© All Rights Reserved

134 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Problem exercises on aerodynamics
- Aerodynamics-problems (Has 1.9)
- Fluid Mechanics Measurements
- Two Phase Flow Regime Correlations ProMax
- Hypersonic Aerodynamics 0100 - Introduction to Hypersonic Aerodynamics
- Hypersonic 1
- Solution Manual for Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications 4th Edition by Cengel
- 6. Schmisseur - Aerothermodynamics
- The Weekender 03-28-2012
- Hypersonic Aerodynamics
- Thermowell resonance effect ASME 19
- Petroleum Measurement Manual
- Aerodynamics
- 1D Navier Stokes Solver
- EntryGasdynamicHeating19710021703_1971021703
- Dongsu Ryu and Hyesung Kang- Shock Waves in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe
- Zhou Xianling
- IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineering research
- Electro Static Precipitator
- Bartosiewicz

You are on page 1of 19

AE-494

Project Report

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

SUBMITTED BY:

RANJAN DAS (SC11B042)

DEPT. OF AEROSPACE ENGG.

Submission Date: 25-april-2014

1

Abstract:

Flow over a body at high Mach number is much complex and to be studies carefully to understand

the flow field in between the body and the shock layer formed. There are so many methods to solve

the flow field over a body in the hypersonic flow. But none of them is absolute, as every method

involves some significant assumptions.

Thin shock layer is one of the theories which are used to analyze the flow properties. It too involves

many assumptions, still it gives satisfactory results, that are much closer to that are obtained through

experiments.

Here in the present report we coded the meslons inverse method to get the body shape that fits best

to the given shock shapes. The code is prepared in MATLAB by assuming an arbitrary shock shape

with the free stream conditions.

Introduction:

1. Hypersonic flow:

Hypersonic flow may be characterized by certain physical phenomena that can no longer be

analytically discounted as in supersonic flow. The peculiarity in hypersonic flows are as follows:

1. Shock layer

2. Aerodynamic heating

3. Entropy layer

4. Real gas effects

5. Low density effects

6. Independence of aerodynamic coefficients with Mach number.

The density behind the shock that a body generates increases with its Mach number

because conservation of mass demands a corresponding to a decrease in volume behind theshock

wave and its distance to the body.

Entropy layer

Increasing Mach numbers increases the entropy change across the shock, creating a strong entropy

gradient and highly vertical flow that mixes with the boundary layer.

Viscous interaction

Viscosity causes some of the great kinetic energy associated highly supersonic flow to

become internal energy in the fluid, thereby increasing its temperature. The pressure gradient

normal to the flow within a boundary layer is almost zero for low to moderate hypersonic Mach

numbers, increasing the boundary layer's temperature and decreasing the layer's density and thus

so expanding the layer's bottom that the boundary layer thickens and often merges with the leading

edge's shock wave.

High temperatures cause such non-equilibrium chemical flow properties as vibrational

excitation, dissociation, and ionization of molecules, causing convective and radiative heat-flux.

body with shock

Thin shock layer theory is based on the assumption that the shock is very much closer to the body

which in turn leads to small volume between shock and body. This situation is typical of very high

Mach number flows over generic hypersonic configurations. In such situations, we can assume

that,

and

. As it has been already observed that the shock angle and Mach

angle are almost equal for hypersonic flow regime, we can express this fact as

. For such

high Mach condition within the shock layer, we will have same equation for shock, body and any

streamline in the shock. This is the basic assumption of thin shock layer theory.

Consider the body and the shock as shown in Fig. 19.1. Here the co-ordinate system is such that

x axis is parallel to the shock while y axis is perpendicular to the shock. Let u and v be the

components of velocity in the x and y directions respectively. Let us assume the flow to be twodimensional flow for the present illustration.

Shock layer=between shock wave and body

For a given flow deflection angle , as M.Consider M = 36 flow over a wedge with a half

angle = 15 = 18 shock wave sits very close to the body surface shock layer is very

thin.

Recall from oblique shock theory that, for a given flow deflection angle, the density increases across

the shock wave become progressively larger as the mach number is increased. At higher density,

the mass flow behind the shock can more easily squeeze through smaller areas. For flow over a

hypersonic body, this means that the distance between the body and the shock wave can be small.

The flowfield between the shock wave and the body is defined as the shock layer, and for

hypersonic speeds this shock layer can be quite thin. For example, consider the Mach 36 flow for a

calorically perfect gas with a ratio of specific heats, =Cp/Cv=1.4, over a wedge of 15-deg half

angle. From standard oblique shock theory the shock-wave of 15-deg half angle. From standard

oblique shock theory the shock wave angle will be only 18 deg, as shown in Fig 1.13. If high

temperature, chemically reacting effects are included, the shock-wave angle will be even smaller.

