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CBSE

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)

SAMPLE
QUESTION
PAPERS
solutions
Term 2 (October to March 2015)

Science
Class
Published by :

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10

SAMPLE

QUESTION PAPER - 6

Self Assesment____________________________________
Time : 3 Hours

Maximum Marks : 90

1. There are seven horizontal rows in the modern periodic table; these rows are called periods.

+
2. No two individuals are absolutely alike in a population because variation arises due to DNA
copying.
1
3. Two measures for the better management of water resources are:
l Rainwater harvesting.
l Construction of dams.
+
4. Amoeba reproduces through simple binary fission. Leishmania reproduces asexually through
binary fission that occurs along a definite orientation related to the whip like structure at one end
of the cell.
1+1
5. (a) Convex lens

(b) Convex lens

[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, ANAHXWT]


(c) Convex lens (d) Concave lens
x4

[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, SXSVHLC]


6. Sustainable management of natural resources is necessary to increase the overall life of natural
resources especially non-renewable resources and also to control the environmental pollution.

Both reuse and recycle are the good choices.

Reuse : If we reuse something then the cost of recycle will be saved.

Recycle : It is not necessary that each and everything can be reused, so after getting recycled
the life of the resource will be enhanced.
+ +1
7. Carbon compounds are named as homologous series because they are derived from same general
formula, having same functional group, similar chemical properties and show gradation in
physical properties. Each member differs from successive member by CH2.
1

The two consecutive members of alkane series are methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6).
1

These members of a homologous series show gradual change in their physical properties with
increase in molecular masses.
Their molecular masses and functional groups determine their physical and chemical
properties, respectively.
1
8. The oxidizing agents used for the conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid are alkaline potassium
permanganate (KMnO4) and acidified potassium dichromate (K2Cr2 O7).
1
S.No.
Test
Ethanol
Ethanmoic Acid
1.

Litmus Test

No change in colour of litmus


solution.

2.

Reaction
No brisk effervescence
with sodium
carbonate

Blue litmus solution turns red.


Brisk effervescence due to evolution
of CO2

1+1
9. (i) Na, K
(ii) Ca, Mg
(iii). He, Ne
1+1+1
10. (a) (i) Valency : The combining power or the combining capacity of an atom is called its valency.
(ii)
Atomic size : Atomic size or atomic radius is the distance between the centre of the

nucleus and the outermost shell of an isolated atom.

SCIENCE Oswaal CBSE Class -10, SA-2 Examination Sample Question Paper

SECTION A

2 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10



(b) On moving from left to right in the periodic table, valency increases up to 4 and then decreases.

The electrons present in the last shell determine the valency of a particular element.

If the number of valence electrons is less than or equal to 4, valency = number of valence electrons

If the number of valence electrons is more than 4, valency = 8 - number of valence electrons

Atomic size decreases along with a period. This is because on moving across a period, the number of
valence shells remains the same and the electrons increase by one unit. As a result, the nuclear
charge increases and thus, the atomic radius decreases.
1+1++
11. Following are the four methods of contraception used by humans:

(i) Natural method
(ii) Barrier method

(iii) Oral contraceptives
(iv) Implants and surgical methods

Effects of contraception on the health and prosperity of a family:

(i) It helps in preventing unwanted pregnancies.

(ii) It prevents the chances of frequent pregnancies, which otherwise affect the health of females.
(iii) It helps in family planning by controlling the number of children in a family, thus reduces the
chances of poverty.

(iv) It also reduces the chances of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS. In this
way, birth control methods play an important role in the health and prosperity of a family. 1 + 2
12. (i) Fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete is known as fertilisation.
1

(ii) (a) It promotes diversity of characters in the offsprings.


(b) It results in new combination of genes brought together in gamete.


(c) It increases genetic variation.


(d) It plays a prominent role in the origin of new species.

13. (a) Mendel crossed tall pea plants with dwarf pea plants.

SOLUTIONS | 3
Mendel's Observation
The F1 generation contained all tall plants. When F1 generation underwent selfing, the trait that was
unexpressed in F1 (dwarf) was observed in some F2 progeny. Thus, both traits, tall and dwarf, were
expressed in F2 generation in the ratio 3 : 1.
Mendel proposed that something was being passed unchanged from generation to generation. He
called these things factors (presently called genes). Factors contain and carry hereditary information.

He also observed that traits might not show up in an individual but were passed to the next generation.

(b) The two contrasting traits other than height used by Mendel are:

(i) Pod colour - Green pod colour was dominant over yellow colour;
(ii) Seed shape - Round seed shape was dominant over wrinkled seed shape.
2+ +
14. Such traits are called acquired traits. Acquired traits are experienced by an individual during his
lifetime. These traits involve changes in non- reproductive cells (somatic cells) which are not transferred
to germ cells. So, these traits cannot be passed on to the next generation. For example: Learning skills
like swimming, dancing, cooking, body building, etc are acquired traits and cannot be passed on to the
next generation.
2+1
15. (i) A convex mirror always forms an erect, virtual and diminished image of an object placed anywhere
in front of it. Thus, convex mirrors enable the driver to view much larger traffic behind him than
would be possible with a plane mirror.

(ii) A concave mirror is used as a shaving or make-up mirror because it forms an erect and enlarged
image of the face when it is held closer to the face.
1 + 1
16. u = 30 cm
v
= 60 cm
h
= 24 cm

Using lens formula,
1
1 1
f = vu


1
1
1
1 1+ 2 3
1
1
=

=
+
=
=
=
60 ( 30) 60 30
60
60 20
f



f = + 20 cm

Positive focal length represents convex lens, Now,
v h

m= =
u
h


60
h
=
30 24

60
h
=
24
30

h = 4.8 cm

17. The defect of vision is myopia. It can be corrected by using a concave lens of suitable power. Following
are the ray diagrams:

(i) Defect of vision.

4 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


(ii) For its correction.

1 + 1

18. Differences in colours of the sun at sunrise/sunset and at noon are as follows:

(i) Sunrise/ sunset : Reddish in colour

Reason : Sunlight travels longer distance at this time of the day, so the short wavelength colours get

scattered away and the sunlight is left with only longer wavelength lights which is reddish or

orange. So the sun appears reddish in colour.

(ii) Noon : white in colour

Reason : Sunrays travel shorter distance at noon and contains all the wavelengths of light which

19.

combine to form white colour. This makes the colour of sun white.

Methane,CH4

Hydrogen atoms can each form one covalent bond, while carbon atoms can each form four covalent
bonds. Four pairs of electrons are shared in a methane molecule (CH4).

When a mixture of methane and chlorine is exposed to ultraviolet light - typically sunlight - a
substitution reaction occurs and the organic product is chloromethane.

CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl

However, the reaction doesn't stop there, and all the hydrogens in the methane can in turn be replaced
by chlorine atoms.

CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl

CH3Cl + Cl2 CH2Cl2 + HCl

CH2Cl2 + Cl2 CHCl3 + HCl

2+3

[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, SXSVHLC]

SOLUTIONS | 5
20.

The fusion of male and female gametes of all sexually-reproducing organisms is called fertilization.
2+2+1
21. (a)
S. No.

Sexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

1.

It involves both the parent.

2.

It involves fusion of male and female It does not involve fusion of gametes The
gametes.
gamete of single parent undergoes division
and gives rise to new a individual.

It involves only a single parent.

3.

It results in the introduction of variation in It does not bring variation in a population as


a population as newly formed organisms the newly formed organisms are identical to
are not the exact copies of the parent.
the parents.

(b) In case ofsexual reproduction, there is marked variation between the parent and offspring due to

the following reasons:


1. The male and female gametes are formed by meiotic division which allows crossing over and

recombination. This generates variation in the genes of offspring.

2. Two parents are involved who are different from each other. The fusion of their gametes would

produce a distinct individual.

3+2

22. The three types of problems that arise because of the construction of big dams are:

(i) Environmental problems : Construction of dams across rivers leads to deforestation, which results
in the loss of biodiversity. This disturbs the natural ecosystem.

Solution : We should plant more and more trees.


(ii) Social problems : Construction of dams involves the building of large reservoirs. In some cases,
constructing a reservoir may result in the flooding of nearby towns and villages. A large number
of people get displaced as a direct consequence of the construction of reservoirs. In such cases, the
government has to rehabilitate the people living in these areas, which, in itself, is a huge task.

Solution : The government should first relocate the people to a safer place where they can continue
with their daily work. If, in case, the life of the people gets affected, the government should provide
proper compensation to those people.

6 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


(iii) Economic problems : Construction of dams requires a huge amount of monetary investments.
Solution : Construction of dams can be profitable if they are used for the generation of electricity.
2+2+1
23. (a) Laws of refraction

There are two laws of refraction.

First law of refraction

The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is constant. This
is known asSnells law. Mathematically, it can be given as follows :
sin i
= nab
sin r

Here,
nabis the relative refractive index of medium a with respect to medium b.

Second law of refraction

The incident ray, the refracted ray, and the normal to the interface of two media at the point of
incidence all lie in the same plane.

If the light ray goes from medium 1 to 2 then the refractive index of medium 1 with respect to
medium 2 is,
=
n12

speed of light in medium 2 v2


=
speed of light in medium 1 v1

where, v1and v2are the speeds of light in medium 1 and 2 respectively.


(b) Given : Refractive index of water, nw= 4/3 and Refractive index of glass, ng= 3/2
Speed of light in glass, vg= 2 108m/s

ng

(i)

(ii)

na

va = speed of light in air


va

ng

va
where, na = refractive index of air = 1
vg

na

3
= v g = 2 (2 108 ) =3 108 m/s
1
na
ng

vw
, where, vw = speed of light in water
vg

3
2
vw =
v g = (2 108 ) = 2.25 108 m/s
4
nw
3


ng

3+2

24. Sign conventions for spherical mirrors


I.
Objects are always placed to the left of the mirror i.e. light must fall on the mirror from left to right.
II. All distances are measured from the pole of the mirror.

III. Distances along the direction of the incident ray (along positive X-axis) are taken as positive, while
distances along the direction of the reflected ray (along negative X-axis) are taken as negative.

IV. Heights measured perpendicular to and above the principal axis (along positive Y-axis) are taken
as positive.

V
Heights measured perpendicular to and below the principal axis (along negative Y-axis) are taken
as negative.

SOLUTIONS | 7

Given,
m= 3 (real image is inverted always)
u= 16 cm
Now,
v
v
v
m =
=

=
( 16) 16
u

v
3 =
16





Using mirror formula,

v = 48 cm
1
1 1
f = v+u

1
1
1
1
=+
=

f
( 48) ( 16)
12

f = 12 cm

SECTION B
25. (C) Soap when dissolved in water form basic solution.

26. (A) Soap molecule has hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail.

27. (A) Soap solution form lather.

28. (B) Distnace of pole + focal length = unique on focus.

= 45 + 20 = 65 cm
29. (A) f = 36.8 18.9 = 17.9 cm

30. (B) Image is real, inverted and smaller in size.

31. (C) (vi), (v), (vii) is the correct sequence.

8 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


32. (B) Seeds germination show plumule (future shoot) and Radicle (future root).

33. (C) Variations show Evolution.


34. Analogous organs found in plants- Thorns found in Pyracantha and spines found in Berberis vulgaris
provide protection to plants but both have different origin. Thorns are the modified stem and spines
are modified leaves.
2
35. Pure ethanoic acid has a low freezing point, cold countries. It freezes and looks like glaciers.

1+1

36. If q is a submultiple of 180, then the number of images formed is n = (360/q) 1


If q is not a submultiple of 180, then the number of images formed is the integer next higher than
n = (360/q) 1

1+1
ll

SAMPLE

QUESTION PAPER - 7

Self Assessment___________________________________
Time : 3 Hours

Maximum Marks : 90

1. Group 1 elements have 1 valence electron while Group 2 elements have 2 valence electrons. +
2. (i) Genetics is the study of mechanism by which variations are created and inherited.
(ii) Evolution is used for studying the development of new types of organisms from the
existing ones.
+
3. It displaces large number of local people without adequate compensation and rehabilitation. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, SXSVHLC]
4. (a) Number of deer increases which will result in less amount of grass leading to soil erosion.
(b)
Food available for lions would be less. Amount of grassland will increase.
1+1
5. DNA is a macromolecule present in the chromosome. Genes are segments of the DNA.. DNA
has the information to create proteins which lead to body design of the organism. If a similar
individual has to be reproduced, the DNA should replicate to make an exact copy of itself. 2
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, QNAHXWT]
6. Hold the given piece of glass over printed matter :

(i) Real image can be obtained on a screen but virtual image cannot be obtained.
(ii) Real image is formed when rays actually meet after reflection / refraction while virtual
image is formed by extending these rays, to meet at a point.
1+1
7. In hard water, soaps reacts with calcium and magnesium salts which are present in hard water
and form insoluble substances called scum.
1

Detergents are ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids. The charged end
of these compounds do not form insoluble precipitates with calcium and magnesium ions in
hard water.
2
8. A is saturated hydrocarbon, propane.

B is unsaturated hydrocarbon CH2 = CH CH3 which will undergo addition reaction. +
e.g.
CH2 = CH CH3 + Br2 CH2Br CHBr CH3
1

(1, 2 - dibromo-propane)

Vegetable oil + H2 Vegetable ghee

(unsaturated)
0
(saturated)
i.e.,
R C = C R + H2 R C C R
1

| |
| |

R R
R R
9. (a) Element A is a metal because it is present in group I (1 valence electrons) and can lose electron
easily. 1
(b) Element B has larger size than 'C' because it has more number of shells than 'C'.
Also, B lies in the third period and has three shells whereas B lies in second period and has two
shells. 1
(c) 'C' being an element of 3rd group has three valence electrons, therefore its valency is 3. 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, SXSVHLC]
10. (a) 19K (Potassium) is the element that has one electron in the outermost shell.

Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 8, 1

(b) 4Be (Beryllium) and 20Ca (Calcium) belong to the same group, because they have same

number of valence electrons.

