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Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

AE-494
Project Report

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SPACE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY


THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

SUBMITTED BY:

KAPIL KUMAR (SC11B023)


RANJAN DAS (SC11B042)
DEPT. OF AEROSPACE ENGG.
Submission Date: 25-april-2014
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Abstract:
Flow over a body at high Mach number is much complex and to be studies carefully to understand
the flow field in between the body and the shock layer formed. There are so many methods to solve
the flow field over a body in the hypersonic flow. But none of them is absolute, as every method
involves some significant assumptions.
Thin shock layer is one of the theories which are used to analyze the flow properties. It too involves
many assumptions, still it gives satisfactory results, that are much closer to that are obtained through
experiments.
Here in the present report we coded the meslons inverse method to get the body shape that fits best
to the given shock shapes. The code is prepared in MATLAB by assuming an arbitrary shock shape
with the free stream conditions.

Introduction:
1. Hypersonic flow:
Hypersonic flow may be characterized by certain physical phenomena that can no longer be
analytically discounted as in supersonic flow. The peculiarity in hypersonic flows are as follows:
1. Shock layer
2. Aerodynamic heating
3. Entropy layer
4. Real gas effects
5. Low density effects
6. Independence of aerodynamic coefficients with Mach number.

Small shock stand-off distance


The density behind the shock that a body generates increases with its Mach number
because conservation of mass demands a corresponding to a decrease in volume behind theshock
wave and its distance to the body.

Entropy layer
Increasing Mach numbers increases the entropy change across the shock, creating a strong entropy
gradient and highly vertical flow that mixes with the boundary layer.

Viscous interaction
Viscosity causes some of the great kinetic energy associated highly supersonic flow to
become internal energy in the fluid, thereby increasing its temperature. The pressure gradient
normal to the flow within a boundary layer is almost zero for low to moderate hypersonic Mach
numbers, increasing the boundary layer's temperature and decreasing the layer's density and thus
so expanding the layer's bottom that the boundary layer thickens and often merges with the leading
edge's shock wave.

High temperature flow


High temperatures cause such non-equilibrium chemical flow properties as vibrational
excitation, dissociation, and ionization of molecules, causing convective and radiative heat-flux.

Impact side of the


body with shock

Fig.1 Hypersonic effects

Thin Shock Layer Theory


Thin shock layer theory is based on the assumption that the shock is very much closer to the body
which in turn leads to small volume between shock and body. This situation is typical of very high
Mach number flows over generic hypersonic configurations. In such situations, we can assume
that,

and

. As it has been already observed that the shock angle and Mach

angle are almost equal for hypersonic flow regime, we can express this fact as
. For such
high Mach condition within the shock layer, we will have same equation for shock, body and any
streamline in the shock. This is the basic assumption of thin shock layer theory.
Consider the body and the shock as shown in Fig. 19.1. Here the co-ordinate system is such that
x axis is parallel to the shock while y axis is perpendicular to the shock. Let u and v be the
components of velocity in the x and y directions respectively. Let us assume the flow to be twodimensional flow for the present illustration.

Fig.2 Thin shock layer


Shock layer=between shock wave and body
For a given flow deflection angle , as M.Consider M = 36 flow over a wedge with a half
angle = 15 = 18 shock wave sits very close to the body surface shock layer is very
thin.
Recall from oblique shock theory that, for a given flow deflection angle, the density increases across
the shock wave become progressively larger as the mach number is increased. At higher density,
the mass flow behind the shock can more easily squeeze through smaller areas. For flow over a
hypersonic body, this means that the distance between the body and the shock wave can be small.
The flowfield between the shock wave and the body is defined as the shock layer, and for