Clearly, this shock layer is thin. It is a basic characteristic of hypersonic flows that shock waves lie

close to the body and that the shock layer is thin. In turn, this can create some physical

complications, such as the merging of the shock wave itself with a thick, viscous boundary layer

growing from the body surface- a problem that becomes important at low Reynolds number.

However, at high Reynolds numbers, where the shock layer is essentially inviscid its thinness can be

used to theoretical advantages, leading to a general analytical approach called thin shocl layer

theory. In the extreme, a thin shock layer approach the fluid-dynamic model postulated by Issac

Newton in 1687; such Newtonian theory is simple and straightforward and is frequently used in

hypersonic aerodynamics for approximate calculations

We have already said that shock layers over hypersonic bodies are thin. In the limit as M- and

-1, we have shown that ----, and the shock layer becomes infinitely thin and infinitely dense. In

such a limit, we can consider the shock shape, the body shape, and the streamline shapes in

between to be all of the same. Such approximation, or variations of them, are the basis of thin

shock-layer theory.

Maslons Mathod:

The analysis developed by Maslens will be outlined as an example of a theory based on the

assumptions of a thin shock layer. Maslens method comparatively simple and has its frequent

application-even today-for the approximate analysis of hypersonic inviscid shock layers. Moreover,

Maslens method gives results for the flow field over blunt as well as slender bodies. Consider the

curvilinear coordinate system shown in fig(1), where x and y respectively, are parallel and

perpendicular to the shock, and u and v are corresponding components of velocity. For simplicity we

will assume a two dimensional flow; however, Maslens method also applies to axisymmetric flow.

Now we assume that the shock layer is thin and hence the streamlines are essentially parallel to the

shock wave. In a streamline-based coordinate system, The momentum equation for the present

coordinate system is

Since our assumptions include thin shock layer and same equation for shock, streamlines and

body. Here, R is the local streamline radius of curvature. For the thin shock-layer assumptions,

19.1

Inline with the earlier assumptions made in thin shock layer, we can consider u us where us is the

the velocity just behind the shock. By this assumption we are re-asserting the assumption that all

the streamlines are parallel to the shock, therefore,

19.3

We can integrate the Eq. (19.3) between a point in the shock layer where the value of the stream

function as and just behind the shock layer where = s.

Using the equation we can build an inverse method where a shock wave shape will be assumed for

a body to solve the above equation and then obtain shape and pressure distribution over the body.

Thus obtained body shape when matches with the real shape then we can get the shock shape and

pressure distribution. The procedure described by Maslen [Ref] can be summarized as,

1) Assume a shock-wave shape as shown in Fig(3). In this sense, Maslens method is an

inverse method, where a shock wave is assumed and the body that supports thin shock is

calculated.

2) Hence, all flow quantities are known at point 1 (Fig4) just behind the shock, from the

oblique shock relations. The value for = 1 at point 1 is known from

3) Choose a value of 2, where 0< 2< 1. This identifies a point 2 inside the flowfield along

the y axis, as shown in fig(2), where = 2. (The precise value of the physical coordinate

y2 will be found in a subsequent step.)

4) Calculate the pressure at point 2 from eqn(6)

2, has come through that point on the shock wave, point 2, where 2= 2, and where

Or

eqn(7)

Therefore, h2 is obtained from eqn(7), which locates point 2 on the shock. In turn, S2 is

known from the oblique shock relations, and because the flow is isentropic along any given

streamline S2= S2.

Calculate the enthalpy h2 and density 2 from the thermodynamics equations of state

6. Calculate the velocity at point2 from the adiabatic equation (total enthalpy is constant).

That is,

Where h0 is the total enthalpy, which is constant throughout the adiabatic flow-field. In turn,

Or

6) All of the flow quantities are now known at point 2. Referring to fig(1) and fig(2) repeat the

preseding steps for all points along the y axis between the shock (point 1) and the body

(point 3). The body surface is defined by =0.

7) The physical coordinates y, which corresponds to a particular value of , can now be found

by integrating the definations of the stream function (which is really the continuity

equation). Because

Then

eqn(8)

Where and u are known as a function of from the preceeding steps. This also locates

the body coordinate, where

8. This procedure is repeated for any desired number of points along the specified shock

wave, hence generating the flowfield and body shape which supports that shock.