Be = 2, 2 and Ca = 2, 8, 8, 2

SCIENCE Oswaal CBSE Class -10, SA-2 Examination Sample Question Paper

SECTION A

10 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


(c) Berylium (Be) and Fluorine (F) have same period i.e., second period which has 2 shells (K and L)
whereas Potassium (K) and Calcium (Ca) also belongs to same period i.e., fourth period which has 4
shells (K, L, M and N).
1+1+1
11. Disease caused by virusAIDS, Genital Warts.

Disease caused by bacteriaGonorrhea, Syphilis.
1

Prevention of Diseases :

(a) By use of devices made of plastic, metal or a combination of the two which is inserted into uterus.

(b) By using contraceptive devices.

(c) By educating people and maintaining hygiene.

(d) By avoiding multiple sexes.
2
12. (a) (i) Hyphal, (ii) Sporangia.
1

(b) The terminal black swellings or blobs are sporangia. Each sporangium contains numerous dark
coloured spores or sporangiospores. The wall of the mature sporangium cracks open to expose
spores. The exposed spores are picked up by air and get dispersed. They germinate after falling on
a suitable substratum, giving rise to new mycelia.
2
13. A child who inherits a X chromosome from his father would be a girl (XX) while a child who inherits a
Y chromosome from the father would be a boy (XY). Since, the sex of the child in determined by what
he/she inherit from father, therefore the probability of getting either male or female child is 50%.


3
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, SXSVHLC]
14. Useful variations give advantage to individuals in obtaining more food, reproduction, adaptation to
environmental changes and higher success in the struggle for existence. They give benefit in survival and
increasing the population. Differential reproduction increases the useful variations in the populations.
Other individuals with harmful variations will be destroyed. For example, some bacteria have ability
to tolerate high temperature. But other non-resistant bacteria will be killed.
3
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, SXSVHLC]
15. We have height of object, h1= 6 cm, focal length of lens, f = 5 cm and object distance, u = 10 cm

Using Lens formula, we have




1
1 1
=

f
v u
1
1

v ( 10)

1
( 5)


1 1
1
+
=
v 10
5

1
1 1
=
v
5 10
10
v =

=
333 cm
3

SOLUTIONS | 11
Magnification,

v
10 1 1
M = = =
3 10 3
u

M =

Again, Magnification,

h
v h2
1
6
= 2 = h2 = =2 cm
u h1
6 3
3

Thus the image will be formed in front of the lens at a distance of 333 cm from the lens, virtual and
erect of size 2 cm.
3
16. Concave mirrors are used for headlights as it gives larger area of magnification for the light. Convex
mirrors give a virtual, erect, and diminished image of the objects placed in front of them. They are
preferred as a rear-view mirror in vehicles because they give a wider field of view, which allows the
driver to see most of the traffic behind him.
3
17. The person is suffering from presbyopia. It is a common defect of vision, which generally occurs at
old age. A person suffering from this type of defect of vision cannot see nearby objects clearly and
distinctively. A presbyopic eye has its near point greater than 25 cm and it gradually increases as the
eye becomes older. Presbyopia is caused by the

1. weakening of the ciliary muscles

2. reduction in the flexibility of the eye lens

This defect can be corrected by using a convex lens of appropriate power.

(i) Ray diagram showing presbyopia

(ii) Ray diagram showing correction of presbyopia



1+1+1
18. Dont rub eyes.

Wash them properly and softly ( or any other suggestions).

Associated Value : The learners will follow the tips to maintain the good eye care.
1+1+1
19. Soaps are potassium or sodium salts of long chain carboxylic acid. On the other hand, detergents are
ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acid.

Action of soap in removing an oily spot from a shirt

The dirt present on clothes is organic in nature and insoluble in water. Therefore, it cannot be removed
by only washing with water. When soap is dissolved in water, its hydrophobic ends attach themselves
to the dirt and remove it from the cloth. Then, the molecules of soap arrange themselves in micelle
formation and trap the dirt at the centre of the cluster. These micelles remain suspended in the water.
Hence, the dust particles are easily rinsed away by water.

Soap does not work properly when the water is hard.


A soap is a sodium or potassium salt of long chain fatty acids. Hard water contains salts of calcium and

12 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


magnesium. When soap is added to hard water, calcium and magnesium ions present in water displace
sodium or potassium ions from the soap molecules forming an insoluble substance called scum. A lot
of soap is wasted in the process.
5
20 (a) a. Fission b. Budding
c. Fragmentation d. Spore formation
e. Vegetative Propagation

(b) Regeneration: See Ans. 1 (SAQ 3 marks)

Budding : In hydra, a bud develops as an out-growth due to repeated cell divisions at one specific site.
These buds develop into tiny individuals, when full mature they, detach from the parent body and start
independent existence.
2+3
21. (a) A - Stigma, Function - The stigma is a sticky surface where the pollen lands and later germinates

B - Pollen tube, Function- It carries the pollen to the egg cell for fertilization

C - Egg cell, Function- It fuses with the male gamete and leads to the formation of zygote.
(b) Role of gametes- The gametes play an important role in the sexually reproducing organisms as
they carry the entire genetic information of the organism. These gametes upon fusion result in the
formation of zygote, which develops into a new individual. Any deformation in the gametes will lead
to the deformity in the newly formed offspring.
Role of zygote : Zygote is the diploid cell formed by the fusion of male and female gametes during
fertilization in sexual reproduction. Zygote is the first stage in the development process of an organism
and it contains all the genetic information of both the parents, essential for the growth of the new
organism.
5
22. (a) The person is suffering from Hypermetropia i.e. far-sightedness.



Hypermetropia is caused due to:

(i) The focal length of the eye lens is too long.

(ii) Decrease in the length of the eyeball.

This defect can be corrected using convex lens of appropriate focal length.



2

(b) Eye donation:

Our eye can live even after our death, so by donating our eyes, we can give vision to any blind person
and make him see. By giving such advertisement in newspaper we can aware more people for this
noble cause and raise the number of donations for blind people.
1
23. Absolute refractive index : The refractive index of any medium with respect to the vacuum is called
absolute refractive index of that medium.

The absolute refractive index of diamond is 2.42. This means the speed of light in diamond is 2.42 times

SOLUTIONS | 13
slower than that in the vacuum.
h
v h2
1
6
= 2 = h2 = =2 cm
u h1
6 3
3

Where,n= absolute refractive index of diamond

c= speed of light in vacuum


v= speed of light in medium (i.e. diamond)

From the above expression we can see that the speed of light varies inversely w.r.t. the refractive index.
Thus,

(i) Minimum speed of light in: medium A

(ii) Maximum speed of light in: medium D

Refractive index of medium C w.r.t medium B is


nc 1.52
=
= 1.055 1.06
n g 1.44

24. (a) Rain water harvesting is a method of harvesting or storing rainwater for many other uses that
include in agriculture, bathing, washing and cooking. Rainwater is harvested on the roof top from
where it is transferred to the storage tank below through pipes.