hypersonic speeds this shock layer can be quite thin. For example, consider the Mach 36 flow for a
calorically perfect gas with a ratio of specific heats, =Cp/Cv=1.4, over a wedge of 15-deg half
angle. From standard oblique shock theory the shock-wave of 15-deg half angle. From standard
oblique shock theory the shock wave angle will be only 18 deg, as shown in Fig 1.13. If high
temperature, chemically reacting effects are included, the shock-wave angle will be even smaller.
Clearly, this shock layer is thin. It is a basic characteristic of hypersonic flows that shock waves lie
close to the body and that the shock layer is thin. In turn, this can create some physical
complications, such as the merging of the shock wave itself with a thick, viscous boundary layer
growing from the body surface- a problem that becomes important at low Reynolds number.
However, at high Reynolds numbers, where the shock layer is essentially inviscid its thinness can be
used to theoretical advantages, leading to a general analytical approach called thin shocl layer
theory. In the extreme, a thin shock layer approach the fluid-dynamic model postulated by Issac
Newton in 1687; such Newtonian theory is simple and straightforward and is frequently used in
hypersonic aerodynamics for approximate calculations
We have already said that shock layers over hypersonic bodies are thin. In the limit as M- and
-1, we have shown that ----, and the shock layer becomes infinitely thin and infinitely dense. In
such a limit, we can consider the shock shape, the body shape, and the streamline shapes in
between to be all of the same. Such approximation, or variations of them, are the basis of thin
shock-layer theory.
Maslons Mathod:
The analysis developed by Maslens will be outlined as an example of a theory based on the
assumptions of a thin shock layer. Maslens method comparatively simple and has its frequent
application-even today-for the approximate analysis of hypersonic inviscid shock layers. Moreover,
Maslens method gives results for the flow field over blunt as well as slender bodies. Consider the
curvilinear coordinate system shown in fig(1), where x and y respectively, are parallel and
perpendicular to the shock, and u and v are corresponding components of velocity. For simplicity we
will assume a two dimensional flow; however, Maslens method also applies to axisymmetric flow.
Now we assume that the shock layer is thin and hence the streamlines are essentially parallel to the
shock wave. In a streamline-based coordinate system, The momentum equation for the present
coordinate system is

Since our assumptions include thin shock layer and same equation for shock, streamlines and
body. Here, R is the local streamline radius of curvature. For the thin shock-layer assumptions,
19.1

Here Rs is the shock radius of curvature.

Fig.3:- Shock-layer model for thin shock layer analysis by Maslen

Inline with the earlier assumptions made in thin shock layer, we can consider u us where us is the
the velocity just behind the shock. By this assumption we are re-asserting the assumption that all
the streamlines are parallel to the shock, therefore,

19.3

We can integrate the Eq. (19.3) between a point in the shock layer where the value of the stream
function as and just behind the shock layer where = s.

Using the equation we can build an inverse method where a shock wave shape will be assumed for
a body to solve the above equation and then obtain shape and pressure distribution over the body.
Thus obtained body shape when matches with the real shape then we can get the shock shape and
pressure distribution. The procedure described by Maslen [Ref] can be summarized as,
1) Assume a shock-wave shape as shown in Fig(3). In this sense, Maslens method is an
inverse method, where a shock wave is assumed and the body that supports thin shock is
calculated.

Fig.4:- Details for the analysis by Malsen.

2) Hence, all flow quantities are known at point 1 (Fig4) just behind the shock, from the
oblique shock relations. The value for = 1 at point 1 is known from

3) Choose a value of 2, where 0< 2< 1. This identifies a point 2 inside the flowfield along
the y axis, as shown in fig(2), where = 2. (The precise value of the physical coordinate
y2 will be found in a subsequent step.)
4) Calculate the pressure at point 2 from eqn(6)

5) The entropy at point 2, s2 is known because the streamline at point2, corresponding to =


2, has come through that point on the shock wave, point 2, where 2= 2, and where

Or

eqn(7)
Therefore, h2 is obtained from eqn(7), which locates point 2 on the shock. In turn, S2 is
known from the oblique shock relations, and because the flow is isentropic along any given
streamline S2= S2.
Calculate the enthalpy h2 and density 2 from the thermodynamics equations of state

6. Calculate the velocity at point2 from the adiabatic equation (total enthalpy is constant).
That is,

Where h0 is the total enthalpy, which is constant throughout the adiabatic flow-field. In turn,

Or

6) All of the flow quantities are now known at point 2. Referring to fig(1) and fig(2) repeat the
preseding steps for all points along the y axis between the shock (point 1) and the body
(point 3). The body surface is defined by =0.
7) The physical coordinates y, which corresponds to a particular value of , can now be found
by integrating the definations of the stream function (which is really the continuity
equation). Because

Then

eqn(8)
Where and u are known as a function of from the preceeding steps. This also locates
the body coordinate, where

8. This procedure is repeated for any desired number of points along the specified shock
wave, hence generating the flowfield and body shape which supports that shock.