MATLAB CODE:

%% Topic-Thin shock layer (Maslon's method)

%% Submitted by: Kapil Kumar, Ranjan Das (Department of aerospace engineering)

clear all

clc

format long;

%% %% free stream properties

Y=1.4;

% free stream specific heat ratio

r=287;

% gas constant

M=10;

%mach no. at infinity

P=10000;

% pressure of free stream pa

T=300;

% temperature of free stream K

rho=P/(287*T);

% density of free stream in kg/m^3

cp=Y*r/(Y-1);

V=M*(Y*r*T)^0.5;

%% assumed shock shape and parameters

R=1;

%nose radius

d=(0.386*exp(4.67/M^2))*R;

%d-shock standoff distance

Rc=(1.386*exp(1.8/(10-1)^0.75))*R; %Rc- shock radius of curvature at vertex

b=pi/20;

% b= asymptotic shock wave angle

y=linspace(0,5,50);

x=-(R+d-Rc*(cot(b)^2)*((((1+(y.^2*tan(b)^2)/Rc^2)).^.5)-1));

for i=1:numel(y)-1

dx(i)=x(i+1)-x(i);

dy(i)=y(i+1)-y(i);

slope(i)=dy(i)/dx(i);

end

beta=atan(slope);

n=numel(slope);

for i=1:n-1

dX(i)=x(i+1)-x(i);

dY(i)=slope(i+1)-slope(i);

dslope(i)=dY(i)/dX(i)

end

beta1=atan(dslope);

plot(x,y);

for i=1:numel(dslope)

if abs(dslope(1,i))>0

s(i)=(1+(slope(i))^2)^1.5/abs(dslope(i));

else

break

end

end

% shock defn ends

%%

%%Properties calculated just after the shock using approximated oblique

%shock relations

P1=(1+((2*Y/(Y+1))*((M^2*(sin(beta)).^2)-1)))*P;

rho1=(1+((Y+1)*M^2*(sin(beta)).^2)./(((Y-1)*M^2*(sin(beta)).^2)+2))*rho;

% density

ratio

T1=((P1/P).*(rho./rho1))*T;

%temperature ratio

u1=V*cos(beta);

P0=P*((1+(Y-1)*M^2/2)^(Y/(Y-1)));

T0=T*(1+(Y-1)*M^2/2);

Mn=M*sin(beta);

%Mn1=(((Y-1)*M^2)+2)/((2*Y*M^2)-(Y-1));

Mn1=[(Mn.^2+(2/(Y-1)))./([2*Y*Mn.^2/(Y-1)]-1)].^0.5;

theta=atan(2*cot(beta).*[((M^1*(sin(beta)).^2)-1)]./((M^2*(Y+cos(2*beta)))+2));

M1=Mn1./sin(beta-theta);

P01=P1.*((1+(Y-1)*M1.^2/2).^(Y/(Y-1)));

dels=-8.314.*log(P01./P0);

%v2=(2*(M1^2*(sin(beta)).^2-1).*cot(beta))*V1/((Y+1)*M1^2);

% y- velocity after

shock

q1= 0.5*rho1*V^2;

W=rho.*V.*y;

%% iterartive meslon's method

for i=1:numel(s)

for j=1:i

if j==1

%for i=2:numel(s)

P2(i,j)=P1(i);

T2(i,j)=T1(i);

rho2(i,j)=P1(i)/(287*T1(i));

u2(i,j)=(2*cp*(T0-T1(i)))^0.5;

a2(i,j)=(Y*r*T1(i))^0.5;

10

Cp2(i,j)=(P1(i))*2/(rho2(i,j)*u2(i,j));

%end

else

%for i=2:numel(s)

P2(i,j)=P2(i,j-1)+((u1(i)/s(i))*(W(i-1)-W(i)));

T2(i,j)=(exp((r*log(P2(i,j)/P2(i,j-1))-dels(i))/cp))*T1(i);

rho2(i,j)=P2(i,j)/(287*T2(i,j));

u2(i,j)=(2*cp*(T0-T2(i,j)))^0.5;

a2(i,j)=(Y*r*T2(i,j))^0.5;

Cp2(i,j)=(P2(i,j)-P)*2/(rho*(V)^2);

end

if j<i

dn(i,j)=(2*(W(i)-W(i-j)))/(rho1(i)*u1(i)+rho2(i,j)*u2(i,j));

ang(i,j)=pi/2-beta(i);

x2(i,j)=x(i)+dn(i,j)*cos(ang(i,j));

y2(i,j)=y(i)-dn(i,j)*sin(ang(i,j));

end

end

end

for i=1:47

xb(i)=x2(i+1,i);

yb(i)=y2(i+1,i);

Pb(i)=P2(i+1,i);

Tb(i)=T2(i+1,i);