1+1
(b)
The producers convert solar energy into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds. The
primary consumers (herbivores) derive their nutrition from the producers. According to the energy
transfer law, only 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the other. So, the energy
that is captured by the producers does not revert back to the Sun and the energy transferred to the
herbivores does not come back to the producers. It just keeps on moving to the next trophic level
in a unidirectional way. That is why the flow of energy in the food chain is always unidirectional.

A large number of pesticides and chemicals are used to protect our crops from pests and diseases.
Some of these chemicals are washed down from the soil, while some enter the water bodies. From
the soil, they are absorbed by plants along with water and minerals; and from the water bodies,
they are taken up by aquatic plants and animals. This is how these chemicals enter the food chain. As
these chemicals cannot decompose, they accumulate progressively at each trophic level. This increase
in the concentration of harmful chemicals with each step of the food chain is called biomagnification.

As human beings occupy the top level in any food chain, these chemicals get accumulated in our
bodies.
3

SECTION B
25. (B) Blue litmus paper changed red in the ethanoic acid.
26. (B) 3C17H35COOH + 3NaOH CH2OH

Stearate
Sodium
|
+ 3C17H35COONa.

hydroxide
CHOH
Sodium stearate

|

CH2OH

Glycerol

27. (D) Hard water contains sulphates and chlorides of Ca++ and Mg++ ions.

28. (C) The sharpest and the brightest spot of light is the focus of a concave mirror.

29. (C) Larger separation between the pins will give better reading for good observation, the angles should
be in the range 30- 60.
1
30. (C) For parallel surfaces the emergent and incident rays should be parallel.

31. (B) Same as Ans 30.

32. (B) It shows budding in yeast.

14 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


33. (D) On germination plumule gives rise to shoot.
34. Organs which remain in the body which do not perform any function but were part of an organ or
working part which was lost during evolution.

e.g., tail bone below our pelvic bone was the part of the bones supporting the tail when our ancestors
were primates.
2

35.
S. No.

Real Image

Virtual Image

(i)

Formed when reflected rays Formed at a point from which the


meet. Rays appear to diverge. reflected

(ii)

Image is always inverted.

It is always erect.
1+1

36. (D) because it vinegar is dilute acetic acid and this acid turns blue litmus red.

1+1
ll

SAMPLE

QUESTION PAPER - 8

Self Assessment____________________________________
Time : 3 Hours

Maximum Marks : 90

1. Period 3, Group 2
+
2. Cellular DNA is the information source for making proteins in cells.
1
3. Khejri trees.
1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, QNAHXWT]
4. Seminal vesicles are a pair of thin walled muscular sac which secretes fluid for nourishment of
Sperms. Prostate gland provides nourishment and transportation of sperm.
1+1
5. (i) The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal all lie in the same plane.

(ii) The ratio of sine of angle of incidence in the first medium to the sine of angle of refraction
in the second medium is a constant and is known as refractive index of the second medium
with respect to the first medium.
1+1
6. Watershed management is the study of the characteristics of a watershed. It helps to manage
water quality, water supply, and drainage and rainwater flow. It also ensures sustainable
maintenance planning of a watershed.

Benefits of a watershed management system:

Water quality is strictly maintained.

Distribution of water is equal and sustainable.

Controlling the flow of rain water can help to protect the land in flood conditions. (Any
two)
1++
7. Alkaline potassium permanganate KMnO4or acidified potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7can be
used as oxidising agent for the conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid. Oxidising alcohols to
acids,

Ethanol and ethanoic acid can be distinguished on the basis of:
(i) Litmus test
Ethanol : No colour change.
Ethanoic acid : Turns blue litmus to red.
(ii) Sodium hydrogen carbonate NaHCO3test
Ethanol : It does not react with NaHCO3.
Ethanoic acid : It reacts with NaHCO3to give rise to CH3COONa, CO2and H2O.The gas
(CO2) turns lime water milky.
1+1+1
8. The functional group of organic compounds that can be hydrogenated are alkenes and
alkynes
Hydrogen can be added to unsaturated hydrocarbons in the presence of nickel to yield
saturated hydrocarbons. In this reaction, nickel acts as a catalyst.

On hydrogenation, the unsaturated fatty acids which are liquid at room temperature become
saturated and change to solid.
A natural source of organic compound that is hydrogenated is vegetable oil.
3

SCIENCE Oswaal CBSE Class -10, SA-2 Examination Sample Question Paper

SECTION A

16 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


9. There are 7 horizontal rows known as periods, the modern periodic table has :

In periods, the number of valence electrons increases from left to right and due to decrease in atomic
size, the force of attraction between the valence electrons and the nucleus increases. Metallic character
decreases along the period due to decrease in tendency to lose electrons.

Atomic size generally increases from top to bottom in a group is due to the addition of a new shell i.e.,
number of shells goes on increasing down the group.
3
10. (a) The position of elements X in the modern periodic table is group number 17 and period number 3.

The position of element Y in the modern periodic table is group number 2 and period number 4.

Electronic configuration of element X = 2, 8, 7.

It has 3 shells so period number is 3.

Halogens are kept in group 17.

Electronic configuration of element Y = 2, 8, 8, 2

It has 4 shells so period number is 4.

The valence shell has 2 electrons so the group number is 2.

(b) Formula of the compound.

Valency of element Y


11. No, it was incorrect.

Valency of element X
1

YX2

No, there is no difference between a girl and a boy.

The sex determination is a matter of chance. Neither mother nor father is responsible for the male or
female child. The sperm of the male partner contains 50% X chromosome and 50% Y chromosomes
while the mother has only X chromosome to contribute.
3

12. There are three parts of carpel :


(a) OvaryIt contains the ovule.

(b) StyleIt exposes the stigma for pollination.

(c) StigmaIt is sticky and receives the pollen grains during pollination.

1+1+1

13. (a) This was shown by the help of fossil records of Homo erectus, according to which their cranial
capacity had doubled. Homo erectus were the first to leave Africa and spread through Africa, Asia,
and Europe. One population of H. erectus, stayed in Africa and evolved into Homo sapiens.

(b)


This implies that from the beginning of life on earth the inheritance of trait is going on, that result in
the production of existing animals that look similar to their ancestors because they have inherited
traits from them and these trait that make them similar to their ancestors have not gone under
evolutionary change.
1 + 1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, SXSVHLC]

14. Evolution is simply the generation of diversity and the shaping of the diversity by environmental
selection. Species adapt to the conditions available in their environment. Some older and simple
species live on quite effectively. The only progressive trend in evolution seems to be that more and
more complex body designs have emerged over time.
In fact, one of the simplest life forms like bacteria inhabit the most inhospitable habitats like hot
springs, deep-sea thermal vents and the ice in Antarctica. 3
15. We have

Height of object,
h1 = 4 cm

Focal length of lens,
f = 15 cm

Object distance,
u = 30 cm

Using lens formula, we have
1 1 =1

v u f

SOLUTIONS | 17





1
1
1

=
( 15)
v ( 30)

1 1
1
+
=
v 30
15
1
1
1
=

v
30 15
1
1 2
=
v
30
1
3
=
v
30
3
v =

=
10 cm
30

v
1
M = =10
u
30

1
= = 033
3
Magnification,

Again, Magnification,

M=

h2
=
4

v h2
=
u h1
1
3

4
h2 = = 133 cm
3
Thus the image will be formed in front of the lens at a distance of 10 cm from the lens, virtual and erect
of size 1.33 cm.
3
16. Hypermetropiais a defect of vision in which a person cannot see nearby objects clearly, but has no
problems in seeing distant objects.