MATLAB CODE:

%% Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics (AE-494)


%% Topic-Thin shock layer (Maslon's method)
%% Submitted by: Kapil Kumar, Ranjan Das (Department of aerospace engineering)
clear all
clc
format long;
%% %% free stream properties
Y=1.4;
% free stream specific heat ratio
r=287;
% gas constant
M=10;
%mach no. at infinity
P=10000;
% pressure of free stream pa
T=300;
% temperature of free stream K
rho=P/(287*T);
% density of free stream in kg/m^3
cp=Y*r/(Y-1);
V=M*(Y*r*T)^0.5;
%% assumed shock shape and parameters
R=1;
%nose radius
d=(0.386*exp(4.67/M^2))*R;
%d-shock standoff distance
Rc=(1.386*exp(1.8/(10-1)^0.75))*R; %Rc- shock radius of curvature at vertex
b=pi/20;
% b= asymptotic shock wave angle
y=linspace(0,5,50);
x=-(R+d-Rc*(cot(b)^2)*((((1+(y.^2*tan(b)^2)/Rc^2)).^.5)-1));
for i=1:numel(y)-1
dx(i)=x(i+1)-x(i);
dy(i)=y(i+1)-y(i);

slope(i)=dy(i)/dx(i);
end
beta=atan(slope);
n=numel(slope);
for i=1:n-1
dX(i)=x(i+1)-x(i);
dY(i)=slope(i+1)-slope(i);
dslope(i)=dY(i)/dX(i)
end
beta1=atan(dslope);
plot(x,y);
for i=1:numel(dslope)
if abs(dslope(1,i))>0
s(i)=(1+(slope(i))^2)^1.5/abs(dslope(i));
else
break
end
end
% shock defn ends
%%
%%Properties calculated just after the shock using approximated oblique
%shock relations
P1=(1+((2*Y/(Y+1))*((M^2*(sin(beta)).^2)-1)))*P;
rho1=(1+((Y+1)*M^2*(sin(beta)).^2)./(((Y-1)*M^2*(sin(beta)).^2)+2))*rho;
% density
ratio
T1=((P1/P).*(rho./rho1))*T;
%temperature ratio
u1=V*cos(beta);
P0=P*((1+(Y-1)*M^2/2)^(Y/(Y-1)));
T0=T*(1+(Y-1)*M^2/2);
Mn=M*sin(beta);
%Mn1=(((Y-1)*M^2)+2)/((2*Y*M^2)-(Y-1));
Mn1=[(Mn.^2+(2/(Y-1)))./([2*Y*Mn.^2/(Y-1)]-1)].^0.5;
theta=atan(2*cot(beta).*[((M^1*(sin(beta)).^2)-1)]./((M^2*(Y+cos(2*beta)))+2));
M1=Mn1./sin(beta-theta);
P01=P1.*((1+(Y-1)*M1.^2/2).^(Y/(Y-1)));
dels=-8.314.*log(P01./P0);
%v2=(2*(M1^2*(sin(beta)).^2-1).*cot(beta))*V1/((Y+1)*M1^2);
% y- velocity after
shock
q1= 0.5*rho1*V^2;
W=rho.*V.*y;
%% iterartive meslon's method
for i=1:numel(s)
for j=1:i
if j==1
%for i=2:numel(s)
P2(i,j)=P1(i);
T2(i,j)=T1(i);
rho2(i,j)=P1(i)/(287*T1(i));
u2(i,j)=(2*cp*(T0-T1(i)))^0.5;
a2(i,j)=(Y*r*T1(i))^0.5;

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Cp2(i,j)=(P1(i))*2/(rho2(i,j)*u2(i,j));
%end
else
%for i=2:numel(s)
P2(i,j)=P2(i,j-1)+((u1(i)/s(i))*(W(i-1)-W(i)));
T2(i,j)=(exp((r*log(P2(i,j)/P2(i,j-1))-dels(i))/cp))*T1(i);
rho2(i,j)=P2(i,j)/(287*T2(i,j));
u2(i,j)=(2*cp*(T0-T2(i,j)))^0.5;
a2(i,j)=(Y*r*T2(i,j))^0.5;
Cp2(i,j)=(P2(i,j)-P)*2/(rho*(V)^2);
end
if j<i
dn(i,j)=(2*(W(i)-W(i-j)))/(rho1(i)*u1(i)+rho2(i,j)*u2(i,j));
ang(i,j)=pi/2-beta(i);
x2(i,j)=x(i)+dn(i,j)*cos(ang(i,j));
y2(i,j)=y(i)-dn(i,j)*sin(ang(i,j));
end
end
end
for i=1:47
xb(i)=x2(i+1,i);
yb(i)=y2(i+1,i);
Pb(i)=P2(i+1,i);
Tb(i)=T2(i+1,i);
Cpb(i)=Cp2(i+1,i);
end
%% Plots
figure(1),plot(x,y,'--',xb,yb,'-');
title('Shock and obtained body shape');
xlabel('x-cordinate');
ylabel('y-cocrdinate');
legend('Assumed shock shape','Body');
figure(2),plot(x2(:,1:47),y2(:,1:47),'.');
title('Grid points');
xlabel('x-cordinate');
ylabel('y-cocrdinate');
legend('Grid points');
figure(3),plot(xb(2:numel(xb)),Pb(2:numel(xb)),'.');
title('Pressure distribution');
xlabel('x-cordinate');
ylabel('Pressure (pa)');
figure(4),plot(xb(2:numel(xb)),Tb(2:numel(xb)),'.');
title('Temperature distribution');
xlabel('x-cordinate');
ylabel('Temperature (K)');
figure(5),plot(xb(2:numel(xb)),Cpb(2:numel(Cpb)),'.');
title('Coefficent of pressure');
xlabel('x-cordinate');
ylabel('pressure Coefficent');
%%