Cpb(i)=Cp2(i+1,i);

end

%% Plots

figure(1),plot(x,y,'--',xb,yb,'-');

title('Shock and obtained body shape');

xlabel('x-cordinate');

ylabel('y-cocrdinate');

legend('Assumed shock shape','Body');

figure(2),plot(x2(:,1:47),y2(:,1:47),'.');

title('Grid points');

xlabel('x-cordinate');

ylabel('y-cocrdinate');

legend('Grid points');

figure(3),plot(xb(2:numel(xb)),Pb(2:numel(xb)),'.');

title('Pressure distribution');

xlabel('x-cordinate');

ylabel('Pressure (pa)');

figure(4),plot(xb(2:numel(xb)),Tb(2:numel(xb)),'.');

title('Temperature distribution');

xlabel('x-cordinate');

ylabel('Temperature (K)');

figure(5),plot(xb(2:numel(xb)),Cpb(2:numel(Cpb)),'.');

title('Coefficent of pressure');

xlabel('x-cordinate');

ylabel('pressure Coefficent');

%%

11

OBSERVATIONS:

Fig.5

The fig.5 shows the shape of the assumed shock and the body obtained after simulating the

Melsons method code in MATLAB. In real situation the shock does not touch the body in

hypersonic flow, but here it is just starting from the body. This is the drawback of the Melsons

method as it is not valid in stagnation region.

12

Fig.6

Fig.6 shows the grid points which are taken into consideration to obtain the body shape from the

assumed shock shape. Here the peculiarity of the points is that, they are in the form of diagonal

matrix, and that is why the results are more accurate as we move away from the stagnation point,

where more no. of points are considered.

Fig.7

13

Fig.7 shows the distribution of the temperature over the surface of the body, it can be observed

that, near the stagnation region (leading edge of the body, directly facing the flow) pressure is

much high. Because the flow hitting directly the body face slows down completely and about

complete kinetic energy gets converted into pressure energy and results in drastic increase in

temperature.

Fig.8

Fig.8 shows the distribution of the pressure coefficient over the surface of the body, it can be

observed that, near the stagnation region (leading edge of the body, directly facing the flow)

pressure coefficient is much high. Because the flow hitting directly the body face slows down

completely and about complete kinetic energy gets converted into pressure energy, also the

Reynolds no. decreases results in further increase in pressure coefficient.

14

Fig.9

Fig.9 shows the distribution of the pressure over the surface of the body, it can be observed that,

near the stagnation region (leading edge of the body, directly facing the flow) pressure is much

high. Because the flow hitting directly the body face slows down completely and about complete

kinetic energy gets converted into pressure energy.

Fig.10

15

Fig.11

The melsons method to obtain the body shape is quite simple and effective, but as we observe from

the plots, it is not valid in the stagnation region near the body surface. Also this method contain a

no. of approximation explained in the theory part, that may lead to significant error. But altogether

we get some good results and flow paramter distribution over the body surface. We can use this

method to solve flows at high mech no. as a priliminory review. It can be more accurate except near

the stagnation region.

ACKNOWELEDGEMENT:

We are very much thankful to all who contributed directly or indirectly in preparing this MATLAB

code formulation of the Meslons method to get the body shape from the given shock shape,

Especially to Mr. Amit Kamboj who helmed us while some error was occurring in our code during

simulation. Off-course my heartedly thanks to Dr. Manoj T Nair (Associate Professor, Aerospace

Engineering), who gave us such a nice opportunity to understand many phenomenon the hypersonic

flow. Actually we learnt a lot through this.

16

References:

An interesting discussion of thin shock-layer theory can be found in the given journel paper that

is mentioned as follows:

1) Roe, P.L.,Thin Shock-Layer Theory, Aerodynamic Problemns of Hypersonic Vehicles,

AGARD lecture series No. 42, vol.1, 1972, Von Karman Inst, Brussels,pp. 4-1-4-26

2) Hayes, W.D., and Probstien, R.F., Hypersonic Flow Theory, Academics Press, New York, 1959

3) Maslen, S.H., Inviscid Hypersonic Flow past Smooth Symmetric Bodies, AIAA Journel, Vol. 2

,No-6, June 1964,pp.1055-1061.

4) http://nptel.ac.in/courses/101103003/pdf/mod4.pdf

5) http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/nikos/courses/AE264/pdf/Hypersonic.pdf

6) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypersonic_speed

APENDIX:

HYPERSONIC SHOCK WAVE RELATIONS

Oblique shock relations derived are exact and all hold for M>1, assuming calorically perfect gas.