Corrected vision for a hypermetropic eye by using a convex lens :


17. Given that,

Focal length,f= 25 cm

Image distance,v= 50 cm

Form the lens formula,

or

1 1
1

= (where u = object distance)


v u u
1 1
1
=

u v f

18 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


1
1
=

50
25

Therefore,
1
1
=
u 50

or

u = 50 cm
v
m =
u


Magnification,

50
=
50

= 1
The object must be placed 50 cm away from the lens, on the other side to produce a magnification of 1.
3
18. Yes, Independent view of student.

Associated Value : The learners will be motivated/inspire to appreciate the idea of organ donation in
their life.
19. Difference in physical properties of ethanol and ethanoic acid
S. No.
1.

Ethanol
It is liquid at room temperature.

Ethanoic acid
It often freezes in winter.

2.

Its melting point is 156 K.

Its melting point is 290 K.

3.

Its boiling point is 351 K.

Its boiling point is 391 K.

Difference in chemical properties of ethanol and ethanoic acid


S. No.
1.
2.

Ethanol
It releases hydrogen gas on reaction
with metallic sodium.
It does not release carbon dioxide gas on
reaction with sodium bicarbonate.

Ethanoic acid
It does not release hydrogen gas on
reaction with metallic sodium.
It releases carbon dioxide gas on
reaction with sodium bicarbonate.

3+2
An organism which reproduces by :
a. Binary fission - Amoeba
b. Multiple fission - Plasmodium
c. Budding - Hydra
d. Fragmentation - Spirogyra
e. Spore Formation Rhizopus
1x5
1. Testis :The testes are the male reproductive organs that are located outside the abdominal cavity
within a pouch called scrotum. It produces sperms and also produce a hormone called testosterone,
which brings about secondary sexual characters in boys.
2. Seminal vesicles :Seminal vesicles secrete mucus and alkaline fluid that helps the sperm to swim
and also neutralizes the acidic condition in vagina.
3. Vas deferens :It carries sperm from the vasa efferentia to the urethra.
4. Ureter :When blood is filtered by the kidney, the waste material (urine) is passed on to urinary
bladder via the ureters. The function of ureter is to carry urine from the kidney to the urinary
bladder.
5. Prostate glands :It produces an alkaline fluid (prostatic fluid), which is a constituent of the semen.
The prostatic fluid provides motility, longer survival period (neutralizes the acidic environment of

the female reproductive tract) and protection to sperms.
15
22. (a) For irrigation and generating electricity.
1

(1) Social problems - displacement of people without proper rehabilitation and compensation.


Economic problem - huge input without much benefits.

20.





21.

SOLUTIONS | 19

(b) A large number of pesticides and chemicals are used to protect our crops from pests and diseases.
Some of these chemicals are washed down into the soil, while some enter in the water bodies.
From the soil, they are absorbed by plants along with water and minerals; and from water bodies,
they are taken up by aquatic plants and animals. This is how these chemicals enter the food chain.
Because these chemicals cannot decompose, they accumulate progressively at each trophic level.
As the food chain proceeds, the concentration of pesticides also increases. This increase in the
concentration of harmful chemicals with each step of the food chain is called biomagnification.
That is why food grains, such as wheat and rice, vegetables, fruits and even meat are found to
contain pesticide residue.
3
23. When a ray of light travels from one transparent medium to another, it bends at the surface. This
happens because different media have different optical densities.

The phenomenon of bending of light as it travels from one medium to another is known asrefraction
of light.

As a ray of light moves from an optically rarer medium to an optically denser medium, it bends towards
the normal at the point of incidence. Therefore, the angle of incidence (i) is greater than the angle of
refraction (r). Hence,i > r

The first law of refraction is also known as Snells law.


Snells law : The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is
constant. This is known asSnells law. Mathematically, it can be given as follows :
sin i
= constant = ams
sin
r


2
ma = =
3

4
a
mw = =
3
g

Now we know m =

a
g
w
a

Vg = 2108m/s

C
V

Where
is absolute refractive index of a medium w.r.t. vacuum

C is speed of light in vacuum

V is speed of light in medium.
C

(a) Now
ma =
Va

Dividing

mg =

C
Vg

Vg 2
a
= =
Va 3
g

20 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


3
3
Va = Vg = 2 108 m/s
2
2

= 3 108 m/s
C
(b) Again,
m w =
Vw


Dividing,

C
ma =
V

a
Va 4
w
= =
a
Vw 3

3
Vw = 3 108
4

9
=
108
4

= 2.25 108 m/s


2+3
24. (i) Real image of an object is the image formed due to actual intersection of light rays comming from

object through an optical device. It can always be taken on screen.

(ii) (a) concave mirror (b) plane mirror (c) convex mirror (d) concave mirror
15

SECTION B
25. (D) Acetuc and reacts with sodium bicarbonate and clear solution is form.

26. (C) Sodium chloride in water forms Sodium hydroxide.

27. (A) The ionic end is on the clusters surface while carbon chain is in the interior of cluster.

28. (A) Blurred image is seen only when the separation between the screen and mirror is less than focal
length.
1
29. (A) Parallel beams of light from distant tree gets converged at the focus.

30. (A) i is greater than r and r = e when light travels from glass slab to air.

31. (B) Culture medium is 10% sugar solution.

32. (A) Correct labelling.

33. (C) Similar function but different structure and origin.

34. Homologous organs :


1. Have the same structural design and developmental origin.

2. But they have different functions and appearance.

Example : The forelimb of a frog, a man, a lizard and a frog seem to be built from the same basic design
of bones, but they perform different functions.

Analogous Organs:

1. Have different basic structural design and developmental origin.

2. But they have similar appearance and perform similar functions.

Example : The wings of birds and bats look similar. But birds wings are covered by feathers all along
the arm but the wings of bats are skin folds stretched between elongated fingers.
2

35. In hard water, soaps reacts with calcium and magnesium salts which are present in hard water and
form insoluble substances called scum.

Detergents are ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids. The charged end of these
compounds do not form insoluble precipitates with calcium and magnesium ions in hard water.
2

36. All positions lying between the focus F and optical centre O, the nature of images formed is virtual. At
all other positions, at and beyond focus F, only real images are obtained.
1+1
ll

SAMPLE

QUESTION PAPER - 9

Self Assessment___________________________________
Time : 3 Hours

Maximum Marks : 90

1. Electronegativity increases across a period.

2. Charles Darwin proposed that evolution of species occurred by natural selection.

3. Major causes of pollution of river Ganga-


Release of industrial waste into the river.

People use river water for domestic purposes and add pollutants like surf, detergents, soap
to the river.