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OBSERVATIONS:

Fig.5
The fig.5 shows the shape of the assumed shock and the body obtained after simulating the
Melsons method code in MATLAB. In real situation the shock does not touch the body in
hypersonic flow, but here it is just starting from the body. This is the drawback of the Melsons
method as it is not valid in stagnation region.

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Fig.6
Fig.6 shows the grid points which are taken into consideration to obtain the body shape from the
assumed shock shape. Here the peculiarity of the points is that, they are in the form of diagonal
matrix, and that is why the results are more accurate as we move away from the stagnation point,
where more no. of points are considered.

Fig.7

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Fig.7 shows the distribution of the temperature over the surface of the body, it can be observed
that, near the stagnation region (leading edge of the body, directly facing the flow) pressure is
much high. Because the flow hitting directly the body face slows down completely and about
complete kinetic energy gets converted into pressure energy and results in drastic increase in
temperature.

Fig.8
Fig.8 shows the distribution of the pressure coefficient over the surface of the body, it can be
observed that, near the stagnation region (leading edge of the body, directly facing the flow)
pressure coefficient is much high. Because the flow hitting directly the body face slows down
completely and about complete kinetic energy gets converted into pressure energy, also the
Reynolds no. decreases results in further increase in pressure coefficient.

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Fig.9
Fig.9 shows the distribution of the pressure over the surface of the body, it can be observed that,
near the stagnation region (leading edge of the body, directly facing the flow) pressure is much
high. Because the flow hitting directly the body face slows down completely and about complete
kinetic energy gets converted into pressure energy.

Fig.10

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Fig.11

RESULT AND ANLYSIS:


The melsons method to obtain the body shape is quite simple and effective, but as we observe from
the plots, it is not valid in the stagnation region near the body surface. Also this method contain a
no. of approximation explained in the theory part, that may lead to significant error. But altogether
we get some good results and flow paramter distribution over the body surface. We can use this
method to solve flows at high mech no. as a priliminory review. It can be more accurate except near
the stagnation region.

ACKNOWELEDGEMENT:
We are very much thankful to all who contributed directly or indirectly in preparing this MATLAB
code formulation of the Meslons method to get the body shape from the given shock shape,
Especially to Mr. Amit Kamboj who helmed us while some error was occurring in our code during
simulation. Off-course my heartedly thanks to Dr. Manoj T Nair (Associate Professor, Aerospace
Engineering), who gave us such a nice opportunity to understand many phenomenon the hypersonic
flow. Actually we learnt a lot through this.

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References:
An interesting discussion of thin shock-layer theory can be found in the given journel paper that
is mentioned as follows:
1) Roe, P.L.,Thin Shock-Layer Theory, Aerodynamic Problemns of Hypersonic Vehicles,
AGARD lecture series No. 42, vol.1, 1972, Von Karman Inst, Brussels,pp. 4-1-4-26
2) Hayes, W.D., and Probstien, R.F., Hypersonic Flow Theory, Academics Press, New York, 1959
3) Maslen, S.H., Inviscid Hypersonic Flow past Smooth Symmetric Bodies, AIAA Journel, Vol. 2
,No-6, June 1964,pp.1055-1061.
4) http://nptel.ac.in/courses/101103003/pdf/mod4.pdf
5) http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/nikos/courses/AE264/pdf/Hypersonic.pdf
6) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypersonic_speed

APENDIX:
HYPERSONIC SHOCK WAVE RELATIONS
Oblique shock relations derived are exact and all hold for M>1, assuming calorically perfect gas.
In the limit as M becomes very large hypersonic shock relations

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