:
a) the size of the canopy (see 4.1.1);
b) the material thickness of the canopy (see 4.1.2);
c) the noise level (see clause 9);
d) the provision of drawings of the system installation; and
e) certification as proof of compliance with the local municipality and by-laws.

Bibliography
DW/172, Specification for kitchen ventilation systems, Heating and Ventilating Contractors
Association.
TR/19 HVCA, Guide to Good Practice Internal Cleanliness of Ventilation Systems, Heating and
Ventilating Contractors Association.
ISO 7165, Fire fighting equipment Portable fire extinguishers Performance and construction.
SANS 10105-1, The classification, use and control of fire fighting equipment Part 1: Portable fire
extinguishers.
NFPA 96, Standard for ventilation control and fire protection of commercial cooking operations.
NFPA 17A, Standard for wet chemical extinguishing systems.
Loss Prevention Standard LPS 1263, Issue 1.2 Requirements for LPCB approval listing of the fire
performance of grease filters used in commercial kitchen extract systems.

SABS

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