In the limit as M becomes very large hypersonic shock relations

17

18

19

- Problem exercises on aerodynamicsUploaded byaerogem618
- Aerodynamics-problems (Has 1.9)Uploaded byitsnewby
- Fluid Mechanics MeasurementsUploaded byAshok Sankar
- Two Phase Flow Regime Correlations ProMaxUploaded bychenguofu
- Hypersonic Aerodynamics 0100 - Introduction to Hypersonic AerodynamicsUploaded byae00505
- Hypersonic 1Uploaded byIuga Vasile
- Solution Manual for Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications 4th Edition by CengelUploaded bya124604830
- 6. Schmisseur - AerothermodynamicsUploaded byafosr
- The Weekender 03-28-2012Uploaded byThe Times Leader
- Hypersonic AerodynamicsUploaded bymgskumar
- Thermowell resonance effect ASME 19Uploaded byCabstarik
- Petroleum Measurement ManualUploaded byscparco
- AerodynamicsUploaded byT.h. Min
- 1D Navier Stokes SolverUploaded bysiva_ksr
- EntryGasdynamicHeating19710021703_1971021703Uploaded byChristopher Stelter
- Dongsu Ryu and Hyesung Kang- Shock Waves in the Large-Scale Structure of the UniverseUploaded byOkklos
- Zhou XianlingUploaded byhanhchuck
- IJCER (www.ijceronline.com) International Journal of computational Engineering researchUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Electro Static PrecipitatorUploaded bykarthikhindustan
- BartosiewiczUploaded byHamam suhaily
- CFD Inside 5Uploaded bysujayan2005
- DIFUZERUploaded byعبدالله عمر
- Hypersonic PresUploaded byMichael Briggs
- Protech Bearing Isolator Seal TheoryUploaded bySanjoy Kr. Dey
- Some physical aspects of shock wave/boundary layer interactionsUploaded bymorninglord
- AD 2 set 2-1Uploaded byamns99
- Hypersonic AerodynamicsUploaded byBarbara Schlott
- 139219305 Control Valve Selection for Multi Phase Flow KentintrolUploaded byandy131078
- Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Fan - WikipediaUploaded byAbhiyan Paudel

- 68-302-1-PBUploaded byDeath notebook
- LK-1900A-EG.pdfUploaded bymyluks
- Aluminum 5052Uploaded byPraveen Thomas
- 7267702 Machinist Mate 3 2 Surface Navy (1)Uploaded byAbdul Lateef Sanusi
- 3 Series Convertible Catalogue Bmw e93Uploaded byDimitris Korres
- Chevy SparkUploaded bymarkyzrazakz
- tmpE149Uploaded byFrontiers
- Multi-NX-new-Jan-13.pdfUploaded byAli Nasution
- Maintenance & Trouble Shooting of Voith CouplingUploaded bysen_subhasis_58
- Natural Convection in Electronic DevicesUploaded byMerazka Farouk
- Numerical Simulation of Air Flow and Heat Transfer in DomesticrefrigeratorsUploaded byEva Viskadouraki
- Microsoft PowerPoint - Mechanical Hazards Jan07Uploaded byBhalvindrakumar Maran
- h Im EcmotorsUploaded byMaria Daza
- Datasheet_Chemical Centrifugal Pump.xlsxUploaded bySid Esterico Sestoso
- ME6401-SCAD-MSM- By www.LearnEngineering.in.pdfUploaded byYenigalla Gamana
- Dynabolt-Zinc-Coated-Steel-Design-Guide.pdfUploaded byShadin Asari Arabani
- 95-5015-029-000 Hydraulic Disc Brake Bleed and Hose Length Adjustment Rev AUploaded bylingaz
- 14.2042015Assignment14SolutionUploaded byInfo Esocket
- e Book Student Guide Dkm PsasdsdaUploaded byzero
- Evaluation of Steam Jet EjectorsUploaded byRajeh Somrani
- Power Lock Termination GuideUploaded bysandeepnarkhede
- Agenda for 201905014 Meeting Between NJPT & CP1b (EM)Uploaded byHNmaichoi
- Kinecheck Full BulletinUploaded bycucu rusmawan
- Generator Sizing by Hyundai.pdfUploaded byflyzal
- A2 - Workbook 1.pdfUploaded byHaadi Naqvi
- Gas Turbine CC.PDFUploaded bypatrickandreas77
- 38427813 Pipe Rack Design WESTUploaded byjnmanivannan
- SAIC-L-2013 Rev 6Uploaded bybiplabpal2009
- thornton1990aQ3Uploaded byWheni Candra Dewi Asmaralisa
- Dynamics of Marine VesselsUploaded bynecatiygt