People flow food items, images of gods and goddesses into the river due to ritualistic reasons.
(any two)
+

4. Uterus by undergoing cyclic changes prepares itself for receiving the zygote and supporting its
further growth into foetus every month in anticipation of pregnancy. The inner layer of uterus
called endometrium becomes thickened to support the growth of foetus.
1+1
5. The refractive index of a medium depends on :

(i) Nature of the medium

(ii) Nature of the surrounding medium

(iii) Wavelength of light used

(iv) Temperature

4=2

6. Affluence can have both positive and negative effects on the environment. As people become
more affluent they demand more goods and services, the production of these goods and
services in turn damages the environment. At the same time these affluent people are able to
spend money to restore the environmental damage done by their consumerism.
2
conc. H SO

2 4 CH
=
7. C2 H 5 OH
2 CH 2 + H 2 O
443 K
Ethanol
Ethene


The product formed is :

Ethene
H2SO4 is a dehydrating agent. So, ethanol undergoes dehydration i.e., loses a water molecule
to form ethene.
1+1+1
8. (a When Ethanol burns in air, we get CO2and H2O
C2 H 5 OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H 2 O(I)
Ethanol Oxygen Carbon dioxide


(b) When ethanol is heated with excess conc. H2SO4at 443K then ethene is formed.
conc. H SO
443 K

2 4 CH = CH + H O
C2 H 5 OH
2
2
2

Ethanol

Ethene

SCIENCE Oswaal CBSE Class -10, SA-2 Examination Sample Question Paper

SECTION A

22 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


(c) When a piece of sodium is dropped into ethanol we get sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas.
2C2 H 5 OH + 2Na 2C2 H 5 ONa + H 2
Ethanol Sodium Sodium ethoxide Hydrogen


1+1+1
9. (a) They are in group 1 because all the elements in this group have 1 valence electron. They form
positively charged ions by losing one electron.

(b) Lithium is least reactive because reactivity of an element depends upon the ability of its atoms to
donate or accept electrons.

(c) Potassium will have largest atomic radius due to the addition of a new shell. Atomic size generally
increases from top to bottom in a group.
1+1+1

10. (a) Noble gases are called inert gases and they do not react easily.

(b) Helium (He), Argon (Ar).

(c) They are placed in a separate group because they have complete doublet or octet configuration.
1+1+1

11. (a) Hair growth on face, chest, armspit and genital area / body becomes muscular / voice becomes
deep and coarse / penis occasionally begins to become enlarged and erect. (any two)

(b) Formation of sperms needs lower temperature than the normal body temperature. Hence, testis lie
outside the body cavity in the scrotum.

(c) Urethra is a common duct for the passage of both urine and semen.

1+1+1

12. (a) Both produces gametes and sex hormones.


(b) Contains body plant (embryo) which maintains the species of a particular plant.

(c) To carry sperm from testes, which enter penis for their release.

1+1+1

13. (i) The phenotype of F1 progeny is Tt because F1 or hybrid plants were not intermediate between the
two alternate forms of a character. They resembled only one parent. In a cross between tall and
dwary of pea plants, the F1 plants were all tall.

(ii) The phenotypic ratio of F2 progeny is 3 : 1.

(iii) F1 progeny resembled only one parent which is dominant in nature but in F2 progeny phenotypically
three plants are tall and one plant is dwarf. But according to genotype ratio one plant is pure tall,
two are hybrid tall and one plant is pure dwarf.
1+1+1

14. (i) F1 generation yields only blue flowering plants. (Bw).


(ii) On self-breeding the F1 generation plants, both blue flowered and white flowered plants appeared
in the ratio of 3 : 1. It shows that the factors or traits for blue flower are dominant over the traits for
white flower.

(iii) Genotypes in F2 progeny is 1 : 2 : 1

1 (BB)

Pure blue

15.



Now lens formula is


Putting Values

2 (Bw)

1 (ww)

Voilet

White

u = 8 cm
f
= 12 cm
h
= 5 cm
1
1 1
=

f
v u
1
1
1
=
+
v 12 8

1 1
=

12
8

1+1+1

SOLUTIONS | 23
23
1
=
=

v=
24 cm
24
24


Thus, image is formed 24 cm on the left of convex lens i.e. on the side of the object.
v h

Now magnification is m= =
u h
24
h
=
8
5



h'= 15 cm (Positive)

The height of the image is 15 cm which is 3 times larger than the height of object.

Thus, we can say image is virtual, enlarged and erect.
3
16. Yes
Yes

(Independent view of a student.)

Associated Value : The learners will understand the fact that the urban people will have to keep their
city clean & pollution free if they wish to experience some beautiful natural events viz twinkling of star,
a rainbow etc.
3
17. (a) Such a ray falls normally on the mirror. So its angle of incidence is 0.

(b) The concave mirror with smaller aperture forms the sharper image because it is free from spherical
aberration.

(c) No change. The focal length of a convex mirror does not depend on the nature of the medium.
1+1+1
18. (i) The minimum distance at which objects can be seen most distinctly without strain is called the least
distance of distinct vision. 1

(ii) In bright light, the iris contracts the pupil to allow less light to enter the eye. In dim light, the iris
expands the pupil to allow more light to enter the eye.
2
19. Hydrocarbons:The chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons.

(i) Saturated hydrocarbons :The hydrocarbons in which each valency of carbon is satisfied by single
bond.
For example:
Alkane General formula:CnH2n+2

e.g. Ethane C2H6
H H
|
|
H C C H
|
|
H H
(ii) Unsaturated hydrocarbons:The hydrocarbons in which each valency of carbon is satisfied by
double or triple bond.

For example :Alkene

General formula :CnH2n

e.g. Ethene C2H4

Alkyne

General formula :CnH2n2

e.g. Ethyne C2H2
H-C
C-H
1+2+2
20. (a) AIDS, syphilis
(b) Surgery can be used to prevent frequent or unwanted pregnancies however, this method can be
used by people for gender-selective abortion as happens in illegal female foeticides. As a result of

24 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


prenatal gender determination the child-gender ratio is declining at an alarming rate in many of
our societies.

Therefore,prenatal gender-determination has been prohibited by law.

(c) a. Creating a mechanical barrier so that the sperms do not reach the egg. This is done with a
condom which is worn around the penis or a similar device that is placed in the vagina.

b. Changing the hormonal balance of the body so that fertilization cannot occur. This is done with

the help of oral contraceptive pills.

c. Contraceptive devices like loop or copper-T are placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy.

d. Surgical methods like vasectomy in males and tubectomy in females.

1+2+2

21. J.B.S. Haldane suggested that life must have developed from the simple inorganic molecules which
were present on earth soon after it was formed. He speculated that the conditions on earth at that
time could have given rise to more complex organic molecules that were necessary for life. The first
primitive organisms would arise from further chemical synthesis.
2

Later, Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey conducted experiment to find out about the origin of organic
molecules. They assembled an atmosphere similar to that thought to exist on early earth (molecules
like ammonia, methane and hydrogen sulphide, but no oxygen over water). This was maintained at
a temperature just below 100C and sparks were passed through the mixture of gases of stimulate
lightning. 2

At the end of a week, 15% of the carbon had been converted to simple compounds of carbon including
amino acids which make up protein molecules.
1

This is how life originated from inanimate matter.

22. (a) The main purpose of water harvesting system is to help in recharge of ground water.

Rain is the source which fills the pond behind harvesting structures. 1+1

(b) It is a simple representation of energy flow in nature.

For example : A rat eats grains, a snake eats a rat, which in turn is eaten by an eagle.

In a food chain the number of trophic levels are limited to 4-5. This is because according to 10%
of energy transfer, only 10% of energy passes from one trophic level to next. Thus the amount of
energy decreases with successive trophic levels. After five trophic levels, existence of organisms
would become impossible with such negligible amount of energy.
2+1
[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2014, QNAHXWT]

23. (i) Dispersion of light: The phenomenon due to which a white light splits into its component colours,
when passed through a prism. White light is combination of seven different colours of light having
different wavelengths. More is the wavelength of light, less is the angle of deviation for the same
material and same angle of incidence. This is caused of dispersion of white light.
1

(ii) The rainbow is produced due to the dispersion of sunlight by tiny droplets of water suspended in
air, just after rain.

From the figure when the sunlight is incident on the side A of the droplet of water, it gets refracted
as well dispersed. The dispersed rays on striking the surface B of tiny droplets, suffer total internal
reflection and moves towards surface A, the rays further suffer refraction and emerge out as the
band of colours in the form of a circular arc (rainbow) along the horizon. The red colour appears
upper arc and violet colour on the innermost arc of the rainbow.
2

(iii) Accommodation of eye : The phenomenon by which the ciliary muscles alter the focal length of the
crystalline lens, so as to focus nearer or far-off objects clearly on the retina is called accommodation
of the eye.

In order to focus at far-off objects, the ciliary muscles relax to make crystalline lens thin and its focal
length increases. In order to focus nearer objects, ciliary muscles contract to make crystalline lens
thick and its focal length decreases.
2

SOLUTIONS | 25
24. (i) The path of white light is not visible in the hypo-solution. The beam focuses on the white screen as
a bright white spot.
1
Reason : The white light does not get scattered because the size of particles in the hyposolution is
too small compared to the wavelengths in white light.
1

(ii) (a) In 2-3 minutes, after the addition of sulphuric acid, the sides of container start emiting blue

light.
1


(b) The light coming out of the container is initially orange, then red and focusses on the screen.

This light gradually changes to crimson red.
1
Reason : The sulphuric acid reacts with hyposolution to form colloidal sulphur. Initially these
sulphur particles are very small and hence scatter blue light. Thus, the deficient light passing out
of the container is orange in colour. However, as the reaction proceeds, more and more colloidal
particles of sulphur are formed. These sulphur particles then join to form bigger sulphur particles.
These bigger particles scatter red colour and hence the light coming out of the container is crimson
red.

SECTION B
25. (C) A homogeneous solution is formed.

26. (D) Acetic acid gives a smell of Vinegar.

27. (C) CO2 gas is evolved with brisk effervescence.

28. (B) Correct markings of angle of incidence, refraction and emergence.

29. (C) For parallel surface e = i, for denser medium i > r.

30. (A) Yeast cells are oval in shape.

31. (B) f = 15 4 = 11.0 cm.

32. (D) Nuclear division takes place firstly. So their is elongation in nucleus.

33. (A) Similar structure and origin but different function.

34. Yes. Binary fission and budding do not involve any variations, also these involve single parent.
35. Na2CO3 + 2CH3COOH 2CH3COONa + CO2 + H2O
36. (i) Concave lens.

(ii) Image is virtual.

1+1
2
1
1
ll

SAMPLE

QUESTION PAPER - 10

Self Assesment___________________________________
Time : 3 Hours

Maximum Marks : 90

SECTION A

SCIENCE Oswaal CBSE Class -10, SA-2 Examination Sample Question Paper

1. Hydrogen and Helium

2. Speciation is the evolution of reproductive isolation among onceinterbreeding populations


i.e., the development of one or more species from an existing species.
1
3. Biodegradable wastes are degraded by saprophytic organisms or decomposers but nonbiodegradable waste are not degraded by decomposers, so they should be kept in separate
bins.
1
4. Four modes of asexual reproduction are:

(1) Binary Fission
(2) Budding

(3) Multiple Fission
(4) Fragmentation

x4
5. This is due to refraction of light. Ray of light travelling from air to water, undergoes bending
and then reflection at the lemons surface. As a result it appears larger to the observer.
6.
S. No.

Food Chain

Food Web

1.

Sequential process of one organism Network of food chains


consuming the other.
intercrosses and linkages

2.

Each organism at a tropic level receives Each organism at a tropic level receives
food from one group of organisms of food from more than one group.
organisms.

7. (a) CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O + Heat and Light

with

1+1

Hot Conc. H SO

2 4 CH = CH + H O
(b) CH2 + H5OH
2
2
2

(c) CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O

1+1+1

8. Since C gives addition reactions with Br2 and H2, and so it is unsaturated hydrocarbon. It gives
an alcohol with phosphoric acid and water i.e., CH3CH2OH. So C is ethene. Thus, A is ethanol
which on oxidation with alkaline KMnO4 gives ethanoic acid. So we can concluds that thus A
is ethanol, B is ethanoic acid and C is ethene.
Alk

CH3CH2OH
CH3COOH
KM
nO 4

(A)

CH3CH2OH
(A)

conc

H2SO4

Phosphoric

Acid & Water

(B)
C2H4
(C)

C2H4
CH3CH2OH

(A)
9. (a) A and B, C and D have same period.

(b) A and C have one valence electron, so they have same group.

SOLUTIONS | 27
(c) C is more reactive because C will be placed below A in the perioditable and reactively increases

down the group.
1+1+1
10. (a) The valency of Q is 3 as its valence shell has three electrons in it.

(b) Elements P and Q are metals as they have 2 electron in their valence shell and they are positively
charged ions whereas elements R and S are non-metals as they gain electrons to complete their
octet.
(c) P and Q will form basic oxides as they are metals.
1+1+1
(i) It helps in transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma.
1
(ii) Helps in evolution and survival.
1
(iii) Prevents fertilization - Barrier method.
1
(a) Self-pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of the
same flower or another flower of the same plant.
1
Cross pollination is the transfer of pollen-grains from the anther of one flower to the stigma of
another flower growing on another plant of the same species.
1

(b) The pollen grain starts germinating and forms a pollen tube. The pollen tube grows in the style till
reaches the ovule through micropyle where it fertilizes with female gamete.
1
13. (i) No.

(ii) Acquired trait.

(iii) Acquired characters are in non-reproductive tissue. They can be acquired by exercise.

Change in non-reproductive tissue cannot be passed on to the DNA of the germ cells. + + 2
14. (i) If any natural calamity occurs and kills these small number of surviving tigers, they can become
extinct resulting in the loss of genes forever.
(ii) Small number will lead to little recombination and lesser variations that are very important for
giving better survival chances to the species.

(iii) Less number of species means lesser extent of diversity and lesser number of traits which reduce
the chances of adaptability with respect to the change in the environment. 1+1+1
15.
u = 36 cm

v = 72 cm

h = 2.5 cm

Using lens formula,
1 1
1
=

v
u
f



1
1
1
1 1+ 2 3
1
1
=

=
+
=
=
=
72 ( 36) 72 36
72
60 20
f



f = + 20 cm

Positive focal length represents convex lens,
Now,
v h
m= =
u
h


72
h'

=
36 2.5


75
=
2.5

h
36


h = 5.0 cm
3
16. We look our face in each mirror, turn by turn.
(i) If the image formed is of same size as our face but laterally inverted for all positions, then it is a
plane mirror.

(ii) If the image formed is erect and enlarged initially but gets inverted as the face is moved away, then
it is a concave mirror.

11.


12.

28 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10



(iii) If the image formed is erect and smaller in size for all positions, then it is a convex mirror. 1 + 1 + 1
17. The various phenomena observed in nature due to scattering of light are the following :

(i) Sun appears red near the horizons (during sunrise and sunset) and white when seen overhead.

(ii) Bluish colour of the sky.

(iii) Visible path of light as it enters a dark room.

(iv) Danger signals or stop signals are usually red.

(v) Blueness of distant mountains.

(vi) Sunlight filtering through clouds.
6=3
18. The phenomenon of scattering of white light by colloidal particles is known as Tyndall effect.
1
Examples
(i) A fine beam of sunlight entering a smoke filled room through a hole. Smoke particles scatter the

white light and hence the path of light beam becomes visible.
1

(ii) (a) Sunlight passing through the trees of forest.

(b) Tiny water droplets in mist scattering white light.
1
19. Detergents are generally ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids.

Merits of detergents :

(i) Detergent works properly even if the water is hard.

(ii) Detergent has better cleansing action than soap.

Demerits of detergents :

(i) Detergents are non-biodegradable.

(ii) Detergents cause environmental and health problems.

Detergents are suitable for cleansing even in hard water because the charged ends of these compounds
do not form insoluble precipitates with the calcium and magnesium ions in hard water.
2+3
20. (a)
Pollen Tube

Style

Pollen tube is the part of the male gametophyte in It is a part of the female reproductive organ,
plants. It is a long tube like structure that carries carpel. It joins the stigma to the ovary .It is made
the male gamete from the stigma to the ovules.
up of soft tissues which allows the pollen tube to
grown downwards towards the ovule.
(b) Binary fission : A single cell divides itself into two daughter cell it is known as binary fission,
binary fission can also occur in particular axis.
Multiple fission : It is also a mode of asexual reproduction in which a cell divides itself into many
daughter cells simultaneously it occur in definite orientation eg yeast , malarial parasites.

(c) Regeneration is of two types, in the first type, a part of the body that gets broken off or cut is
regenerated. For example, lizards cast off their tails to escape predators and then regenerate them.
The other type of regeneration involve the capacity to give rise to an entire organism from a cut
part. It is seen in small invertebrates such as planaria and Hydra.
Fragmentation is also a mode of asexual reproduction. It is the unintentional cutting up of the body
of an organism which each grows into different organism. It is most commonly seen in some algae.

(d) In Hydra, the cells divide rapidly at a specific site and develop as an outgrowth called a bud. These
buds, while attached to the parent plant, develop into small individuals. When this individual
becomes large enough, it detaches itself from the parent body to exist as an independent individual.

In the bryophyllum the leaves have small buds (as in potato) these buds later converts into small
and very small plants which have also roots present on them. When these buds start growing
further then the leaf becomes heavy and falls on the ground then the buds which are present on the
leaf dumps into ground and forms a plant.

(e) Vegetative propagation : It is the ability of plants to reproduce by producing new plants from
vegetative parts such as roots, stem, and leaves.
Spore formation : Spore formation is the mode of asexual reproduction in some organisms like

SOLUTIONS | 29
fungi in which it gives rise to a globular structure known as sporangia, which contains spores.
The sporangia burst to release spores and each of these spores germinates to produce a new
individual.
15
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21. (i) Yes, pre-natal sex-determination should be banned.
1

The female-male sex ratio should be maintained for the benifit of society.
1

(ii) Suggestions :

(a) Dramas or plays to make awareness in the public.
1

(b) Doctors camp to satisfy the confusions of the people.
1

(c) Group discussion with people, about sex determination.
1
22. (a) There is a ban on the use of polythene bags for shopping in some states of our country because
they cannot be degraded naturally by the action of microorganisms. Because of their nonbiodegradability, they stay in the soil for a long time and continue to poison it with toxic by-products
that keep leaching from them. Also, they do not allow water to seep in, as they are waterproof.
These polythene bags when accidentally eaten by stray animals can harm them and can even cause
their death.

The three advantages of using jute or cloth bags over polythene bags are as follows :

Cloth or jute bags are environment-friendly; they are biodegradable.

They are renewable and can be easily recycled.
They have more strength than polythene bags because they are thick and can be used again and
again.
13
(b)
An aerosol can be defined as a dispersion of solid and liquid particles suspended in gas. Atmospheric
aerosols, unsurprisingly, refer to solid and liquid particles suspended in air. Aerosols are produced
by dozens of different processes that occur on land and water surfaces, and in the atmosphere
itself.
There is a demand to put a ban on them because of their deteriorating effect on Earth's ozone
layer.

1+1
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23. (a) Myopia or near-sightedness or short sightedness
Cause : This defect is either due to the weakening of ciliary muscles which do not increase the focal
length of crystalline lens or due to elongation of eye ball.

(b) Hypermetropia or far-sighedness or long sightedness
Cause : This defect is either due to the stiffness of ciliary muscles which do not decrease focal
length of crystalline lens or due to shortening of the eye ball.
(c) Presbyopia
Cause : This defect arises due to the gradual weakening of the ciliary muscles and diminishing
flexibility by the crystalline lens.
2 +2 + 1
24. (i) When light falls on a surface and gets back into the same medium, it is called reflection. A highly

polished surface or mirror reflects the light.
2

(ii) (a) Concave mirrors are used as shaving mirrors and in headlights of automobiles.

(b) Convex mirror are used as rear-view mirrors in vehicles.

(c) Plane mirrors are used to see our virtual image.
1+1+1

SECTION B
25. (B) CO2 gas evolved with brisk effervescence.

26. (A) Blue litmus turned red in acetic acid which shows it is acidic.

27. (B) CO2 gas evolved which turn lime water milky.

28. (C) f = 6.5 2 = 4.5 cm.

29. (D) Focal length does not change according to time.

30. (A) Was depressed at centre.

30 | Oswaal CBSE (CCE), Science, Class - 10


31. (B) Binary fission is a type of Asexual reproduction.

32. (D) Bud appears as protuberance.

33. (C) (I) Plumule,

(II) Cotyledon

(III) Radicle.

34. Colour of KMnO4 disappears because it takes part in the oxidation of ethanol.

1
2

35. The concave mirror with smaller aperture forms the sharper image because it is free from spherical
aberration.
2
36. The future shoot is plumule and the future root is radicle.

1+1

ll